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This file is adapted from a similar introductory text composed by Mr Clive G. Page (cgp@star.le.ac.uk) for his compact packaging of the EMX-based G77 for DOS (available from ftp://ftp.star.le.ac.uk/pub/fortran/ ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Last update of this document: March 2002 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------This file contains a brief introduction to g77, the GNU Fortran compiler, here packaged for use on PCs running Windows 95/98/Me or Windows NT4/2000/XP. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------1. What is g77? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------G77 is a Fortran compiler from the Free Software Foundation (GNU). The g77 compiler is designed to be portable, and there are implementations on a wide variety of systems including Linux, other Unixes, OS/2, MS-DOS and Windows 95/98/Me and Windows NT4/2000/XP. The g77 compiler supports the whole of the (now obsolete) Fortran77 Standard plus many commonly-used extensions. Typographical note: in this introduction Fortran keywords and code are shown in UPPER CASE merely to make them stand out; g77 is equally happy with Fortran in lower-case. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------2. How to download. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------The compact G77 fop Win32 (Windows 95/98/Me/NT4/2000/XP) package is available from: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5564 It also available from the alternative page: http://kkourakis.tripod.com There are three zip files: g77exe.zip g77lib.zip g77doc.zip [1,574Kb] The main executables [ 208Kb] The libraries [ 301Kb] Documentation and other stuff.

This port is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. The GNU Public licence can be obtained by writing to the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The GNU Public Licence requires the corresponding source code to be available. Alternatively it can be obtained from a number of Internet sites including: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/copyleft.html

---------------------------------------------------------------------------3. How to install. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------You will need at least 6.5 MB of free space on your hard disc (11 Mb if you install the optional SLATEC math library and PSPLOT scientific graphics library.) If you start from your root directory the files will unzip into subdirectories \G77, \G77\BIN, \G77\LIB and \G77\DOC as necessary. You are free to put them somewhere else but if so you will need to update the file G77SETUP.BAT to reflect the changes.

The simplest commands are: CD \ UNZIP G77EXE.ZIP UNZIP G77LIB.ZIP UNZIP G77DOC.ZIP NOTE: Using the free 32-bit "unzip" utility that's available from: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5564/g77.htm or from http://kkourakis.tripod.com/g77.htm ensures that unzipping the above zipfiles will preserve the directory structure of the archives _and_ the long filenames that some of the library files have. Do NOT use a 16-bit unzip utility (e.g., an older, DOS version, of PKUNZIP) as then the long filenames will not be preserved for sure and the compiler will complain that it cannot find some of the library files. To use the system you need to execute the very short batch file G77SETUP.BAT to set up the G77 environment. It adds the folder that holds the executable files, \G77\BIN, to your path and defines an environment variable LIBRARY_PATH that points to the library folder \G77\LIB (this variable tells the compiler where to find the library files.) The default locations are assumed to be in the folder C:\G77 . If a user prefers to install G77 in another drive (e.g., in F:\G77) then the file G77SETUP.BAT must be corrected. The file G77SETUP.BAT _must_ be run _everytime_ a user opens a "console" window (aka, "DOS" window) in order to run G77. Alternatively a user might prefer to add the contents of the G77SETUP.BAT in his/her C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT file, in which case the G77 environment will be automatically visible in all "DOS" windows everytime the PC is booted. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------4. How to use the compiler. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------The command G77 will compile and link your program and produce an

executable that can only be run under Windows 95/98/Me or Windows NT4/2000/XP, not under DOS (nor in a DOS box of Windows 3.1x) There are various command options (see below) which need to be specified before the name of the program file(s). A simple demonstration program called MYTEST1.F is included in the package. To compile this just use: G77 MYTEST1.F This generates a file A.EXE, which can be executed simply using A The compiler by default names the produced executable file as "A.EXE". If one wishes to override this default behavior, then one can specify the desired name of the produced executable, using the "-o" compiler option. E.g., to produce an executable with the name MYTEST1.EXE the above command should be: G77 MYTEST1.F -o MYTEST1.EXE It is good practice to get the compiler to warn you of unused and undeclared variables, the switch to do this is "-Wall" which can be used like this: G77 -Wall MYTEST1.F Note that the switches are case-sensitive: -WALL will not work. The g77 compiler has a large number of other command switches - a few of the most useful are shown here: -c -ffree-form -fpedantic -fno-automatic -fno-backslash -fvxt -g -Idirectory -O -Wimplicit -Wuninitialised -Wall Compile-only: produces .OBJ files. Selects free-format source code Warns of non-portable/non-standard code. Static storage for all variables, like universal SAVE Interprets "\" as a normal character in strings Use VAX Fortran interpretation of certain syntax Produces debugging information. Specifies directory to search for INCLUDE files Optimise code generation Warns of any names with no explicit data type Warns of some cases of unset variables (if -O also set). Warns of both of above cases.

Any number of source-code files can be used on the command-line, and wild-cards (*) are supported in file-names. The command-line can also contain compiled object modules (these have the .O extension) and library files (called "archives" in Unix-speak) which have .A as the extension. File-names are, of course, NOT case-sensitive under Windows 95/98/Me/NT4/2000/XP , so file abcde.f is the same as file ABCDE.F and file aBcDe.F NOTE: How To Capture Errors Produced By The Compiler In a File: --------------------------------------------------------The command shell of Windows 95/98/Me does not provide for re-direction of the standard error output. So, if a user wishes to capture the output of the compiler in a file, then a possible solution is by using a utility like "etime" (available as:

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5564/etime.zip or as: http://kkourakis.tripod.com/etime.zip ) for this purpose. In this case, running the compiler as: ETIME -2ERRFILE G77 MYFILE.F will capture all the errors in the file ERRFILE. Under Windows NT4/2000/XP the command shell supports Unix-like redirection of the standard error output, so a user only needs to enter: G77 MYFILE.F 2>ERRFILE in order to capture the compiler output in the file ERRFILE. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------5. Extensions to g77 compatible with Fortran90: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------The g77 compiler conforms fully only to the Fortran77 Standard. Although this is technically obsolete, the vast majority of Fortran programs in the world were written (more or less) to this Standard. The new standard, Fortran90, has many more advanced features. The g77 compiler already supports some features of Fortran90, the most notable of these being: IMPLICIT NONE (to flag non-explicit data types in a program unit). INCLUDE 'filename' Automatic arrays (a form of dynamic storage within subprograms). Free-format input (if the switch -ffree-form is used) Multiple statements on a line (with ";" as the separator). Symbolic names can be up to 31-characters long, can contain lower-case letters (equivalent to upper-case) and underscores. End-of-line comments may be used starting with ! (but ! must not be in column 6 with fixed-format source-code). Relational operators > >= < <= == /= can be used instead of .GT. etc. Character constants can use "double" or 'single' quotes. Program unit names permitted on END, e.g. END SUBROUTINE MYSUB. DO without labels and END DO are permitted, also indefinite DO (but a conditional EXIT or STOP is obviously needed in such loops). DO WHILE(logical expression) with END DO is permitted. EXIT and CYCLE are allowed in DO loops. SELECT CASE structure is supported but only with integer/logical selectors. Construct names are allowed with IF/DO/CYCLE/EXIT/SELECT CASE. Zero-length strings are valid. Substrings of character constants are permitted. Character intrinsic functions ACHAR, IACHAR, and LEN_TRIM are provided. Bit-wise integer functions BTEST, IAND, IBCLR, IBITS, IBSET, IEOR, IOR, ISHFT, ISHFT, MVBITS, NOT (the MIL-STD 1753 intrinsics) are provided. OPEN with STATUS='REPLACE' is supported. NAMELIST input/output is also supported. Type declarations may use KIND values (but this is of limited use because kind-selection functions are not yet provided). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------6. Other g77 extensions (NOT compatible with Fortran90)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------Many extensions to the official Fortran77 Standard were introduced by companies which produced Fortran compilers for sale, but not all of these were incorporated into Fortran90. You may find that existing "Fortran77" code makes use of some of these non-standard features. Fortunately g77 supports some of the more common extensions, especially those of VAX Fortran. The most important ones are listed below. They make it possible to use "legacy" code with a minimum of alteration, but are NOT recommended if you are writing new code. Data types BYTE, INTEGER*1, INTEGER*2, INTEGER*4 (default), INTEGER*8, REAL*4 (default), REAL*8, DOUBLE COMPLEX, COMPLEX*8 (default), COMPLEX*16, LOGICAL*1, LOGICAL*2, LOGICAL*4 (default) are supported. DATA statements may be intermixed with specifications statements. Arguments of procedure calls may use %VAL, %REF, %LOC, %DESCR functions. Additional intrinsic functions: LOC, AND, OR, LSHIFT, RSHIFT, XOR, CDABS, CDCOS, CDEXP, CDLOG, CDSIN, CDSQRT, DCMPLX, DCONJG, DFLOAT, DIMAG, DREAL, IMAG, ZABS, ZCOS, ZEXP, ZLOG, ZSIN, and ZSQRT supported. Any number of continuations lines may be used. Symbolic names may include "$" if -fdollar-ok switch is specified.. Integer constants may be specified in other number bases: e.g. B'01', O'01234567', X'01EF', Z'FFFF' etc.; in addition "typeless" constants may be given in a similar form but with the letter following the string of digits. FORMAT specifications may include $ to suppress the final carriage-return. Debug lines starting "D" or "d" are treated as comments. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------7. Notes on Input/Output ---------------------------------------------------------------------------I/O unit numbers must be in the range 0 to 99, with 0 and 6 pre-connected to the screen, 5 to the keyboard (but best to use UNIT=* for both). Unformatted direct-access files have bytes as units of record length. Output to the screen does not count as "printing" in Fortran terms, so the first character of each record is never removed for carriage-control. Output to unit N is sent to file "FORT.N" if no file was opened for it. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------8. The Fortran Library ---------------------------------------------------------------------------G77 supports, even under Windows 95/98/Me/NT4/2000/XP, most of the routines commonly used to access system services on Unix. These include: ABORT, GETARG, IARGC, EXIT, CTIME, DATE, DTIME, ETIME, FDATE, GMTIME, LTIME, IDATE, ITIME, MCLOCK, SECNDS, SECOND, SYSTEM, TIME, ERF, DERF, ERFC, DERFC, IRAND, RAND, SRAND, ACCESS, CHDIR, CHMOD, GETCWD, FSTAT, SSTAT, LSTAT, RENAME, UMASK, UNLINK, GERROR, IERRNO, PERROR, GETENV, FGETC, GFET, FPUTC, FPUT, FLUSH, FNUM, FSEEK, FTELL, ISATTY, TTYNAM, SLEEP. Note that I have not checked all of these. HOSTNM and GETLOG are not supported, and SYSTEM (which executes an operating system command line) seems to work in a DOS-box under Windows 95/98/Me/NT4/2000/XP For details of the calling sequences see the g77 documentation. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. How to use object libraries ---------------------------------------------------------------------------A version of the standard Unix library manager, unhelpfully called AR (for "archiver") is provided. It manages what it calls "archives" which are just collections of object modules. These libraries have ".A" as their filename extension and the prefix "LIB" to their name. E.g., the library with the "basic" name SLATEC will be stored in the file LIBSLATEC.A To create a library you need to compile the source files with the -c switch to produce one or more object files (.O). These can be put in a library like this: AR -r LIBMYLIB.A FILE1.O FILE2.O ...etc (note the prefix "LIB") or, even: AR -r LIBMYLIB.A *.O To list the contents of an archive use AR -t LIBMYLIB.A More details regarding the usage of the librarian utility "AR" are given in the text file \G77\AR.DOC. The generated libraries are best placed in the same directory where all the G77 libraries were placed during installation (\G77\LIB\). This directory is pointed at by the environment variable LIB_PATH as set by the setup file G77SETUP.BAT Then, the libraries can be referenced in a G77 command line by the "-l" option followed (without a space) with the library _basic_ name without the extension ".A", _nor_ the prefix "LIB". E.g., a library file LIBMYLIB.A that exists in \G77\LIB\ has the _basic_ library name "MYLIB". Then if one specifies -lMYLIB on the G77 command-line, it will be searched during the linking phase and link only those modules which are called directly or indirectly, e.g., G77 MYFILE.F -o MYFILE.EXE -lMYLIB (note: this is "el", not "one")

Alternatively, one can specify the _full_ pathname of a library file on the command line. E.g., to link with the modules contained with the library file LIBXYZ.A which exists in the directory E:\QWERTY, one can write: G77 MYFILE.F -o MYFILE.EXE E:\QWERTY\LIBXYZ.A If the library file is present in the current directory then one can write: G77 MYFILE.F -o MYFILE.EXE LIBXYZ.A In general, libraries that are not to be used temporarily are best placed in \G77\LIB and referenced as explained above with the "-l" option, using only the basic library name.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------10. Debugging

---------------------------------------------------------------------------[to be written] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------11. Scientific Graphics using Fortran ---------------------------------------------------------------------------I recommend the PSPLOT package written by Mr Kevin Kohler (http://www.nova.edu/cwis/oceanography/psplot.html) The ready-to-use binary form of the library is available from: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5564/ or from http://kkourakis.tripod.com The PSPLOT library is free to use for non-commercial purposes.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------12. Source Code and Further Information ---------------------------------------------------------------------------All of this software has been released by the various authors under the terms of the GNU Public Licence. The licence requires source code to be provided or easily available. These sources are widely available on the Internet. The G77 documentation is in the archive g77doc.zip, available from: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5564/ and from http://kkourakis.tripod.com It is strongly recommended that the user installs these G77 documentation files for future reference (these are just ordinary .htm files and can be viewed using any web browser software as Netscape or Microsoft Internet Explorer.) ------------------------------------------------------------------------K Kourakis Email address: kkou@myrealbox.com Alternative email address: kkourakis@hotmail.com March 2002