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November - December 2011
Student Writings from IEI
If I Am the Richest Person in the World By Mio (Japan) If I am the richest, I have decided the way to use money. I will use the money for all kinds of education, just like Carnegie. I think “to know” is very important. If I know what I should do next, I might save my life. If I give up knowing something, I might die. I’m always afraid of something or I can’t decide anything. If I Am the Richest Person in the World By Ekab (Saudi Arabia) I would give to the poor and buy a big building for the person who doesn’t have work and a home. Also, I would buy machines for nursing or hospitals. Also, I would help most people in another country. I would make a big mosque here. After that, I would send the person to study in a great university. I want any person to be happy. It is beautiful to see a smile on anybody. This is my dream or this is my plan. If I Am the Richest Person in the World By Abdullah (Saudi Arabia) I would begin to work in a business. I would open a big company. I would give some money to those who need help. I would buy a big house and a new car. I would help my family and my cousins. I need to open a new hospital and school in my country. I would save some money for the future. Go to School or Study at Home? By Mohammed (Saudi Arabia) It is better to go to school because you will learn better there than at home. You will take a test for your studies. You will get better and better. In school, you will study harder. If you never understand anything, the teacher will tell you, and you will be smart. You will get a good grade for your work. I never agree with how you study at home. How do you want to see your teacher? Not at home. This is in school. School is open for studying in it, not at home. In school, you will learn everything. What will you learn at home? How to cook? In the end, I will tell you to go to school if you want a good future.
Future By Abdulelah (Saudi Arabia) First, the people of the future need education. Second, the people of the future need more hospitals. Each city should have hospitals, ambulances, and air ambulance service systems everywhere. Finally, the development of education and hospitals serves to help the people of the future. America By Abdullah Nasser (Saudi Arabia) In America, there are opportunities that can make anybody a better person. We can learn the English language, and we can complete our education. First, I like to learn a new language. I am learning English now, because it is very important for the world. It can change your life and your mind. I think everybody should learn English. Next, everybody should complete his education. It is very significant for life, because after you finish your education, then you can get a good job and earn more money. In short, we should learn the English language and complete our education. It is very important to pursue our education and to develop our mind. Thanksgiving By Aziz (Saudi Arabia) I was with my host family for Thanksgiving. We ate a lot of food. Also, I talked with the family. After that, I went shopping at the mall. After shopping, I went back to my home, and I rested at home for two hours. Then, I went to the movies with my brother and my friends. I watched a movie. Finally, I went back to my home, and I slept. I like Thanksgiving, and I think it’s a good day. A Better Place for the People By Hesham (Saudia Arabia) We can make the world a better place for people in the future. First, we need to eliminate unemployment. If we can fix this problem, then we give jobs to unemployed people and help them get a better place in the future. Second, we need to help the poor. Today, a lot of people live in poverty. We should fix this. We need to make a better living place with a suitable environment for poor people. We need to find an answer to their money problems. We can act on this, and we can find work and give them more salary. When we help the big crowd of poor people, then the problem of poverty will go away in the future. Third, a lot of people in the world do not have education. We should teach them, so they will have a better place in the future. Finally, we should have a plan for the people. I hope I don’t see any unemployment, poverty, or people with education needs in the future. 2 Living in Another Country By Mohammad (Saudi Arabia) If you live in another country, then you change and you become a better person. First, if I see different cultures, then I can understand many people. Second, I need to be open-minded, not closed-minded. We live around people with different religions. I think other people deal with you the way you deal with them. So, treat other people the way you want them to treat you. Interesting Weekend By Rakan (Saudi Arabia) Last weekend, I had two interesting experiences. First, on Saturday I went to the gym with my host family. I saw many people were happy in the gym. I saw some children playing football. Then, I saw a small child crying, because he lost his mother. We looked for his mom, and we found his mother. Now, he is happy, because he sees his mother. Second, on Sunday I went to the movie theater. I saw a horror movie, and I was afraid, because in the movie, many people were killed and died. I saw a lot of blood. When the movie ended, I felt better. However, I promised myself that I am not going to watch another horror movie! In conclusion, I had a good time and a bad time last weekend! Good Friend By Saleh (Saudi Arabia) My good friend is Hussein, and he is 21 years old. He studies in the university. We started elementary school at the same time, and we studied in school together for about 12 years. However, when we graduated from high school, I went to the north in my country, and he stayed in my city. After that, I went to the USA, and I didn’t see him again. However, I call him every week. We don’t see each other, but we are good friends. We like the same things. For example, we like to play soccer. Also, we like to watch movies, and we like to watch soccer on TV. Finally, Hussein and I will be friends for a long time in the future. Lost Wallet By Stanya (Czech Republic) I remember a time when I lost my wallet. When I was in New York two years ago, I took a cab. I sat down and held my purse. After that, I paid for the ride and I put my wallet on the seat beside me. I was absent-minded, and I thought I put the wallet in my purse. Then, I left the cab, and my wallet stayed on the car seat! When I got out, I didn’t have my wallet. So, my son called the cab company, but nobody found it. I was very sad, because the wallet was a special present from my husband.
Happiness By Bandar (Saudi Arabia) Many people reach for happiness, but a few people get it. Do you believe this information? All of us want to be happy as long as possible but “How?” This is the question. In my opinion, the definition of happiness is the nice or interesting feeling of life. I think that happiness comes from the three relationships: the relationship with God, the relationship with people, and the relationship with the self. First, let us talk about the relationship with God because this is the most important point in happiness. Therefore, you must have a relationship with God because God is the only one who controls all of your life and God helps you with the difficulties and the problems which we face in life anywhere and anytime. Second, the relationship with people is very important because if you communicate with them correctly, you will get a lot of friends and you will share with them interesting and nice times. In addition, the relationship makes you live in peace with the external life. Third, the relationship with the self. I mean yourself. You must be interested in this relationship to get complete control of your feelings and passions correctly, expecially love, hate, or anger. In conclusion, happiness depends on the relationship with your God, your people, and yourslef to get happiness in your life. Taking Care By Sultan (Saudi Arabia) Parents now are not taking care of their kids that much. Now, I think the biggest problem in the world is people who have no famly. That is a big problem which is not acceptable. For example, a mother and father who do bad things, so they can't take care of their kids. This topic branches to other ways. For example, taking care of your children, taking care of your parents, and taking care of your job. Taking care of your children isn't easy. This is a big responsibility, so you must be a great dad. When you get children, you are supposed to follow some rules with them. For example, you are supposed to respect your character when they are in front of you. Don't make problems with your wife, and teach them how to have great character with people. If you teach this, everyone will know you are a perfect father because that behavior is on their parents. When you make anything, they always say give me some candy. If you don't give it to them, they will cry or make some noise. This means you have to be affectionate. The second thing is to take care of your parents. If your parents didn't give birth to you, that means you would not be here in the world. This is like a gift from God to you and grace. You should know how to take care of your parents. For example, do anything they want and help them because when you were a child, they sat beside you when you were sick. Your father always is eager to make you happy. In any celebration, he always buys some toys for you as a gift. He does that, and he doesn't care if he is poor or something like that. He just wants you to keep smiling. When you did something bad he can't hit you becuase he loves you. The third is how to take care of your job. This needs some rules which means you must be systematic. If you really want to save your job, you have to make your watch make your alarm go off before your job begins by one hour. You can take a shower because that makes you feel fresh all day, so you can do well in your job. You have to keep working because if you lost it you can't have any more money. Finally, I wish everybody would keep saving and taking care of your parents. Please be patient with them because they are not living for you. Also, keep loving your children. They are flowers of the world, and they make excitment in the home. Lastly, try to keep working well in your job because you have some dreams you want to achieve with your money. My life in Ten Years Ago By Ali (Saudi Arabia) I was born in 1989, in small city called Najran in south of Saudi Arabia. My life was very simple because of my economic statue. I was living with my big family that has brothers and sisters. So, today my life has changed in more than one way. In this essay, I'm going to compare myself between now and ten years ago. In these ten years, I have changed the place that I live in, my education, and my physique. So, in this paper I'm going to compare between these three things. First, I have changed the place that lived in. Ten years ago, I was living in Najran, the city that I was born in. My family lived in a small house with my brothers and sisters. The house only had two bedrooms and one bathroom. In that time, I was in the 6th grade in the elementary school. The school was very small which was an old building that had a few teachers and students. My education was little. By the way, I hated something called math and history because of the teachers who taught me during that time. In addition, ten years ago, I was very fat boy 3
and bigger than all the people who were my age. In that time, I could not play sports with my friends because of my weight. Now, I'm 22 years old and my life has completely changed. The place that we lived in became bigger than before. However, now, I live in the United States alone. Which is completely different than I was before. Also, my education has developed. I graduated from the high school and I studied in a technology college for three years. Now, I'm in the U.S to complete my education. Furthermore, as you see, my body has changed a lot. Now, my body is skinny, and I can play whatever of sport I want especially soccer. As you see, I have changed in different ways in my life over the last ten years. Place, education, and physique were the most common ways that developed in my life. So, that is all I want to compare between my last ten years and now. Finally, I hope that I will develop even more in the next ten years. Satisfaction By Juntae (South Korea) What is satifcation? According to the dictionary, satisfaction means "the pleasure that you feel when you do something or get something that you wanted or needed to do or get." Maybe you have satisfactinon when you get praised for the first time or when you graduate from school. When did you feel satisfaction? Where does satisfaction come from? First, satisfaction comes from getting something that you want. For example, a nice car, beautiful house, good shoes, etc. It's a pleasure when you have that kind of something. This satisfaction is near material success. Like this, children are waiting for Santa Claus on Christmas Eve. On Christmas, they are happy with a gift. That comes naturally when you get somehting. Second, when you finish something that you want to do, you get satisfaction. This thing is coming when I think of something, take action, and get some results. Someone who wants to have a good bodyline can do ecercise for a long time and get a good body. Or if someone passes the test for university (or job) afer hard study. That's an example of satisfaction from finishing something. Finally, performing a real service for the public. This satisfaction is in a large sense. You will feel happy for yourself, but you will think about other people's happiness and get happiness. You give money for the people who are in a difficult situation or go to the nursing home and serve old people during the weekend. That should you make you feel better. That isn't a physical form of comfort, this satisfaction comes from being mentally comfortable. I tried to talk to you about three cases of satisfaction. Do you agree with that? I think someone who doesn't feel satisfaction has a big problem. They don't stop for their happiness. On the other hand, a person who feels satisfaction in everything has no goal or expansion. "Compromise" is very difficult, but I believe if you find that, you will have success. Justice By Jagaa (Mongolia) Is justice only a concept in law and court? Do you agree with me if I'll say it has a more broad sense. Justice is fair behavior or treatment according to the dictionary. Let's all try to explain about justice. First of all, children have a strong sense of justice. They always say concrete truths about what they see. For instance, you probably know the fable about the naked king. In the fable, anyone from the people surronded by the king couldn't tell him he is naked. Instead, they told him his cloth is gorgeous. Only the little child shouted, "Look, the king is naked!" Second, justice for adults is the employer's assessment of the employees. If the boss uses fair assessment about the employees restults at work, then the employee's approaches to work will be fair. For example, on New Year's eve a boss had to select one of the employees for a wonderful prize-holiday in Paris. Imagine, he didn't select the person who had the best results of work, just his friend whose result was average. Then the employees won't try to work hard. On the contrary, they will try to flatter their boss. Furthermore, justice is a legal process of judging and punishing people. When people can't find justice, they come to the court. Everyone is equal in front of the judge, and the judge seeks justice for everyone. The judge makes the vital decision for people because the judgment depends on someone's destiny. Therefore, proficient and fair behavior are the most important requirements for the judges. Finally, we all know that justice is a fair behavior. Unfortunately, sometimes people as an adult can't be a role model of justice for their children. Also, people's unfair decisions or actions can cause a harm, then we consider the judgement as justice. In other words, court is a final destination of justice.
Education By Majed (Saudi Arabia) Education means the process of learning in a school or another program of study. Education is important to develop our communities. There are a lot of things in our education, but I want to write about the most important aspects, such as place, people, and practice. First, if we need great education, we have to make special places to learn. For example schools, universities, and colleges. Building these places is important because they are serious places to learn. We can learn in different places. For example, we can study by ourselves, but we aren't going to learn the same as learning in the special place for learning because in the special place we are going to have better attention than learning by ourselves. The second crucial component of education is people. There are two kinds of people in the education: teachers and students. The teacher is the person who gives someone lessons in the school or any another program to learn. The teachers are essential people, because they develop communities by their job. So we should give them a lot of our respect. On the another hand, we have students. The student is the person who comes to learn in school or another program. These students are going to influence the future generations. So we need to give them encouragement to continue what they start. Thus, both of them are important to develop education. The last crucial component of education is practice. The practice is anything which can help us to learn. Books are a good example for practice. Books are important to learn with because it is the best way to get new information. Finally, if we need to develop our communities we should develop our education. Place, people, and practice are of most importance to develop education. We need more attention to be a great community. Be Positive By Selin (Turkey) Do you want to succeed? Do you think this sentence is right? Can you do this by being positive? We will find the answer to these questions now. First, let us learn the definition. To be positive is to look at life hopeful and realistic, not focusing on the past, but focusing on the future. Positive thinking is very important for success, health, and happiness. Let's look together how we can achieve this. First, why is positive thinking important for success? The answer is because it provides the motivation. A positive person can believe that. They have energy. However, there is a very important question. Is it enough to want success? Not enough. For example, let's say that people could not sing a song, but they want to be a singer. Being positive is not enough. They must be skilled. Of course, if they can sing, being positive will help a lot. Belief of success is very important. People can't give up. Second, you need to learn how to have a connection between health and positive thinking. Scientists say that there is a connection. The other name is "placebo effect". So, a belief that is healing. A lot of research said "positive people improve faster than people who aren't." For example, some people have a headache. Sometimes these people use vitamins, but the person said, "This is aspirin." They believed it and the headache ended. How effective is this? No one knows exactly. Next, everyone says, "I'm happy." Is anyone who says it positive? Everyone knows the story of the glass. The story is about "What do you see?" It is very important to see all of the glass. Some people say it is "half-filled". A lot of people who agree with that are positive. Whereas this name is "blind positive". This is not good beause this is self-deception. Some people say "half-empty". This is not good because this is pessimism. Realistic and positive thinking is very good for a happy life. These people would be good to believe. They are not unhappy and they don't lose their hopes. Their life is easier. Finally, what did you say on your birthday? What is written on your birthday card? Have you ever noticed? Everyone said, "I hope you are successful, healthy, and happy." If you can think positive, you can have all of them. I have a great sentence: "If you put your energy somewhere, it will develop in life." Plan By Ibrahim (Saudi Arabia) Do you have a plan? We hear "plan" always in our lives. Also, we have a plan often when we want to do something. For example, if you have many things to do at the same time, you'll have a small plan, like when you want go to shopping, clean your house, and do your homework. You should have a plan because if you don’t have a plan, you may spend too much time to complete your work and you cannot do all your tasks. A plan is "Something you have decided to do" (Longman Dictionary)." You should have a plan if you will travel for holiday, in your job, or for your future. It is important to have a plan when you travel. Everyone who has a job or goes to school every day should take a few days holiday. For example, if you are going to travel to a new city for you, you should take enough time to decide where you will go every day and where you should visit in first day and second day until the end of the holiday. Also, what places you should not go to because some cities have places that are not safe and some are 5
too expensive. So, if you don't have a good plan, you'll find yourself not knowing where to go, which makes your holiday boring. The job which is going according to a plan will be easy and will be completed in a timely manner. When I got my first job, my boss told me you must send a weekly plan for the coming week before the end of this week, the monthly plan for the next month before the end of this month, as well as the annual plan before the end of this year. I thought, at the time, that it is difficult and that it takes extra effort, but when I started to use the plan, it was very useful for me in my job. Also, it can end all the functions required in a timely manner. In addition, everybody has goals which he/she wants to achieve in the future. And the best method to achieve them is to make a clear plan and a long term goal. Let us assume that someone wants to become a dentist in the future. He/she must graduate from high school, get a high score to help him/her to enter the College of Medicine, and also he/she should study after graduation from the University of Dentistry in order to achieve his/her goal to be a dentist. Finally, the plan is an important factor to accomplish all that we want to do. If you put a clear plan to travel on vacation, you will enjoy your holiday. You won't experience difficulties, but you will find a lot of fun. Also, if the employee develops a plan for all his work, he/she will find extra time that he/she can benefit from anything else, and develop from the work. Each person must identify their goals to be able to have the easiest and fastest ways to achieve them. Getting Enough Sleep By Yu Jin (South Korea) How many hours do you sleep a night? How many hours would you like to sleep a night? Most people need eight hours of sleep but don’t get enough. Sleep deprivation is a serious problem because when people aren’t rested enough, there are bad results. If you have sleep deprivation, you will have a problem with your work. When you don’t get enough sleep, you will not think of creative ideas because your brain isn’t working to complete the concentration. So your work accomplishment is less. Also, you will have conflict with your boss. Secondly, you will have a problem at your school. For example, when you have a test, most people get a scarcity of sleep. However, when you get sufficient sleep, this is one way to get the best grade. If you get more sleep, you will not exercise your skills. Finally, you will have problems when you are driving. It’s a very serious matter, and we are realizeing this fact. According to the National Transportation Administration, sleepy drivers cause 100,000 accidents each year. There are many work-related accidents too. But that’s not all. In conclusion, sleep is very important for us. In the long term, if you don’t get enough sleep, you will have less resistance to infection and disease. Sleep is a necessary position of life. If you want a healthy life, you should get enough sleep. The Compass of the Politico Social Animal: Values and Cohabitation By Amaia (Spain) Thinking about our way of life, about our personal behavior, about how we relate with others is important. If we reflect on how we now live in a society, and if we analyze what is the toehold of our ways of behavior in a community, inevitably the importance of values will come to light. The essay that you have in your hands tries to illustrate in a simple and affordable manner, the transcendence of the values in the survival of human begins. The structure of this paper is built on four main pillars. In the first place, we’ll explain the values from the ethical approach. To do this, considering the human as "social animal (Politikon Zoon 1)", we’ll talk about the need of humans to be developed in society, their frames of conduct and the role of values in that scenario. However, all this would be incomplete without the explanation of the origin of values. That's why we'll travel to Greece to enjoy the influence of the Sophists in this field. The second point is about power and values. In particular, when power uses the values as a method to regulate or control society. After that, we'll approach the education as a tool for reaching harmony between values. Finally, we'll end the essay with the conclusions of all that we've analyzed. At first sight, the values from the point of view of ethics are the standard or guidance to organize the societal relations. They are the basis for living in a community and relating to others. Also, they regulate our behavior to the collective welfare and harmonious coexistence. In fact, if we accept the premise that a human being is a social and political animal, what we said before is absolutely essential. In other words, considering that the human needs to live in society/in a community to survive, the relationships with others will be necessary. So, the values are a tool to regulate those relations within a society, and we can identify them as behavioral framework.
ARISTÓTELES (1999): La Política, Libro I. Madrid: Alba
All of this had the origin at the time of the Sophists, in Athens. Once the revolution ended and established Democracy, a crisis of values fell in the streets of Athens. The society was divided by the logic of the systems of values and the systems of classes. To solve the problem, the sophists were clear: “the most important thing is not who has better values, it is who has the best speech. If we translate this in today's words, the premise would be "the most important, is not who has better values. The most important, is who has the best mass media". We could say that we are at the first sign of manipulation of values. If we enter into the specter of manipulation of values, which we show the second pillar of the essay, we can find the intention of the State, of the religious Institutions, and Political Parties, etc. eager to control the behavioral patterns of society. That’s why we can say that the power tries using the values that impose norms in society. Therefore, the values, rather than being the rules that guide people to function in society, pass to being moral obligations imposed vertically. If we reflect on that, we can see the step from a rule of behavior to the moral imposition. The contradiction is clear. Furthermore, at this scenario where most of the time the manipulation is implicit in which the cohabitation of different cultures in the same society is a frequent occurrence and where the generation gap2 is becoming more pronounced, education plays a fundamental role. The education should be the means to achieve harmony between the values of a society. That is, beyond teaching values, the education should explain the values of community and try to reach an agreement among them. In conclusion, the values are very important in our lives. For this, it is indispensable that the societies have a harmonious system of values. We’ve seen that the values are the key of cohabitation; they are the compass of our ways to function in the community and interact with others. All of them practice essential to our maturation and personal fulfillment. Besides, if the values are part of human nature, the education is more than to work on proclaiming "good values", it should work to show the values latent within a society and to reach the balance between all of them. In other words, the education should make possible the understanding of all the values of the society. Actually, the value is something that humans learn based on their own needs. BIBLIOGRAPHY ARISTÓTELES (1999): La Política, Libro I. Madrid: Alba AZURMENDI, J. “Balioak gaur egun” in Hik Hasi (1998), 24, 15-18.
JIMÉNEZ, J. C. (2008): El valor de los valores en las organizaciones. http://www.elvalordelosvalores.com/definicion/index.html [2011-11-27]
M. MEAD (1980). “Cultura y Compromiso”. Barcelona: Medisa
M. MEAD (1980). “Cultura y Compromiso”. Barcelona: Medisa.
Success in Business By Muhammed (Saudi Arabia) Who doesn't want to be successful in his job. I think everyone wants this. Also, everyone wants to change his life to be better. This change needs to be planned or needs to progress step by step. We can't change our life with one big step. There are steps or advice to be successful in your job. First, learn to like your work and be superior in your work. Anyone who wants to be superior in his or her job must try to be distinct and impressive in their job. Next, decide accurately what you want to do in your life and set your goals in this life. Then, set what the cost that you must pay for your goal will be because nothing of value will come without sacrifice. Then struggle and fight in order to achieve your goal. Everyone knows anything without a plan equals "nothing". You must set your plan to be strong and stable. Then, invest your time wisely and smart. Make sure you don't lose minutes from your life and put in things that are useful and fruitful. Also, live for something and be prepared to pay the cost because the life without the thing you do is "nothing" and try to be better "only". Finally, everyone needs to succeed but no one will succeed easily because the success needs motivation, desire, and trust to continue because there are many problems that will face you and you must fix them. Make a sacrifice to get it and be honest with yourself and success will be for you.
Why students should study abroad By Abdirizak (Somalia) I support that students should live abroad at some point in their life. As we know some of us who study abroad come with their ability to, so we should encourage our students to study abroad because, it will benefit their own country and they will have more benefits than in their own country. First, students want to increase or build their education which is really important. Because, education is a light which everybody needs to see something and to know what you are missing. So, students need to gain more education. But some people think students will lose their values, culture and attitudes while living abroad. Other people might be afraid that students won't come back if they study abroad, and that they may change their attitude, the way they speak and that their people don't like it. I think that is not true because students who go abroad better understand their own culture and biases. For instance, when they see other cultures, they will understand that their culture is very important too and that it is just different. Second, students increase their confidence when they are living abroad because they might live alone for a while or live with people who don't care about what they are doing. For instance, when you are living with their parents or relatives, they tell you what you need to do. But when you are living by yourself, you have to take care of everything yourself. So, most students who live abroad have more confidence than students staying in their own country. Some other people will disagree with what I think. They think students get homesick, their confidence and feel uncomfortable. If they deal with people, who don't speak their native language or who have different traditions, such as food, they might not get the food which they are used to eating in their country. So, they meet a lot of difficult situations. But I think, that is not going to be happen because they can find a lot of international restaurants in which they can get delicious food or they might cook their own at home. Also, students who go abroad are usually young people. They are influenced easily by languages and they understand the people that they are dealing with more easily. In addition, students who are living abroad have the ability do something by themselves because, they believe in themselves. For example, they may create something by themselves with their own ideas and start business or build a factory. Third, the students who go abroad learn how to respect other peoples' cultures because they learn something they had not known before. They may have heard about it before but they had not been evalauted. But they recover after going abroad. However, some other people say that they don't respect other peoples' culture as long as they are growing with their own cultures in the beginning. For example, if they are staying their country, then they will know their culture and then they will respect other peoples' culture too. In addition, students who go abroad are usually young people, so they might not understand what culture means. On the other hand, they might not respect other peoples’ cultures because they don't even understand their own culture. For instance, when you want to build a house, the house needs to start from foundation otherwise you can't build it. However, when students are living in their country, they are ashamed to do things wrong because they are afraid their people might see them while they are doing something is not appropriate for their culture. People may tell their parents or relatives. By time they went abroad they may not worry about anything anymore. So, they try whatever they want. I think, when students live abroad they enhance their skills. And they understand a lot of things which they had not understood before. In addition, they gain a lot of experiences which will help them deal with and respect people who don't like each other. 8
In conclusion, students who go to abroad gain a lot of benefits which will help their future society. So, I support that students should live abroad at some point in their life. I recommend you study abroad if you want to have a chance to benefit from the things I mentioned above. Why team sports are so important By Ahmed (Saudi Arabia) Sport is the language of this age and it is a means of teaching children how to communicate with other children, but it is not just that. Sport can help children develop and it can teach them how to act in many areas in their live. There are a lot of benefits of sport such as social benefits, psychological benefits and physical benefits. What makes people confused in the field of the sport is that there are two kinds of sports, team sports and individual sports. Which one is the best for our children? If I faced this question in a university exam, I would definitely say team sports are the best and here are some points that may support this idea. Frist of all, individual sports, such as tennis, have an impact on the child’s personality. They help the child develop the spirit of competition between the children, which is more than perfect. But what if we want a better result? In my opinion, we won’t find a better choice than team sports. I told you about the impact of a single sport and how it could build your child’s abilities. What if we had more than two children, three or four and so on just like what do we have in soccer, what would the result will be? The chance of the impact would be much higher because he/she will have a lot of friends to spend time with and that what we really want. Second, individual sports and team sports are mainly taking the children in the same direction, but sometimes they don’t. From my perspective, individual sports are teaching children to be egocentric, timid and make them put the wind up (fear) of take to other people and in the worse cases, they cause them to be lonely. Team sports are preventing all the previous psychological problems by teaching them other good things such as cooperation, participation, improvisation in front of people and many more. After all, I still think that individual sports are good and it is not controversy to suffer from the previous psychological issues, but the risk is higher and by doing team sports children are more likely to avoid them. Third, the main point of playing in a team is to make people get together, have the chance to build their friendship and make them stronger which is after all affect all of them. What makes the parents choose a team sport is often the fact that children between the age of 1-7 years are completely succumbed to their parents, and in the amount of 8- and higher, friends will have the highest impact on the children, which make people circulate a sayings which is say “You Might Know Person’s Personality By Knowing His/her Friends.” This fact is supporting the idea of playing in a team sport and that the child could have all what he/she needs to build himself/herself better with the other children who are ready to share their experiences with him/her. Meanwhile, team sports do not only include activities with friends. They include families as well. When the whole family spend part of their time to play together, it really helps the child and develop his/her personality and no one will know how important this activity is other than the child himself which make him/her to try to do the same with their friends and here is the point. In conclusion, every parent wants the best for their children, and I think the best way lies in team sports for a few reasons. Team sports are superior to individual sports because of the number of people who participate in the activities. That means the more impact, the more benefits. Also, team sports make you prevent some psychological problems. By playing a team sport, you can spend a good time with your family, your friends, classmates and your coworkers, so it helps you to have fun and build your personality. What are you waiting for? Let’s play soccer! Why I should not be eaten for Thanksgiving By Abdulrahman (Saudi Arabia) If you were a turkey and the owner of the farm you lived on had to pick one turkey for the Thanksgiving feast, how would you convince him that you are not the right turkey to choose? If I was a turkey, I would have the best idea ever not to let anyone pick me. Ali is the biggest turkey on the farm, so I’ll be forever his best friend. You know why? When the farmer comes to pick one of us, I will hide behind Ali, so the farmer can’t see me. Actually, I am also going to work out, so I will be the skinniest turkey among my turkey friends and the farmer won’t even think about me.
Why holidays are so important to us By Ali (Saudi Arabia)
Everyone likes holidays. Some people like them for the fun that they might have others like them for the relaxation. Yet, why are holidays so important to us? Should we preserve the holidays? What makes all these governments, schools, and companies interested enough in holidays to give their employees a vacation and disrupt all the work they have to do? Holidays are important to us in several ways, personal, cultural, and economical. Holidays are so important for the people who live in a modern society. People today are busy enough to forget that they even have a family, relatives, or even parents. Holidays usually remind us not to forget about these people. However, who doesn’t like to have break from work or school and have some time to relax? I’m quite sure that everyone does. A day or few days off are enough to refresh our energy, which helps us to do much better work. Doing better work makes us more confident, and makes our employer more satisfied with our work. If we zoomed out from the person to the culture, we would find out that holidays are the veins of the cultures which are supported by our values. Each holiday has an event or at least an idea and it functions as a link between valuable things that happened in the past and our culture. Practicing holidays guarantees that these values will never be forgotten, and that we will keep inheriting them through the generations forever. Having some values inherited in the culture gives a basic ethics for everyone in it. That gives the culture a special personality that makes each culture different from the others. In addition, a day or a few days off work are not just good for us, they are also very beneficial for our employer too. When we (the employees) come back from a holiday vacation or even break our routine by a holiday without having a day off, we refresh our energies and give more quality to our work. On the other hand, people like to spend money during holidays on decoration, clothing, traveling, and so on. That is creating seasonal markets that could improve the national economy. Furthermore, seasonal markets always create opportunities for both consumers and investors as well. If we zoomed more out, we would find our beautiful Earth being colored by many different holidays. Politicians and economists are preparing for the next holiday, cultures are learning from the holidays, and a person lying on the beach is enjoying the holiday. The Beach By Gee (Thailand) And the next thing I remember, I wake up at the beach with a fork in my hand. What had happened? I try to remember what had happened to me and the first thing that appears in my head is the picture of how I was standing at a Christmas event in front of big Christmas trees and surrounded by many people. After that I stared at one strange girl who was carrying a little turtle in her arms. Immediately, there were two big guys calling my name and trying to capture me. I was scared and I started running. Then, these two guys pointed their revolvers at me, but there were too many people. They started chasing me. Unfortunately, the girl was in their way. The two guys pushed her and the little turtle out of the way. I ran and ran, heading south until I found someone’s yacht. In this dangerous situation, I decided to jump into the yacht and tried to find the key. Then I found it. I started the engine and eventually left the harbor with the panic and fear that the guys could be coming closer. I escaped from them, but my fear was still in my heart because I saw one of them calling someone. I tried to erase that moment. After a while, I heard someone’s footsteps coming closer and closer to me. When I turned around, there was one man who wore gloves, carried a suitcase in his left hand and aimed a gun at me with his right hand. *PANG*DANG* I was shot. I felt a pain in my chest. Then, I opened my eyes. I realized that it had been just a dream. I looked around and remembered that I was sitting on the beach in front of the hotel. I had been eating cake and must have fallen asleep because of the breeze and because I felt satisfied and full. Why fewer people are buying newspapers By Mohammed Fallata (Saudi Arabia) On September 25, 1690 the first newspaper was issued and it only had three sheets. Over time, the newspapers became more popular all over the world. Reading newspapers was the most common way to follow events and news. After hundreds of years, the number of readers of the newspapers has started to decrease today because of some other methods people use to follow the events and news. There is more than one reason for the decrease in the numbers of people buying newspapers, like access to other media, the chance to save money, the availability of the information, and the limitation of the newspaper. These are some of the causes why fewer people buy newspapers today. That also affects people who work in newspaper companies. So therefore, in this paper I'm going to write about the causes and effects of this issue. As we know the media today have been developed to get information faster. They are one cause that people are keeping away from buying newspapers. These media, like the Internet and TV channels, have been 10
developed to make it easier to find out about news and events that happen daily. This way, it is faster than reading the newspapers every morning. You just have to turn on your computer or the TV and you can follow to the latest news. That makes fewer people buy the newspapers these days. Now, newspapers are mostly read by old people who are used to reading newspapers every morning or people who don't have money to use the new media. In addition, now, it is too easy to get TV or Internet which makes the newspapers more neglected and not as useful at this time. Also, the Internet which is part of the media, offers online newspapers and it is being used all over the world. Recently, smartphones are being used everywhere which could be part of the reasons that people are keeping away of reading fewer newspapers. That means media have developed very fast and are replacing the old media such as newspapers. However, some other people have stopped reading newspapers because of their lack of currency. As we know newspapers are printed in the early morning every day and people get it before they go to work. That means it is not covering the events that happen after the newspapers are printed, which means if something happens at six o'clock in the morning, the newspapers will not cover it because they have already been printed. In addition, there are a lot of channels on TV or the radio that cover news all day long. Also, the Internet is available 24 hours. That means you can follow the events time by time. For example; if there is a big events happening, you are able to find out about it in the Internet, a TV stations or radio after one hour or less than that. So, that is one reason that cause that issue. Another reason why fewer people buy newspapers is that there are some people who like to save money. So, they try to find other ways that are cheaper than buying newspapers, even though they are not that expensive. A lot of these people follow the events on TV or the Internet which is available for free in a lot of places. And there some people who cannot pay for the newspapers that are come to their house every day. That is one cause that number of newspapers buyers has decreased. Moreover, the last reason that many people have stopped buying papers is the limitation of the newspaper. By that I mean that sometimes really big events happen in a country that the newspaper does not mention or does not pay that much attention to. For example, in the U.S people who like sports usually do not find the news that they are looking for because the newspapers does not mention every team. Another example is not being able to get news on politics in another country. So, these are only some examples of the limitations of the newspapers. On the other hand, the decline of newspapers affects the people who work for these companies. Erica Smith, who has a job as a graphic designer in a newspaper company, tallied that 15.554 newspaper job have been cut in the U.S since 2008. Less than 36% of these people found job in less than three months and 10% found a job in the U.S more than a year. Just 6% found job in other newspaper companies. That means newspaper buyers affect a lot of people who work there. As you see, ten years ago the newspaper was popular all over the world. Now, fewer people buy them because of other media, costs, availability, and the limitation of the newspapers that have increased. This issue affects thousands of people who work there. Higher taxes is not the correct way to encourage healthy eating By Lei (China) More than two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). To encourage healthy eating, some people think that higher taxes should be imposed on soft drinks and junk food. However, I don’t think that this is the correct way to keep people eating healthy. Higher taxes are not useful to encourage healthy eating. First of all, as the soft drinks and junk food appeared in the world and are now popular all around the world, no one can say there is no reason why most people of the world like soft drinks and junk food. One reason for people liking soft drinks and junk food is because they are cheap. A lot of poor people need to buy them to live. Although some people point out that cheap means they are unhealthy, in my mind, I think no food is unhealthy, too. Being hungry is much worse than unhealthy eating and without a doubt soft drinks and junk food are much cheaper than the other food which maybe is healthier. Having a dinner with soft drinks and junk food for example just costs more or less 6 dollars per person, but if you want to eat healthy, you need to pay more money for it because meat, vegetables, and fruit are much more expensive than just buying a hot dog with all the toppings on it. Also, you need to pay more for the cost of water, gas, electricity and everything you will waste when you make a healthy dinner. If you choose to have a healthy dinner in a restaurant, even if you don’t pay the tip to the waiter, that will still cost you more than if you make it by yourself at home. So, higher taxes are not the correct way to encourage healthy eating. If the taxes still get higher and higher, maybe it will trouble some people’s lives. Furthermore, why do people always think that soft drinks or junk food are the only reasons for obesity and the only way of unhealthy eating? Maybe some people think that soft drinks and junk food are the most common cause of people being overweight and obese and a lot of people complain that soft drinks and junk food make them overweight. However, everyone knows that the cause of overweight are too many calories, but the amount of calories of a soft drink and junk food is as much as the other food which seems more healthy. For example, a bagel might seem healthier than a doughnut, but dense bagels have the calorie content of six slices of bread. People complain about soft drinks and junk food, but they never tell you how long time they haven’t had any sports. People become overweight or obese not only because of the food that they eat. The truth is that they often don’t have 11
enough sports to burn the calorie which from the food. After dinner, they just sit on the sofa and watch TV without moving at all. So the calories will stay in their body, no matter what they eat, healthy food or junk food. Finally, forcing people to do something is not encouraging. Higher taxes on soft drinks and junk food are not the correct way to help people eating healthier. The only result of higher taxes is that the government will earn a lot of money. Some people point out that the cause of higher taxes is helping to keep people far away from soft drinks and junk food. But, what is the help that the people really need? Do you know what I want in this moment? You are not me, you won’t be and you can’t read my mind. As I said, poor people need soft drinks and junk food because this kind of food is cheap. Meanwhile, other people choose soft drinks and junk food because it is fast and easy. Today, the world is faster than before and many people need more time to work, to earn money to pay for their car, their house, their everything. They don’t want to waste so much time on choosing food. So, soft drinks and junk food might be their best options, just because they are fast enough for these kinds of people. As I said, forcing people is not encouraging. In my opinion, encouraging people does not mean imposing higher taxes on soft drinks and junk food. If you really want to keep people far away from them, why don’t you close the soft drink factories and junk food restaurants? That result might be the one you want. Would you say that is forcing? If this is, higher taxes must be the same, too. They are both to make trouble and force people to accept, but they are both wrong. Although the government wants to choose the win-win way to settle something, the result is actually just good for the government. If the government really cared about the two-thirds of Americans, the best way would be to close the soft drink factories and junk food restaurants. But if in this way, the government will lose so many taxes from the catering industry. So the government will never choose this way. They will only increase the taxes and let people to pay the difference. That is not encouragement. The only result of higher taxes on soft drink and junk food is stealing money from people’s wallet and putting it into the government’s wallet. If the government wants to encourage healthy eating, higher taxes on soft drinks and junk food are not a correct way. Lower prices for healthy food, more free sports centers and plan project start from people’s interest are much better than higher taxes. As I said, forcing is not encouragement. The benefits of group sports By Mandana (Iran) Sport is one of the important activities in the world and it makes us happy, active, fresh, in shape and young. And if it is done in a group or as a team sport, like a school team or sport club, it would be even more effective. Team sport means getting together, learning social skills and successful participation. Children will learn how they can respect and work as a team. However, some people might say that children don’t need to work and play as a group because personal and individual goals are more important. However, they also have to learn how to deal with each other. Life is full of relationships and connections. They have to learn how to prepare themselves for the real life, working and dealing with colleagues, the relationship with their husband or wife and how they can accept responsibilities. Another important benefit of team sports is that children learn to follow directions and rules. Being on time is an important thing which is taught to the children by a coach. However, some parents might say that it is not necessary the rules of a coach or somebody else, we have to let them do what they want to do and create their own opinions and rules. However, I think that children need guidance by somebody else who is an expert and professional. For everything we need a guide, a map and resources. A third reason why group sports are important is that we see parents who spend their time on the bench as audience and encourage the children. This time and support means We love you! We are a family. Furthermore, other parents, team members and the other people in the stadium are important and effective too. However, some people believe that children who are playing by themselves are strong enough. They have to focus on their job. They don’t need the support of a team. Nevertheless, I think we should go there and support them. Sometimes they feel upset, disappointed and they need our cheers, other parents and their teammates. Most significantly, there are also other psychological and physical benefits, which can be helpful now and in the future. Group sports help them develop patience and persistence. Another advantage are the physical benefits like a healthy body. Children who participate in group sports have a reduced risk of getting many adult diseases including heart disease, diabetes and obesity. For sure, some of these benefits are also true for individual sports too, but group sports mean more. Children have more support and they can push each other. If one member of the group has a problem, they have a chance to talk together, use their ideas or spend some time together. Living is a game. In the real world as an individual or as a family, we need support. We have to push each other and learn from each other. Nobody can live alone without love, support and cooperation. In real life we learn from each other and learn how to win.
Why Fewer and Fewer People are Buying Newspapers By Zuzana (Slovakia) It is a beautiful Sunday morning. A woman is sitting in the kitchen, drinking fresh coffee, and reading The Sunday Times. She is enjoying this moment because she likes the aroma of coffee and the smell of freshly printed newspapers. She found an article which brings good news. The new country of Czechoslovakia will soon be established. Establishing of this common country means that World War I will be over soon. The woman likes the Sunday Times because it brings actual news. However, some news is more than three days old. How could this be? It could be because the above story is a flashback from the beginning of 20th century. One hundred years ago, buying newspapers was very popular. People did not have many possibilities to obtain information. They were informed just from newspapers. It shows us the fact that the influence of the print media was enormous. One hundred years ago, the Internet did not exist and people did not have faster information channels. However, technologies have improved and the power of providing information has assumed radio broadcasting in 1920. People were thrilled by this great invention and they were excited by how quickly they could be informed. Except other advantages of radio broadcasting, this fascinating invention influenced the masses. That was one of main reasons why scientists were motivated to invent television broadcasting. The influence of this source of information was getting stronger. It gave rise to the creation of to create the consumer society. In this way, a paradise of variability of advertising was created. Advertising has become one of the most powerful sources of providing information. In 1976, Queen Elisabeth II sent her first e-mail. The word “the Internet” was used for the first time eight years later. This invention has become a phenomenon. Today, we have many sources which provide relevant information. As an effect, we do not need to buy newspapers anymore. We can find everything very quickly and easy on the Internet. Almost all information is very cheap or free. When we can read everything at home, we do not need to spend money anymore on buying a newspaper. The Internet has become the main cause of decreasing sales of newspapers. This invention has changed the world. We are spending a lot of time using the Internet because searching information has become very convenient. Thanks to the Internet, we are constantly in connection with our family, our friends or other people. Especially young people love to use the Internet. They look for information; share personal information on social networks, or download songs and movies. These activities are very popular because they are seemingly replacing reality and face to face contact. From every visited webpage, we are getting information knowingly or subconsciously. The Internet provides unlimited space for sharing information. We can find everything we need and more. At present time we can stay connected everywhere by using mobile phones, notebooks, and other technical gadgets. On the contrary, a newspaper has a limited number of pages, which means a limited amount of information. Therefore, we do not need to buy a newspaper when we use the Internet. Publishers of newspapers have adapted to this situation. They know that the Internet and newspapers are not comparable. As an effect, editors are creating webpages for publishing important information. When the revenue from newspaper sales is decreasing, they sell space on the webpage to advertisers. If more information is placed on the webpage than in the newspaper, their webpage will be visited more often. Finally, another cause of the dwindling sales of newspapers is that their production and distribution is more expensive at present. The final price of producing newspapers is influenced by many factors, for example the price of fuel, expenses of points of sale, manpower, the price of electricity, and so on. These factors influence the unit prize of newspapers. It is no wonder that publishers are looking for some ways of curbing expenses of publishing newspapers. They are enacting restrictions which employees must pay. They are reducing salaries and benefits. That often causes frustration of staff. The journalists are not motivated to do their job the best way anymore. As an effect, journalists do not spend enough time reviewing information and their articles become untrustworthy. Being a journalist in a newspaper is not very attractive job today as before. This position requires the high work commitment which is not rewarded enough. The deterioration of being journalist is a consequence of the lack of finance in financial resources. In conclusion, according to Danielle Gream, online sources are more popular than press. Results of a survey done by the Pew Research Center show that 34 % of respondents read daily news on-line, while 31% of respondents prefer buying newspapers. Although, this difference is not so striking, it supports the opinion that fewer people are reading newspapers every year. We do not want be skeptics. However, the demand is decreasing every year and to rescue newspaper, it needs to create very good advertising as fast as possible, or a miracle.
If you could give three presents to three people, what would you give them and why? By Jawad (Saudi Arabia) Each period of the year, such as Thanksgiving, Christmas and many other great moments, has something special about it. Actually, it also depends on the person’s religion. Gifts are important to keep the love between each other. They are not the main way to show love, but it makes it possible to consider it something like that. In my life, I owe many people a lot of things. For example, my father did everything, regardless if possible or not, but he did it to make me happy in my life and feel like other children at that time. So, I have to return some of that because I can’t and will not be able to do everything he did. His effort is so big because in the past, the issues that happened are not the same as now and the possibilities are different too. For example, I wanted some things that I saw with my friend in school and I asked my father to buy that for me, but the things were not available in Saudi Arabia. So he had to travel and got it for me. In my opinion, that is possible because life changed and that’s why my father deserves a gift. Also, I would like to the second gift to the person who was sick because of me and stayed awake the whole night for me. I think you already know who I am talking about. It’s the mother who gave birth to me, was often tired because of me and never liked to present me to other people in the same clothes as them. She is always trying to do something different to be great. I think she deserves more than one gift and no one could do what she did, so I would like to give her the second gift. The third gift is special for me, so I have tried to choose the right person to avoid people’s complaints. If I could give a lot of gifts, I would like to give the third gift to my grandfather. He did a lot of things for me, maybe more than my father, but it would not fit on this paper to talk about him. In fact, before he died, he told me “If you ever get a sister in the future, please take care of her like I took care of you.” Because I didn’t have a sister until three months before I came to the United States, I would like to give the present to my little sister to make her happy and keep my promise to my grandfather. In conclusion, we have a lot of people who we like, but we should always make our mother, father, siblings and family priority. We should show people our love and prove to them in any way that we want to make them happy. Why people worldwide migrate from the countryside to the city By Mohammed Almutairi (Saudi Arabia) More than half of all people now live in urban areas, a number which has increased up to 80 percent in about 40 years, as reported by the United Nations. Most people move for many reasons and the majority of them when they move they have a shock once they get the real view of the city, when they realize that they moved into a city and that it’s not the same as they expected. The major causes that make people move to the cities are better services and job opportunities and there are also effects of leaving the countryside and moving to the city. One of the most common factors that lets people move from the countryside to the city are the better services and the lifestyle of the city. Water, food, electricity, the Internet and more and more of the important standards of living are usually better in the city. According to an article published by the BBC, young people in South Africa move to the cities because of “the lack of amenities, poor water supply, sanitation and electricity contribute to a harsh life in the villages.” They also complain about the difficulties of transportation. That is in South Africa, but when we talk about the European countries or the United States, when young people move from the small towns to the cities, they usually move because of the modern lifestyle. For example when a 23-year guy or a girl moves from a small town to the city he/she will have much more fun with the city’s lifestyle, such as malls and movie theaters. Second, it’s amazing to see the difference between cities and small towns in terms of job opportunities. The city has more opportunities than the countryside because of the big companies, factories and government headquarters which are generally located in large cities and so people move to these cities to have better wages instead of working on a farm for long hours with hard work and small wages, or working in a small business that could fail. For example when we compare Knoxville and Nashville, Nashville is the capital of Tennessee, so big companies and major businesses are located in the downtown of Nashville, but Knoxville is a small college town good for studying but not really helpful and easy to start a business or to search for jobs like Nashville and any other big city. Finally, there are many different effects of leaving the countryside and it depends on what the person found in the city, for example are the effects on kids when they move. They might face problems to adjust with the new lifestyle of the city when they move to different and modern schools. They may face a hard time to find things in common between them and the city’s kids and that could lead them to stay alone and don’t have friends. Also, one important effect of moving to the city is people’s personalities will change over time; they will start to forget about the original culture. Furthermore, people have the chance to live an easier life with better jobs better services like hospitals schools and others of services which they couldn’t have in their rural towns. In conclusion, it is hard to determine if the city is better than the countryside and that depend on the person’s personality and interests. Some people prefer to live in a small peaceful town instead of living in the big crowded city and they love that simple life. But some are the opposite. However, if someone is interested in having 14
access to great hospitals, good schools for his children and a good job with a great salary, he definitely will not find it outside the city. In my opinion I’d die if I lived more than one week outside a major city and I wouldn’t care if I had a good job in a small town. Why online shopping is so popular By Nadi (Jordan) Nowadays online shopping is very popular and more and more people shop online. Many of them prefer online shopping more than going to the mall or regular stores. And the online shopping sector is growing because of its advantages of flexible shopping times, convenient choices for the costumers, and saving money. First of all, when you want to go shopping in a store you have to get ready, ride in your car, get in traffic, and wait at the checkout lines to pay for your things. In this case it will take many hours away from your time, but online shopping only takes a few minutes to get the same products. Imagine the difference between them. For example, if someone wants to buy a laptop in a physical store, he has to go from store to store to look for what he needs. In the case of online shopping, he just has to sit in front of his computer and browse the Internet to get what he wants. Second, online shopping is helping us to keep ourselves more comfortable. That means by online shopping you can shop in every mall or ever store you like and it doesn’t matter if it is in the same country or overseas. For example, you can buy a laptop or a camera from Japan. And at the same time you could buy stuff from the other side of the world. Also, you don’t have to wait in lines and you could shop at any time you like, 24/7, so you can choose the best time for you. In addition, there are many products that you can’t buy in regular stores; the only way that you could get them is the online such as e-books Third, online shopping is usually cheaper. Yes, through online shopping you will get a lot of products cheaper than if you go to the store, because you may buy your products from the owner or from the warehouse directly. So, in this case you won’t give the middleman a chance to make profit from you that makes the price higher on you. In addition, you can get many deals online for example you can get free shipping deals that will reduce the costs. Donna Montaldo reports that “many sites wave sales tax charges or shipping costs in order to entice the consumer to make an online purchase.” But in case of regular store shopping it could be hard to get the same deals like the online shopping because stores have more costs to pay, like rent, electricity bills, water bills, employee… etc. and that affects the prices. Finally, our generation is more familiar with the technology revolution that is happening these days and they are more familiar with the Internet and its applications. In my opinion it will help these kinds of businesswa because it’s more convenient for both, customer and the producer or the supplier. In conclusion, online shopping helps us to save time, keep us comfortable, and save our money. And I think that online shopping is the best way to be more comfortable. To encourage healthy eating no higher taxes should be imposed on soft drinks and junk food By Heidi (Germany) My opinion is that no higher taxes on soft drinks and funk food should be introduced. Food should be affordable for everybody. In our world there are many poor people who cannot afford healthy food and that must be taken into consideration. I have three arguments that speak against higher taxes. First, everybody should be able to make a decision about what they want to eat. Nobody should tell another person that they must eat healthy food now. Also, a government cannot say “You must eat healthy food because after a while you will be sick. If you don’t, we will increase the taxes.” Some people do not like vegetables and they won’t eat what they don’t like. On the other hand, time plays a big role in our life. Everything must be fast. Many people have long work hours. In their free time, if they have children, they must take their kids to different free time activities because children in America are very busy. There is no time to cook healthy food, and it is comfortable to buy junk food and soft drinks. And you cannot say that the taste of these meals is bad. They actually taste very good. Enough vegetables are offered and you can buy ready cooked meals that are very healthy. You only have to put them in the microwave and heat them up. Vegetables and healthy products are very expensive in the production. The farmer cannot produce healthy food cheaper, because their farm would be bankrupt. That’s why fast food should always be affordable for people who would like to eat it because many don’t have more time. Furthermore, I think that healthy food and junk food should have the same price. The government showed that through higher taxes on cigarettes and other tobacco products they could change how many people smoke and this system worked very well for the government. But you cannot make a comparison between smoking and eating. Smoking is an addiction and it is not necessary. But everybody must eat and it is very important for people. We should think about people who have no or less money. That’s why healthy food and junk food should have the same price and be cheap. If the government will not help the people to stay healthier, then they should support the farmers so that they can produce the vegetables cheaper and if the people are ready to eat healthy food, we don’t need taxes on junk food and soft drinks. 15
Holidays By Abdullah (Saudi Arabia) Holiday is one word that has big meaning for all humans on earth. People are born and die and the holidays are still somewhere on our calendars. Everyone is waiting for special days like Eid-alftr and Eid-aladha for Muslims, and Christians are waiting for days like Thanksgiving, Halloween, and the 4th of July. And people are very excited when these days are coming and they start to change their decoration and celebrate. There are around seven billion humans on our planet, and there is more than one religion: I think every religion has other holidays to celebrate. For examples, Muslims have two holidays, Ramadan and Zo-Alhjja are the special months. In Ramadan, which is the 9th month in our calendar, we fast daily from the sunrise until the sunset (eating at night and fasting during the day). After thirty days another month starts and on the first day of the 10th month we celebrate by holiday Eid alftr. Every family bring candy to their houses, and they visit each other, and give poor people money. The older people give the younger some money and this is my favorite holiday. In the 12th month, the Muslims come from everywhere to Mecca to do Hajj. At this time, Mecca is the most crowded place on earth and on the 10th day of this month Eid-aladha comes. On this holiday the people who can buy goats or animals from the same herds to slaughter them and give some meat to poor people, some to their relatives and keep some for themselves. If we didn't give Zakat we wouldn’t complete our religion. And these are the holidays for Muslims. After high school I decided to study in the U.S but I didn't know anything about American culture except, not to ask women about their ages and I knew the names of some of the holidays. By now, I have celebrated a lot of strange holidays, the first one was Valentine. I have been in U.S long enough to know American culture and what people here eat and drink. Actually I didn't like any of the holidays I celebrated, and there are two I haven't celebrate: Christmas and a New Year’ and I won't celebrate them this time because I will be in my sweet home. For all holidays there are reasons to celebrate, first religious, second historic and third they just to bring people together. Religious holidays are things that have something to do with our prophets, they did by a message from God or wrote in holy books. Like the two holidays for Muslims, and Christmas for Christians and other holidays for different religions. Historic holidays are about people or things that happened in the past and changed something like Martin Luther King’s birthday and Thanksgiving. There are also a few holidays that were created to bring people together, like Mother’s Day, Valentine’s Day, and Father’s Day. Every holiday has its own activities. On Valentine’s Day, people wear red clothes and everyone goes out with his loved ones. On Halloween, people wear strange clothes, on the 4th of July people have very nice firework and on Thanksgiving people eat turkey. All these things I knew, I hope to learn more in my life. These days have very great effects on people and I'm going to write them down. Some people don't have enough time to see their families and the big holidays are the only time in the year they can visit their families. And holidays always keep people happy by doing special activities and fun. Over time, holidays won't be disappear or change. They will keep people happy, old people and kids. And I hope for you and I that we will be able to celebrate our holidays with our families. Why I should not be eaten for Thanksgiving By Abdullatif (Saudi Arabia) If you were a turkey and the owner of the farm you lived on had to pick one turkey for the Thanksgiving feast, how would you convince him that you are not the right turkey to choose? Dear farmer, Please don’t butcher me. I’m old and I have a hen and two chicks. If you butcher me, no one can take care of my family. Also, I am meager and you are not going to find a lot of meat. I think you should find another turkey, someone who is bigger. You would be happy if you ate one of the bigger turkeys. In addition, I have the ability to be the leader of your farm. I will make your farm more beautiful. I promise if I don’t make your farm pretty, you can butcher me next Thanksgiving. And remember, if you butcher one of my relatives, you are going to cause a revolution on your farm. The hens will stop laying eggs and so you will lose your beautiful farm after a while.
Study abroad By Abdulrahman Do you know how many students are studying outside of their countries? And do you know how many countries in the world send their students to live abroad? China, India and Saudi Arabia have a lot of students who study outside of their countries. There are around 250,000 students who study outside of China, and India has 200,000 students who study abroad. Saudi Arabia has 147,000 students who study in many countries like the U.S, the U.K, Australia, Japan, Germany and France. Especially when students choose to study in the U.S, studying abroad has a lot of benefits that the other countries will receive later. Dr. Mahater Mohammed, who was third leader of Malaysia, spent 75% of the budget on education and sent the Malaysian students abroad to gain a lot of knowledge and experiences to develop their own country. The main reason for studying abroad is the countries that sent their students don't have more knowledge to teach to their students. First of all, education is very important thing that we get in our life because with education people are going to be strong and develop their country. Canada and the United States of America are famous in the medical area, so everyone should try to study these sciences in those countries. Language is extremely important as education because language and education are very important in those countries. For example, I’m a speaker of Arabic, but I can’t complete my studies in the U.S. without learning the English language. On the other hand, everything in the world has advantages and disadvantages. If one guy was studying outside of his country for many years, he will be influenced by the country which he studied in. Let’s say, he might move some tradition of different culture to his country and maybe his country will not accept that. Second is the culture. Every country in world has culture, some of them good and different. But when we want to learn, we have to get the best things that the country characterizes. In America, a lot of things are very good and a lot of things are very different than in our own culture. Here, we must learn some things that will help us to serve our country. For example, how can I get a lot of knowledge and best experience to take with me to my country. Actually, studying abroad has a lot of benefits that will be helpful to the students and that will serve their country. Studying outside one’s country teaches us more and new knowledge that we may miss in our country. We must respect the country which we study in and follow their regulations and laws to protect ourselves and to give a good impression of ourselves and our country.
Nonverbal Communication in Our Life By Adnan (Saudi Arabia) Introduction “ Actions are stronger than words” We have heard this phrase many times, but what does it really mean? In our life we use words, gestures, and facial expressions to communicate with each other. Moreover, science has proven that there are two kinds of communication people use everyday- communication and nonverbal communication. The verbal communication is the one in which we use words to deliver information to others. However, the other is nonverbal communication, which is according to Joey Papa is“ communication without word, including apparent behaviors such as facial expression, eyes, touching, and tone of voice; as well as less obvious messages such as dress, posture and spatial distance between two or more people.” So, the phrase that I mentioned earlier means that body language is more understandable than words themselves. For example, a smile can be more effective than “thank you” or even “you are welcome.” However, body language has been used since human kind started, and it been used by everyone: women, men, and children also. There are many body movements that have different meanings depending on the situation that the person is in. “For example, in one-toone conversation, if one of the talkers feet are facing another way that means that he/she is looking to get out of the conversation as fast as possible” (Croucher). Furthermore, nonverbal communication is being used everywhere: work, home, school, etc. Also, body language is determined by the environment that it is being used in like a country, or region. So, some body movements in a country have different meaning in another country. However, in this paper we will see body language from different perspectives like nonverbal communication in business, body language across the cultures, nonverbal communication between male and female, and body language in children. In each aspect we will see nonverbal communication differently far from its general meaning and how it affects expression. Moreover, according to Hargrave, “body language is a key to the inner psychological and emotional state of an individual. Not surprisingly, research indicates that the human body can produce more than 7 million unique movements.” That shows that we can communicate very well even without using words. However, not everyone can read every body movement very well with full understanding. To be expert in nonverbal communication it takes a lot of time, observation, and understanding the emotional state of the other person. Reading other people’s body language and knowing what they are thinking about is not the ultimate goal to reach; knowing your own body language and how to manage it is more important. Therefore, awareness of your own body 17
movements help you to look more comfortable, successful, and easy to talk with. Moreover, don’t fake your body language to fool the people you are facing because your mind will act automatically and you won’t be able show them that you’re comfortable, and you will make them more confused. Finally, body language is an interesting world that we live in everyday. Nonverbal Communication in Business Body language is important in the business field, because it helps attract costumers or sell products. In business, words aren’t enough to be successful; you must put some effort into it. And managing your own body language helps you to avoid mistakes that can be obstacles in your way on the success ladder. Moreover, many books have been written about how nonverbal communication is useful in business, such as (The Everything Body Language Book) by Shelly Hagan. In this part of the paper we will see some of the things that we should do, not do, and some information that we should know when we deal with other people. There are many things that are necessary to know about, such as personal space, job interview, and office romance. These things are happening everyday, so that is why we should learn more about it. At first, what is personal space? It’s the space between you and the other person that he/she feels comfortable with. So why is that important? It’s important because if you interfere in their owns spaces, they will be uncomfortable and won’t be interested in the conversation anymore. And if they were from the opposite sex you may even be hold accountable to accusation of harassment. So how do I know that I’m too close? According to Croucher, there are for types of distances: 1- Up to 18 inches is too close unless you know the person very well, like lovers or very close friends. 2- Between 18 inches to 4 feet is normal distance for friendly chat or work colleagues. 3- Between 4 to 8 feet is called “social distance” and it’s for people who just met. 4- More than 8 feet, which is called “public space” and is usually for groups of people rather than individuals. “Sometimes when you are interested in someone you entered their own personal space, and also the other way around” (Croucher). How do I know if someone is interested in me? There are some signs that you can deduce from. For example, if they face their body toward you they may be interested in you. Also, you can know “if they prolonged eye contact, but not enough to make you uncomfortable” (Croucher, 2). According to Croucher, they also touch you on the body such as your hand or shoulder several times, for a few seconds. In closing, personal space is important for each person so that he/she can feel comfortable when dealing with others. Second, in job interviews, body language has the greatest impact on whether you get the job or not. Despite the fact you are a good worker or have a lot of experiences, to pass the interview successfully you should be confident not only when you speak, but also with your body language. Furthermore, “sitting up right shows the employer that you are taller and the (Croucher, 2009) research proved that tall and handsome people have an advantage in the workplaces” (Croucher, 3). Another thing you should be aware of is your legs, they usually are fine by crossing them. But be sure not spread your legs like you’re relaxed. Also, try to face the employer with your head up and looking straight at him. When you are in the middle of the conversation and the interviewer leans toward you, try to do the same without being noticed. On the other hand, handshaking is a good start to open the conversation, but be sure not to be too strong or too sloppy. “During the interview, try to act normal and put your hand in your lap if you don’t know what to do with it” (Croucher, 3). As a result, after the interview is over, try to leave a nice last impression by smiling when you’re walking through the door. Finally, it’s normal that two people working in the same workplace have a relationship. Attractive people are not the only people that get in a relationship; other normal people who have confidence that they can bring to the relationship good things. According to Croucher, a woman who touches a man on his arm sends the massage that she likes him, and bowing her head a little with looking straight into the man’s eyes makes him more interested in her. A man who touches a woman on the hand should be careful if the woman’s reaction was to move her hand away. He better hold back, but if she continually flicks her hair while she look’s toward him, that is a positive sign. The issue in dating a person who works with you is that one of you will leave the workplace and usually it is the woman. “While only about 1 in 3 men say they would sleep with a female boss to get a promotion” (Croucher, 2006), it cannot be denied that some women use all of their feminine skills to seduce their male superior. “In fact, figures show that two percent of female university students have admitted sleeping with a lecturer to get a better grade” (Croucher, 2006). Although, female employees sleeping with a male boss is perceived as common, some male bosses can also misunderstand a friendly move from her as a sexual invitation. In fact, women are better than men at catching those sexual signals (Croucher,4). In conclusion, nonverbal communication could be seen a lot in business or work places. Body Language Across Cultures According to Google, “There are almost 6,840,507,000 people around the world, and almost 196 countries in the world” (World Bank). So, it’s normal that there are different languages, cultures, people, and even also different understandable meanings of body language! Many gestures have a specific meaning in a country, but it has a totally different meaning in another country because they have two different cultures. For example, the hand gesture that’s mean “OK” in the U.S., in South Africa has a sexual meaning. So, we should be aware and careful of these gestures in other culture to avoid misunderstanding. Nonverbal communication between cultures can be a 18
very wide subject, so in this part of the paper we will compare some of the body language definitions between the U.S. culture and other cultures. We will compare behaviors such as touching, facial expression, eye contact, physical space, head movements, hand gestures, and postures. As it is known, hand shaking is fine in many cultures, but a kiss on the cheek is another thing. In Asia, kissing or touching body parts like arms and shoulders seems very offensive (especially when dealing with women) and doing that may cause you a lot of problems (Stoy). Moreover, in the U.S., people smile at each other everywhere even at strangers. But in other cultures such as Asia and Russia, smiling to strangers maybe considered impolite behavior or, an expression of pain. Also, making an eye contact constantly in Asia is rude, but in the U.S. not making eye contact can be a sign of dishonesty (Stoy). So, you should be aware when to look, and when not to look! In addition, we know that personal space is important to make every side comfortable, but in cultures physical space is different. According to Stoy, in the Middle East and Latin America physical space is shorter than the acceptable personal space that Americans and Europeans have. Also, the head movement that means “No” in the U.S. means “Yes” in some of the Middle Eastern cultures. You should ask for clarification if some Middle Eastern made a head movement “are you saying yes or no?” Furthermore, hand gestures can cause a lot of misinterpretation. In Iran, the definition of the “thumbs up” gesture in the U.S. is very offensive, like flipping off someone. In China, the “thumbs up“ means “one“ or “number one.“ Also, the “OK” sign in the U.S., which means in other countries “zero”, nothing. And last but not lease, body postures. There are many physical postures around the world, but usually they aren’t offensive. However, there is a physical posture that Americans use which is putting their feet on the desk. In some Asian cultures this is a sign of disrespect (Stoy, 2). In closing, many cultures have their own definition of nonverbal communication, so by learning about their cultures we are trying to have more respectful communication. Nonverbal Communication Between Males and Females Around the world, the human race is divided into two kinds of genders male & female. Males and females are created to get along with each other from the look to the feelings they have when they see each other. Also, they are differences mentally, so they have two different aspects in nonverbal communication. Why? The reason is because our subconscious, and our emotional statues controls our body language. So, as it is commonly assumed females are more emotional than males, and that basically means that their bodies react differently than males. However, to combine between these two genders we will review what women do, and then if men do it, also. First, women use eye contact a lot because they use it when they are interested in another person, and avoids eye contact when they are not. Men don’t use eye contact that much. They aren’t very comfortable with using it, because it reveals emotions (Coggins). Also, men try to keep some distance from each other, while women tend to stay close to each other in a conversation. However, “women try to maintain greater distance from people who speak loudly, while in men situation that doesn’t change anything” (Coggins). Furthermore, women usually use more gestures while talking with men than while talking with other women. And they even use more when they seek something. However, according to Coggins, men use almost the same amount of gestures as women do. Men are not easy to approach, while women are approached by both sexes more closely. Moreover, “regardless of one’s gender, I believe that if attraction and other strong emotions are involved between two people, their ability to interpret nonverbal communication becomes very strong” (Coggins). Finally, men often think of a women’s touch as a sexual invitation, but women mostly don’t think of men’s touch as a sexual invitation (Coggins). To conclude, males and females have some similarities and also some differences and all that is part of their nature. Body Language & Children Children don’t start speaking until they are 1.5 to 2 years old. Until then, they use nonverbal communication to deliver what they want to their parents. Even after they can talk, children continue to use body language to express their feelings. Furthermore, parents can understand their children’s body language by observing them; most mothers can know when the child cries what he/she needs from the way he/she is crying! According to Joey Papa, “some children shrug their shoulders, throw their hands up in the air, or storm off with heavy feet to show they are angry or upset.” Children mostly use these kinds of gestures when they can’t find the right words to describe what they are going through. Also, unlike adults, children cannot hide their emotions, even if they are trying to lie, their body language will tell the opposite clearly. Despite that, children mostly will tell the truth because they just know how to deal with others naturally. Therefore, knowing the emotional state of children is easy; you can know by their physical expression. Sometimes when kids remain silent, it’s a little bit harder to conclude what is going on. So, teaching the child to use body language is a safety for him/her. The reason for that is that the child will make a sort of strong bond between him/her and their parents (Joey Papa). Sometimes, children use crying for more than to express physical pain. They use it also to express disappointment, anger, hunger, and emotional pain such as sadness or fear, asking for help, and many different other things. Therefore, understanding that can help you communicate better with your child. However, children learn almost everything from observing their parents verbal and nonverbal ways of communication. So, be sure that you don’t do things that are harmful in their presence, because they may see it. As a result, children use body language when they can’t use words. 19
Conclusion Nonverbal communication is communication without words that use facial expressions, eye contact, and gestures. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face conversation where they study the behavior of the communicators. Also, in many different categories body language is very useful to deliver a message stronger than the word itself. The reason is because the world has many of many different languages, but body language usually remains the same. Regardless, if it’s a workplace, home, or even school actions speaks louder than words.
Reference: - Coggins, Shai. “Nonverbal Communication Between The Genders.” Apr 13. 2006. - Croucher, John S. “Body language in business.” European Journal of Management 10.3 (2010) : 193+. Academic OneFile. Web. 15 Nov. 2011 - Croucher, J.S., Do attractive people have an advantage in business and life? European Journal of Management, Vol. 9, 2009, 187-191 - Croucher, J.S, Number Crunch. Pan Macmillan, Sydney, 2006 - Hargrav, Jan. “Do you speak body language? Mastering the art of nonverbal communication key in interrogations.” The Forensic Examiner Fall 2008 : 17+. Academic OneFile. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. - Papa, Joey. “Nonverbal Communication in Children”.eHow.com - Stoy, Ada. “Project Communication Tips: Nonverbal Communication in Different Cultures.” Aug 31. 2010.
The Freshman 15 By Chiaki (Japan) Have you ever heard about the “ Freshman 15”? It is the name of the kind of syndrome when college freshmen gain 15pounds in their first year. According to Hellmich who is writer of USA today, this problem is increasing the weight “ Freshman 15”might soon become the “Freshman 20” or Freshman 30”. There are a lot of reasons for the “Freshman 15”.The reason of the higher weight gain is less exercise. Before college, students have a lot of physical activity, including P.E. class, sports teams, or running everyday. However, students stop after entering a college, because their social life and circumstances change. They eat cafeteria food every day with their own choice of favorites, and they socialize with other students at the party, and drink alcohol (Hellmich). They eat very different food habits compared to the food before. And also students have to endure the stress of the new study and circumstance. They are often stressed out and resort to eating or drinking. However, it is not the way of surviving the college life. Laurence Linder from the Washington Post insists college students should be “Eating right”. She encourages educating eating habits, when students are younger. And she also suggests about understanding the food pyramid and food balance necessary. Some students misunderstand about diet and food. Now, a lot of college students worry about this issue, and some students avoid food in an unhealthy way which may lead to an eating disorder (Linder). Web MD suggests a good way to avoid the ”Freshman 15”. The article said “the skills for weight management are no secret—it is just a matter of eating less. If you are serious about attaining or maintaining a realistic weight. According to the article, awareness of the eating habit and weight gain is necessary to control student weight (webMD). And when students weight watch, they have to be realistic about it, or the plan would not be successful. Students have to plan their meals and exercise. Keeping the record of their eating habits and also physiological feelings and the amount of the foods are important points to control themselves. How much food or what kind of feeling at the time are really important to recognized students selves. The last suggestion is very simple. If you do not feel hungry, do not eat. It is a simple suggestion, but if you see food, and if especially if it is free, this situation must be difficult for the student not to pick one more bite. And this one bite causes the student trouble later. College students are almost adults. They must be more considerate about their health and food. The freedom is always set with responsibility. Students have to be responsible for themselves. Keeping health is a important topic of all the students. If student have a bad habit of eating,it might trouble their future health condition too. Learning about a healthy diet is a necessary subject of the “freshman 15”. We have to consider more about food and habits of eating.
Bibliography Lawrence,Lindiner. Washington Post,SEP 12,2000,page Z09 Nanci,Hellmech. USA Today,Arlington,VA,Aug 23,2000 Web posted(web,MD),Aug,25,1999
Human Cloning By Cigdem (Turkey) Introduction To clone or do not clone? This question makes all scientist and lawmakers worry. Even though many people keep worrying and arguing about whether is cloning ethical or unethical scientists have been researching anyway (McGovern, 92). Nowadays, with a very fast growing population, many challenges have arisen. One of these challenges is having killer diseases. That is why scientists try to find solutions, because their goal is finding a way to make human life better and longer. Those solutions can be medicines, chemotherapy, or creating new tissues for humans. Human cloning looks like the best solution but with this subject there are many perspectives. Understand cloning we need to know what cloning means and see both sides that views cloning as ethical and unethical. What is Cloning? The simplest explanation of cloning is creating a new organism that has exactly the same genetic copy as the initial DNA without involving sexual reproduction, sperm and egg. The nucleus is taken from the donor who will be cloned. This nucleus is put into an egg from which the nucleus has already been removed. This egg has undergone chemical treatment and electric shock. There are two different kind of cloning methods. If cloning is achieved by an egg and the use of a surrogate mother, it is reproductive cloning. Dolly was cloned with this method (Debopriya). Another cloning type is therapeutic cloning. In this method the embryo is not implanted in the female’s womb. Instead, therapeutic cloning focuses on growing stem cells. Many scientists argue that this method is perfectly ethical because only cells are created so there is no “person” being created. This type of research shows promise of curing many degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s (Bose). History of Cloning Scientists started to cloning with Dolly, successful cloning in mice and pigs (Jaenisch). In addition, at the Pittsburg Development Center, researchers have tried cloning more than 700 times. They used female monkey’s eggs. The successful steps for human cloning have occurred in the 20th century. The DNA codes were deciphered in 1968. Around 20 years later 23 chromosome pairs were stored and launched. When scientists were working to develop human cloning, unlawful, unethical, and immoral arguments were raised. In 23 countries, cloning is considered illegal (Abhijit). Cloning as Ethical According to this view, cloning can be a guarantee for human life. Cloning of humans can solve one of the biggest problems finding a tissue. Even though a donor could be find today, doctors still need to check for a tissue match; however, with cloning, the exact same organ can be found for a patient (S.C. Anand). As author Brown says, pursuing the research around cloning stem cells will provide a better solution than traditional organ transplants. He argues that we do not need to clone an entire person; just organs can be grown to help people (486). According to the article “Don’t Clone Humans,” Jaesnisch and Wilmut say scientists don’t clone new humans; they simply create tissues and organs. They believe scientists shouldn’t clone the nucleus because they are still researching and they don’t know enough about nucleus cloning. They believe that until they are sure, it is dangerous and irresponsible (Jaesnisch). In my opinion, one day they will find out much information about human cloning. In this case, if a human life becomes subject we need to think about both side of cloning. Are you going to save a life? Or are you going to follow moral? In her article “Cloning Around” Prof. Clements of the University of Rochester took both sides of the cloning argument. She pointed out that people say we should not clone babies; cloning must be unethical. But if cloning can save a baby’s life, why not support it? That situation makes cloning ethical for the baby’s family. She believes our human nature requires freedom to think and learn. If we can do better, we should go for it. She is more concerned with the idea that the government and scientific community would ban research on any scientific discovery because they deem it “unethical.” Our human minds have shown themselves responsible for all scientific discoveries until now, so there is no reason to believe cloning would change that (Clements). Stem Cell Research Dr.West, CEO of Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. argues cloning is ethical because he is creating specific human clones in order to develop stem cells for specific human and specific diseases. In this case, cells will not be rejected by the patient. He argues that using this technology to save a living person is something we should continue to research and develop (Coleen). Another cloning type is therapeutic cloning. In this procedure, instead of implanting the into organs of the human body like the skin, liver and heart. These organs would then be used to replace the original defunct organs of the embryo into a mother's womb; the embryo is grown to develop into stem cells. These stem cells could then be grown donor. 21
Therapeutic human cloning also can be used to treat most degenerative diseases. Even though a person has a healthy life style, defective genes can cause the degenerative diseases. With human cloning, defective cells can be removed and replaced with healthy cells, in this way reducing the effects of the degenerative diseases (Depobriya). Human cloning as unethical There are many reasons for being against human cloning. According to Nussbaum, human cloning will hurt human rights. We don’t need to create the same DNA because every person is unique. One major issue between all human cloning and harvesting of stem cells of organs is the lack of definition of what makes a “human.” Many conservative Christians and other religious leaders consider life to begin at the first stage of cell development. By this definition, harvesting stem cells or organs from these clones is murdering one person to save another (Pakhare). Another concern comes with establishing the rights of cloned material. As we gain the ability to create clones to perform various jobs, we need to determine whether these clones are tools or people with human rights. This argument was also made around black slaves during the 18th and 19th centuries. Some people view them as tools without feelings or rights, while others think of them as human beings with the same rights as everyone else. The argument has returned about clones. Finally, and the most challenging point is religious. All religions are against cloning because in their beliefs, God is the creator. The rules of Islamic medical ethics are: every human is created in his own unique nature (as the Qur’an says “And God has made for you mates and companions of your own nature and made for you out of them your sons, daughters and grandchildren.”), and the Qur’an supports natural life. That is why it doesn’t support any medical surgery except treatment for sicknesses (Shahid, 59). Conclusion Big events always bring such a complex questions and arguments. Even though the public still keeps arguing about cloning, scientists will complete or try to understand these steps. There are two sides to cloning and both are reasonable when you think about it. However, in my opinion, if we can be free from government limitations if we could clone lifeless bodies we would not act in unethical ways because all of our goals is having better life standards. With responsible cloning we can have a lot of opportunities; for example, the organ mafia would be eliminated. Many patients who wait for organ transfers will get a chance. Also, about the religious side, I believe God gave us comprehension skill. We need to use it and develop our life quality. The best example for that idea is the Qur’an’s first verse which says “read.” Read and Learn! I agree with this idea because all medical technology is for treating sicknesses. It doesn’t matter whether one finds an organ from a donor or makes a clone. With human cloning, plenty of patients who are waiting for organ transfers will find a cure for sicknesses and organ trade will end. In this case, human cloning shows how much it can be ethical.
WORK CITED Anand, S.C., et al. “Human clone: who is related to whom.” The Internet Journal of Law, Healthcare and Ethics 23 Feb. 2007. Academic One File. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. Clements, Coleen. “Human Cloning Ethics” Medical Post. May 2003. Debopriya, Bosa . Human cloning facts.1 December 2011. www.buzzle.com. Jaenisch, Rudolf and Wilmut, Ian. “Don’t clone humans!” Science’s Compass (Policy Forum.),30 March 2001. McGovern, Celeste. “Things you’ll probably never hear in the cloning debate.” Report newsmagazine (National ed.), Feb.18, 2002: page 56. Naik, Abhijit. History of Human Cloning. 28 September 2011. www.buzzle.com.
Simple Pleasures By Fadwa (Saudi Arabia) August of 2009 has changed my life. It was the day when I joined Twitter. It made waiting in line fun. Introduced me to new awesome people. Kept me up to date with my friends’ drama and the world news. Made me feel important now that I’ve 1500 Followers. Twitter is not like any other social network. It makes sure you are always entertained. Whether you are stuck in traffic, waiting for your turn at Walmart or suffering from insomnia. It will always make you LOL i.e., laugh out loud. I have always thought that I am the only girl in Saudi who liked Lady Gaga till I joined Twitter. Now, I have more than 50 awesome tweeps*, which will be an amazing addition to my wedding invitation list. Since I started working on Feb. 2009, my relationship with my friends changed drastically. I could not call them as much, skipped a lot of their daily life drama—which I’m addicted to. However, ever since they joined Twitter, I can keep up with their drama by reading their 140 characters tweets.* Having 1500 people from all over the world following you on Twitter is kind of flattering. They all want to know what is going on with my life and unlike my parents they can’t have enough of what I have to say. Twitter is a simple pleasure, that never failed to put a smile on my face and for that I’m extremely grateful. 22
*TWEEPS: Awesome ppl people you meet in twitter 2 become friends in RL = Real Life. *TWEETS: the msg. you post on Twitter.
Buddhist Temple Food By Sunhwa (Korea) The Global Interests in Temple food These days, people have paid more attention to health food which reflects the desire for a lifestyle of wellbeing (Seoungsook 148). For example, many young people including children become fatter and fatter which causes serious health problems. The development of the economic also changed people’s diet habits (Yujin 4). Although people exactly about do not know temple food mass media has positive effects on people’s attention. Many people who are interested in health food gained information on media which plays an important role in people’s curiousity in “contemporary South Korea”.(Seoungsook 148) In addition, it is related with vegetarianism as there are different kinds of vegetables involved, which is enough to attract vegetarian.“While diverse version of Buddhist temple food have existed since Buddhism was introduced to the Korean peninsula in the late fourth century” people have thought that only monks and nuns eat temple food. Modern Social Issues When it comes to temple food, those who are middle-class in urban area have been interested in how to cook temple food, which also reflects economic state. Especially, women who have children try to learn the method of cooking for their children. In addition, as there are children who suffer from dry skin and have an allergy to specific food their mother worry about what they eat. ). In addition, as the economic growth brings western culture including food, people have eaten western food, that caused obesity in both children and adults. Since Fast-food restaurants were introduced in 1979, younger generation have often enjoyed them without considering what is good for their health.(Soowon Soojae and Barry 44) According to the National Health and Nutrition Survey, adults in South Korea were reported to have the low level of obesity. In addition, South Korea has been changed into western-style such clothing, food even house. As a result, but also most children not only adults enjoy eating fast food that includes artificial flavor, which causes some health problems to children who are wreakers. Western diet introduced a lot of animal products, since the consumption of meat increased. In 1995, although the rate of consumption of meat and fish was balanced, the consumption of fish was not enough when it compared with animal products. Therefore, the number of adults overweight is increased steadily, which is the public health issues, since Western eating habits which include amount of animal foods and fat intake, which lead to being overweight.(Min-June Barry M and Soowon 197~198). What is Buddhist Temple Food. To specify this, with the development of economic, the lands used to be farmland, but these days, they have been changed into industries areas and a increased of residential area with apartments contribute to decrease home gardening considerably. Between 1969 and 1995, the consumption of animal products went up even meat significantly also early 1980, its rate was highest. What is more, the number of women who are workers has more increased than past continuously, which is not enough time to prepare food. However, despite these trends because of conservative attitude of Koreans towards food, people can keep traditional diet. As people make efforts to remind their health, the traditional diet gives people to improve their body state (Min-June Barry M and Soowon 200). However, the consumption of fruit, vegetables and seaweed gradually increased late 1980s to after 1990 (Soowon Soojae and Barry 46). On the other hand, the diet of the traditional Korea has more a variety of vegetables than meat. For example, almost all of Koreans eat stream rice whit side dishes such as Kimchi which is main side dishes, Na-mul (cooked vegetables which is boiled and fried),bean and Ssam(vegetable wrap). In addition, in the case of Kimchi, there are more than 140 kinds of Kimchi(197). What is more, most general Korea food is cooked with oninon, garlic-strong-smelling ingredients but, Buddhist temple food does not include these seasonings (Peggy 1) By growing interested in temple food, people want to learn the way of cooking, so Korean government support the classes to develop with Buddhist association. In addition, the Korean government has made efforts to improve it as tourism industry and cultural value (Seoungsook 159). As a result, it is successful to pay more attention to Buddhist temple food. The Buddhist Temple food try to be attractive to public. For example, a number of Buddhist temples give people opportunities to cook by themselves and provides them with various recipe, which concentrates on increasing the awareness of people as well as there have been temple restaurants where vegetarians or people who are interested in food also visit to enjoy Buddhist temple food. One of the most popular restaurants was established in 2001. The restaurant is run by a woman who is a professor in South Korea at Dongguk University and trained experts on Buddhist cuisine. She became interested in Buddhist temple food while her illnesses She opened a Buddhist temple food restaurant as well as academy. Other specialists also publish books and open cooking classes, which lead to media attention. By gaining information through the media, people have had concerns. What is more, a number of women with children who suffer from atopic and allergies want to learn traditional cooking for their family in urban areas. Moreover, breast cancer prostate and rectal cancer are related to 23
people whose incomes are high in contrast with, people whose incomes are low and have poor hygiene suffer from stomach cancer, liver cancer and uterine cancer. They think that intake food from daily diet has negative effects on human body; according to ResearchPlus, the 62% of adults responded it affects them in negative ways (Soowon Soojae Barry 44). That is why many women are interested in how to cook temple food. To specify this, the temple food consists of the various fresh vegetables without chemical ingredients, as they gain natural products and fertile crops, fruit and vegetables. Moreover, a number of people have begun to purchase organic vegetables, fruit and grains urban supermarkets and farmland directly which lead people’s interests; how do they cook food and what should they choose (Seungsook 165). NUTRITION With the development of Buddhist temple food, people are able to take various ingredients. Specially, vegetarians are interested in it, as all cuisine do not any include animal products, even fish, milk and egg but includes seasonal and local vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes and seaweeds. In modern society, the number of vegetarians have increased, which contribute to raise vegetarian restaurants and awareness. As a result, “there has also been a recent boom in the demand for traditional restaurants in South Korea. These restaurants called “Country dining table” that serve mostly vegetable side dishes, “Raw vegetable horse” where people use assorted vegetables to wrap their their own food, and “Native local food restaurants” and “Buddhist temple restaurants” where meats are excluded, are gaining popularity, even among modernized people. These trend reflects that since the development of economic rapidly changed people’s traditional diet habits into westernization people have made efforts to protect their health from illness. A number of vegetarian restaurants become popular (Soowon Soojae Barry 44). Some Asian countries such as China, Japan, Vietminh, and Taiwan show the high rate of consumption of vegetables, which is related in Buddhism. For example, Taiwanese eat dumplings during which are cooked rice, plum blossom and bean New Year to celebrate Buddhism’s Triple Gem: “Budda, his teachings and lay followers.” During eating dumplings, they hope for “Good Luck.” According to Hong, who is the president of Buddhist temple chefs, as Buddhist temple cooking is old tradition these foods do not contain much seasonings. When people eat food with seasonings they cannot taste real vegetables (Peggy 3-4). In Japan, in the sixth century, the strict vegetarian cooking introduced by Zen from China. Tanahashi is a master of shojin ryori . “Buddhists believe that shojin cooks infuse the food with their essence and so must embody Buddhist teachings and possess a righteous and benevolent heart”. Mediation based on Buddhism. It is thought by Zen Buddhists to represent the Zen spirit, and its goodness, to reveal the cook’s spiritual enlightenment. Tanahashi does not use but also machines like a microwave not only cook amount of ingredients and he gives his students the method of cook. The reason why is that he worries about natural resources. Most of Japanese enjoy the small quantities of food including fishes and seaweed also vegetables with less seasonings. For example, in autumn they eat mushrooms which are boiled with “sweet greens, chrysanthemum stems and taro root sesame vinegar and soy sauce and miso-suop” which is bean paste. Interestingly, the mushrooms which named “matsutake” are a phallic symbols of the autumn harvest (Kelly 26 29). In South Korea, since the introduction of Buddhism monks prohibited eating-meat. While Asian Buddhist temples were built near residential area, most Buddhist temples were on mountains because of history of the persecutions of Buddhism and Korea Buddhism focus on meditation. Therefore, most monks and nuns believed that by cultivating themselves they recognized spiritual enlightenment. Buddhist cuisine does not cook with chemical additives, which is against with harmony of nature. Since introduced the Buddhism, monks are forbidden eating-meat. While they eat a variety of vegetables, they are not given five vegetables such as garlic, chive, scallion, wild rocambole and Persian dropwort. They believe that those vegetables cause sexual desire. In additions, they are prohibited drinking alcohol, which has negative effects on people’s mental and physical state when they are trained as Buddhist monks and are not have but also mature mind not only wisdom from Buddhism of lessons but ginger and powdered hot pepper do not include. While they are not given meat, they are able to improve various recipes, which is enough the public to attract. HISTORY OF BUDDHIST TEMPLE FOOD What is more, those who are vegetarians enjoy eating temple food because it does not include meat and strong flavor (Yujin Michael 265). Although vegetarians are not Buddhist, they like temple food. This is because monks and nuns do not eat any meat and artificial, chemical seasoning. To specify this, Mahayana Buddhism was introduced to the Korea a Pininsula during the Three kingdoms (4th-7th centuries). One of the most successful Buddhism of kingdoms was the Goguryeo dynasty (919-1392). The kin of Goguryeo dynasty tried to develop Buddhism not only as a country religion but also establish strict rules. In addition, they had had annual festivals and ceremonies such as “Yeondeunhgoe (gathering for the lighting of lotus lamps)” and “Palgwanhoe (gathering to observe eight prohibitions)”, which enabled people to admire the dynasty and Buddhism. These national festivals and other ceremonies contributed to advance wealthy aristocratic patrons. During the dynasty of Goguryeo, Buddhist temple had built and there had been monks, since the king of Goguryeo dynasty support Buddhism also respected. The reason was that by establishing Buddhism, he was not suspect to have a strong country. 24
Unfortunately, these trend had not developed anymore because, Joseon dynasty restricted the number of temples even monks. It cost too much to support them. As a result, most temples were located mountains deeply and they had to cultivate themselves, which seemed like poor peasants diet who were farmer and hardly ate meat it came from the countryside. On the other hand, during the restriction of period, Buddhism has concentrated on meditation and studies of “scriptures” but the wealthy of temple food and tea-drinking became disappeared suddenly. CONCLUSION In late 1992, monk Jeongmun established the first Traditional Buddhist Temple Food Culture Studies Center, as there were some students who follow, as well as he published cooking books and opened cooking classes which were successful. However, there is no those people who are experts who have the best recipes of temple food and culinary cuisines. Therefore, under the auspices of government, the Jogye Order, which is the Korean Buddhist Culture Enterprise Group, organized formal classes in the Buddhist temples where they are known for culinary cuisines as those monks who have made efforts to preserve traditional cuisines since they knew these. The Buddhist temple food is source of as a national identity in the age of globalization. That is why Korean government support the Buddhist temple food to maintain. In addition, the effects of Buddhist temple food plays important roles both economic potential and sophisticated culture as well as it is related to people’s concerns of health. As a number of people are exposed to serious diseases the Buddhist temple cuisine is able to have positive effects on people’s diet (Seungsook 149).
BIBOLIOGRAPHY *Grodinsky Peggy, The Chung Mei Buddhist Temple greets the new year with simple,soulful foods 14 Feb 2007. www.HoustonChronicle.com. *Horan Kelly, “Vegetables Are Genius” visionaries. * Kim Soowon, Soojae Moon and Barry M Popkin “The nutrition transition in South Korea” American Society for Clinical Nutrition,2000 44-49. *Lee Min-June, Barry M Popkin and Soowon,Kim “ The unique aspects of the nutrition transition in South Korea:the retention of healthful elements in their traditional diet” Public Health Nutrition 2001 197-203. *Lee Yujin, Michael,Krawinkel.“Body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, JUNE 2009 265-7. * Lves Mike, “Vegetarian fare served with a Buddhist flare” Boston Globe 23 Jan 2011 * Moon Seoungsook, “Buddhist temple food in South Korea” Korea Journal,2008 149-176.