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Homework #13 Solutions (Covers Module 5) You do not need to turn this assignment in!

1. The breaking strength of a ber used in manufacturing cloth is required to be at least 160 psi. Past experience has indicated that the standard deviation of breaking strength is 3 psi. A random sample of four specimens is tested and the average breaking strength is 158 psi. Should the ber be judged acceptable with = 0.05? Solution: Well only judge the sample acceptable if we judge that its mean is > 160. Therefore, H0 : 160 H1 : > 160 Z0 = 158 160 x 0 = = 1.333 / n 3/2

The ber is acceptable if Z0 > z = z0.05 = 1.645. Since Z0 = 1.33 < 1.645, the ber is not acceptable. 2 2. The yield of a chemical process is being studied. The variance of yield is known from previous experience with this process to be 5 (units of 2 = percentage2 ). The past ve days of plant operation have resulted in the following yields (in percentage): 91.60, 88.75, 90.80, 89.95, 91.30. Is there reason to believe the yield is less than 90%? Solution: H0 : = 90 H1 : < 90

Z0 =

Since Z0 is not less than z0.05 = 1.645, do not reject H0 . There is no evidence that mean yield is less than 90 percent. 2 3. Two machines are used for lling plastic bottles with a net volume of 16.0 ounces. The lling processes can be assumed normal, with standard deviations 1 = 0.015 and 2 = 0.018. Quality engineering suspects that both machines ll to the same net volume, whether or not this volume is 16.0 ounces. A random sample of size ten is taken from the output of each machine (below).

2

Machine 1 Machine 2 16.03 16.02 16.04 15.97 16.05 15.96 16.05 16.01 16.02 15.99 16.01 16.03 15.96 16.04 15.98 16.02 16.02 16.01 15.99 16.00

x1 x2 = 1.349 Z0 = 2 2 1 2 + n2 n1 2

4. The lateral deviation in yards of a certain type of mortar shell is being investigated by the propellant manufacturer. The following data have been observed. 11.28 10.42 8.51 1.95 6.47 9.48 6.25 10.11 8.65 0.68 Test the hypothesis that the mean lateral deviation of these mortar shells is zero. Assume that lateral deviation is normally distributed. Use level = 0.05. Solution: H0 : = 0 H1 : = 0 x 0 0.168 0 = 0.062 = s/ n 8.5638/ 10 |t0 | = 0.062 < t0.025,9 = 2.2622, so do not reject H0 . 2

t0 =

5. An article in the Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (1999, p. 39) presents some data on the number of work hours lost per day on a construction project due to weather-related incidents. Over 11 workdays, the following lost work hours were recorded. 8.8 12.5 8.8 12.2 5.4 13.3 12.8 6.9 9.1 14.7 2.2

Assuming work hours are normally distributed, is there any evidence to conclude that the mean number of work hours lost per day is greater than 8 hours?

3 Solution: Well test H0 : 8 vs. H1 : > 8 under the assumption of unknown variance. The test statistic is x 0 9.7 8 t0 = = = 1.47, s2 /n 14.62/11 and we will reject H0 if t0 > t,n1 . Note that t0.05,10 = 1.812 and t0.10,10 = 1.372. Therefore, we do not reject at level of signicance = 0.05; but we do reject H0 at level = 0.10. 2 6. Suppose that two random samples were drawn from normal populations with equal variances. The sample data yields x = 20.0, n = 10, n (xi x)2 = 1480 and i=1 m y = 15.8, m = 10, i=1 (yi y )2 = 1425. Test the hypothesis that the two means are equal. Use = 0.01. Solution: Well test H0 : x = y vs. H0 : x = y , and well use a pooled variance estimator (since weve been told that the variances are equal, but unknown). Thus,

sp = and

xy

1 n

sp

1 m

20.0 15.8

12.704

1 10

1 10

7. Two machines produce metal parts. The following data have been collected on the weights of the parts. n = 25 m = 30 x = 0.984 s2 = 13.46 x y = 0.907 s2 = 9.65 y

Test the hypothesis that the two machines produce parts having the same mean weight. Use = 0.05. Solution: Well test H0 : x = y vs. H1 : x = y , assuming that the unknown variances are unequal. First, well need to calculate the approximate degrees of

4 freedom,

(

s2 x n

+ +

s2 y m

)2

2 =

2 = 49.06 49.

Then the test statistic is xy 0.077 t = 2 s 2 = = 0.083. 0 13.46 sx y + 9.65 +m 25 30 n Since |t | t/2, = t0.025,49 = 2.01, we do not reject H0 . 0 2

8. Two types of exercise equipment, A and B, for handicapped individuals are often used to determine the eect of the particular exercise on heart rate (in beats per minute). Seven subjects participated in a study to determine whether the two types of equipment have the same eect on heart rate. The results are given in the table below. Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A 162 163 140 191 160 158 155 B 161 187 199 206 161 160 162

Conduct an appropriate hypothesis test to determine whether there is a signicant dierence in heart rate due to the type of equipment used. Solution: Since the observations occur in natural pairs, we will use a paired t-test to test H0 : A = B vs. H1 : A = B , or equivalently, H0 : D = 0 vs. H1 : D = 0, where D = A B . The paired t-test is conducted using the dierences of the observations, as calculated in the Di column of the following enhanced table.

5 Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A 162 163 140 191 160 158 155 B 161 187 199 206 161 160 162 Di 1 24 59 15 1 2 7

15.29 D t0 = = = 1.907. 2 450.2/7 SD /n Lets take = 0.05. Since |t0 | t/2,n1 = t0.025,6 = 2.447, we fail to reject H0 . 2

9. A manufacturer of precision measuring instruments claims that the standard deviation in the use of the instrument is 0.00002 inch. An analyst, who is unaware of the claim, uses the instrument eight times and obtains a sample standard deviation of 0.00005 inch. Using = 0.01, is the claim justied? Solution: H0 : 0.00002 H1 : > 0.00002 2 = 0 7(0.00005)2 (n 1)s2 = = 43.75 2 0 (0.00002)2

10. Consider the following two samples drawn from two normal populations. Sample 1 Sample 2 4.34 5.00 1.87 2.00 4.97 2.00 4.25 1.85 5.55 2.11 6.55 2.31 6.37 2.28 5.55 2.07 3.76 1.76

1.91

2.00

Is there evidence to conclude that the variance of population 1 is greater than that of population 2? Use = 0.01. Solution: We need to use an F -test on the ratio of two variances.

2 2 H0 : 1 = 2 2 2 H1 : 1 > 2

6 11. Of 400 randomly selected motorists, 48 were found to be uninsured. Test the hypothesis that the actual uninsured rate is at most 10%. use = 0.05. Solution: Well test H0 : p 0.10 vs. H1 : p > 0.10. Since the sample size is large, we can use the usual Central Limit Theorem normal approximation to the binomial. In this case, we obtain 48 400(0.1) x np0 = = 1.333. Z0 = np0 (1 p0 ) 400(0.1)(0.9) Since Z0 < z = 1.645, we do not reject H0 . 2

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