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NAME: Natali El Asmar LEVEL: Upper Intermediate APPROACH Discrete Item x Task Based Learning Skills

WEEK: 2 DATE: 5.09.11

DAY: 6 TP #


If Discrete item Situational Presentation Teaching from a text Teaching from examples Teaching from rules Test-Teach-Test TOPIC/THEME: (e.g. Holidays, Regional Dishes, Health and Medicine...) Travel

AIMS: By the end of the lesson, students will have Main Aim(s): To introduce verb patterns and learn the difference (in form and meaning) between gerunds and infinitives.

Subsidiary Aim(s): To teach some travel related vocabulary and encourage oral fluency.

PERSONAL AIMS: What do you personally want to improve on in this lesson and why? Example: 1.give clearer instructions and check them, 2. reduce TTT, 3. improve my drilling techniques. 1. To speak more loudly, clearly and emphatically. 2. To give clearer instructions and check them. 3. To use Concept Checking Questions effectively. 4. To improve the first stage of the stage plan (creating interest). 5. To include PACS in lesson.

SOURCES OF MATERIALS: What course books, reference books, internet sites etc. did you use? Inside Out- MacMillan/ English Grammar In Use- Cambridge University Press/ Longman English Grammar Practice/ Practical English Usage- Michael Swan- Oxford/ Fun With Grammar- Suzanne W. Woodward. Travel Agency Exercise based on a story by Kevin McKelvey Lesson Plan Assignment 2 & 4i -1-

The LANGUAGE ANALYSIS that you need to do in the following section relates to your LINGUISTIC AIM(S) i.e. the LANGUAGE COMPONENT of your lesson. As a rough guide: In a discrete-item lesson, you need to analyse the M,F,P,A of the discrete item i.e. the language point In a TBL lesson, you need to analyse M,F,P,A of any topic-related lexis you intend to teach (Pre-task stage) and useful language/expressions (Planning stage). For ALL of the above, and skills lessons, you need to analyse any lexis that you intend to teach or that might cause problems of M, F, P, A during your lesson. The idea is that this analysis will help you to predict problems the students may have and to plan solutions to these BEFORE the lesson in the next section of the lesson plan.


MEANING/USE State what the language component of your lesson is (see above) AND what it means/how it is used. Give an example(s). For LEXIS/USEFUL PHRASES, list the words/phrases you intend to teach and the key points of their meaning. See example. FORM: State what the FORM of your language component is, showing a breakdown of the structure/phrase. Include negatives, question forms, contractions etc if necessary. Include parts of speech in your list of LEXIS. See example. PRONUNCIATION: Indicate the key pronunciation features of your language component (word/sentence stress, weak forms, silent letters, key intonation patterns etc.). See example. APPROPRIACY: indicate whether anything in your language component is colloquial, formal, informal, slang etc. See example. EXAMPLE: Meaning: Form: DISCRETE ITEM: have to vs dont have to I have to get up early every day. I dont have to wear a suit. (its necessary/its an obligation for me.) (its not necessary; its optional) Negative: subject + dont have to + infinitive

Positive: subject + have to + infinitive Question: Do you have to wear a suit? Short answer: Yes, I do./No, I dont.


/hft/ before infinitives beginning with a consonant sound /hftu:/ before infinitives beginning with a vowel sound LEXIS/EXPRESSIONS to succeed in doing something, especially something that needs a lot of effort or skill manage to do sth = manage (v.reg) +to infinitive /-d/ a set of clothes made from the same cloth, usually a jacket with trousers or a skirt noun (in this context) /su:t/

to manage to do sth. Meaning Form: Pronunciation a suit Meaning: Form: Pronunciation:

WRITTEN RECORD: What written record will students get of key features of M,F,P,A of the language you are teaching?

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MEANING/USE Gerund vs. Infinitive (verb patterns)

Verbs followed by the gerund and verbs followed by the infinitive. When one verb follows another, the first verb determines the form of the second. This can be the gerund (verb+ing) or the infinitive (with or without to). to-infinitive

1. I enjoy travelling, yet I hate packing.

gerund 2. I want to go to Mozambique but I cant afford to buy the airline ticket.

FORM / Focus on 5 verb patterns.

1. Verb + gerund. Use the gerund after certain verbs and expressions, e.g. avoid, cant stand, dont mind, enjoy,
fancy, finish, keep, miss, spend/waste time. e.g. I cant stand cueing at the airport.

2. Verb + object + gerund. These verbs sometimes take an object before the gerund: avoid, dont mind, dread.
e.g. I didnt mind him asking questions. He was just doing his job.

3. Verb + to-infinitive. Use the infinitive (with to) after certain verbs and expression, e.g. aim, arrange, attempt,
cant afford, decide, hope, intend, manage, offer, plan, refuse, seem, tend, try. e.g. We managed to arrive on time!

4. Verb + object + to-infinitive. a) These verbs sometimes take an object before the to-infinitive: expect, help,
want. b) These verbs usually take an object before the to-infinitive: allow, encourage, force, remind, teach, urge, warned (not). e.g. a) I wanted her to come with me to Singapore but she said she was busy. e.g. b) My mother reminded me to take my Travellers Cheques with me

5. Verb + object + infinitive (without to). Make and let take an object before the infinitive without to.
e.g. They made us wait for a while. .............................................................................. MEANING/USE


Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or infinitive with a change in meaning. E.g. remember, forget, try.

1. Remember + to-infinitive = you remember first, then you do something Remember + gerund = you do something then you remember it. Remember to bring your passport. I remember going to Venice as a child. verb + to-infinitive verb + gerund

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Assignment 2: LANGUAGE ANALYSIS (Cont.)

2. Forget + to-infinitive = you didnt remember to do something Forget + gerund = you did something and you wont forget it. It is more common in the negativ Sorry, I forgot to bring it. Ill never forget seeing the Taj Mahal. 3. Try + to + infinitive = make an effort to do something Try + gerund = experiment to see if something works. I tried to learn some French before my trip to Paris. Try calling home from a landline.


1. Rules for Gerunds and Infinitives: cards with list of verbs that are usually followed by a gerund, those that
are usually followed by to-infinitive and those that are followed by an object + infinitive (without to)...etc (all 5 patterns). On the same card, they are to copy the structure or form for all of these verb patterns from the board while we are working them as a whole class activity. Some verbs that can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive (with a change in meaning) are also mentioned and their structure is detailed on board. 2. Exercise sheet with 3 exercises.

3. Game: to role play in pairs (real life situation context) to check for PACS at the end of the lesson.

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What problems of M,F,P,A might students have with the previously analysed language? List and explain these problems and include details of a solution immediately after each (please label them Problem 1, Solution 1 etc.) MEANING: Please include full details of how you will convey meaning and check understanding in your solutions, including timelines, concept questions etc, as necessary. Alternatively, refer to the exercise/worksheet which does this. Example: Problem 1: Ss may think that dont have to means obligation not to do sth. Solution 1: In worksheet 1 Ex.1 Ss choose the correct meanings from several options. Problem 2: Ss may not know the meaning of a. To manage to do sth, b. To refuse to do sth, etc. Solution 2: Ss match these words to their definitions on Worksheet 1, Ex.2.

Problem 1. Students might confuse the meaning of some verbs that can be followed by both gerunds and infinitives (with a change of meaning). e.g 5 I tried to arrive on time = (I made an effort to arrive on time) e.g. 6 I tried asking 3 different people for directions but nobody knew where the hotel was. = ( I experimented to see if anybody could help me find the hotel) Student error: students might think that I tried in examples 5 and 6 have the same meaning. Solution 1. Point out a few verbs that can be followed by both a gerund and an infinitive and highlight that there is a difference in meaning in the verb from when it is followed by a gerund to when it is followed by an infinitive. Give them exercises where the difference in meaning is applied and include these verbs with this information on the sheet of rules of gerunds and infinitives. Problem 2. Students might add to to the infinitive where it is not required (where infinitive is preceded by an object). e.g. 7 They let us choose our seats on the plane = (student error: They let us to choose our seats on the plane). Solution 3. Remind students that when an infinitive is preceded by an object, it does not require to. Include the verbs that are usually followed by objects (and thus do not require to between them and the infinitive or the second verb) in the sheet of verb lists and structure. E.g. make, let.

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FORM: Example: Problem 1: Ss may think the negative of have to is havent to. Solution: ask Ss to find examples of negatives in text. Problem 2: Ss may not know suit is both n + v. Solution: Give examples.
Problem 1. Students might confuse tenses due to the use of gerunds and infinitives: e.g. 1 Sorry, I forgot to bring it. = (student error: Sorry, I forgot to brought it) e.g. 2 The doctor suggested taking a long holiday. = (student error: The doctor suggested took a long holiday) Solution 1. Remind the students about the meanings of gerunds and infinitives. That is: although they appear as verbs, in the context they are not used as verbs. The tense is always determined by the first verb and what follows is always either the infinitive or the gerund. In example 1 above we are talking about an action in the past, the first verb forgot determines the tense. to + bring is the infinitive. The same thing applies to example 2. The first verb suggested determines the tense; past tense. Problem 2. Students might have trouble remembering which verbs are followed by gerunds and which are followed by infinitives. e.g. 3 I love travelling = (student error: I love to travel) e.g. 4 I decided to go to New York = (student error: I decided going to New York) Solution 2. Give Students exercises to practice which verbs are followed by gerunds and which are followed by infinitives. Also give out a hand out of lists of verbs that are followed by gerunds and those that are followed by infinitives.

PRONUNCIATION: Consider individual sounds, silent letters, unpronounced syllables, syllable stress, sentence stress and intonation patterns. Example: Problem 1: (a) Ss may pronounce the v in have as /v/ not /f/ (b) may mispronounce suit. Solution 1: drilling and phonemic script for (a) and (b).

APPROPRIACY: Example: Problem 1: Ss probably wont know that loads of in the text is an informal way to say a lot of. Solution 1: I have included this in a short glossary under the text.

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SKILLS ISSUES: Is there anything related to skills that you are worried about. Example: Problem 1: The listening recording is quite long and some speakers have strong accents. Solution 1: let students listen to the recording twice if necessary.

OTHER ISSUES: Is there anything non-language related that you are worried about, for example with tasks or activities? Example: Problem 1: The tape in the book is badly organized. Solution 1: reorganize & read myself. Problem 2: the role play requires an even no. of Ss. Solution 2: Put Javier (weaker S) in group of 3. Probem 1. The game at final stage. I might not be able t listen in on all the groups discussions to check if they are applying the target language correctly Solution 1. Ask students to write down 10 sentences used is discussion (applying 5 different verb patterns) and collect sheets for correction.

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AIMS: Did you achieve your aims (fully/partially/not at all) and what evidence do you have? Main Aim(s): (fully / partially / not at all) How successful were you at meeting your main aims?

Subsidiary Aim(s): (fully / partially / not at all) How successful were you at meeting your subsidiary aims?

ANTICIPATED PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS: How accurate were your anticipated problems of MFPA and other problems? How successful were your solutions? What other problems did students have in these areas that you didnt anticipate?

SUMMARY: If you were to teach the same lesson again, what would you change?

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PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: What did you learn from teaching this lesson?

PERSONAL AIMS: Did you improve/work on the personal aims you set before the lesson?

AREAS FOR FUTURE WORK: What areas do you think you need to work on in the future?



Tutor: ________________________

Tutor: ____________________________





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