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Problem 1) A horse trots past a fencepost located 12 m to the left of a gatepost. It then passes another fencepost located 24 m to the right of the gatepost 11 s later. What is the average velocity of the horse? 2) A biker travels at an average speed of 18 km/h along a 0.30 km straight segment of a bike path. How much time does the biker take to travel this segment? 3) A skater glides off a frozen pond onto a patch of ground at a speed of 1.8 m/s. Here she is slowed at a constant rate of 3.00 m/s 2 . How fast is the skater moving when she has slid 0.37 m across the ground? 4) A rock is thrown downward from the top of a cliff with an initial speed of 12 m/s. If the rock hits the ground after 2.0 s, what is the height of the cliff? (Disregard air resistance. a = g = 9.81 m/s 2 .) 5) A lightning bug flies at a velocity of 0.25 m/s due east toward another lightning bug seen off in the distance. A light easterly breeze blows on the bug at a velocity of 0.25 m/s. What is the resultant velocity of the lightning bug? 6) A duck waddles 2.5 m east and 6.0 m north. What are the magnitude and direction of the ducks displacement with respect to its original position? 7) A skateboarder rolls 25.0 m down a hill that descends at an angle of 20.0 with the horizontal. Find the horizontal and vertical components of the skateboarders displacement. 8) A boat moves at 10.00 m/s relative to the water. If the boat is in a river where the current is 2.00 m/s, how long does it take the boat to make a complete round trip of 1000.0 m upstream followed by 1000.0 m downstream? 9) A wagon having a mass of 32 kg is accelerated across a level road at 0.50 m/s 2 . What net force acts on the wagon horizontally? 10) A sailboat with a mass of 2.0 10 3 kg experiences a tidal force of 3.00 10 3 N directed to the east and a wind force against its sails with a magnitude of 6.00 10 3 N directed toward the northwest (45.0 N of W). What is the magnitude of the resultant acceleration of the boat? 11) An elevator weighing 2.00 10 5 N is supported by a steel cable. What is the tension in the cable when the elevator is accelerated upward at a rate of 3.00 m/s 2 ? (g = 9.81 m/s 2 ) 12) An 80.0 kg climber climbs to the top of Mount Everest, which has a peak height of 8848 m above sea level. What is the climbers potential energy with respect to sea level? 13) A 16.0 kg child on roller skates, initially at rest, rolls 2.0 m down an incline at an angle of 20.0 with the horizontal. If there is no friction between incline and skates, what is the kinetic energy of the child at the bottom of the incline? (g = 9.81 m/s 2 ) 1

Name: ______________________

14) What velocity must a 1340 kg car have in order to have the same momentum as a 2680 kg truck traveling at a velocity of 15 m/s to the west? 15) A cricket ball with a mass of 0.11 kg moves at a speed of 12 m/s. Then the ball is hit by a bat and rebounds in the opposite direction at a speed of 15 m/s. What is the change in momentum of the ball? 16) A swimmer with a mass of 75 kg dives off a raft with a mass of 500 kg. If the swimmers speed is 4 m/s immediately after leaving the raft, what is the speed of the raft? 17) Two snowballs with masses of 0.40 kg and 0.60 kg, respectively, collide head-on and combine to form a single snowball. The initial speed for each is 15 m/s. If the velocity of the new combined snowball is 3.0 m/s after the collision, what is the decrease in kinetic energy? 18) A 0.10 kg object makes an elastic head-on collision with a 0.15 kg stationary object. The final velocity of the 0.10 kg object after the collision is 0.045 m/s in the direction opposite its initial movement. The final velocity of the 0.15 kg object after the collision is 0.16 m/s in the same direction as the object which strikes it. What was the initial velocity of the 0.10 kg object? 19) A 5.0 kg ball is whirled on a 1.2 m string so that the ball moves in uniform circular motion in a horizontal plane. The tension in the string is 25 N, and the string is at a 30 angle below the horizontal plane. What is the tangential speed of the ball? 20) A 61.5 kg student sits at a desk 1.25 m away from a 70.0 kg student. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two students? (G = 6.673 10 11 Nm 2 /kg 2 ) 21) A new moon is discovered orbiting Neptune with an orbital speed of 9.3 10 3 m/s. Neptunes mass is 1.0 10 26 kg. What is the radius of the new moons orbit? What is the orbital period? Assume that the orbit is circular. (G = 6.673 10 11 Nm 2 /kg 2 ) 22) Earths mean distance from the sun is 1.50 10 11 m. The length of one Earth year is 3.16 10 7 s. Use this data to calculate the mass of the sun. (G = 6.673 10 11 Nm 2 /kg 2 ) 23) A force of 4.0 N is applied to a door at an angle of 60.0 and a distance of 0.30 m from the hinge. What is the torque produced? 24) A child with a weight of 4.50 10 2 N sits on a seesaw 0.60 m from the axis of rotation. How far from the axis of rotation on the other side should a child with a weight of 6.00 10 2 N sit so the seesaw will remain balanced? 25) A force of 255 N is needed to pull a nail from a wall, using a claw hammer. If the resistance force of the nail is 3650 N, what is the mechanical advantage of the hammer? 26) What is the efficiency of a machine that requires 135 J of input energy to do 87.5 J of work? 27) How much energy would be required to do 675 J of work with a machine that was 35% efficient?

ID: A

PROBLEM 1) ANS: 3.3 m/s, to the right Given x i = 12 m x f = 24 m t = 11 s Solution x x f x i (24 m) (12 m) v avg = = = = 3.3 m/s,to the right t t 11 s OBJ: 2-1.2 2) ANS: 1.7 10 2 h Given v avg = 1.8 km/h x = 0.30 km Solution x v avg = t t = x v avg = 0.30 km 1.8 km/h = 1.7 10 2 h

OBJ: 2-1.2

ID: A 3) ANS: 1.0 m/s Given v i = 1.8 m/s a = 3.00 m/s 2 x = 0.37 m Solution v f 2 = v i 2 + 2ax vf = vf = v i 2 + 2ax = (1.8 m/s) 2 + 2(3.00 m/s 2 )(0.37 m) 1.0 m 2 /s 2

3.2 m 2 /s 2 2.2 m 2 /s 2 =

v f = 1.0 m/s OBJ: 2-2.3 4) ANS: 44 m Given a = g = 9.81 m/s 2 t = 2.0 s v i = 12 m/s Solution 1 x = v i t + 2 a(t) 2 x = (12 m/s)(2.0 s) + 2 (9.81 m/s 2 )(2.0 s) 2 = 44 m height of cliff = 44 m OBJ: 2-3.2

1

ID: A 5) ANS: 0.00 m/s Given v 1 = 0.25 m/s east v 2 = 0.25 m/s west Solution v R = v 1 v 2 = 0.25 m/s 0.25 m/s = 0.00 m/s OBJ: 3-1.2 6) ANS: 6.5 m at 67 north of east Given d 1 = 2.5 m east d 2 = 6.0 m north Solution x = d 1 = 2.5 m y = d 2 = 6.0 m d 2 = x 2 + y 2 d= x 2 + y 2 =

1

y = tan 1 6.0 m = 67 = tan x 2.5 m d = 6.5 m at 67north of east OBJ: 3-2.2 7) ANS: d x = 23.5 m; d y = 8.55 m Given d = 25.0 m, = 20.0 Solution d x = dcos = (25.0 m)(cos 20.0) = 23.5 m d y = dsin = (25.0 m)(sin20.0) = 8.55 m OBJ: 3-2.3

ID: A 8) ANS: 208 s Given vrg = velocity of river to ground = 2.00 m/s downstream vbr = velocity of boat to river = 10.00 m/s x 1 = 1000.0 m downstream x 2 = 1000.0 m downstream vbg = velocity of boat to ground Solution downstream v bg = v br + v rg v bg = 10.00 m/s + 2.00 m/s = 12.00 m/s t 1 = x 1 v bg = 1000.0 m 12.00 m/s = 83.33 s

upstream v bg = v br + v rg v bg = 10.00 m/s + 2.00 m/s = 8.00 m/s t 2 = x 2 v bg = 1000.0 m 8.00 m/s = 125 s

t = t 1 + t 2 = 83.33 s + 125 s = 208 s OBJ: 3-4.2 9) ANS: 16 N Given m = 32 kg ax = 0.50 m/s 2 Solution F x = ma x = (32 kg)(0.50 m/s 2 ) = 16 N OBJ: 4-3.2

ID: A 10) ANS: 2.2 m/s 2 Given F 1 = 3.00 10 3 N, east F 2 = 6.00 10 3 N, 45.0 N of W m = 2.0 10 3 kg Solution F net, x = F x = F 1 F 2, x = F 1 F 2 cos F net, x = 3.00 10 3 N 6.00 10 3 N (cos 45.0) = 1.24 10 3 N,west F net, y = F y = F 2, y = F 2 sin F net, y = 6.00 10 3 N (sin45.0) = 4.24 10 3 N,north F net = F net m F 2 + F 2 net, x net, y F 2 + F 2 net, x net, y m

2 2 1.24 10 3 N + 4.24 10 3 N 2.0 10 3 kg

a=

ID: A 11) ANS: 2.61 10 5 N Given F g = 2.00 10 5 N g = 9.81 m/s 2 a = +3.00 m/s 2 Solution F net = F T F g = ma = Fg g Fg g a

FT = Fg +

2

F T = 2.00 10 5 N + OBJ: 4-3.2 12) ANS: 6.94 10 6 J Given m = 80.0 kg h = 8848 m g = 9.81 m/s 2 Solution

= 2.61 10 5 N

= 20.0

g = 9.81 m/s 2 Solution h = dsin KE f = PE g, i = mgh = mgdsin = 16.0 kg 9.81 m/s 2 (2.0 m) (sin20.0) = 1.1 10 2 J OBJ: 5-3.3 14) ANS: 30 m/s to the west Given m 1 = 2680 kg v 1 = 15 m/s to the west m 2 = 1340 kg Solution m 1 v1 = m 2 v2 v2 = m 1 v1 m2 2.68 10 3 kg (15 m/s west) = = 3.0 10 1 m/s west 1.34 10 3 kg

OBJ: 6-1.1

ID: A 15) ANS: 3.0 kgm/s Given m = 0.11 kg v i = 12 m/s v f = 15 m/s Solution p = m v f v i = 0.11 kg (15 m/s 12 m/s) = 3.0 kgm/s OBJ: 6-1.3 16) ANS: 0.6 m/s Given m 1 = 75 kg m 2 = 500 kg v 1, i = v 2, i = 0 m/s v 1, f = 4 m/s Solution m 1 v 1, i + m 2 v 2, i = m 1 v 1, f + m 2 v 2, f = 0 m 2 v 2, f = m 1 v 1, f v 2, f = m 1 v 1, f m2 75 kg (4 m/s) = = 0.6 m/s 500 kg

OBJ: 6-2.4

ID: A 17) ANS: 1.1 10 2 J Given m 1 = 0.40 kg m 2 = 0.60 kg v 1, i = v 2, i = 15 m/s v f = 3.0 m/s Solution 1 1 KE i = 2 m 1 v 1, i 2 + 2 m 2 v 2, i2 = KE f =

1 2

1 2

1 2

m + m v 2 = 1 2 f

1 2

KE = KE i KE f = 1.1 10 2 J 4.5 J = 1.1 10 2 J OBJ: 6-3.2 18) ANS: 0.20 m/s forward Given m 1 = 0.10 kg m 2 = 0.15 kg v 2, i = 0 m/s v 1, f = 0.045 m/s backward,v 1, f = 0.045 m/s v 2, f = 0.16 m/s forward,v 2, f = 0.16 m/s Solution m 1 v 1, i + m 2 v 2, i = m 1 v 1, f + m 2 v 2, f v 1, i = m 1 v 1, f + m 2 v 2, f m 2 v 2, i m1

v 1, i

0.10 kg (0.045 m/s) + 0.15 kg (0.16 m/s) 0.15 kg (0 m/s) = = 0.20 m/s forward 0.10 kg

OBJ: 6-3.4

= 30

r = 1.2 m Solution F c = F T cos = (25 N) cos (30) = 22 N Fc = vt 2 = mv t 2 r Fc r m Fc r m (22 N) (1.2 m) 5.0 kg = 2.3 m/s

vt =

vt =

OBJ: 7-1.2 20) ANS: 1.84 10 7 N Given m 1 = 61.5 kg m 2 = 70.0 kg r = 1.25 m G = 6.673 10 11 Nm 2 / kg 2 Solution 61.5 kg 70.0 kg m1m2 6.673 10 11 Nm 2 / kg 2 Fg = G = = 1.84 10 7 N 2 2 r (1.25 m) OBJ: 7-2.2 10

ID: A 21) ANS: 7.7 10 4 m; 5.2 10 4 s Given m = 1.0 10 26 kg v t = 9.3 10 3 m/s G = 6.673 10 11 Nm 2 / kg 2 Solution vt = G m r

vt 2 = G

r=G

m vt

2

T = 2

Gm

= 2

OBJ: 7-3.3

11

4 2 r 3 Gm 4 2 r 3 GT 2

m=

3 4 2 1.50 10 11 m m= = 2.00 10 30 kg 2 6.673 10 11 Nm 2 / kg 2 3.16 10 7 OBJ: 7-3.3 23) ANS: 1.0 Nm Given F = 4.0 N d = 0.30 m

= 60.0

Solution = Fdsin = (4.0 N) (0.30 m) (sin60.0) = 1.0 Nm OBJ: 7-4.2

12

ID: A 24) ANS: 0.45 m Given F 1 = 4.50 10 2 N d 1 = 0.60 m F 2 = 6.00 10 2 N Solution net = 1 + 2 = 0

1 = 2

F 1 d 1 = F 2 d 2 d2 = F1 d 1 F2

4.50 10 2 N (0.60 m) d2 = = 0.45 m 6.00 10 2 N OBJ: 7-4.2 25) ANS: 14.3 Given F in = 255 N F out = 3650 N Solution F out 3650 N MA = = = 14.3 F in 255 N OBJ: 7-4.4

13

ID: A 26) ANS: 64.8% Given W in = 135 J W out = 87.5 J Solution W out 87.5 J eff = = = 0.648 = 64.8% W in 135 J OBJ: 7-4.4 27) ANS: 1900 J Given W out = 675 J eff = 35% = 0.35 Solution W out eff = W in W in = W out eff = 670 J 0.35 = 1.9 10 3 J

OBJ: 7-4.4

14

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