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SCIENTIFIC ELEMENTS

(International Book Series)

Vol. I

Applications of Smarandache's Notions to Mathematics, Physics, and Other Sciences

Edited by Yuhua FU, Linfan MAO, and Mihaly BENCZE

ILQ

November, 2007

Yuhua FU

China Offshore Oil Research Center

Beijing, 100027, P. R. China

fuyh@cnooc.com.cn

Linfan MAO

Academy of Mathematics and Systems

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Beijing 100080, P. R. China

maolinfan@163.com

and

Mihaly BENCZE

Department of Mathematics

Aprily Lajos College

Brasov, Romania

SCIENTIFIC ELEMENTS (I)

Applications of Smarandache's Notions to Mathematics, Physics, and Other Sciences

ILQ

November 2007

ii

This book can be ordered in a paper bound reprint from:

Books on Demand ProQuest Information & Learning University of Microfilm International 300 N. Zeeb Road

P. O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor

MI 48106-1346, USA Tel:1-800-521-0600(Customer Service) http://wwwlib.umi.com/bod

Peer Reviewers:

Linfan Mao, Academy of Mathematics and Systems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, P. R.China. Yuhua Fu, China Offshore Oil Research Center, Beijing, 100027, P. R.China.

Mihaly Bencze, Department of Mathematics, Aprily Lajos College, Brasov, Romania.

J. Y. Yan, Graduate Student School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, P.

R. China.

E. L.Wei, Information School, China Renmin University, Beijing 100872, P.R.China.

Copyright：2007 by InfoLearnQuest, editors, and each author/coauthor for his/her paper(s).

ISBN: 978-1-59973-041-7

Printed in the United States of America

iii

Foreword

Science's function is to understand the natural world and develop our society in coordination with its laws. For thousands of years, mankind has never stopped its steps for exploring its behaviors of all kinds. Today, the advanced science and technology have enabled mankind to handle a few events in the society of mankind by the knowledge on natural world. But many questions in different fields on the natural world have no an answer, even some look clear questions for the Universe, for example, what is true color of the Universe, for instance its dimension? what is the real face of an event appearing in the natural world, for instance the electromagnetism? how many dimensions has it? Different people, standing on different views, will differently answers these questions. For being short of knowledge, we can not even distinguish which is the right answer. Today, we have known two heartening mathematical theories for sciences. One of them is the Smarandache multi-space theory that came into being by pure logic. Another is the mathematical combinatorics motivated by a combinatorial speculation, i.e., every mathematical science can be reconstructed from or made by combinatorialization. Why are they important? We all know a famous proverb, that of the six blind men and an elephant. These blind men were asked to determine what an elephant looks like by having them touch different parts of the elephant's body. The man touched the elephant's leg, tail, trunk, ear, belly, or tusk, and each man claimed that the elephant is like a pillar, a rope, a tree branch, a hand fan, a wall, or a solid pipe, respectively. They entered into an endless argument. Each of them insisted his view was right. All of you are right! a wise man explained to them: why are you telling it differently is

iv

because each one of you touched a different part of the elephant. So, actually the elephant has all those features what you all said. That is to say an elephant is nothing but a union of those claims of six blind men, i.e., a Smarandache multi-space with some combinatorial structures. The situation for determining the behaviors of natural world is analogous to the blind men determining what an elephant looks like. L.F. Mao said once in an open lecture that Smarandache multi-spaces is the right theory for the natural world. For a quick glance at the applications of Smarandache's notions to mathematics, physics, and other sciences, this book selects 12 papers for showing applied fields of Smarandache's notions, such as those of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, Neutrosophy, etc. to mathematics, physics, logic, cosmology. Although each application is a quite elementary one, we already experience its great potential. Authors are assumed for responsibility on their papers selected in this books and it doesn’t mean that the editors completely agree their view point in each paper. The Scientific Elements is a serial collection in publication, maybe with different title. All papers on applications of Smarandache's notions to scientific fields are welcome and can be directly sent to the editors by an email.

L.F.Mao, Y.H.Fu, and M.Bencze Oct. 2007 in Beijing & Brasov

v

Contents

Foreword………………………………………………………………………… iv

Differential Geometry on Smarandache n-Manifolds by Linfan Mao…………………………………………………………………… 01

A Unified Variational Principle for Quantization in Dynamic Smarandache Multi-Spaces

by Yuhua Fu……………………………………………………………………… 18 Theory of Relativity on the Finsler Spacetime by Shenglin Cao…………………………………………………………………….29

A Revision to Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem by Neutrosophy by Yuhua Fu………………………………………………………………………

64

Experimental Determination of Photons in Light Quanta hν and Interaction with Electrons

by Jingsong Feng……………………………… ………………………………… 73 Applications of Smarandache's notions to Physics and Conservation of Energy by Yuhua Fu………………………………………………………………………….88

The Basis of Relativity Theory & a Smarandache Geometrical Model of Macro-Physics

by Changwei Hu……………………………………………………………………101 Quantum External Force and Unified Universe by Zhengda Luo…………………………………………………………………….113 New Analysis on the Relativity of Simultaneity by Hao Ji……………………………………………………………………………125

Applying Neutrosophy to Analyze and Remold the Special Theory of Relativity by Xinwei Huang………………………………………………………………… 131 A Geometrical Model on Cosmos

by Yiying Guan, Tianyu Guan, Shuan Chen, and Yan Zhang………… Combinatorial Differential Geometry

by Linfan Mao……………………………………………………………………

………….148

155

vi

Scientiﬁc Element Ser. Vol.1 (2007), 01-17.

Diﬀerential Geometry on Smarandache n -Manifolds

Linfan Mao

(Chinese Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Beijin g 100080, P.R.China)

E-mail: maolinfan@163.com

Abstract : A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one Smarandachely denied axiom(1969), i.e., an axiom behaves in at least two diﬀerent ways within the same space, i.e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways and a Smarandache n -manifold is a n - manifold that support a Smarandache geometry. Iseri provid ed a construction for Smarandache 2-manifolds by equilateral triangular disks on a plane and a more general way for Smarandache 2-manifolds on surfaces, called map geome-

tries was presented by the author in [9] − [10] and [12]. However, few observa- tions for cases of n ≥ 3 are found on the journals. As a kind of Smarandache geometries, a general way for constructing dimensional n pseudo-manifolds are presented for any integer n ≥ 2 in this paper. Connection and principal ﬁber bundles are also deﬁned on these manifolds. Following these constructions, nearly all existent geometries, such as those of Euclid geometry, Lobachevshy- Bolyai geometry, Riemann geometry, Weyl geometry, K¨ahler geometry and

Finsler geometry,

Key Words: Smarandache geometry, Smarandache manifold, pseudo- manifold, pseudo-manifold geometry, multi-manifold geometry, connection, curvature, Finsler geometry, Riemann geometry, Weyl geometry and K¨ahler

geometry. AMS(2000) : 51M15, 53B15, 53B40, 57N16

,etc.,

are their sub-geometries.

§1 . Introduction

Various geometries are encountered in update mathematics, such as those of Euclid geometry, Lobachevshy-Bolyai geometry, Riemann geometry, Weyl geometry, K¨ahler

geometry and Finsler geometry,

,

etc As a branch of geometry, each of them has

2

Linfan Mao

been a kind of spacetimes in physics once and contributes successively to increase human’s cognitive ability on the natural world. Motivated by a combinatorial notion for sciences: combining diﬀerent ﬁelds into a unifying ﬁeld , Smarandache introduced neutrosophy and neutrosophic logic in references [14] − [15] and Smarandache geome- tries in [16].

Deﬁnition 1 .1([8][16]) An axiom is said to be Smarandachely denied if the axiom behaves in at least two diﬀerent ways within the same space, i .e., validated and invalided, or only invalided but in multiple distinct ways.

A Smarandache geometry is a geometry which has at least one Sm arandachely denied axiom( 1969 ).

Deﬁnition 1 .2 For an integer n, n ≥ 2 , a Smarandache n-manifold is a n-manifold that support a Smarandache geometry.

Smarandache geometries were applied to construct many world from conser- vation laws as a mathematical tool([2]). For Smarandache n-manifolds, Iseri con- structed Smarandache manifolds for n = 2 by equilateral triangular disks on a plane in [6] and [7] (see also [11] in details). For generalizing Iseri’s Smarandache man- ifolds, map geometries were introduced in [9] − [10] and [12], particularly in [12] convinced us that these map geometries are really Smarandache 2-manifolds. Ku- ciuk and Antholy gave a popular and easily understanding example on an Euclid plane in [8]. Notice that in [13], these multi-metric space were deﬁned, which can be also seen as Smarandache geometries. However, few observations for cases of n ≥ 3 and their relations with existent manifolds in diﬀerential geometry are found on the journals. The main purpose of this paper is to give general ways for constructing dimensional n pseudo-manifolds for any integer n ≥ 2. Diﬀerential structure, con- nection and principal ﬁber bundles are also introduced on these manifolds. Following these constructions, nearly all existent geometries, such as those of Euclid geometry, Lobachevshy-Bolyai geometry, Riemann geometry, Weyl geom etry, K¨ahler geometry

and Finsler geometry,

Terminology and notations are standard used in this paper. Other terminology and notations not deﬁned here can be found in these references [1], [3] − [5].

For any integer n, n ≥ 1, an n-manifold is a Hausdorﬀ space M ^{n} , i.e., a space that satisﬁes the T _{2} separation axiom, such that for ∀p ∈ M ^{n} , there is an open neighborhood U _{p} ,p ∈ U _{p} ⊂ M ^{n} and a homeomorphism ϕ _{p} : U _{p} → R ^{n} or C ^{n} , respectively.

,etc.,

are their sub-geometries.

Diﬀerential Geometry on Smarandache n -Manifolds

3

Considering the diﬀerentiability of the homeomorphism ϕ : U → R ^{n} enables us to get the conception of diﬀerential manifolds, introduced in the following.

An diﬀerential n-manifold ( M ^{n} , A ) is an n-manifold M ^{n} ,M ^{n} = ^{} U _{i} , endowed

i∈I

with a C ^{r} diﬀerential structure A = { ( U _{α} ,ϕ _{α} ) | α ∈ I } on M ^{n} for an integer r with following conditions hold.

(1) { U |
I } is an open covering of M |

(2) For ∀α, β |
∈ I , atlases (U |

or U _{α} ^{} U _{β} = ∅ but the overlap maps

ϕ _{α} ϕ

−

β

1

: ϕ _{β} ( U _{α} _{U} _{β} ) → ϕ _{β} ( U _{β} ) and ϕ _{β} ϕ

−

α

1

: ϕ _{β} ( U _{α} _{U} _{β} ) → ϕ _{α} ( U _{α} )

are C ^{r} ;

(3) A is maximal, i.e., if (U, ϕ ) is an atlas of M ^{n} equivalent with one atlas in

A , then ( U, ϕ ) ∈ A .

An n-manifold is smooth if it is endowed with a C ^{∞} diﬀerential structure. It is well-known that a complex manifold M is equal to a smooth real manifold M with a natural base

n

c

2n

r

{

∂

∂x ^{i} ^{,}

∂

_{∂}_{y} _{i} | 1 ≤ i ≤ n}

for T _{p} M , where T _{p} M denotes the tangent vector space of M at each point p ∈ M c .

n

c

n

c

n

c

n

§2 . Pseudo-Manifolds

These Smarandache manifolds are non-homogenous spaces, i.e., there are singular or inﬂection points in these spaces and hence can be used to characterize warped spaces in physics. A generalization of ideas in map geometries can be applied for constructing dimensional n pseudo-manifolds.

Construction 2 .1 Let M ^{n} be an n-manifold with an atlas A = { ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) | p ∈ M ^{n} } . For ∀p ∈ M ^{n} with a local coordinates ( x _{1} ,x _{2} , · · · ,x _{n} ) , deﬁne a spatially directional mapping ω : p → R ^{n} action on ϕ _{p} by

ω : p → ϕ

ω

p

( p ) = ω ( ϕ _{p} ( p )) = (ω _{1} ,ω _{2} , · · · ,ω _{n} ) ,

i.e., if a line L passes through ϕ ( p ) with direction angles θ _{1} ,θ _{2} , · · · ,θ _{n} with axes e _{1} , e _{2} , · · · , e _{n} in R ^{n} , then its direction becomes

4

Linfan Mao

θ _{1} − ^{ϑ} ^{1} + σ _{1} ,θ _{2} − ^{ϑ} ^{2} + σ _{2} , · · · ,θ _{n} − ^{ϑ} ^{n} + σ _{n}

2

2

2

after passing through ϕ _{p} ( p ) , where for any integer 1 ≤ i ≤ n, ω _{i} ≡ ϑ _{i} ( mod 4 π ) , ϑ _{i} ≥ 0 and

σ _{i} =

π,

0 ,

if |
0 ≤ ω |

if |
2 π < ω |

A manifold M ^{n} endowed with such a spatially directional mapping ω : M ^{n} → R ^{n} is

called an n-dimensional pseudo-manifold, denoted by ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) .

Theorem 2 .1 For a point p ∈ M ^{n} with local chart ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) , ϕ = ϕ _{p} if and only if

ω ( p ) = (2 πk _{1} , 2 πk _{2} , · · · , 2 πk _{n} ) with

ω

p

k _{i} ≡ 1(mod 2) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n.

Proof By deﬁnition, for any point p ∈ M ^{n} , if ϕ ( p ) = ϕ _{p} ( p ), then ω ( ϕ _{p} ( p )) = ϕ _{p} ( p ). According to Construction 2.1, this can only happens while ω ( p ) = (2 πk _{1} , 2 πk _{2} ,

· · · , 2 πk _{n} ) with k _{i} ≡ 1(mod 2) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n.

ω

p

Deﬁnition 2 .1 A spatially directional mapping ω : M ^{n} → R ^{n} is euclidean if for any point p ∈ M ^{n} with a local coordinates ( x _{1} ,x _{2} , · · · ,x _{n} ) , ω ( p ) = (2 πk _{1} , 2 πk _{2} , · · · , 2 πk _{n} ) with k _{i} ≡ 1(mod 2) for 1 ≤ i ≤ n, otherwise, non-euclidean.

Deﬁnition 2 .2 Let ω : M ^{n} → R ^{n} be a spatially directional mapping and p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) , ω ( p )( mod 4 π ) = (ω _{1} ,ω _{2} , · · · ,ω _{n} ) . Call a point p elliptic, euclidean or

hyperbolic in direction e _{i} , 1 ≤ i ≤ n if o ≤ ω _{i} < 2 π , ω _{i} = 2 π or 2 π < ω _{i} < 4 π .

Then we get a consequence by Theorem 2 .1.

Corollary 2 .1 Let ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) be a pseudo-manifold. Then ϕ = ϕ _{p} if and only if every point in M ^{n} is euclidean.

ω

p

Theorem 2 .2 Let ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) be an n-dimensional pseudo-manifold and p ∈ M ^{n} .

If there are euclidean and non-euclidean points simultaneo usly or two elliptic or

hyperbolic points in a same direction in ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) , then ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) is a Smarandache

n-manifold.

Proof On the ﬁrst, we introduce a conception for locally parallel lines in an n-manifold. Two lines C _{1} ,C _{2} are said locally parallel in a neighborhood (U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) of a point p ∈ M ^{n} if ϕ _{p} ( C _{1} ) and ϕ _{p} ( C _{2} ) are parallel straight lines in R ^{n} .

Diﬀerential Geometry on Smarandache n -Manifolds

5

In ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ), the axiom that there are lines pass through a point locally parallel a given line is Smarandachely denied since it behaves in at least two diﬀerent ways, i.e., one parallel, none parallel, or one parallel, inﬁnite parallels , or none parallel, inﬁnite parallels .

If there are euclidean and non-euclidean points in (U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) simultaneously, not loss of generality, we assume that u is euclidean but v non-euclidean, ω ( v )( mod 4 π ) =

( ω _{1} ,ω _{2} , · · · ,ω _{n} ) and ω _{1} = 2 π . Now let L be a straight line parallel the axis e _{1} in R ^{n} .

There is only one line C _{u} locally parallel to ϕ

there is only one line ϕ _{p} ( C _{q} ) parallel to L in R ^{n} by these axioms for Euclid spaces. However, if 0 < ω _{1} < 2 π , then there are inﬁnite many lines passing through u locally

parallel to ϕ

in R ^{n} , such as those shown in Fig.2 .1(a) in where each straight line passing through

the point u = ϕ _{p} ( u ) from the shade ﬁeld is parallel to L.

−

p

1

( L) passing through the point u since

−

p

1

( L) in ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) since there are inﬁnite many straight lines parallel L

Fig.2 .1

( L) in ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} )

since there are no straight lines passing through the point v = ϕ _{p} ( v ) parallel to L in R ^{n} , such as those shown in Fig.2 .1(b).

But if 2 π < ω _{1} < 4 π , then there are no lines locally parallel to ϕ

−

p

1

Fig.2 .2

If there are two elliptic points u, v along a direction ^{−}^{→} O , consider the plane P determined by ω ( u ) , ω ( v ) with ^{−}^{→} O in R ^{n} . Let L be a straight line intersecting with

6

Linfan Mao

the line uv in P . Then there are inﬁnite lines passing through u locally parallel to

( L) in ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) since

there are inﬁnite many lines or none lines passing through u = ω ( u ) or v = ω ( v ) parallel to L in R ^{n} , such as those shown in Fig.2 .2.

Similarly, we can also get the conclusion for the case of hyperbolic points.

Since there exists a Smarandachely denied axiom in (M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ), it is a Smarandache

For an Euclid space R ^{n} , the homeomorphism ϕ _{p} is trivial for ∀p ∈ R ^{n} . In this case, we abbreviate (R ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) to (R ^{n} , ω ).

manifold. This completes the proof.

ϕ _{p} ( L) but none line passing through v locally parallel to ϕ

1

−

p

Corollary 2 .2 For any integer n ≥ 2 , if there are euclidean and non-euclidean

points simultaneously or two elliptic or hyperbolic points in a same direction in

( R ^{n} , ω ) , then ( R ^{n} , ω ) is an

n-dimensional Smarandache geometry.

Particularly, Corollary 2.2 partially answers an open problem in [12] for estab- lishing Smarandache geometries in R ^{3} .

Corollary 2 .3 If there are points p, q ∈ R ^{3} such that ω ( p )( mod 4 π ) = (2 π, 2 π, 2 π )

but ω ( q )( mod 4 π ) = (2 πk _{1} , 2 πk _{2} , 2 πk _{3} ) , where k _{i} ≡ 1(mod 2), 1 ≤ i ≤ 3 or

simultaneously elliptic or hyperbolic in a same direction o f R ^{3} , then ( R ^{3} , ω ) is a Smarandache space geometry.

p, q are

Deﬁnition 2 .3 For any integer r ≥ 1 , a C ^{r} diﬀerential Smarandache n-manifold ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) is a Smarandache n-manifold ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) endowed with a diﬀerential struc- ture A and a C ^{r} spatially directional mapping ω . A C ^{∞} Smarandache n-manifold ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) is also said to be a smooth Smarandache n-manifold.

According to Theorem 2 .2, we get the next result by deﬁnitions.

Theorem 2 .3 Let ( M ^{n} , A ) be a manifold and ω : M ^{n} → R ^{n} a spatially directional mapping action on A . Then ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) is a C ^{r} diﬀerential Smarandache n-manifold for an integer r ≥ 1 if the following conditions hold:

(1) there is a C ^{r} diﬀerential structure A = { ( U _{α} ,ϕ _{α} ) | α ∈ I } on M ^{n} ; (2) ω is C ^{r} ; (3) there are euclidean and non-euclidean points simultaneous ly or two elliptic or hyperbolic points in a same direction in ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) for a point p ∈ M ^{n} .

Proof The condition (1) implies that (M ^{n} , A ) is a C ^{r} diﬀerential n-manifold and conditions (2), (3) ensure (M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) is a diﬀerential Smarandache manifold by

Diﬀerential Geometry on Smarandache n -Manifolds

7

deﬁnitions and Theorem 2 .2.

For a smooth diﬀerential Smarandache n-manifold ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ), a function f :

M ^{n} → R is said smooth if for ∀p ∈ M ^{n} with

an chart (U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ),

f ◦ ( ϕ

ω

p

) ^{−} ^{1} : ( ϕ )( U _{p} ) → R ^{n}

ω

p

is smooth. Denote by ℑ _{p} all these C ^{∞} functions at a point p ∈ M ^{n} .

Deﬁnition 2 .4 Let ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) be a smooth diﬀerential Smarandache n-manifold and p ∈ M ^{n} . A tangent vector v at p is a mapping v : ℑ _{p} → R with these following conditions hold.

(1) ∀g, |
h |
∈ ℑ |

(2) ∀g, |
h |
∈ ℑ |

Denote all tangent vectors at

a point p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) by T _{p} M ^{n} and deﬁne addi-

tion+and scalar multiplication· for ∀u, v ∈ T _{p} M ^{n} , λ ∈ R and f ∈ ℑ _{p} by

( u + v )( f ) = u ( f ) + v ( f ) , ( λu )( f ) = λ · u ( f ) .

Then it can be shown immediately that T _{p} M ^{n} is a vector space under these two operations+and· . Let p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) and γ : ( −ε, ε ) → R ^{n} be a smooth curve in R ^{n} with γ (0) = p . In ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ), there are four possible cases for tangent lines on γ at the point p , such as those shown in Fig.2 .3, in where these bold lines represent tangent lines.

Fig.2 .3

By these positions of tangent lines at a point p on γ , we conclude that there is one tangent line at a point p on a smooth curve if and only if p is euclidean in ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ). This result enables us to get the dimensional number of a tangent vector space T _{p} M ^{n} at a point p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ).

Theorem 2 .4 For any point p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) with a local chart ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) , ϕ _{p} ( p ) =

8

Linfan Mao

( x ^{,}

1 ^{x} 2 ^{0}

0

, · · · ,x _{n} ) , if there are just s euclidean directions along e _{i} _{1} , e _{i} _{2} , · · · , e _{i} _{s} for a

point , then the dimension of T _{p} M ^{n} is

with a basis

dimT _{p} M ^{n} = 2 n

− s

∂

{ _{∂}_{x} _{i} _{j} | _{p} | 1 ≤ j ≤ s } ^{} {

∂

^{−}

∂x ^{l} ^{|} ^{p} ^{,}

∂

^{+}

_{∂}_{x} _{l} | _{p} | 1 ≤ l ≤ n and l

= i _{j} , 1 ≤ j ≤ s } .

Proof We only need to prove that

{

∂

_{i} _{j} | _{p} | 1 ≤ j ≤ s } ^{} {

∂x

∂ ^{−} ∂x ^{l} ^{,}

∂

+

_{∂}_{x} _{l} | _{p} | 1 ≤ l ≤ n and l

= i _{j} , 1 ≤ j ≤ s } (2

.1)

is a basis of T _{p} M ^{n} . For ∀f ∈ ℑ _{p} , since f is smooth, we know that

f ( x)

= f ( p ) +

n

i=1

( x _{i} − x

0 ∂ ^{ǫ} ^{i} f

_{)}

i ∂x _{i}

( p )

+

n

i,j =1

( x _{i} − x )( x _{j} − x _{)}

i

j

0

0

∂ ^{ǫ} ^{i} f ∂ ^{ǫ} ^{j} f

∂x _{i}

∂x _{j}

+

R i,j, ··· ,k

for ∀x = (x _{1} ,x _{2} , · · · ,x _{n} ) ∈ ϕ _{p} ( U _{p} ) by the Taylor formula in R ^{n} , where each term in

R _{i}_{,}_{j}_{,} _{·}_{·}_{·} _{,}_{k}

contains (x _{i} − x )( x _{j} − x ) · · · ( x _{k} − x ^{0} _{k} ), ǫ _{l} ∈ { + , −} for 1 ≤ l ≤ n but l = i _{j}

0

i

0

j

for 1 ≤ j ≤ s and ǫ _{l} should be deleted

for l = i _{j} , 1 ≤ j ≤ s .

Now let v ∈ T _{p} M ^{n} . By Deﬁnition 2 .4(1), we get that

v ( f ( x))

=

v ( f ( p )) + v (

n

i=1

( x _{i} − x ) ^{∂} ∂x ^{ǫ} ^{i} ^{f} _{i} ( p ))

0

i

+ v (

n

i,j =1

( x _{i} − x )( x _{j} − x _{)}

i

j

0

0

∂ ^{ǫ} ^{i} f ∂ ^{ǫ} ^{j} f

∂x _{i}

∂x _{j}

) + v ( R i,j, ··· ,k ) .

Application of the condition (2) in Deﬁnition 2.4 shows that

v ( f ( p )) = 0 ,

n

i=1

v ( x

0

i

v (

n

i,j =1

0

( x _{i} − x )( x _{j} − x

_{i}

0

j

_{)}

_{)}

∂ ^{ǫ} ^{i} f ∂x _{i}

( p ) = 0 ,

∂ ^{ǫ} ^{i} f ∂ ^{ǫ} ^{j} f

∂x _{i}

∂x _{j}

) = 0

Diﬀerential Geometry on Smarandache n -Manifolds

9

and

Whence, we get that

v ( R i,j, ··· ,k ) = 0 .

v ( f ( x)) =

n

i=1

v ( x _{i} ) ^{∂} ∂x ^{ǫ} ^{i} ^{f} _{i} ( p ) =

n

i=1

∂

^{ǫ} ^{i}

v ( x _{i} ) _{∂}_{x} i | _{p} ( f ) .

(2 .2)

The formula (2 .2) shows that any tangent vector v in T _{p} M ^{n} can be spanned by

elements in (2 .1). All elements in (2 .1) are linearly independent. Otherwise, if there are numbers

a ^{1} ,a ^{2} , · · · ,a ^{s} , a ^{+} ,a _{1} ^{−} ,a

2

s

j =1

−

,a _{2} , · · · ,a

∂

^{a}

i j

∂x _{i} _{j} ^{+}

+

+

n − s ^{,}^{a} n

−

_{−} _{s} such that

∂

^{ǫ} ^{i}

1

i _{1} ,i _{2} , ··· ,i _{s} , 1≤ i≤ n

i=

a

^{ǫ} ^{i}

i _{∂}_{x} i | _{p} = 0 ,

where ǫ _{i} ∈ { + , −} , then we get that

a _{i} _{j} = (

s

j

=1

for 1 ≤ j ≤ s and

^{a}

i j

∂

∂x

i j ^{+}

i= i _{1} ,i _{2} , ··· ,i _{s} , 1≤ i≤ n

a

∂

^{ǫ} ^{i}

i _{∂}_{x} i )( x _{i} _{j} ) = 0

^{ǫ} ^{i}

a

ǫ

i

i

= (

s

j

=1

^{a}

i j

∂

∂x

i j ^{+}

i= i _{1} ,i _{2} , ··· ,i _{s} , 1≤ i≤ n

a

∂

^{ǫ} ^{i}

i _{∂}_{x} i )( x _{i} ) = 0

^{ǫ} ^{i}

Therefore, (2 .1) is a basis of the tangent vector

Notice that dim T _{p} M ^{n} = n in Theorem 2 .4 if and only if all these directions are euclidean along e _{1} , e _{2} , · · · , e _{n} . We get a consequence by Theorem 2 .4.

space T _{p} M ^{n} at the point p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ).

for i =

i _{1} ,i _{2} , · · · ,i _{s} , 1 ≤ i ≤ n.

Corollary 2 .4([4]-[5]) Let ( M ^{n} , A ) be a smooth manifold and p ∈ M ^{n} . Then

with a basis

dim T _{p} M ^{n} = n

∂

{ _{∂}_{x} _{i} | _{p} | 1 ≤ i ≤ n} .

Deﬁnition 2 .5 For ∀p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) , the dual space T M ^{n} is called a co-tangent vector space at p .

∗

p

10

Linfan Mao

Deﬁnition 2 .6 For f ∈ ℑ _{p} ,d ∈ T M ^{n} and v ∈ T _{p} M ^{n} , the action of d on f , called

∗

p

a diﬀerential operator d : ℑ _{p} → R , is deﬁned by

df

= v ( f ) .

Then we immediately get the following result.

Theorem 2 .5 For any point p ∈ ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) with a local chart ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) , ϕ _{p} ( p ) =

( x ^{,}

1 ^{x} 2 ^{0}

0

_{n} ) , if there are just s euclidean directions along e _{i} _{1} , e _{i} _{2} , · · · , e _{i} _{s} for a

point , then the dimension of T M ^{n} is

∗

p

with a basis

∗

dim T M ^{n} = 2 n − s

p

where

{ dx ^{i} ^{j} | _{p} | 1 ≤ j ≤ s } ^{} { d ^{−} x _{p} ,d ^{+} x ^{l} | _{p} | 1 ≤ l ≤ n and l

l

= i _{j} , 1 ≤ j ≤ s } ,

∂

∂

^{ǫ} ^{i}

dx ^{i} | _{p} ( _{∂}_{x} _{j} | _{p} ) = δ _{j} and d ^{ǫ} ^{i} x ^{i} | _{p} ( _{∂}_{x} _{j} | _{p} ) = δ

i

i

j

for ǫ _{i} ∈ { + , −} , 1 ≤ i ≤

n.

§3 . Pseudo-Manifold Geometries

Here we introduce Minkowski norms on these pseudo-manifolds (M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ).

Deﬁnition 3 .1 A Minkowski norm on a vector space V is a function F : V → R such that (1) F is smooth on V \{ 0 } and F ( v ) ≥ 0 for ∀v ∈ V ; (2) F is 1 -homogenous, i.e., F ( λv ) = λF ( v ) for ∀λ > 0 ; (3) for all y ∈ V \{ 0 } , the symmetric bilinear form g _{y} : V × V → R with

g _{y} ( u, v ) = ^{}

i,j

∂ ^{2} F ( y ) ∂y ^{i} ∂y ^{j}

is positive deﬁnite for u, v ∈ V .

Denote by TM ^{n} =

^{}

p ∈(M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) T p M n .

Diﬀerential Geometry on Smarandache n -Manifolds

11

Deﬁnition 3 .2 A pseudo-manifold geometry is a pseudo-manifold ( M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) en- dowed with a Minkowski norm F on TM ^{n} .

Then we get the following result.

Theorem 3 .1 There are pseudo-manifold geometries.

Proof Consider an eucildean 2 n-dimensional space R ^{2}^{n} . Then there exists a Minkowski norm F ( x) = | x| at least. According to Theorem 2.4, T _{p} M ^{n} is R ^{s} ^{+}^{2}^{(}^{n} ^{−} ^{s} ^{)} if ω ( p ) has s euclidean directions along e _{1} , e _{2} , · · · , e _{n} . Whence there are Minkowski norms on each chart of a point in (M ^{n} , A ^{ω} ). Since ( M ^{n} , A ) has ﬁnite cover { ( U _{α} ,ϕ _{α} ) | α ∈ I } , where I is a ﬁnite index set, by the decomposition theorem for unit, we know that there are smooth functions h _{α} , α ∈ I such that

α∈I

h _{α} = 1 with 0 ≤ h _{α} ≤ 1 .

Choose a Minkowski norm F ^{α} on

each chart (U _{α} ,ϕ _{α} ). Deﬁne

F _{α} =

h ^{α} F ^{α} ,

0 ,

for ∀p ∈ ( M ^{n} ,ϕ ^{ω} ). Now let

if

if

p ∈ U _{α} ,

p ∈

U

α

F = ^{} F _{α} .

α∈I

Then F is a Minkowski norm on TM ^{n} since it satisﬁes all of these conditions (1) − (3)

Although the dimension of each tangent vector space maybe diﬀerent, we can also introduce principal ﬁber bundles and connections on pseudo-manifolds.

in Deﬁnition 3 .1.

Deﬁnition 3 .3 A principal ﬁber bundle (PFB) consists of a pseudo-manifold ( P, A ^{ω} ) , a projection π : ( P, A ^{ω} ) → ( M, A ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ) , a base pseudo-manifold ( M, A ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ) and a Lie group G , denoted by ( P, M, ω ^{π} , G ) such that (1), (2) and (3) following hold.

1

0

0

1

(1)

There is a right freely action of G on ( P, A ^{ω} ) , i.e., for ∀g ∈ G , there is a

( P, A ^{ω} ) such

1

diﬀeomorphism R _{g} : ( P, A ^{ω} ) → ( P, A ^{ω} ) with R _{g} ( p ^{ω} ) = p ^{ω} g for ∀p

that p ^{ω} ( g _{1} g _{2} ) = (p ^{ω}

1

1

∈

1

g _{1} ) g _{2} for ∀p ∈ ( P, A ^{ω} ) , ∀g _{1} ,g _{2} ∈ G and p ^{ω} e = p ^{ω} for some

1

p ∈ ( P ^{n} , A ^{ω} ) , e ∈ G if and only if e is the identity element of G .

1

12

Linfan Mao

(2) The map π : ( P, A ^{ω} ) → ( M, A ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ) is onto with π ^{−} ^{1} ( π ( p )) = { pg | g ∈ G } , πω _{1} = ω _{0} π , and regular on spatial directions of p , i.e., if the spatial directions of p are ( ω _{1} ,ω _{2} , · · · ,ω _{n} ) , then ω _{i} and π ( ω _{i} ) are both elliptic, or euclidean, or hyperbolic and | π ^{−} ^{1} ( π ( ω _{i} )) | is a constant number independent of p for any integer i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n. (3) For ∀x ∈ ( M, A ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ) there is an open set U with x ∈ U and a diﬀeomorphism

T

1

0

0

π (ω )

u

: ( π ) ^{−} ^{1} ( U ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ) → U ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} × G of the form T _{u} ( p ) = (π ( p ^{ω} ) ,s _{u} ( p ^{ω} )) , where s _{u} :

π ^{−} ^{1} ( U ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ) → G has the property s _{u} ( p ^{ω} g ) = s _{u} ( p ^{ω} ) g for ∀g ∈ G, p ∈ π ^{−} ^{1} ( U ) .

We know the following result for principal ﬁber bundles of pseudo-manifolds.

Theorem 3 .2 Let ( P, M, ω ^{π} , G ) be a PFB. Then

( P, M, ω ^{π} , G ) = (P, M, π, G )

if and only if all points in pseudo-manifolds ( P, A ^{ω} ) are euclidean.

1

Proof For ∀p ∈ ( P, A ^{ω} ), let ( U _{p} ,ϕ _{p} ) be a chart at p . Notice that ω ^{π} = π if and

= ϕ _{p} for ∀p ∈ ( P, A ^{ω} ). According to Theorem 2.1, by deﬁnition this is

1

only if ϕ

ω

p

1

equivalent to that all points in (P, A ^{ω} ) are euclidean.

1

Deﬁnition 3 .4 Let ( P, M, ω ^{π} , G ) be a PFB with dim G = r . A subspace family H = { H _{p} | p ∈ ( P, A ^{ω} ) , dimH _{p} = dim T _{π} _{(}_{p} _{)} M } of TP is called a connection if conditions ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) following hold. (1) For ∀p ∈ ( P, A ^{ω} ) , there is a decomposition

1

1

T _{p} P = H _{p} ^{} V _{p}

and the restriction π _{∗} | _{H} _{p} : H _{p} → T _{π} _{(}_{p} _{)} M is a linear isomorphism. (2) H is invariant under the right action of G , i.e., for p ∈ ( P, A ^{ω} ) , ∀g ∈ G ,

1

( R _{g} ) _{∗}_{p} ( H _{p} ) = H _{p}_{g} .

Similar to Theorem 3 .2, the conception of connection introduced in Deﬁnition 3 .4 is more general than the popular connection on principal ﬁb er bundles.

Theorem 3 .3(dimensional formula) Let ( P, M, ω ^{π} , G ) be a PFB with a connection H . For ∀p ∈ ( P, A ^{ω} ) , if the number of euclidean directions of p is λ _{P} ( p ) , then

1

_{d}_{i}_{m} _{V} p _{=} (dim P − dim M )(2dim P − λ _{P} ( p )) dimP

^{.}

Diﬀerential Geometry on Smarandache n -Manifolds

13

Proof Assume these euclidean directions of the point p being e _{1} , e _{2} , · · · , e _{λ} _{P} _{(}_{p} _{)} . By deﬁnition π is regular, we know that π ( e _{1} ) ,π ( e _{2} ) , · · · ,π ( e _{λ} _{P} _{(}_{p} _{)} ) are also euclidean in ( M, A ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ). Now since

1

π ^{−} ^{1} ( π ( e _{1} )) = π ^{−} ^{1} ( π ( e _{2} )) = · · · = π ^{−} ^{1} ( π ( e _{λ} _{P} _{(}_{p} _{)} )) = µ = constant ,

we get that λ _{P} ( p ) = µλ _{M} , where λ _{M} denotes the correspondent euclidean directions in ( M, A ^{π} ^{(}^{ω} ^{)} ). Similarly, consider all directions of the point p

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