You are on page 1of 60

ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL

TECHNICAL PAPER

Title no. 105-S55

Where is Shear Reinforcement Required?


Review of Research Results and Design Procedures
by Michael P. Collins, Evan C. Bentz, and Edward G. Sherwood
This paper reviews the past 60 years of research on shear behavior
with attention paid to the behavior of beams ranging from shortspan deep beams to members controlled by flexure. A database of
1849 tests is included and conclusions based on these tests are
made concerning the safety of the shear provisions currently in use
in North America. The paper concludes that using the current ACI
shear provisions to decide where shear reinforcement is required
can be unconservative for members with larger effective depths, or
higher stresses in the longitudinal reinforcement. Improvements to
the ACI Code are proposed to mitigate these weaknesses. The
paper also demonstrates that the AASHTO-LRFD and Canadian
CSA sectional and strut-and-tie provisions provide a more uniform
level of safety for all member types.
Keywords: aggregate interlock; safety; shear; size effect; strain effect;
strut-and-tie.

INTRODUCTION
A well-designed reinforced concrete structure, if subjected
to extreme overloads, should fail in flexure rather than shear.
Such structures are tough, give ample warning of
approaching failure, and are often capable of resisting
surprisingly large loads.1 Unlike flexural failures, reinforced
concrete shear failures are relatively brittle and, particularly
for members without stirrups, can occur without warning.
Because of this, the prime objective of shear design is to
identify where shear reinforcement is required to prevent
such a failure, and then in a less-critical decision, how much
is required. Shear reinforcement, usually called stirrups,
links together the flexural tension and flexural compression
sides of a member and ensures that the two sides act as a unit.
Shear failures involve the breakdown of this linkage and, for
members without stirrups, typically involves the opening of
a major diagonal crack in the manner shown in Fig. 1.2
The current ACI sectional design procedures3 for both
flexure and shear were developed in the 1950s as part of
research aimed at developing ultimate strength design
methods. Whereas the flexural procedure developed was
recognized as rational and general, it was acknowledged in
the seminal 1962 report of Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 3264
that they had not succeeded in developing a basically
rational theory for effects of shear. They wrote that while
the problem was not fundamentally solved in some areas,
research has amassed sufficient data from which reliable
empirical design procedures may be established. The
proposed design equation for the shear strength of members
without stirrups, which is now Eq. (11-5) of ACI 318-08,
was intended to be conservative enough so that the ultimate
strength of beams resulting from practical design will be
governed by flexure rather than by shear. In closing, the
committee emphasized that further research work was
required not only to evaluate and improve practical design
590

Fig. 1Brittle shear failure of 39 in. (1000 mm) deep


member without stirrups.2
procedures, but also to establish a basically rational theory of
shear strength.
In the four decades since the ACI basic expression for
shear strength was derived, an immense amount of further
research work on shear has been conducted.5 This research,
in addition to improving understanding of shear behavior,
has made it increasingly clear that the traditional ACI
equation for Vc becomes less conservative as member depth
d increases; as concrete strength fc increases; as maximum
aggregate size decreases; and as stress in the longitudinal
reinforcement fs increases. The consequences of these trends
for many members are mitigated by the ACI requirement for
minimum shear reinforcement where Vu exceeds 0.5Vc.
Unconservative designs, however, are still possible for some
wide beams, slabs, footings, and joists that are exempt from
this requirement. Figure 2 shows three situations where
current ACI shear design procedures may result in members
with inadequate safety. The thick one-way slab in the
condominium building transfers closely-spaced wall loads
from the upper stories to more widely-spaced walls below,
the large strip footings transfer wall loads to the soil, while
the thick roof slab of a subway tunnel carries high soil
pressures across the subway opening. The thickness of each
element has been chosen using ACI 318-08 so that Vc just
exceeds Vu and, hence, shear reinforcement is not required.
The purpose of this paper is to review what is now known
about the shear strength of reinforced concrete members
without stirrups by examining over 1800 available experimental
results and comparing these results to predictions from
ACI Structural Journal, V. 105, No. 5, September-October 2008.
MS No. S-2007-103 received March 12, 2007, and reviewed under Institute publication
policies. Copyright 2008, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the
making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent
discussion including authors closure, if any, will be published in the July-August
2009 ACI Structural Journal if the discussion is received by March 1, 2009.

ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Michael P. Collins, FACI, is a University Professor and Bahen-Tanenbaum Professor of


Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. He is a member
of Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445, Shear and Torsion. His research interests include
the development of rational and consistent shear design specifications for structural
concrete applications.
ACI member Evan C. Bentz is an Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at the
University of Toronto. He is a member of ACI Committee 365, Service Life Prediction, and
Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445, Shear and Torsion. His research interests include the
mechanics of reinforced concrete, service life modeling, and the creation of practical
tools that transfer reinforced concrete research into the engineering community.
ACI member Edward G. Sherwood is an Assistant Professor in the Department of
Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
His research interests include integrating modern analytical methods, rehabilitation
techniques, and advanced materials with current reinforced and prestressed concrete
design practice.

current North American shear design procedures. The prime


objective is to identify situations where current design
procedures result in members that have an unacceptably
high risk of shear failure.
RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE
This review of shear research on members without stirrups
from the past 60 years demonstrates weak and strong areas
of current shear provisions. The results of this comparison
will allow engineers to identify members in their own
structures where a more conservative shear design procedure is
appropriate during the design of new structures and for
evaluation of existing structures.
SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF FLEXURAL MEMBER
If design engineers understand the fundamentals of shear
behavior, the risk of their structures suffering brittle shear
failures will be reduced. To help develop such understanding,
the behavior of the thick transfer slab described in Fig. 2, which
contains Grade 60 reinforcement (410 MPa) and is made from
5000 psi (35 MPa) concrete with a 3/4 in. (19 mm) maximum
aggregate, will be discussed. Longitudinal reinforcement
designed to satisfy the flexural requirements of ACI 318-08 is
shown in Fig. 3(a), along with the service loads (79% of which
are due to dead loads) that the slab must resist. Based on
laboratory experiments6 on slab strips, it is expected that under
these service loads the crack pattern in the transfer slab will be
similar to that shown in Fig. 3. At this load level, the stress in the
top longitudinal reinforcement where it crosses Crack a will
be 44 ksi (305 MPa), whereas the average shear stress V/(bwd)
in the concrete at the section a distance d from the face of Wall
W2 will be 80 psi (0.56 MPa). Under factored loads, this
shear stress increases to 103 psi (0.71 MPa).
The vertical crack at the face of Wall W5 will not pose a
risk of shear failure. If the crack is so wide that the entire
shear at this section is carried in the uncracked flexural
compression zone, then the maximum shear stress in this
zone would be 480 psi (3.31 MPa). The beneficial effect of
the biaxial compressive stresses at this location means that it
would take an applied shear stress of approximately 1130 psi
(7.8 MPa) to reach a principal tensile stress of 283 psi
(1.95 MPa) which, for this concrete, is the ACI value for
diagonal cracking. The real risk of a brittle shear failure is at
the locations of inclined Cracks b and c, with the second of
these two cracks being the most dangerous.
Because the vertical compressive stresses introduced by
Wall W2 fan out into the slab over a distance of approximately
d, the tensile stresses in the top longitudinal reinforcement
stay reasonably constant for most of this distance. Outside of
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Fig. 2Examples of shear-critical members.

Fig. 3Behavior of thick transfer slab.


this disturbed region, beam action begins and the tension in
the reinforcement decreases as moment decreases. The
tensile stress in the top reinforcement where it crosses
Cracks b and c can be calculated from free body diagrams
591

Fig. 4Sixty years of shear research.

like that shown in Fig. 3(d) as 36 and 25 ksi (250 and 173 MPa).
This change in reinforcement stress means that an average
shear stress of 89 psi (0.61 MPa) is required on the horizontal
plane between these two cracks (refer to Fig. 3(b)).
The change in tensile force in the top reinforcement tries
to rotate the vertical concrete cantilever between Cracks b
and c in a counterclockwise direction (refer to Fig. 3(c)). If
there were no shear stresses v acting on Cracks b and c, equilibrium would require a clockwise moment M at the base of
the concrete cantilever that would result in a maximum
vertical tensile stress at the base of the cantilever of 680 psi
(4.7 MPa) under the service loads. As this tensile stress is
approximately 2.4 times the concrete diagonal tensile
strength, the concrete cantilever would fail. For beam action
to occur, it is thus essential that Cracks b and c transfer
significant shear stress. If the shear stresses on the crack
faces equal V/(bw jd), as determined by Mrsch,7 they will
provide all of the clockwise couple needed for equilibrium.
As loads are increased, widening of Cracks b and c
reduces the shear stresses that can be transmitted across
these cracks, which will cause some vertical tensile stresses
at the root of Crack c. Eventually, the combination of these
vertical tensile stresses and the shear stresses will cause the
existing steep flexural shear crack to propagate into the flexural
compression zone at a flat angle, destroying the shear
connection between the two sides of the member, and
resulting in the characteristic S-shaped failure crack shown
in Fig. 3(e). The key question is what is the shear stress that
will cause this catastrophic shear failure? Equation (11-5) of
ACI 318-08 predicts that, for this member where the M/(Vd)
ratio at the critical section is 1.37 and w is 0.48%, shear
failure will occur at 143 psi (0.99 MPa), which is 1.79 times
the service load shear stress. As Vn exceeds the factored
applied shear force by 4%, the ACI Code indicates that this
member does not require shear reinforcement.
592

BRIEF OVERVIEW OF 60 YEARS


OF SHEAR RESEARCH
To appreciate the context in which current shear design
procedures were developed, a brief review will be given of
shear research conducted during the 60 years that deformed
reinforcing bars have been widely used. Figure 4 shows how
experimental shear research has varied in intensity over this
period. For the earlier years, reinforced concrete design was
based on limiting stresses at service loads, and the ACI shear
provisions8 stated that stirrups were not required if the shear
stress caused by service loads did not exceed 0.03fc .
Failures4 of 36 in. (914 mm) deep beams in two Air Force
warehouses showed that these provisions could be unsafe,
and the resulting surge in shear research led to the revisions
proposed by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 326 that still form
the basis of the current ACI shear provisions. These
proposed changes were intended to be a revision of the
fundamental philosophy of sheardesign whereby the
failure shear stress was formulated to be a function not only
of the concrete strength but also of the coexisting moment
expressed in terms of the parameter M/(wVd). This parameter
was chosen because it was assumed that failure shear stress v
would decrease as the longitudinal steel stress fs increased and
this steel stress equals approximately M/(wVd) times v. When
the distance from the applied load to the nearest reaction
point (that is, the shear span) was short, it was observed that
the members failed at loads as much as 100% greater than
the diagonal cracking load. However, because it was
believed that this post-diagonal cracking strength could not be
reliably predicted, the failure load was assumed to be equal
to the diagonal cracking load.
In the 25 years after 1960, considerable research was
conducted into the mechanisms by which cracked reinforced
concrete beams transmitted shear. Shear force in a region
indicates that the moment is changing along the length of the
member. Fenwick and Paulay9 pointed out that moment can
change either by tension in the reinforcement changing,
which is called beam action, or by the internal lever arm
changing along the length, which is called arch action. If
arch action is to carry the entire shear in a region that has
constant shear, then the concrete compression zone must
form an inclined strut going from the load to the support. It
was shown that, because of the geometric incompatibility of
the two mechanisms, with beam action typically being much
stiffer than arch action, nearly all of the shear would be
carried by beam action until this mechanism failed. After
failure of the beam mechanism, an internal redistribution of
stresses could occur and the remaining arch mechanism
could then carry even higher shears if the distance between
the applied load and the support was sufficiently short.
Using detailed measurements of cracked beams and direct
measurements on subassemblies, Fenwick and Paulay9 were
able to conclude that approximately 70% of the vertical
shear at a flexurally cracked section is carried across the
flexural crack and that for slender beams without stirrups, it
is the breakdown of aggregate interlock action that triggers
the shear failure. The key role played by aggregate interlock
in transferring shear stresses across inclined flexural cracks
was later confirmed by Taylor,10 Kani et al.,11 and Sherwood et
al.6 Walravens12 fundamental studies showed that the shear
stress that can be transmitted across a crack by aggregate
interlock decreases as crack width increases and as aggregate
size decreases. The 1978 CEB-FIB model code13 made clear
that crack widths could be calculated as the product of crack
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Fig. 6Distribution of longitudinal strains in simply


supported member.

Fig. 5Variation of failure shear stress with member width


and member depth.
spacing times average tensile strain in the concrete, and then
Frantz and Breen14 pointed out that for large beams, crack
widths at middepth could be up to three times as wide as
those near the flexural tension face because the crack spacing
near middepth was much greater. By testing reinforced
concrete elements subjected to pure shear in a specially
designed testing system, Vecchio and Collins15 developed
the modified compression field theory (MCFT), which uses
equilibrium, compatibility, and stress-strain relationships to
predict the shear response of cracked reinforced concrete
elements. For members with only longitudinal reinforcement,
the theory predicts that failure will occur when the shear
stress on the crack faces required for equilibrium reaches
the maximum shear stress that can be transmitted by
aggregate interlock. The predicted failure shear stress
decreases as the predicted width of the inclined crack
increases. Thus, failure shear decreases as tensile strain
in the longitudinal reinforcement increases, which is called
the strain effect, and as crack spacing near middepth
increases, the size effect.
In the 1960s, Kani et al.11 conducted 362 shear tests on
concrete beams without stirrups in an attempt to systematically change all major variables influencing shear
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

strength. His experiments16 showed that the basic ACI


equation overestimated the influence of changing concrete
strength and underestimated the influence of changing the
parameter M/(wVd). He also concluded17 that the shear
stress at failure decreased as member depth increased.
Because his deep specimens contained a large quantity of
longitudinal reinforcement (w = 2.8%), however, they did
not indicate that the ACI Code equations were unconservative.
In the last 20 years, a number of major projects studied how
the failure shear stress of members with less than 1% of
longitudinal reinforcement varied as either width or depth of
the test specimens were changed while keeping all other
variables constant. The results from some of the larger of
these test series2,6,18-21 are summarized in Fig. 5 along with
earlier tests22 investigating width effects. It can be seen that
while the failure shear stress of a series of elements does not
significantly change as the width of specimens is increased,
there is a consistent and significant decrease in failure shear
stress as depth of the specimens is increased. In these size
effect series, it was noted19 that the spacing of flexural cracks
at middepth of the specimens was approximately 0.5d, hence
for the same reinforcement tensile stress, the crack widths at
middepth increased as the depth of the specimens increased.
Note that members with either high values of the steel stress
parameter M/(wVd) or members with large depths failed at
shear stresses much less than the 2fc (psi) (0.17fc [MPa])
given by ACI.3
Finally, it is important to realize that strain in the flexural
tension reinforcement depends not only on moment but also
on shear. Figure 6 shows the crack pattern and measured
longitudinal strains in a simply supported, large reinforced
concrete member23 subjected to a point load at midspan. If all
the cracks were vertical, strain in the longitudinal reinforcement
593

containing stirrups, these simplified MCFT provisions


predict that the sectional failure shear stress will be
Vc
222 f c
-------- = -----------------------------------------------------bw d
( 1 + 1500 x ) ( 39 + s xe )

(psi, in.)

468 f c
Vc
-------- = ------------------------------------------------------------ (MPa, mm)
bw d
( 1 + 1500 x ) ( 1000 + s xe )

(1)

where, in the denominator, the first term models the strain


effect and the second term models the size effect. The
longitudinal strain at middepth, x, assumed to be one-half
of the strain in the flexural tension reinforcement, is
calculated by
V ( 1 + 1.1M/ ( Vd ) )
x = --------------------------------------------2E s A s

Fig. 7Updated version of figure used to derive ACI Eq. (11-5).


in the cracked concrete would be M/(jdEsAs) and it can be
seen that this is accurate near midspan. At the critical shear
location, however, which is approximately d out from the
point load, the cracks are inclined and the strain in the
longitudinal reinforcement is more accurately predicted
as (M/jd + V)/(EsAs).
ACI SECTIONAL SHEAR DESIGN PROVISIONS
Using all relevant experimental data and based on the
understanding of shear at the time, Joint ACI-ASCE
Committee 326 developed what is now Eq. (11-5), using a
graph similar to that shown in Fig. 7, by drawing a sloping
straight line near the bottom of the available data cloud. The
resulting equation predicted reasonably well the diagonal
cracking loads of the 430 specimens from 18 references that
were studied for the 1962 report,4 giving a mean of VTEST/
VCALC of 1.18 with a coefficient of variation of 16.2%. For
the purposes of design, Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 326
recommended that the basic equation be rearranged in terms
of fs, as shown in Fig. 7, because for many practical designs,
fs would be close to the reinforcement yield strength fy.
Because the effect of changing steel stresses within the
practical range is predicted by Eq. (11-5) to be small, design
engineers typically use the simplified Eq. (11-3) of ACI 318-08.
This equation states that the failure shear stress V/(bw d) of a
member without stirrups depends on only the concrete
strength and is given by 2fc (psi) (0.17fc [MPa]). In using
these equations, the value of fc is now limited to 100 psi
(8.31 MPa) and M/(Vd) is not to be taken less than 1.
AASHTO-LFRD AND CSA SECTIONAL DESIGN
PROCEDURES FOR SHEAR
In 1994, the AASHTO-LRFD shear procedures, which are
based on the MCFT and account for both the size effect and
the strain effect, were published.24 A simplified version of
these sectional design shear provisions was developed25,26
for the 2004 Canadian concrete code27 (CSA A23.3-04). For
nonprestressed members not subjected to axial loads and not
594

(2)

In using this equation, M and V are always positive quantities


and the term 1.1M/(Vd) is not to be taken as less than 1.
The effective crack spacing at middepth is a function of
the beam depth and the aggregate size. For members made
with 1 in. (25 mm) aggregate or larger, sxe = 0.77d; for 3/4 in.
(20 mm) aggregate, sxe = 0.9d; for 3/8 in. (10 mm) aggregate,
sxe = 1.2d; and for high-strength concrete (fc > 10,000 psi
[70 MPa]) where cracks tend to go through the aggregate,
sxe = 2d. In all cases, fc in Eq.(1) is limited to a maximum
of 100 psi (8.31 MPa).
When using these equations for design, x is determined
from Eq. (2) using Vu and Mu, and then Vc can be directly
obtained from Eq. (1). For analysis of existing structures,
Eq. (1) and (2) must be solved simultaneously. While this is
not algebraically complex, it is usually simpler to estimate x
(for example, 0.001) and use this estimate to determine the
failure shear V from Eq. (1), and then use Eq. (2) to check the
accuracy of the initial estimate of x. When the resulting
strain equals the assumed strain, convergence is achieved.
STRUT-AND-TIE DESIGN PROCEDURES
A significant advance in ACI shear procedures was the
introduction of a strut-and-tie model for shear design of
members with short shear spans into ACI 318-02.28 These
new procedures permit post-diagonal-cracking capacity of
members with short shear spans to be taken into account.
They were influenced by the strut-and-tie provisions in the
1984 Canadian concrete code (CSA)29 and by the pioneering
work of Schlaich et al.30
The procedures will be illustrated by considering a series
of tests conducted by Kani et al.,11 the results of which are
shown in Fig. 8. It can be seen that for longer specimens,
shear strength was not strongly influenced by changes in
shear span. When a/d was less than approximately 2.5,
however, a small decrease in shear span caused failure shear
to greatly increase. In addition, the bearing plate size was
found to be a significant variable only for short shear spans.
These differences result from longer specimens being
controlled by the breakdown of beam action while crushing
of a concrete strut controls the shear strength of shorter
spans. Also shown in Fig. 8 are the variations of shear
strength with shear span predicted by the ACI and CSA
procedures. It can be seen that for this particular geometry,
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Eq. (11-5) and Eq. (1) give very similar predictions and both
agree well with the test results of the longer beams.
The predictions for post-diagonal cracking strengths were
made using the strut-and-tie model described in Fig. 8. Both
the predictions obtained for strut crushing from ACI and
those from the AASHTO31 and CSA provisions are shown.
The principal difference between these provisions lies in the
assumed failure stress of the diagonal strut. The ACI provisions
assume that this strut will crush at an effective compressive
strength fce equal to 0.85 0.60fc = 0.51fc . The AASHTO
and CSA provisions, which are based on the MCFT, assume
that the strut failure stress reduces as the average principal
tensile strain 1 increases, in the following manner
fce = fc /(0.8 + 1701) 0.85fc

(3)

1 = s + (s + 0.002)cot2s

(4)

where

In this equation, s is the strain in the longitudinal reinforcement crossing the strut that can be calculated from the
tension force in the longitudinal tie, as Vcots/(EsAs). As the
shear span increases, angle s decreases, and this causes 1
to increase and fce to decrease. In the ACI method, fce
remains constant but a lower limit of 25 degrees is placed on
the angle s. For both sets of procedures, failure shear is
calculated as the vertical component of the crushing load of
the diagonal strut, where the width of the strut, ws, is calculated
as shown in Fig. 8. Finding predicted strengths involves
determining the thickness of the top horizontal strut so that the
stress in this strut equals the assumed failure stress of 0.85fc .
DATABASE OF SHEAR FAILURES
FOR MEMBERS WITHOUT STIRRUPS
To assemble a database of shear experiments on reinforced
concrete members without stirrups, 114 references, mostly
in ACI publications, were studied, which gave details of
1849 shear tests of normalweight, nonprestressed concrete
members not subjected to axial load and containing
deformed longitudinal steel reinforcement. Figure 4 shows
the number of reported tests for each 2-year period and
summarizes the type of loading used. It can be seen that 84%
of tests involved simply supported beams subjected to point
loads, whereas only 1% simulated continuous members
subjected to uniform loads. It is striking that only 144 of the
1849 tests have depths greater than 22 in. (560 mm) and that
most of these larger specimens have been tested in the last
decade. In total, 1696 of the specimens were reported to fail
in shear, whereas 153 of the specimens were reported to fail
in flexure. In addition to eliminating specimens that were
reported to be flexural failures, specimens for which the
maximum moment applied to the specimen during the experiment exceeded 1.10Mn, where Mn is the nominal moment
capacity calculated by ACI 318-08, were also eliminated.
This left 1601 definite shear failures in the database.
Because different parameters influence the shear strength
of members with short shear spans, the tests were also
divided into two groups. Members for which the shear span
a equaled or exceeded 2.5d were defined as slender and
would be expected to be controlled by the breakdown of
beam action. For members subjected to uniform loads, the
location of the resultant of the uniform loads causing the
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Fig. 8Influence of shear span-depth ratio on failure shear


stress.
shear at the support was treated as the location of the equivalent
point load. Thus, for simply supported members, the shear
span will equal 0.25L. This approach, recommended by
Kani,16 is supported by experiments from Leonhardt and
Walther.32 Based on these definitions, there were 1098 shear
failures of slender members and 503 shear failures of short
members. The specific details of all of these tests are given
in a separate Appendix.*
In formulating the basic ACI shear equation in 1962, Joint
ACI-ASCE Committee 326 examined the results of 430
experiments,4 241 of which lie within the practical range of
variables shown in Fig. 7. With the new database, an
additional 1065 more recent data points can be plotted
within the axis range shown on Fig. 7. For most designs, the
value of the parameter 1000wVd/(Mfc ) will be less than
0.25 and in this range it can be seen that the slope of the data
cloud is much greater than the slope predicted by Eq. (11-5).
This means that Eq. (11-5) underestimates the decrease in
shear strength that results from an increase in the reinforcement
stress fs. Whereas only 3% of the original 1962 results shown
fall below the line defined by Eq. (11-5), more than 14% of
the newer and larger database results fall below the line.
More critically, approximately 1% of the more recent results
failed at less than half the load predicted by Eq. (11-5),
which for slabs, footings, and some wide beams could
indicate a serious risk of failure at service loads, as these

*
The Appendix is available at www.concrete.org in PDF format as an addendum to
the published paper. It is also available in hard copy from ACI headquarters for a fee
equal to the cost of reproduction plus handling at the time of the request.

595

Fig. 9Observed failure shear stresses for slender members.


members are exempt from the requirement to provide stirrups
when Vu exceeds Vc/2.
To specifically identify the combinations of factors that
lead to these unsafe situations, a systematic study was made
of the shear failures in the database. The 1098 shear failures
of slender members and 503 shear failures of short members
were further divided into nine subgroups depending on the
member depth d and the values of the parameter M*/(wVd).
This parameter is a measure of the stress in the longitudinal
reinforcement, fs, at the critical shear section including the
moment shift effect shown in Fig. 6. For slender members,
the critical section is taken as being d from applied point
loads and d from the support for uniformly loaded specimens.
The parameter is calculated as
M
M + Vd
M/Vd + 1
------------- = ------------------ = ---------------------- w Vd
w
w Vd

(5)

The stress fs can be determined by multiplying the parameter


by v/j (refer to Fig. 7). For point loaded members, this value
of fs corresponds to the steel stress at the maximum moment
location. For a shear critical member with 4000 psi (28 MPa)
concrete and Grade 60 reinforcement, where Vu = 2fc bwd,
the shear stress v under factored loads will be 95 psi (0.65 MPa),
596

while fs will be 54,000 psi (372 MPa). Assuming that j = 7/8, the
parameter M*/(wVd) will then equal 497. Based on this, the
three ranges selected for the steel stress parameter were
M*/(wVd) greater than 500, where the design steel stress
would be high, M*/(wVd) less than 200 where the design
steel stress would be low, and M*/(wVd) between 200 and
500, which would encompass most practical designs. With
regard to member depths, the three ranges selected were: d
less than 12 in. (305 mm), defined as small; d larger than 22 in.
(560 mm), defined as large; and d between 12 and 22 in. (305
to 560 mm), defined as medium.
Figure 9 summarizes the results of the study for the nine
groups of slender members in terms of a failure shear stress
ratio , which is calculated as = VTEST/(bwdfc ). A value
of less than 2 indicates that Eq. (11-3) of ACI 318-08 is
unconservative. For each group, the figure shows the number
of specimens in the group, the average value of for these
specimens, and the value of for which 5% of the specimens
in the group failed at lower values. Note that small specimens
with low steel stresses make up 54% of the 1098 slender
specimens. It can be seen that systematically decreases as
specimens become larger and systematically decreases as
steel stress increases, clearly showing the size effect and the
strain effect predicted by the MCFT. Only 5% of the small
specimens with low steel stress failed at less than a of 2.54
(VTEST < 2.54fc bwd) indicating that in this case, Eq. (11-3)
is very safe. On the other hand, for large specimens with high
steel stress, is only 1.03 on average, indicating that for
these members, the ACI assumption that can be taken as
2.0 is clearly unsafe. For the practical range of reinforcement
stresses, Fig. 9 indicates that it is unsafe to use Eq. (11-3) for
large members. For high steel stresses, the equation is unsafe
for all member sizes.
Figure 10 is a similar summary for the members with short
shear spans. As predicted by the strut-and-tie models, the
failure shear stress ratios for such members are all much
higher than those for the slender members and there is no
strong evidence of a size effect. For these types of members,
Eq. (11-3) will nearly always be safe.
ACCURACY OF NORTH AMERICAN
SHEAR DESIGN PROCEDURES
ACI 318-083 states that one purpose of the strength reduction
factors is to allow for inaccuracies in the design equations.
If these inaccuracies are greater than those assumed in the
original choice of the factor, then structural safety may be
compromised. Figure 8 shows that for one series of tests,
accurate predictions of shear strength can be obtained by
taking the larger of the calculated beam action failure shear
and strut crushing failure shear. Figure 11 summarizes the
results of applying this approach to all 1601 shear failures in
the database.
Figure 11(a) is based on Eq. (11-5) and the ACI strut-and-tie
model, whereas Fig. 11(b) is based on Eq. (1) and the CSA/
AASHTO strut-and-tie model. To highlight the unconservative
tests, the plot has been made with VCALC /VTEST , meaning
that the y-coordinate on the plot shows the required nominal
safety factor to ensure that a particular test would not have
indicated possible failure at service loads. If the ratio
VACI /VTEST exceeds 1.5, the nominal factor of safety against
shear failure for a case where dead load equals live load
would be reduced from (0.5 1.2 + 0.5 1.6)/0.75 = 1.87,
to less than 1.25. The ratio VACI/VTEST exceeded 1.5 for 56
of the tests, which included both members governed by strut
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Fig. 10Observed failure shear stresses for members with


short shear spans.
crushing (a/d < 2) and members governed by Eq. (11-5). For
short shear span members, the ACI predictions became less
conservative as the strut angle became lower. Many of the
unconservative results for the longer members involved
either very large members or members with high steel
strains. Figure 11(b), with the same 1601 shear failures,
shows that the CSA procedures lead to a much less scattered
data cloud with only three of the VCSA/VTEST ratios
exceeding 1.5. Because the CSA code uses somewhat
different load factors and strength reduction factors, a
VCSA/VTEST value of 1.5 still leaves a nominal factor of
safety of 1.41. All three of these unconservative results are
for short shear span members with high-strength concrete
governed by strut crushing. It seems that the CSA strut
crushing criterion, while appropriately accounting for the
influence of lowering the strut angle, is less conservative for
specimens with high concrete strength even though the CSA
upper limit of 80 MPa (11,600 psi) was applied to fc when
calculating strut crushing loads.
Using the more conventional ratio of VTEST/VCALC and
fitting a normal distribution to the lower 50% of the database,33 the ACI procedures results in a normal distribution
with an average value of VTEST/VCALC of 1.36 and with a
coefficient of variation of 26.9%. The CSA procedures result
in an average of 1.21 and a coefficient of variation of 15.3%.
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Fig. 11Ability to accurately predict 1601 observed shear


failure loads.
The values of the ACI strength reduction factors were
initially chosen34 based on the concept that only 1% of
members should fail at less than times the nominal
strength. On this basis, using the ACI procedures to find Vn
for members without stirrups would require a value of
1.36 (1.0 2.33 0.269), which is 0.50much lower than
the 0.75 specified by the Code. If the CSA or AASHTO
procedures were used for Vn, then would need to be 0.78.
Figure 12(a) shows the VACI /VTEST ratios for the 1343 shear
failures that the ACI procedures indicate are governed by
breakdown of beam action. It can be seen that as the specimen
depths increase and the reinforcement stress increases, the
ratios become less conservative. In addition, a number of the
very unconservative results are associated with high concrete
strengths or small aggregate sizes. Note that while there are
unconservative tests at both small and large depths, the
unconservative small members are governed by the strain
effect whereas for larger depths, all members are unconservative
regardless of concrete strength or strain effect terms. Because
the CSA and AASHTO procedures more accurately account
for the influence of depth, reinforcement strain, concrete
strength, and aggregate size, the VCSA/VTEST values plotted in
597

construction convenience the maximum aggregate size was


reduced to 3/8 in. (10 mm), Eq. (1) would predict failure at
service load. If, instead, the engineer decided to use reinforcing
steel with 80 ksi (550 MPa) yield as permitted by the 2008
Code, the amount of flexural reinforcement would have been
reduced by 25% and the resulting higher strains at service
load would again result in failure predicted at service loads.
Based on these results, it is evident that the thick transfer slab
as designed has an unacceptably high risk of undergoing a
brittle shear failure and that shear reinforcement is required
in the slab between Walls W5 and W6.
Until the ACI shear equations are improved, it would be
prudent to be more conservative than the ACI Code when
deciding where shear reinforcement is needed. For this
purpose, it is recommended that the sectional shear strength
for members without stirrups, Vc, be calculated either from
Eq. (1) or by a simplified version of this equation. Such a
version can be formulated by recognizing that if a member
fails in shear rather than flexure, the maximum value of the
strain in the flexural tension reinforcement will be less than
the yield strain of the reinforcement, y, and that at this stage
there will also be a small compressive strain on the opposite
side of the member. Based on these two considerations, it is
conservative to assume that x in Eq. (1) equals 0.42y and so
the failure shear stress can be calculated as
Vc
220 f c
-------- = ------------------------------------------------------------ 2 f c (psi and in.)
bw d
( 1 + f y /46,000 ) ( 39 + s xe )
(6)
Vc
470 f c
- 0.17 f c (MPa and mm)
-------- = ---------------------------------------------------------b w d ( 1 + f y /320 ) ( 1000 + s xe )

Fig. 12Ability to accurately predict breakdown of beam


action.
Fig. 12(b) are reasonably consistent for all 1188 shear failures,
which these procedures predict are governed by breakdown of
beam action. Fitting a normal curve to the unconservative half
of these sectional failures gives an average value of VTEST /VCSA
of 1.19 and a coefficient of variation of only 12.9%, which
approaches the quality of flexural predictions.
IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
If ACI 318-08 procedures are used to determine the failure
mode of the thick transfer slab described in Fig. 3, they
would calculate that a ductile flexural failure would occur
when the service loads are increased by a factor of 1.44
whereas a brittle shear failure would not be predicted to
occur unless the service loads could be increased by a factor
of 1.79. Based on this, the designer would assume that this is
a well-designed structure. As shown in this paper, however,
the current ACI shear equations can be very unconservative
for a large, lightly reinforced member such as this, and the
failure load would be much more accurately predicted by
Eq. (1). This equation predicts that the transfer slab will
suffer the brittle shear failure illustrated in Fig. 3(e) if the
service loads are increased by a factor of just 1.10. If for
598

where, for normal-strength concrete with 3/4 in. (20 mm)


aggregate, sxe = 0.9d.
As the values of Vc given by Eq. (6) never exceed the value
of Vc permitted by ACI Eq. (11-3), members designed using
Eq. (6) satisfy the ACI Code. The result of following this
recommendation is that members that are exempt from
Section 11.4.6 of ACI 318-08 will contain minimum shear
reinforcement if Vu exceeds Vc, whereas the members that
are not exempt will contain minimum shear reinforcement if
Vu exceeds 0.5Vc, where in both cases Vc is given by Eq. (6)
and = 0.75.
For the thick transfer slab, Eq. (6) predicts a nominal
failure shear stress of 83 psi (0.58 MPa). As vc would then
be 62 psi (0.43 MPa) and vu is 103 psi (0.71 MPa), minimum
shear reinforcement is required. Grade 60 single-leg No. 6
stirrups spaced on a 22 x 22 in. (560 x 560 mm) grid would
satisfy minimum shear reinforcement requirements.3 When
such reinforcement is provided, it controls the spacing6,35 of
the inclined cracks and then sxe in Eq. (6) can be taken as
12 in. (305 mm). Using ACI Eq. (11-15) for Vs, the nominal
failure shear stress of the transfer slab, reinforced with the
grid of No. 6 single leg stirrups, would be
Vn
V c A v f yt
-------- = -------- + ----------- = 132 + 55 = 187 psi (1.29 MPa) (7)
bw d
bw d bw s
Thus adding minimum shear reinforcement has more than
doubled the shear strength, meaning that the service loads
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

now need to be increased by a factor of 2.34 before a shear


failure is predicted. The capacity of the transfer slab will thus
be governed by flexure and, hence, the slab will qualify as a
well-designed concrete member.
If Vc is calculated by Eq. (6) for the roof slab of the subway
tunnel and the footing supporting the wall described in
Fig. 2, then minimum shear reinforcement would also
seem to be required for both of these members. While such
reinforcement is required for the subway roof slab,2 strut-andtie action will enable the relatively short shear span of the
footing to safely resist a shear stress at least equal to that
predicted by ACI Eq. (11-3). For such a member, it has been
recommended36 that Eq. (11-3) is safe, provided that the
distance from the face of the wall to the end of the footing is less
than 3d. For the footing shown in Fig. 2, this distance is 2.4d.
If minimum shear reinforcement is added to a large
slender member, the shear strength of the member will
greatly increase and, in addition, the failure will become
much more ductile.6,20 Because of this, it is recommended
that all beams and slabs with high importance for the integrity
of the structure contain at least minimum shear reinforcement
satisfying ACI Eq. (11-13). As larger beams and thicker
slabs generally support more of the structure than smaller
members, it is recommended that all beams and slabs with an
overall thickness greater than 30 in. (760 mm) contain at
least this minimum shear reinforcement.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Most structural engineers take the failure shear stress of a
member without stirrups as a function only of the concrete
strength (Vc = 2fc bwd) and then use this value to determine
if and where stirrups are required. This paper has shown that
this traditional assumption can lead to unsafe designs and
can result in engineers making decisions that inadvertently
increase the chance of a brittle shear failure. The new load
factors introduced in 2002,28 for example, have resulted in
higher stresses in flexural reinforcement at service loads and
thus are predicted to have lowered the already low safety
factor for shear. It is important that engineers realize that in
addition to concrete strength, shear is also strongly affected
by member depth, crack roughness, and the coexisting strain
in longitudinal reinforcement.
To meet the stated objective that the ultimate strength of
beams resulting from practical designs will be governed by
flexure rather than by shear,4 it will be necessary to update
the basic ACI expression for the shear strength of members
without shear reinforcement (Eq. (11-5)) and, more importantly,
the simplified version of this expression that is used in nearly
all designs (Eq. (11-3)). The research reviewed in this paper
shows that whereas the empirically derived ACI expression
correctly indicates that failure shear will decrease as the
stress in the longitudinal reinforcement increases, more
recent test data indicates that the influence of this strain
effect is much greater than originally assumed. For a cracked
reinforced concrete member to continue to carry load by
beam action, it is necessary that shear stresses be transmitted
across the cracks by aggregate interlock action. High stress
in the longitudinal reinforcement and/or wider crack spacing
will cause wider crack widths and, thus, lower shear
strengths. High concrete strengths and small aggregate sizes
result in cracks with smoother faces that also limit the shear
stress that can be carried. Equation (1), which is based on the
MCFT, predicts the strain effect, the size effect, and the
influence of concrete properties in a reliable manner and
ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

hence could be considered as an update of Eq. (11-5) which


accounts for the last 40 years of shear research.
A simplified version of the MCFT equation suitable for
day-to-day design is given in this paper as Eq. (6). With the
reinforcement grade and the maximum aggregate size
known, this equation is only marginally more complex than
the current design equation. If in deciding where shear
reinforcement is needed, the engineer uses Eq. (6) of this
paper rather than Eq. (11-3) of the ACI Code, the resulting
structure will satisfy the ACI Code. More importantly, if the
resulting structure is subjected to an overload, it should fail
in a ductile flexural mode rather than a brittle shear mode and
hence will be a well-designed reinforced concrete structure.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Natural Sciences
and Engineering Research Council of Canada for a series of grants that
have made possible the long-term research project on the shear design of
reinforced concrete at the University of Toronto.

REFERENCES
1. Vecchio, F. J., and Collins, M. P., Investigating the Collapse of a Warehouse Structure, Concrete International, V. 12, No. 3, Mar. 1990, pp. 72-78.
2. Collins, M. P., and Kuchma, D., How Safe Are Our Large, LightlyReinforced Concrete Beams, Slabs and Footings? ACI Structural Journal,
V. 96, No. 4, July-Aug. 1999, pp. 482-490.
3. ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary, American Concrete Institute,
Farmington Hills, MI, 2008, 465 pp.
4. Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 326, Shear and Diagonal Tension, ACI
JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 59, No.1, 2, and 3, Jan., Feb., and Mar. 1962,
pp. 1-30, 277-334, and 352-396; also discussion and closure, V. 59, No. 10,
Oct. 1962, pp. 1323-1349.
5. Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445, Recent Approaches to Shear
Design of Structural Concrete. State-of-the-Art Report by ASCE-ACI
Committee 445 on Shear and Torsion, Journal of Structural Engineering,
ASCE, V. 124, No. 12, Jan. 1998, pp. 1375-1417.
6. Sherwood, E. G.; Bentz, E. C.; and Collins, M. P., Effect of
Aggregate Size on Beam-Shear Strength of Thick Slabs, ACI Structural
Journal, V. 104, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 2007, pp. 180-191.
7. Mrsch, E., Concrete-Steel Construction, McGraw-Hill, New York,
1909, 368 pp.
8. ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Concrete (ACI 318-51), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills,
MI, 1951, 64 pp.
9. Fenwick, R. C., and Paulay, T., Mechanisms of Shear Resistance of
Concrete Beams, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, V. 94, No. ST10,
Oct. 1968, pp. 2235-2350.
10. Taylor, H. P. J., Investigation of Forces Carried across Cracks in
Reinforced Concrete Beams in Shear by Interlock of Aggregate, TRA
42.447, Cement and Concrete Association, Wexham Springs, UK, 1970, 22 pp.
11. Kani, M. W.; Huggins, M. W.; and Wittkopp, R. R., Kani on Shear
in Reinforced Concrete, Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 1979, 225 pp.
12. Walraven, J. C., Fundamental Analysis of Aggregate Interlock,
Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, V. 107, No. ST11, Nov. 1981,
pp. 2245-2270.
13. CEB-FIP, Model Code for Concrete Structures: CEB-FIP International
Recommendations, third edition, Comit Euro-Internationale du Bton/
Fdration Internationale de la Prcontrainte, Paris, France, 1978, 348 pp.
14. Frantz, G. C., and Breen, J. E., Cracking on the Side Faces of Large
Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 77, No. 5,
May 1980, pp. 307-313.
15. Vecchio, F. J., and Collins, M. P., The Modified Compression Field
Theory for Reinforced Concrete Elements Subjected to Shear, ACI
JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 83, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 1986, pp. 219-231.
16. Kani, G. N. J., Basic Facts Concerning Shear Failure, ACI
JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 63, No. 6, June 1966, pp. 675-692.
17. Kani, G. N. J., How Safe are Our Large Concrete Beams? ACI
JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 64, No. 3, Mar. 1967, pp. 128-141.
18. Shioya, T.; Iguro, M.; Nojiri, Y.; Akiyama, H.; and Okada, T., Shear
Strength of Large Reinforced Concrete Beams, Fracture Mechanics:
Applications to Concrete, SP-118, V. C. Li and Z. P. Baant, eds., American
Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 1989, pp. 259-279.
19. Shioya, T., Shear Properties of Large Reinforced Concrete

599

Members, Special Report, Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corp., No. 25,


Feb. 1989, 198 pp. (in Japanese)
20. Lubell, A.; Sherwood, T.; Bentz, E.; and Collins, M. P., Safe Shear
Design of Large, Wide Beams, Concrete International, V. 26, No. 1, Jan.
2004, pp. 66-78.
21. Sherwood, E. G.; Lubell, A. S.; Bentz, E. C.; and Collins, M. P.,
One-Way Shear Strength of Thick Slabs, ACI Structural Journal, V. 103,
No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 2006, pp. 794-802.
22. Rajagopalan, K. S., and Ferguson, P. M., Exploratory Shear Tests
Emphasizing Percentage of Longitudinal Steel, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings
V. 65, No. 8, Aug. 1968, pp. 634-638.
23. Sherwood, E. G., One-Way Shear Behaviour of Large, LightlyReinforced Concrete Beams and Slabs, PhD thesis, Department of Civil
Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2007, 547 pp.
24. AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and Commentary,
first edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials, Washington, DC, 1994, 1091 pp.
25. Bentz, E. C.; Vecchio, F. J.; and Collins, M. P., The Simplified MCFT
for Calculating the Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Elements, ACI
Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 4, July-Aug. 2006, pp. 614-624.
26. Bentz, E. C., and Collins, M. P., Development of the 2004 CSA
A23.3 Shear Provisions for Reinforced Concrete, Canadian Journal of
Civil Engineering, V. 33, No. 5, May 2006, pp. 521-534.
27. CSA Committee A23.3, Design of Concrete Structures, Canadian
Standards Association, Mississauga, ON, Canada, 2004, 214 pp.
28. ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (ACI 318-02) and Commentary (318R-02), American Concrete
Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2002, 443 pp.

600

29. Mitchell, D., and Collins, M. P., Rational Approach to Shear


DesignThe 1984 Canadian Code Provisions, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings
V. 83, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1986, pp. 925-933.
30. Schlaich, J.; Schafer, K.; and Jennewein, M., Towards a Consistent
Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures, PCI Journal, V. 32, No. 3,
May-June 1987, pp. 74-150.
31. AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and Commentary,
third edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials, Washington, DC, 2004, 1264 pp.
32. Leonhardt, F., and Walther, R., The Stuttgart Shear Tests 1961, a
translation of articles that appeared in Beton und Stahlbetonbau, V. 56,
No. 12, 1961, and V. 57, No. 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, 1962, Cement and Concrete
Association Library Translation No. 111, Wexham Springs, UK, Dec.
1964, 134 pp.
33. Nowak, A. S., and Szerszen, M. M., Calibration of Design Code for
Buildings (ACI 318): Part 1Statistical Models for Resistance, ACI
Structural Journal, V. 100, No. 3, May-June 2003, pp. 377-382.
34. MacGregor, J. G., and Wight, J. K., Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics
and Design, fourth edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ,
2005, 1132 pp.
35. Angelakos, D., Bentz, E. C., and Collins, M. P., Effect of Concrete
Strength and Minimum Stirrups on Shear Strength of Large Members,
ACI Structural Journal, V. 98, No. 3, May-June 2001, pp. 290-300.
36. Uzel, A., Shear Design of Large Footings, PhD thesis, Department of
Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2003, 383 pp.

ACI Structural Journal/September-October 2008

Appendix to ACI Paper


Paper Title: Where is Shear Reinforcement Required? A Review of Research Results and Design
Procedures
Authors:
Michael P. Collins, Evan, C. Bentz, and Edward G. Sherwood
Summary: This appendix provides the experimental data and references to generate the results
shown in this paper. Details of 1849 shear tests are included from the past 60 years. In
addition, worked examples of the strut-and-tie calculations and the sectional calculations
of the AASHTO/CSA method are included.
Introduction:
The tests included in this database were found through an exhaustive search of the papers in the
ACI Journal published between 1948 and Dec. 2006. No relevant tests were found in ACI papers from
before 1948. No papers in the ACI Journal were intentionally ignored, and all test results within these
papers were included in the database. Thus the full database (1849 tests) includes a number of reported
flexural failures as these tests were included within papers on shear. The analyses in the paper were
based solely on the beams reported to have failed in shear, however. In addition to the ACI Journal, a
selection of other references were also checked including the ASCE Journal from the mid 1950s to Dec.
2006, available issues of the Magazine of Concrete Research, Engineering Structures, Transactions of
the Japan Concrete Institute, student theses and published test reports. Finally, tests included in other
published databases were also included. Thus the database in this paper is a superset database and
includes all relevant tests from the 326 report database [ACI 1962], the database used by Brown, Bayrak
and Jirsa [ACI 2006], the database of Reineck et al. [ACI 2003], and the database of Tureyen and Frosch
[ACI 2002].
The general rules for selecting members for the database were the following:
- reinforced concrete (no limits on concrete strength)
- rectangular or Tee beam sections
- No axial load, no prestressing
- No stirrups, no fibers
- Steel reinforcement (no limits on yield strength)
- Normalweight concrete
- Deformed longitudinal reinforcement. (thus the 1962 Van den Berg tests were not included)
- Point loads or uniform loads, simply supported or continuous
- Bar cutoffs were allowed, and these tests are marked in the database
- Bundled bars are acceptable if the ACI limit of no more than 4 bars per bundle is satisfied.
- Reported anchorage and bond failures were removed and do not appear in the database.
- No geometrical limits on member size were used.
The following experiments were intentionally removed:
- The last 10 uniformly loaded tests by de Cossio and Seiss14 did not make sense. They were
listed as failing at twice the nominal moment capacity and yet the reported strain gauge
readings indicated no yield. In addition, the 326 Report from about the same time showed
different derived values from these same tests and therefore they were removed.
- In the tests of Batchelor and Kwun (ASCE 1981), a number of the tests results did not make
sense. These tests were performed in a statically indeterminate configuration and only some
of the tests showed self-consistent results. These were included and the others were ignored.

Columns in the database:


bw
b
h
d
a:M/V:
a:STM:
Load type:
a/d:
bear
w
A
fc
ag
fy
M/Vd:
Rep. Mode:
MMAX/MN:
Vu

Web width (mm)


Flange width. (mm) (compression assumed to remain in top flange for flexural calcs)
Overall member depth (mm)
Member effective depth (mm)
Distance from point of inflection to maximum moment location. (mm) For members
with uniform loads, this value was taken as 0.25L (see text in paper)
Distance from center of applied load to center of support. (mm). (Used for strut-and-tie)
Uniform versus concentrated loads. See figure on Page 4 of this appendix
Taken as (a:M/V)/d as this parameter is used for sectional strength calculations
longitudinal length of bearing plate on flexural tension side (mm). Taken from text of
paper, figures (assumed to be to scale), or simply assumed. If paper suggests that beam
was supported on a knife-edge, the bearing length was taken as 10 mm.
Percentage of reinforcement based on web width (As/bwd)
This column contains an X if the member had bar cutoffs
Concrete cylinder strength at date of testing (MPa). Taken as 80% of cube strength if
cylinder strength not available.
Maximum specified size of coarse aggregate. Assumed as in. (19 mm) if not listed
Yield strength of flexural reinforcement. Taken as 483 MPa (70 ksi) if not listed.
Derived parameter at the critical section for shear. (see Fig. on Page 4)
Reported mode of failure: F = flexure, S = shear (which includes diagonal-tension,
shear-compression, shear proper flexure-shear etc.)
Ratio of maximum observed moment to nominal moment capacity.
Maximum observed shear force (kN)
Ratio = Vu /(bw d f c ) . This number can be directly compared to the 2 in Eq. 11-3.

CSA Mode:

Predicted mode of failure by CSA code: F = flexural failure, S = sectional shear


failure by breakdown of beam action, C = crushing shear failure of strut in strut-and-tie
model
CSA Exp/Pred: Ratio of observed shear strength to predicted shear strength (sectional or strut-and-tie) for
members that were reported to fail in shear and which failed with MMAX/MN 1.10
ACI Mode: Predicted mode of failure by ACI code: F = flexural failure, S = sectional shear
failure by ACI 318 Eq. 11-5, C = crushing of strut by ACI strut-and-tie provisions.
ACI Exp/Pred: Ratio of observed shear strength to predicted shear strength (sectional or strut-and-tie) for
tests that were reported to fail in shear and for which MMAX/MN 1.10
Note: Values in the database that are shaded use assumed values as the original paper did not fully
explain what was done in the test or because the exact value of the parameter was not crucial to
behaviour (e.g. exact yield strength of reinforcement for tests that clearly failed in shear). Differences in
shading color do not have significance.
Conversion Factors:
1 inch = 25.4 mm;
145 psi = 1 MPa;

225 lbs = 1 kN

Example Strut and Tie Calculations by AASHTO/CSA method


The following steps were used to determine the strut-and-tie predictions for this paper. The numerical
example is given for specimen 2 of the P series of Leonhardt specimens (#363 in database).
fc = 32.4 MPa, shear span from center of load to center of support, a:M/V = a:STM = 400 mm. d = 270
mm, h = 320 mm, b = 190 mm, bearing length b = 100 mm, As = 1062 mm2, fy = 465 MPa.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)

Calculate the flexural compression depth aflex assuming yield of longitudinal bars. aflex =
Asfy/(b0.85fc) = 94.5 mm. This provides a first guess of the value chosen in step 2.
Select a depth of flexural compression associated with the actual stress in the longitudinal bars
at strut-and-tie shear failure, aselect. (say, 60 mm)
Determine the angle of principal compression: s = atan((d-0.5aselect)/(ashear) = 30.96
Determine ratio of diagonal strut force to total applied load (D/P) = 0.5/sin(s) = 0.972
Determine ratio of tension tie force to total applied load (T/P) = (D/P)cos(s) = 0.833
Calculate width of strut for this geometry: bstrut = b sin(s) + 2(h-d) cos(s) = 137.2 mm.
Estimate value of applied load P at failure, say P = 400 kN
Calculate compressive stress in strut, f2 = P(D/P)/(bstrutbw) = 14.9 MPa
Calculate strain in tension chord, s = P(T/P)/(AsEs) = 1.57 x10-3
Calculate principal tensile strain 1 = s + (s + 0.002)cot2(s) = 11.49 x10-3
Determine maximum allowable strut stress f2MAX = fc/(0.8 + 170 1) 0.85 fc = 11.8
MPa. In this calculation, fc is not being taken larger than 80 MPa for the CSA code.
Calculate ratio of f2/f2MAX =1.27. This value should equal 1.000 when converged.
Calculate new estimate of applied load Pnew = P/((1 + f2/f2MAX )/2) = 353 kN.
Iterate back to step 7 until applied load P converged. At this stage, the force P is the
maximum force that can be resisted by the strut for the given geometry assumed in
step 2. For this example, convergence occurs at 335.3 kN
Calculate stress in flexural compression chord, recalling that the compressive force is equal
to the tension force: fflex = P(T/P)/(aselectbw) = 24.5 MPa. This value should equal 0.85fc
when fully converged.
Calculate new estimate of aselect-new = aselect((1+ fflex/(0.85 fc)/2) = 56.7 mm.
Iterate with this value until convergence on both the inner loop of steps 7-14 and the outer
loop of steps 3-17.
Final convergence in this case occurs with aselect = 54.0 mm and P = 342.8 kN.

These calculations can be easily performed with a spreadsheet. Multiple analyses may be performed
simultaneously by calculating the strut-and-tie strength within one row of the spreadsheet. Then by
copying the columns from Step 14 back to Step 7 the inner convergence routine can be automated. By
copying the results from Step 17 to Step 2, the outer convergence routine can be automated as well.
For the ACI strut-and-tie method, the maximum allowable stress in step 11 is equal to 0.51fc. In
addition, if the angle s is less than 25, then the strength is taken as zero.

Example Sectional Calculation by AASHTO/CSA method


Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) simultaneously leads to a quadratic whose solution is:

19333
m f c
Vc

= 1 +
1
bw d 43.6(39 + s xe ) m

(inch and psi units)

or
7.02 m f
Vc
133.3
c
= 1 +
1
bw d (1000 + s xe ) m

where:
1
M

m=
+ 1
1.11
Vd
w

M a d 0.5a
=

Vd
d
d

(mm and MPa units)

M
= (0.25L / d 0.5)
Vd

M
( L / d 1)
=
Vd ( L / d 2)

Additionally:
f c should not exceed 8.305 MPa (100 psi)
-

Effective aggregate size, ag,eff , needed for higher strength concrete. If fc < 60 MPa, ag,eff =
ag. If fc > 70 MPa, ag,eff = 0. Linearly interpolate for intermediate concrete strengths.
sxe = 1.24d/(0.63+ag,eff) 0.77d (inches) or sxe = 31.5d/(16+ag,eff) 0.77d (mm)

Example:
Laupa and Siesss test S2 under P loading (#13 in database)
bw = 152 mm, d = 269 mm, a = 1295 mm, w = 2.08%, fc = 26.9 MPa, ag = 25 mm

For the given concrete strength, ag,eff = 25 mm, sxe = 31.5269/(16 + 25) = 207 mm.
M/Vd = (a - d)/d = (1295 - 269)/269 = 3.81
m = (1.113.81 + 1)/0.0208 = 251.6
7.02 251.6 26.9 133.3
Vc
= 1.023 MPa
= 1 +
1
(
1000 + 207 ) 251.6
bw d

V
or c = 2.37 f c (psi)
bw d

Author
and Notes
1 Richart
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13 Laupa & Seiss
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29 Ferguson &
30 Thompson
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1 1948 501a
1948 501b
1948 502a
1948 502b
1948 503a
1948 503b
1948 504a
1948 504b
1948 505a
1948 505b
1948 506a
1948 506b
2 1953 S2
1953 S3
1953 S4
1953 S5
1953 S11
1953 S13
1953 T-3average
1953 T-5a
1953 T-5b
1953 T-5c
1953 T-6b
1953 T-12a
1953 T-12b
1953 T-12c
1953 T2-Ma
1953 T2-Mb
3 1953 A1
1953 A2
1953 A3
1953 A4
1953 A5
1953 A6
1953 D1
1953 D2
1953 N1
1953 N2
1953 N3
1953 G4
1953 G5
1953 G6
1953 B1
1953 B2
1953 B3
1953 B4
1953 B5
1953 C1
1953 C2
1953 L1
1953 L2
1953 L3

bw
(mm)
1829
1829
1829
1829
1829
1829
1524
1524
1524
1524
1524
1524
152
152
152
152
152
152
102
102
102
102
102
147
147
147
152
152
102
102
102
102
102
102
178
178
108
108
108
108
108
108
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
108
108
108

b
(mm)
1829
1829
1829
1829
1829
1829
1524
1524
1524
1524
1524
1524
152
152
152
152
152
152
102
102
102
102
102
147
147
147
152
152
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432
432

h
(mm)
305
305
457
457
457
457
305
305
457
457
457
457
305
305
305
305
305
305
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
305
305
241
241
241
241
241
241
241
241
191
191
191
140
140
140
241
241
241
241
241
241
241
191
191
191

d
(mm)
254
254
406
406
406
406
254
254
406
406
406
406
269
265
263
262
267
262
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
269
269
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
178
178
178
114
114
114
210
210
210
210
210
210
210
159
159
159

a:M/V
(mm)
685
685
685
685
685
685
762
762
762
762
762
762
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
765
765
765
765
765
765
765
765
915
942
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
711

ag
fy
Vu
fc'
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
685
U1 2.70 356 1.38
25.4
25
425 159.2
S
0.87 600.1
685
U1 2.70 356 1.38
25.7
25
425 159.2
S
0.84 578.5
685
U1 1.69 356 0.54
24.3
25
420 220.4
S
1.14 706.8
685
U1 1.69 356 0.54
22.7
25
420 220.4
S
1.19 737.5
685
U1 1.69 356 0.54
24.4
25
420 220.4
S
1.20 747.8
685
U1 1.69 356 0.54
24.0
25
420 220.4
S
1.13 701.7
762
U1 3.00 356 1.77
24.9
25
510 141.2
S
0.70 518.1
762
U1 3.00 356 1.77
25.8
25
510 141.2
S
0.74 557.8
762
U1 1.88 356 0.68
25.4
25
425 202.8
S
1.21 751.9
762
U1 1.88 356 0.68
25.7
25
425 202.8
S
1.16 720.1
762
U1 1.88 356 0.68
23.1
25
425 202.8
S
1.11 685.9
762
U1 1.88 356 0.68
26.3
25
425 202.8
S
1.10 685.9
1295
P
4.82 10 2.08
26.9
25
284 183.7
S
0.97 42.5
1295
P
4.89 10 2.52
32.3
25
410 154.0
S
0.77 53.1
1295
P
4.92 10 3.21
30.8
25
309 121.9
S
0.85 55.6
1295
P
4.95 10 4.11
29.9
25
315
96.1
S
0.64 49.8
1295
P
4.85 10 1.90
14.8
25
328 202.5
S
0.86 33.8
1295
P
4.95 10 4.11
26.2
25
304
96.1
S
0.69 49.8
765
P
4.30 10 3.16
23.9
25
359 104.4
S
0.57 19.6
765
P
4.30 10 2.19
23.9
25
317 150.7
S
0.92 22.2
765
P
4.30 10 2.19
23.9
25
317 150.7
S
0.94 22.7
765
P
4.30 10 2.19
23.9
25
317 150.7
S
0.96 23.1
765
P
4.30 10 1.40
21.6
25
331 235.7
S
1.02 17.3
765
P
4.30 10 2.20
33.7
25
359 150.0
S
0.86 35.6
765
P
4.30 10 2.20
33.7
25
359 150.0
S
0.82 33.8
765
P
4.30 10 2.20
33.7
25
359 150.0
S
0.77 32.0
915
P
3.40 10 1.39
29.8
25
331 172.7
S
0.84 42.3
942
P
3.50 10 1.39
27.7
25
331 179.9
S
0.91 44.5
711
P
3.39 95 4.76
29.7
6
276
50.3
S
0.38 29.1
711
P
3.39 95 4.76
27.3
6
276
50.3
S
0.35 27.0
711
P
3.39 95 4.76
35.1
6
276
50.3
S
0.43 33.6
711
P
3.39 95 4.76
35.0
6
276
50.3
S
0.41 31.6
711
P
3.39 95 4.76
45.4
6
276
50.3
S
0.43 33.9
711
P
3.39 95 4.76
38.7
6
276
50.3
S
0.45 35.6
711
P
3.39 95 2.72
31.3
6
276
88.0
S
0.63 48.7
711
P
3.39 95 2.72
29.6
6
276
88.0
S
0.67 52.1
711
P
4.00 127 2.97
20.7
16
276 101.0
S
0.64 23.8
711
P
4.00 127 2.97
20.6
16
276 101.0
S
0.65 23.9
711
P
4.00 127 2.97
17.5
16
276 101.0
S
0.59 21.5
711
P
6.22 127 4.62
22.9
16
276 113.0
S
0.60 14.0
711
P
6.22 127 4.62
21.7
16
276 113.0
S
0.68 15.8
711
P
6.22 127 4.62
27.2
16
276 113.0
S
0.75 17.6
711
P
3.39 127 4.76
35.7
6
276
50.3
S
0.45 35.5
711
P
3.39 127 4.76
33.5
6
276
50.3
S
0.41 31.6
711
P
3.39 127 4.76
40.0
6
276
50.3
S
0.50 39.4
711
P
3.39 127 4.76
43.4
6
276
50.3
S
0.56 43.9
711
P
3.39 127 4.76
41.0
6
276
50.3
S
0.49 38.3
711
P
3.39 127 4.76
33.5
16
276
50.3
S
0.64 50.1
711
P
3.39 127 4.76
33.5
16
276
50.3
S
0.50 38.8
711
P
4.48 127 3.33
21.7
16
276 104.6
S
0.83 27.4
711
P
4.48 127 3.33
22.6
16
276 104.6
S
0.90 29.8
711
P
4.48 127 3.33
22.2
16
276 104.6
S
0.83 27.4

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


5

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
3.09
S
1.27
S
1.43
2.96
S
1.22
S
1.37
2.33
F
F
2.51
C
S
2.46
F
F
2.32
F
F
3.23
S
1.26
S
1.47
3.42
S
1.35
S
1.56
2.90
S
S
2.76
S
S
2.78
S
S
2.60
S
S
2.41
S
1.02
S
1.14
2.79
S
1.14
S
1.31
3.01
S
1.13
S
1.36
2.76
S
0.96
S
1.20
2.61
S
1.03
S
1.21
2.94
S
1.01
S
1.27
2.67
S
0.90
S
1.16
3.03
S
1.14
S
1.39
3.10
S
1.16
S
1.42
3.16
S
1.19
S
1.45
2.49
S
1.07
S
1.19
2.82
S
1.12
S
1.32
2.68
S
1.06
S
1.25
2.54
S
1.01
S
1.19
2.27
S
0.99
S
1.07
2.48
S
1.08
S
1.17
3.01
S
0.97
S
1.13
2.92
S
0.93
S
1.09
3.21
S
1.06
S
1.24
3.03
S
1.00
S
1.16
2.84
S
0.96
S
1.13
3.24
S
1.08
S
1.26
2.81
S
1.05
S
1.21
3.09
S
1.15
S
1.33
3.28
S
1.10
S
1.39
3.31
S
1.11
S
1.41
3.22
S
1.06
S
1.35
2.86
S
0.94
S
1.25
3.31
S
1.08
S
1.44
3.29
S
1.11
S
1.46
3.36
S
1.11
S
1.30
3.09
S
1.01
S
1.18
3.53
S
1.18
S
1.38
3.77
S
1.27
S
1.49
3.38
S
1.13
S
1.33
4.90
S
1.52
S
1.87
3.79
S
1.18
S
1.45
4.13
S
1.38
S
1.77
4.40
S
1.48
S
1.90
4.08
S
1.37
S
1.76

Author
and Notes
Moody Viest
Elstner and
Hognestad
("Part I" paper)

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93 Ferguson
94
95
96

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
4 1954 III-24a
1954 III-24b
1954 III-25a
1954 III-25b
1954 III-26a
1954 III-26b
1954 III-27a
1954 III-27b
1954 III-28a
1954 III-28b
1954 III-29a
1954 III-29b
1954 A-A1
1954 A-A2
1954 A-A3
1954 A-A4
1954 A-B1
1954 A-B2
1954 A-B3
1954 A-B4
1954 A-C1
1954 A-C2
1954 A-C3
1954 A-C4
1954 B-B1
1954 B-B2
1954 B-B3
1954 B-B4
1954 B-B5
1954 B-B6
1954 B-B7
1954 B-B8
1954 B-B9
1954 B-B10
1954 B-B11
1954 B-B12
1954 B-B13
1954 B-B14
1954 B-B15
1954 B-B16
5 1956 F2
1956 F3
1956 F5
1956 F7

bw
(mm)
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
101
103
95
102

b
(mm)
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
101
103
95
102

h
(mm)
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
210
210
210
210

ag
fy
Vu
f c'
d a:M/V a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) (mm) (mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 2.72
17.8
25
483
28.0
S
0.65 296.5 8.92
C
1.70
C
1.56
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 2.72
20.6
25
483
28.0
S
0.59 303.2 8.48
C
1.53
C
1.38
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 3.46
24.3
25
483
22.0
S
0.43 267.6 6.89
C
1.13
C
1.03
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 3.46
17.2
25
483
22.0
S
0.65 289.8 8.86
C
1.67
C
1.58
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 4.25
21.7
25
483
17.9
S
0.75 421.1 11.49 C
1.93
C
1.82
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 4.25
20.6
25
483
17.9
S
0.74 396.6 11.09 C
1.90
C
1.80
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 2.72
21.4
25
483
28.0
S
0.67 347.7 9.55
C
1.70
C
1.53
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 2.72
22.9
25
483
28.0
S
0.66 356.6 9.46
C
1.64
C
1.46
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 3.46
23.3
25
483
22.0
S
0.50 303.2 7.97
C
1.33
C
1.22
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 3.46
22.4
25
483
22.0
S
0.59 341.0 9.14
C
1.55
C
1.43
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 4.25
21.7
25
483
17.9
S
0.70 389.9 10.62 C
1.79
C
1.68
533 813
813
P
1.52 203 4.25
25.0
25
483
17.9
S
0.68 436.6 11.10 C
1.77
C
1.64
262 800
800
P
3.06 102 2.17
30.3
25
483
94.9
S
0.48 60.7 2.85
S
1.04
S
1.24
267 800
800
P
3.00 102 2.15
31.0
25
483
93.0
S
0.51 67.4 3.07
S
1.12
S
1.34
268 800
800
P
2.99 102 2.22
31.0
25
483
89.4
S
0.56 76.3 3.46
S
1.25
S
1.49
270 800
800
P
2.96 102 2.37
31.5
25
483
82.8
S
0.49 71.8 3.21
S
1.14
S
1.37
267 800
800
P
3.00 102 1.62
21.2
25
483 123.5
S
0.59 56.9 3.14
S
1.18
S
1.39
268 800
800
P
2.99 102 1.63
21.6
25
483 121.8
S
0.62 60.7 3.30
S
1.24
S
1.46
270 800
800
P
2.96 102 1.60
19.2
25
483 122.7
S
0.59 56.3 3.22
S
1.19
S
1.41
272 800
800
P
2.95 102 1.66
16.8
25
483 117.3
S
0.60 56.3 3.43
S
1.23
S
1.47
268 800
800
P
2.99 102 0.81
6.3
25
483 245.2
S
0.52 20.7 2.08
S
0.80
S
0.93
272 800
800
P
2.94 102 0.83
6.1
25
483 234.2
S
0.62 25.1 2.54
S
0.97
S
1.13
273 800
800
P
2.93 102 0.80
6.9
25
483 241.3
S
0.61 26.0 2.46
S
0.96
S
1.10
274 800
800
P
2.92 102 0.82
6.8
25
483 233.7
S
0.59 25.8 2.45
S
0.95
S
1.09
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
36.7
25
483 127.5
S
0.63 58.5 2.85
S
1.16
S
1.31
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
16.7
25
483 127.5
S
0.49 36.3 2.62
S
0.94
S
1.14
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
25.8
25
483 127.5
S
0.61 53.0 3.07
S
1.18
S
1.38
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
15.4
25
483 127.5
S
0.58 41.2 3.09
S
1.10
S
1.34
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
30.7
25
483 127.5
S
0.58 52.7 2.80
S
1.11
S
1.28
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
15.8
25
483 127.5
S
0.49 35.2 2.61
S
0.93
S
1.13
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
30.9
25
483 127.5
S
0.57 51.9 2.75
S
1.09
S
1.25
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
12.2
25
483 127.5
S
0.52 31.8 2.68
S
0.93
S
1.13
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
41.2
25
483 127.5
S
0.57 54.1 2.48
S
1.03
S
1.15
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
24.0
25
483 127.5
S
0.58 49.6 2.98
S
1.14
S
1.34
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
38.1
25
483 127.5
S
0.65 60.8 2.90
S
1.19
S
1.34
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
20.2
25
483 127.5
S
0.60 47.9 3.14
S
1.16
S
1.39
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
37.8
25
483 127.5
S
0.60 56.3 2.70
S
1.10
S
1.25
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
22.6
25
483 127.5
S
0.53 43.9 2.72
S
1.03
S
1.21
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
37.4
25
483 127.5
S
0.55 51.9 2.50
S
1.02
S
1.15
268 914
914
P
3.41 203 1.89
16.3
25
483 127.5
S
0.52 38.5 2.81
S
1.01
S
1.22
189 610
610
P
3.23 25 2.10
29.3
6
483 106.0
S
0.47 22.2 2.60
S
1.00
S
1.15
183 267
267
P
1.45 25 2.12
24.0
6
483
34.4
S
0.37 36.9 4.79
C
1.00
C
0.95
181 356
356
P
1.97 25 2.33
25.9
6
483
42.3
S
0.47 34.2 4.71
C
1.47
S
1.64
184 356
356
P
1.93 25 2.14
27.2
6
483
45.2
S
0.44 33.9 4.18
C
1.38
C
0.99

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

#
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150

Author
and Notes
Moody
Viest
Elstner
Hognestad
("part II
paper")

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
6 1955 I-g
1955 I-h
1955 I-i
1955 I-1a
1955 I-1b
1955 I-2a
1955 I-2b
1955 I-2c
1955 I-3a
1955 I-3b
1955 I-j
1955 I-k
1955 I-4a
1955 I-4b
1955 I-5a
1955 I-5b
1955 I-6a
1955 I-6b
1955 I-l
1955 I-m
1955 I-7a
1955 I-7b
1955 I-8a
1955 I-8b
1955 I-9a
1955 I-9b
1955 I-n
1955 I-o
1955 I-p
1955 I-q
1955 I-r
1955 II-a
1955 II-b
1955 II-c
1955 II-d
1955 II-17a
1955 II-17b
1955 II-18a
1955 II-18b
1955 II-19a
1955 II-19b
1955 II-20a
1955 II-20b
1955 IV-g
1955 IV-h
1955 IV-i
1955 IV-j
1955 IV-k
1955 IV-l
1955 V-b
1955 V-d
1955 V-f
1955 VI-a
1955 VI-b

bw
(mm)
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178

b
(mm)
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178

h
(mm)
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
381

ag
fy
Vu
f c'
d a:M/V a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) (mm) (mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
298 406
813
P
1.36 203 0.95
30.6
25
483
38.1
S
0.82 133.4 5.48
C
1.72
S
1.90
298 406
813
P
1.36 203 1.47
24.4
25
483
24.6
S
0.58 132.0 6.06
C
1.88
S
1.73
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.10
22.9
25
483
15.9
S
0.48 146.8 6.82
C
2.08
S
1.95
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
17.3
25
483
11.7
S
0.39 114.2 6.10
S
1.76
S
1.74
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
19.3
25
483
11.7
S
0.40 129.0 6.52
S
1.90
S
1.86
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
16.3
25
483
8.9
S
0.40 111.2 6.11
S
1.67
S
1.75
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
18.8
25
483
8.9
S
0.44 140.9 7.21
S
1.99
S
2.06
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
26.1
25
483
8.9
S
0.32 139.4 6.06
C
1.65
S
1.73
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
15.8
25
483
7.0
S
0.50 132.0 7.38
S
1.94
S
2.11
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
20.5
25
483
7.0
S
0.43 149.7 7.35
S
1.97
S
2.10
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 1.47
33.4
25
483
22.7
S
0.62 155.7 5.98
C
1.69
S
1.72
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.10
26.6
25
483
15.9
S
0.51 161.6 6.96
C
2.01
S
1.99
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
29.8
25
483
11.7
S
0.36 148.3 6.04
C
1.61
S
1.72
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
27.9
25
483
11.7
S
0.33 132.0 5.55
C
1.52
S
1.59
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
28.0
25
483
8.9
S
0.39 177.9 7.47
C
1.98
S
2.13
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
27.9
25
483
8.9
S
0.36 163.1 6.87
C
1.82
S
1.96
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
31.4
25
483
7.0
S
0.33 170.5 6.76
C
1.67
S
1.93
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
24.6
25
483
7.0
S
0.43 177.9 7.97
S
2.16
S
2.28
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 1.47
35.2
25
483
22.7
S
0.62 158.6 5.94
C
1.65
S
1.73
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.10
30.3
25
483
15.9
S
0.47 155.7 6.29
C
1.73
S
1.80
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
33.0
25
483
11.7
S
0.40 170.5 6.59
C
1.69
S
1.88
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
34.5
25
483
11.7
S
0.35 148.3 5.61
C
1.41
S
1.60
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
33.0
25
483
8.9
S
0.43 215.0 8.31
C
2.06
S
2.37
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
32.3
25
483
8.9
S
0.33 163.1 6.37
C
1.59
S
1.82
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
36.3
25
483
7.0
S
0.33 192.7 7.10
C
1.65
S
2.03
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
32.1
25
483
7.0
S
0.36 192.7 7.56
C
1.85
S
2.16
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 1.47
36.1
25
483
22.7
S
0.69 175.0 6.47
C
1.78
S
1.89
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.10
34.8
25
483
15.9
S
0.56 189.8 7.15
C
1.87
S
2.04
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
41.2
25
483
11.7
S
0.44 197.2 6.83
C
1.61
S
1.95
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 3.76
33.7
25
483
8.9
S
0.38 192.7 7.38
C
1.82
S
2.11
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
40.9
25
483
7.0
S
0.33 207.6 7.21
C
1.60
S
2.06
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 0.54
26.3
25
483
0.0
S
0.63 192.7 4.77
C
0.87
C
0.65
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 0.84
25.7
25
483
0.0
S
0.47 215.0 5.39
C
0.90
C
0.74
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 1.20
27.9
25
483
0.0
S
0.39 249.1 5.99
C
0.91
C
0.79
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 1.63
23.7
25
483
0.0
S
0.39 311.4 8.12
C
1.23
C
1.16
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 2.15
18.3
25
483
0.0
S
0.32 278.7 8.28
C
1.34
C
1.35
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 2.15
20.7
25
483
0.0
S
0.28 252.1 7.04
C
1.08
C
1.08
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 2.82
15.0
25
483
0.0
S
0.42 326.2 10.71 C
1.84
C
1.93
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 2.82
18.6
25
483
0.0
S
0.28 266.9 7.85
C
1.23
C
1.27
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 3.46
20.9
25
483
0.0
S
0.33 357.3 9.92
C
1.45
C
1.51
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 3.46
22.3
25
483
0.0
S
0.28 324.7 8.72
C
1.24
C
1.29
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 4.25
19.9
25
483
0.0
S
0.34 348.4 9.91
C
1.46
C
1.55
533 406
813
P
0.76 203 4.25
20.4
25
483
0.0
S
0.35 369.2 10.37 C
1.51
C
1.60
305 610 1219
P
2.00 203 0.95
23.4
25
483 105.3
S
0.73 80.1 3.68
S
1.48
S
1.59
305 610 1219
P
2.00 203 1.47
25.9
25
483
68.0
S
0.55 89.0 3.89
S
1.39
S
1.55
305 610 1219
P
2.00 203 2.10
24.1
25
483
47.6
S
0.42 86.4 3.91
S
1.26
S
1.40
305 610 1219
P
2.00 203 2.86
24.8
25
483
35.0
S
0.42 105.5 4.70
S
1.42
S
1.52
305 610 1219
P
2.00 203 3.76
25.0
25
483
26.6
S
0.40 111.8 4.97
S
1.42
S
1.44
305 610 1219
P
2.00 203 4.76
27.0
25
483
21.0
S
0.34 102.9 4.40
S
1.21
S
1.26
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 1.47
26.0
25
483
22.7
S
0.39 94.9 4.13
C
1.27
S
1.18
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 2.86
24.8
25
483
11.7
S
0.30 113.4 5.06
C
1.44
S
1.45
305 406
813
P
1.33 203 4.76
23.3
25
483
7.0
S
0.28 110.5 5.08
S
1.37
S
1.45
305 542
813
P
1.78 203 0.95
28.2
25
483
81.9
S
0.81 102.7 4.30
C
1.53
S
1.81
305 542
813
P
1.78 203 1.47
28.7
25
483
52.9
S
0.93 172.1 7.14
C
2.30
S
2.71

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


7

Author
and Notes
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158 Morrow and
159 Viest
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172 (take 1st yield)
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
6 1955 VI-c
1955 VI-d
1955 VI-e
1955 VI-f
1955 VI-g
1955 VI-h
1955 VI-i
7 1957 B14-B2
1957 B14-E2
1957 B14-A4
1957 B14-B4
1957 B14-E4
1957 B14-A6
1957 B14-B6
1957 B21-B2
1957 B21-E2
1957 B21-A4
1957 B21-B4
1957 B21-E4
1957 B21-E4R
1957 B21-F4
1957 B21-G4
1957 B21-A6
1957 B21-B6
1957 B28-B2
1957 B28-E2
1957 B28-A4
1957 B28-B4
1957 B28-E4
1957 B28-A6
1957 B28-B6
1957 B40-B4
1957 B56-B2
1957 B56-E2
1957 B56-A4
1957 B56-B4
1957 B56-E4
1957 B56-A6
1957 B56-B6
1957 B70-B2
1957 B70-A4
1957 B70-A6
1957 B84-B4
1957 B113-B4
1957 B113-B4R

bw
(mm)
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
308
305
305
305
308
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
308
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

b
(mm)
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
308
305
305
305
308
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
308
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

h
(mm)
381
381
381
381
381
381
381
406
410
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406

d
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
368
375
362
368
368
356
368
367
375
368
368
365
368
370
373
356
375
362
372
368
368
368
353
368
368
368
368
375
368
368
356
372
365
368
356
363
365
368

a:M/V
(mm)
542
542
542
542
542
542
542
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
711
711
711
711
711
711
711
1016
1422
1422
1422
1422
1422
1422
1422
1778
1778
1778
2134
2870
2870

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
813
P
1.78 203 2.10
24.7
25
483
37.0
S
0.63 146.8 6.56
C
2.10
S
2.17
813
P
1.78 203 2.86
26.9
25
483
27.2
S
0.54 157.5 6.75
C
2.00
S
2.00
813
P
1.78 203 3.76
28.4
25
483
20.7
S
0.49 170.8 7.12
C
2.00
S
2.03
813
P
1.78 203 2.10
38.4
25
483
37.0
S
0.72 186.8 6.70
C
1.84
S
2.39
813
P
1.78 203 2.86
38.1
25
483
27.2
S
0.52 173.5 6.24
C
1.63
S
1.99
813
P
1.78 203 3.76
36.6
25
483
20.7
S
0.53 206.8 7.60
C
1.94
S
2.17
813
P
1.78 203 4.76
41.5
25
483
16.3
S
0.41 194.8 6.72
C
1.59
S
1.92
356
P
0.97 102 1.85
14.6
6
483
26.1
S
0.55 367.0 10.29 C
1.39
C
1.86
356
P
0.95 102 0.57
12.7
6
483
83.3
S
0.96 278.0 8.23
C
1.45
C
1.66
356
P
0.98 102 2.50
22.6
6
483
19.6
S
0.55 511.5 11.76 C
1.25
C
1.59
356
P
0.97 102 1.85
26.3
6
483
26.1
S
0.60 500.4 10.46 C
1.15
C
1.41
356
P
0.97 102 1.24
28.9
6
483
38.9
S
0.84 511.5 10.21 C
1.18
C
1.31
356
P
1.00 102 3.83
45.4
6
483
13.1
S
0.59 900.7 14.84 C
1.12
C
1.32
356
P
0.97 102 1.85
46.8
6
483
26.1
S
0.84 778.4 12.21 C
1.13
C
1.23
533
P
1.45 102 1.86
13.9
6
483
39.1
S
0.56 238.5 6.90
C
1.72
C
1.71
533
P
1.42 102 0.57
11.3
6
483 124.9
S
1.12 211.7 6.64
C
C
533
P
1.45 102 2.46
29.8
6
483
29.4
S
0.74 523.1 10.28 C
1.89
C
1.77
533
P
1.45 102 1.85
27.1
6
483
39.1
S
0.71 396.4 8.17
C
1.62
C
1.48
533
P
1.46 102 1.24
24.2
6
483
58.9
S
1.08 423.0 9.30
C
2.02
C
1.71
533
P
1.45 102 1.24
31.9
6
483
58.4
S
1.05 434.2 8.24
C
1.69
C
1.37
533
P
1.44 102 1.17
31.4
6
483
61.6
S
1.18 467.6 8.91
C
C
533
P
1.43 102 0.58
31.6
6
468 123.2
F
1.09 222.4 4.19
F
F
533
P
1.50 102 3.83
45.3
6
483
19.6
S
0.57 578.8 9.55
C
1.31
C
1.15
533
P
1.42 102 1.82
45.5
6
483
39.1
S
0.93 578.7 9.05
C
1.61
C
1.38
711
P
1.96 102 1.88
14.7
6
483
52.3
S
0.62 201.2 5.73
S
2.09
S
1.95
711
P
1.91 102 0.57
13.7
6
483 167.9
S
0.89 130.0 3.69
S
1.84
C
1.30
711
P
1.93 102 2.46
27.5
6
483
39.2
S
0.63 323.5 6.61
C
2.13
C
1.57
711
P
1.93 102 1.85
32.3
6
483
52.2
S
0.59 256.8 4.84
C
1.54
C
1.06
711
P
1.93 102 1.24
33.1
6
483
77.9
S
0.86 267.9 4.99
C
1.70
C
1.08
711
P
2.02 102 3.83
47.2
6
483
26.6
S
0.44 334.7 5.40
C
1.21
S
1.78
711
P
1.93 102 1.85
43.9
6
483
52.2
S
0.71 323.5 5.24
C
1.51
C
0.98
1016
P
2.76 102 1.85
34.8
6
483
95.1
S
0.51 157.6 2.87
S
1.28
S
1.26
1422
P
3.86 102 1.85
14.7
6
483 154.7
S
0.62 103.2 2.89
S
1.26
S
1.28
1422
P
3.86 102 0.58
14.7
6
483 493.5
S
1.14 82.7 2.31
S
S
1422
P
3.80 102 2.41
25.0
6
483 116.0
S
0.55 140.9 2.97
S
1.30
S
1.32
1422
P
3.86 102 1.85
27.2
6
483 154.7
S
0.60 125.4 2.58
S
1.23
S
1.19
1422
P
3.86 102 1.24
28.4
6
483 230.8
S
0.73 112.1 2.26
S
1.23
S
1.09
1422
P
4.00 102 3.79
39.9
6
483
79.2
S
0.49 181.1 3.15
S
1.30
S
1.36
1422
P
3.83 102 1.83
45.7
6
483 154.5
S
0.60 139.8 2.20
S
1.14
S
1.05
1778
P
4.87 102 1.86
16.3
6
483 208.0
S
0.67 93.1 2.49
S
1.18
S
1.16
1778
P
4.83 102 2.46
27.2
6
483 155.6
S
0.66 136.4 2.80
S
1.32
S
1.30
1778
P
5.00 102 3.83
45.0
6
483 104.4
S
0.60 182.1 3.02
S
1.34
S
1.37
2134
P
5.87 102 1.88
27.2
6
483 259.0
S
0.84 116.4 2.42
S
1.32
S
1.18
2870
P
7.86 102 1.86
32.6
6
483 368.7
S
1.05 111.6 2.11
S
1.32
S
1.06
2870
P
7.79 102 1.86
32.6
6
345 365.2
F
1.03 84.5 1.59
F
F

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

Author
and Notes
196 Al-Alusi
197
198 (used reported
199 steel yield
200 strength, but
201 the #3 bars
202 look to have
203 had a higher
204 yield, or
205 non-bilinear
206 stress-strain)
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221 Chang & Kesler
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
8 1957 II-6
1957 II-12
1957 II-11
1957 2
1957 III-21
1957 III-15
1957 3
1957 10
1957 4
1957 II-13
1957 5
1957 18
1957 1
1957 22
1957 7
1957 24
1957 III-16
1957 17
1957 8
1957 19
1957 25
1957 9
1957 20
1957 14
1957 23
9 1958 1A1
1958 1B1
1958 1C1
1958 1C2
1958 IIA1
1958 IIA2
1958 IIB1
1958 IIC1
1958 IIIA1
1958 IIIA2
1958 IIIB1
1958 IIIB2
1958 IIIC1
1958 4-21a
1958 4-21b
1958 4-22a
1958 4-22b
1958 4-23a
1958 4-23b
1958 5-21a
1958 5-21b
1958 5-22a
1958 5-22b
1958 5-23a
1958 5-23b

bw
(mm)
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102

b
(mm)
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102

h
(mm)
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
146
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

f c'
ag
fy
d a:M/V a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) (mm) (mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
127 254
254
P
2.00 64 1.48
27.1
6
366
67.6
S
1.44
127 318
318
P
2.50 64 2.63
25.2
6
366
57.0
S
0.77
127 432
432
P
3.40 64 2.63
28.6
6
366
91.3
S
0.67
127 432
432
P
3.40 64 1.47
27.9
6
366 163.3
S
0.97
127 432
432
P
3.40 64 2.74
29.2
6
366
87.6
S
0.89
127 508
508
P
4.00 64 2.67
18.3
6
366 112.4
S
0.79
127 508
508
P
4.00 64 1.49
27.2
6
366 201.3
S
1.12
127 508
508
P
4.00 64 2.70
28.6
6
366 111.1
S
0.65
127 508
508
P
4.00 64 1.50
26.6
6
366 200.0
S
1.08
127 508
508
P
4.00 64 2.72
28.7
6
366 110.3
S
0.74
127 533
533
P
4.20 64 1.48
27.2
6
366 216.2
S
1.17
127 572
572
P
4.50 64 2.65
26.9
6
366 132.1
S
0.71
127 572
572
P
4.50 64 1.48
27.1
6
366 236.5
F
1.11
127 572
572
P
4.50 64 1.49
28.6
6
366 234.9
F
1.14
127 572
572
P
4.50 64 2.71
25.4
6
366 129.2
S
0.67
127 572
572
P
4.50 64 2.71
28.5
6
366 129.2
S
0.76
127 572
572
P
4.50 64 2.72
28.1
6
366 128.7
S
0.73
127 699
699
P
5.50 64 2.65
29.6
6
366 169.8
S
0.85
127 699
699
P
5.50 64 2.71
27.0
6
366 166.1
S
0.81
127 699
699
P
5.50 64 4.21
30.6
6
366 106.9
S
0.56
127 699
699
P
5.50 64 2.85
26.0
6
366 157.9
S
0.78
127 826
826
P
6.50 64 2.71
31.7
6
366 203.0
S
1.00
127 826
826
P
6.50 64 4.21
27.3
6
366 130.6
S
0.71
127 940
940
P
7.40 64 2.70
27.0
6
366 237.0
F
1.03
127 940
940
P
7.40 64 4.40
28.2
6
366 145.5
S
0.72
137 533
533
P
3.90 64 2.89
27.6
25
328 100.5
S
0.74
137 330
330
P
2.42 64 1.86
27.6
25
328
76.1
S
0.64
137 432
432
P
3.16 64 2.37
27.6
25
328
91.1
S
0.69
137 432
432
P
3.16 64 2.37
27.6
25
328
91.1
S
0.63
137 432
432
P
3.16 64 1.86
17.7
25
328 116.1
S
0.80
137 432
432
P
3.16 64 1.86
17.7
25
328 116.1
S
0.81
137 533
533
P
3.90 64 2.37
17.7
25
328 122.5
S
0.81
137 330
330
P
2.42 64 2.89
17.7
25
328
49.0
S
0.48
137 533
533
P
3.90 64 2.37
14.9
25
328 122.5
S
0.89
137 254
254
P
1.86 64 2.37
14.9
25
328
39.2
S
0.51
137 432
432
P
3.16 64 1.86
14.9
25
328 116.1
S
0.75
137 432
432
P
3.16 64 1.86
14.9
25
328 116.1
S
0.76
137 330
330
P
2.42 64 2.89
14.9
25
328
49.0
S
0.54
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 2.89
38.6
25
328
87.6
S
0.66
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 1.86
38.6
25
328 136.1
S
1.13
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 1.86
31.9
25
328 136.1
S
1.01
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 1.86
31.7
25
328 136.1
S
1.10
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 1.86
32.2
25
328 136.1
S
1.02
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 1.86
32.2
25
328 136.1
S
1.06
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 2.89
32.2
25
328
87.6
S
0.94
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 2.89
32.2
25
328
87.6
S
0.89
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 2.89
31.2
25
328
87.6
S
0.73
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 2.89
31.2
25
328
87.6
S
0.85
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 2.89
32.1
25
328
87.6
S
0.80
137 483
483
P
3.53 64 2.89
32.1
25
328
87.6
S
0.76

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

Vu
(kN)
36.3
27.0
17.4
14.4
24.1
17.2
14.3
14.7
13.9
17.0
14.2
14.0
12.6
13.0
13.5
15.4
14.8
13.8
13.4
14.0
13.5
14.1
15.0
12.7
14.0
19.9
19.6
19.6
17.8
17.0
17.3
16.6
17.8
17.0
20.7
15.3
15.5
18.4
21.1
24.6
21.4
23.4
21.6
22.5
28.9
27.5
22.4
25.9
24.5
23.4

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
8.66
C
F
6.69
S
2.10
S
2.55
4.05
S
1.41
S
1.74
3.40
S
1.41
S
1.59
5.54
S
1.91
S
2.37
5.00
S
1.71
S
2.15
3.41
S
S
3.42
S
1.24
S
1.52
3.36
S
1.45
S
1.60
3.95
S
1.43
S
1.75
3.38
S
S
3.36
S
1.26
S
1.53
3.02
S
S
3.03
S
S
3.34
S
1.24
S
1.51
3.59
S
1.35
S
1.63
3.48
S
1.30
S
1.58
3.17
S
1.29
S
1.49
3.22
S
1.28
S
1.50
3.15
S
1.12
S
1.40
3.31
S
1.29
S
1.53
3.12
S
1.35
S
1.50
3.58
S
1.31
S
1.62
3.03
S
S
3.28
S
1.24
S
1.51
3.28
S
1.10
S
1.43
3.23
S
1.07
S
1.34
3.24
S
1.08
S
1.39
2.94
S
0.98
S
1.26
3.52
S
1.18
S
1.51
3.56
S
1.20
S
1.53
3.42
S
1.14
S
1.49
3.67
S
1.02
S
1.26
3.83
S
1.25
S
1.64
4.65
S
1.26
C
1.12
3.45
S
1.13
S
1.46
3.48
S
1.14
S
1.47
4.13
S
1.13
S
1.38
2.94
S
1.01
S
1.29
3.44
S
S
3.29
S
1.26
S
1.52
3.61
S
S
3.30
S
1.26
S
1.52
3.44
S
1.31
S
1.59
4.41
S
1.47
S
1.90
4.20
S
1.40
S
1.81
3.48
S
1.16
S
1.50
4.03
S
1.34
S
1.73
3.75
S
1.25
S
1.62
3.58
S
1.19
S
1.54

Author
and Notes
246 Watstein and
247 Mathey
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255 Rodriquez
256 Bianchini
257 Viest
258 Kesler
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270 Baldwin &
271 Viest
272 Sozen,
273 Zwoyer, and
274 Seiss
275
276 UIUC # 452
277
278
279
280
281
282
283 de Cossio &
284 Seiss
285
286 (skipped
287 last UDL tests
288 as results do not
289 make sense.
290 They also differ
291 from the 326 report
292 quoted values).
293
294
295

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
10 1958 A-15
1958 B-18-1
1958 B-18-2
1958 C-18-1
1958 C-18-2
1958 D-18-1
1958 D-18-2
1958 E-18-1
1958 E-18-2
11 1959 E6N1
1959 E6N2
1959 E6N3
1959 C6N1
1959 C6N2
1959 C6N3
1959 E3N1
1959 E3N2
1959 C3N1
1959 C3N2
1959 E2N1
1959 E2N2
1959 E2N3
1959 C2N1
1959 C2N2
12 1959 0B28
1959 0F28
13 1959 A.32.08
1959 A.32.11
1959 A.32.17
1959 A.32.19
1959 B.31.15
1959 B.32.11
1959 B.32.19
1959 B.32.31
1959 B.32.34
1959 B.32.41
1959 B.32.54
14 1960 L-1
1960 L-2
1960 L-2A
1960 L-3
1960 L-4
1960 L-5
1960 L-6
1960 L-1R
1960 L-2R
1960 L-2aR
1960 L-3R
1960 A-1
1960 A-2

bw
(mm)
152
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
152
154
154
156
152
154
152
152
152
154
157
152
156
156
152
305
305
152
155
152
155
75
76
79
79
81
75
71
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

b
(mm)
152
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
152
154
154
156
152
154
152
152
152
154
157
152
156
156
152
305
305
152
155
152
155
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

h
(mm)
381
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
406
406
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
333
404
404
404
404
404
404
404
404
318
318
318
321
318
314
318
318
318
318
318
318
321
318
318
368
368
235
227
225
229
259
264
259
259
257
269
264
252
252
252
252
252
252
252
252
252
252
252
254
254

a:M/V
(mm)
686
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
288
288
288
288
288
288
524
518
514
519
565
545
553
549
563
711
711
914
914
914
914
1372
914
914
914
914
914
914
508
762
762
1016
1270
1524
1778
508
762
762
1016
508
762

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
686
P
2.06 89 1.53
23.8
25
414
69.4
F
1.02 133.4 6.50
C
S
610
P
1.51 89 3.05
25.4
25
267
24.7
S
0.87 311.4 9.08
C
1.77
C
1.67
610
P
1.51 89 3.05
23.0
25
267
24.7
S
0.88 309.1 9.47
C
1.91
C
1.83
610
P
1.51 89 1.85
25.6
25
490
40.8
S
0.74 289.1 8.40
C
1.75
C
1.54
610
P
1.51 89 1.88
26.4
25
466
40.1
S
0.81 311.4 8.90
C
1.83
C
1.60
610
P
1.51 89 1.17
25.7
25
724
64.5
S
0.72 266.9 7.74
C
1.76
C
1.41
610
P
1.51 89 1.16
27.0
25
669
65.1
S
0.76 266.9 7.55
C
1.70
C
1.35
610
P
1.51 89 0.75
22.4
25
686 100.6
S
0.91 220.8 6.85
C
1.79
C
1.34
610
P
1.51 89 0.75
26.7
25
688 100.6
S
0.90 222.4 6.32
C
1.58
C
1.13
432
P
0.91 102 1.59
22.1
25
483
14.3
S
0.65 211.1 11.18 C
1.57
C
1.55
432
P
0.91 102 1.59
17.9
25
483
14.3
S
0.52 162.5 9.46
C
1.43
C
1.45
432
P
0.91 102 1.59
22.7
25
483
14.3
S
0.56 184.6 9.55
C
1.33
C
1.30
432
P
0.90 102 1.59 X 26.1
25
483
14.1
S
0.59 210.4 9.92
C
1.34
C
1.31
432
P
0.91 102 1.59 X 22.1
25
483
14.3
S
0.47 151.8 8.03
C
1.13
C
1.11
432
P
0.92 102 1.59 X 21.7
25
483
14.4
S
0.57 184.8 9.86
C
1.37
C
1.33
813
P
1.65 102 1.59
25.2
25
483
40.8
S
0.59 109.5 5.43
S
1.88
S
1.86
813
P
1.63 102 1.59
23.3
25
483
39.8
S
0.56 102.3 5.28
S
1.81
S
1.77
813
P
1.62 102 1.59 X 23.1
25
483
38.9
S
0.36 65.9 3.41
S
1.17
S
1.13
813
P
1.64 102 1.59 X 22.7
25
483
40.0
S
0.57 104.8 5.42
S
1.85
S
1.81
1295
P
1.78 102 1.59
29.0
25
483
49.0
S
0.30 55.3 2.48
S
0.87
S
0.92
1295
P
1.72 102 1.59
20.8
25
483
45.2
S
0.34 57.2 3.13
S
1.06
S
1.07
1295
P
1.72 102 1.59
23.0
25
483
45.5
S
0.27 47.5 2.39
S
0.82
S
0.84
1295
P
1.73 102 1.59 X 26.1
25
483
45.9
S
0.30 54.6 2.60
S
0.91
S
0.93
1295
P
1.77 102 1.59 X 18.6
25
483
48.6
S
0.34 53.5 3.08
S
1.03
S
1.07
711
P
1.93 102 1.83
37.6
25
519
52.8
S
0.61 289.1 5.06
C
1.54
C
1.03
711
P
1.93 102 1.83
33.3
25
313
52.8
S
0.45 135.7 2.52
C
0.80
C
0.54
914
P
3.90 10 0.10
28.8
38 1434 2768.3 F
1.07 14.2 0.89
S
F
914
P
4.03 10 0.16
30.4
38 1503 1897.3 F
1.02 20.4 1.27
S
F
914
P
4.07 10 0.22
26.3
38 1503 1404.3 F
1.00 25.5 1.75
S
F
914
P
3.99 10 0.32
34.4
38 1434 933.3
S
0.67 25.2 1.46
S
1.21
S
0.75
1372
P
5.29 10 0.59
40.1
38 1434 725.7
S
0.67 19.6 1.91
S
1.45
S
0.98
914
P
3.46 10 0.38
36.0
38 1434 641.1
S
0.80 24.2 2.43
S
1.80
S
1.25
914
P
3.53 10 0.55
29.9
38 1434 459.8
S
0.55 23.4 2.50
S
1.55
S
1.26
914
P
3.53 10 0.55
18.8
38 1434 457.0
S
0.42 16.9 2.30
S
1.30
S
1.15
914
P
3.56 10 0.55
17.3
38 1434 465.4
S
0.54 21.5 2.98
S
1.66
S
1.49
914
P
3.40 10 0.95
22.6
38 1434 251.6
S
0.53 35.6 4.46
S
2.10
S
2.15
914
P
3.47 10 1.24
22.1
38 1434 198.9
S
0.43 32.1 4.42
S
1.91
S
2.09
508
P
2.01 152 3.36
21.0
25
303
30.1
S
0.84 116.1 7.94
C
1.77
S
2.33
762
P
3.02 152 3.36
21.5
25
310
60.1
S
0.80 75.6 5.11
S
1.57
S
1.93
762
P
3.02 152 3.36
36.7
25
283
60.1
S
0.78 80.1 4.15
S
1.36
S
1.68
1016
P
4.02 152 3.36
28.0
25
310
90.0
S
0.69 53.4 3.17
S
1.09
S
1.35
1270
P
5.03 152 3.36
25.8
25
303 119.9
S
0.86 51.2 3.16
S
1.15
S
1.41
1524
P
6.04 152 3.36
27.9
25
331 149.9
S
0.94 50.9 3.02
S
1.17
S
1.40
1778
P
7.04 152 3.36
30.6
25
317 179.8
F
1.02 46.9 2.66
S
S
508
P
2.01 152 3.36
21.0
25
303
30.1
S
1.18 164.6 11.26 C
S
762
P
3.02 152 3.36
21.5
25
310
60.1
S
0.79 74.7 5.05
S
1.56
S
1.91
762
P
3.02 152 3.36
36.7
25
283
60.1
S
0.90 92.5 4.79
S
1.58
S
1.94
1016
P
4.02 152 3.36
28.0
25
310
90.0
S
0.80 62.0 3.68
S
1.26
S
1.58
508
P
2.00 305 0.98
28.1
25
459 102.0
S
0.93 73.4 4.32
F
0.92
S
1.89
762
P
3.00 305 0.98
31.5
25
469 204.1
S
0.77 41.8 2.32
S
1.09
S
1.12

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

10

Author
and Notes
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312 Bower +
313 Viest
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1960 A-3
1960 A-4
1960 A-5
1960 A-11
1960 A-12
1960 A-13
1960 A-14
1960 A-15
1960 D-15
1960 D-14
1960 D-16
1960 D-13
1960 D-12
1960 D-17
1960 D-5
1960 D-4
15 1960 IA-1a
1960 IA-1b
1960 IIB - 1
1960 IIB - 2
1960 IIB - 3
1960 IA - 2a
1960 IA - 2b
1960 IA - 3a
1960 IA - 3b
1960 IA - 4a
1960 IA - 4b
1960 IA - 5a
1960 IA - 5b
1960 IA - 6a
1960 IA - 6b
1960 IA - 7a
1960 IA - 7b
1960 IA - 8a
1960 IA - 8b
1960 IB-1
1960 IB-2
1960 IB-3
1960 IB-4
1960 IIa-1a
1960 IIa-1b
1960 IIa-2
1960 IIA - 3
1960 IIA - 4a
1960 IIA - 4b
1960 IIA - 5
1960 IIA - 6
1960 IIA - 7
1960 IIA - 8
1960 IIA - 9

bw
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

b
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356
356

d
(mm)
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
252
252
252
252
252
252
276
252
306
314
318
311
308
311
311
311
305
305
311
308
308
305
305
305
305
311
305
305
305
305
305
308
318
312
312
305
292
292
292
292
292
292

a:M/V
(mm)
1016
1270
1524
508
762
1016
1270
1524
559
559
559
699
699
699
419
559
762
762
1067
1219
1372
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
761
761
610
610
610
610
457
457
610
762
914
914
1372
1829
2286
1067
1219

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
1016
P
4.00 305 0.98
19.4
25
452 306.1
S
0.92 34.2
1270
P
5.00 305 0.98
26.8
25
459 408.2
S
1.12 35.1
1524
P
6.00 305 0.98
30.7
25
462 510.2
F
1.23 32.7
508
P
2.00 305 3.33
28.3
25
341
30.0
S
0.62 103.4
762
P
3.00 305 3.33
26.1
25
314
60.1
S
0.57 58.9
1016
P
4.00 305 3.33
22.1
25
393
90.1
S
0.57 46.9
1270
P
5.00 305 3.33
27.5
25
364 120.1
S
0.79 54.7
1524
P
6.00 305 3.33
25.0
25
332 150.2
S
0.94 49.4
559
U2 2.21 152 1.01
26.6
25
461 113.5
S
1.31 73.5
559
U2 2.21 152 1.01
32.1
25
462 113.5
S
1.34 76.9
559
U2 2.21 152 1.01
39.7
25
586 113.5
S
1.25 90.5
699
U2 2.77 152 1.01
19.2
25
464 109.9
S
1.08 49.1
699
U2 2.77 152 1.01
28.7
25
462 109.9
F
1.37 65.5
699
U2 2.77 152 1.01
41.2
25
586 109.9
S
0.97 59.7
419
U2 1.52 152 1.35
25.8
25
361
92.3
S
1.13 90.5
559
U2 2.21 152 2.21
34.6
25
306
51.9
F
1.24 99.6
762
P
2.49 102 1.59
22.8
6
324
93.8
S
0.71 59.2
762
P
2.42 102 1.59
30.0
6
323
89.7
S
0.84 76.9
1067
P
3.36 102 1.53
24.7
6
323 154.2
S
0.72 45.4
1219
P
3.92 102 1.56
20.9
6
320 186.8
S
0.78 40.7
1372
P
4.46 102 1.58
19.7
6
321 218.9
S
0.81 36.9
1016
P
2.45 102 1.59
24.8
25
308
91.1
S
0.87 73.1
1016
P
2.45 102 1.59
24.4
25
319
91.1
S
0.46 39.7
1270
P
2.45 102 1.59
27.7
25
326
91.1
S
0.58 52.0
1270
P
2.50 102 1.59
24.5
25
323
94.3
S
0.72 60.5
1524
P
2.50 102 1.59
22.8
25
321
94.3
S
0.62 51.0
1524
P
2.45 102 1.59
21.9
25
319
91.1
S
0.54 46.0
1270
P
2.48 102 1.59
23.9
25
317
92.8
S
0.50 41.4
1270
P
2.48 102 1.59
21.5
25
323
92.8
S
0.59 49.4
1016
P
2.50 102 1.59
21.5
25
308
94.3
S
0.53 41.9
1016
P
2.50 102 1.59
24.3
25
323
94.3
S
0.79 66.0
762
P
2.50 102 1.59
21.2
25
327
94.3
F
1.12 92.2
762
P
2.50 102 1.59
22.6
25
317
94.3
S
0.70 57.0
1100
P
2.45 102 1.59
24.1
25
307
91.0
S
0.59 49.4
1100
P
2.50 102 1.59
21.5
25
319
94.2
S
0.70 57.1
813
P
2.00 102 1.59
22.2
25
326
62.9
S
0.55 56.7
1016
P
2.00 102 1.59
21.2
25
330
62.9
S
0.63 65.2
1016
P
2.00 102 1.59
22.8
25
319
62.9
S
0.59 60.2
813
P
2.00 102 1.59
24.1
25
306
62.9
F
1.16 115.4
914
P
1.49 102 1.59
22.8
25
319
30.5
S
0.44 61.7
914
P
1.44 102 1.59
25.5
25
324
27.7
S
0.61 93.7
1219
P
1.95 102 1.59
21.6
25
319
60.0
S
0.63 67.3
1524
P
2.44 102 1.59
21.7
25
320
90.8
S
0.60 51.5
1829
P
3.00 102 1.59
20.0
25
319 125.8
S
0.56 37.5
1829
P
3.13 102 1.59
22.9
25
323 134.0
S
0.67 42.5
2743
P
4.70 102 1.59
23.6
25
323 232.4
S
0.96 40.8
3658
P
6.26 102 1.59
24.1
25
324 330.9
F
1.21 38.7
4572
P
7.83 102 1.59
23.8
25
320 429.3
F
1.24 31.3
2134
P
3.65 102 1.59
18.4
25
307 166.8
S
0.73 36.4
2438
P
4.17 102 1.59
21.2
25
328 199.6
S
0.89 42.3

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

11

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
2.42
S
1.16
S
1.18
2.12
S
F
1.84
F
F
6.07
C
1.00
S
1.90
3.60
S
1.14
S
1.40
3.11
S
1.04
S
1.30
3.25
S
1.19
S
1.46
3.08
S
1.18
S
1.41
4.47
C
S
4.26
C
S
4.51
C
S
3.52
S
1.34
S
1.51
3.84
S
S
2.92
S
1.26
S
1.33
5.11
C
F
5.31
C
S
3.20
S
1.31
S
1.35
3.53
S
1.50
S
1.52
2.27
S
1.05
S
1.05
2.26
S
1.06
S
1.05
2.14
S
1.02
S
1.01
3.73
S
1.38
S
1.58
2.04
S
0.76
S
0.87
2.51
S
0.95
S
1.08
3.17
S
1.18
S
1.35
2.77
S
1.02
S
1.17
2.50
S
0.91
S
1.05
2.17
S
0.80
S
0.92
2.73
S
0.99
S
1.15
2.34
S
0.85
S
0.99
3.47
S
1.29
S
1.48
5.19
S
S
3.10
S
1.14
S
1.31
2.55
S
0.94
S
1.08
3.19
S
1.16
S
1.34
3.12
S
1.07
S
1.20
3.67
S
1.25
S
1.40
3.27
S
1.13
S
1.26
6.10
S
S
3.32
S
1.13
S
1.00
4.62
S
1.60
S
1.36
3.67
S
1.25
S
1.39
2.80
S
1.02
S
1.17
2.18
S
0.83
S
0.96
2.40
S
0.94
S
1.08
2.27
S
1.03
S
1.09
2.13
F
F
1.74
F
F
2.30
S
0.91
S
1.05
2.49
S
1.06
S
1.17

Author
and Notes
346 Guralnick
347
348
349
350 Hanson, 1961
351
352
353 Leonhardt
354 & Walther
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
16 1960 IA-1M
1960 IC-1M
1960 IIA-1M
1960 IIC-1M
17 1961 8A4
1961 8B2
1961 8B3
18 1962 P2
1962 P3
1962 P4
1962 P5
1962 P8
1962 P9
1962 P10
1962 P11
1962 P12
1962 1
1962 2
1962 3
1962 4L
1962 4R
1962 5l
1962 5r
1962 6l
1962 6r
1962 7-1
1962 7-2
1962 8-1
1962 8-2
1962 9-1
1962 9-2
1962 10-1
1962 10-2
1962 D1/1
1962 D1/2
1962 D2/1
1962 D2/2
1962 D3/1
1962 D3/2l
1962 D3/2r
1962 D4/1
1962 D4/2l
1962 D4/2r
1962 C1
1962 C2
1962 C3
1962 C4
1962 EA1
1962 EA2
1962 E6
1962 GA1
1962 GA2
1962 G6
1962 11/1
1962 11/2

bw
(mm)
178
178
178
178
152
152
152
503
502
500
503
502
500
503
498
501
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
50
50
100
100
150
150
150
200
200
200
100
150
200
225
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190

b
(mm)
584
584
584
584
152
152
152
503
502
500
503
502
500
503
498
501
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
50
50
100
100
150
150
150
200
200
200
100
150
200
225
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190

h
(mm)
387
387
387
387
305
305
305
162
162
165
165
168
166
122
203
162
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
320
323
323
322
322
80
80
160
160
240
240
240
320
320
320
180
330
500
670
320
320
320
320
320
320
340
346

d
(mm)
319
316
256
316
267
267
267
142
142
145
145
148
146
102
183
142
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
278
278
278
274
273
273
272
272
70
70
140
140
210
210
210
280
280
280
150
300
450
600
270
270
270
270
270
270
290
296

a:M/V
(mm)
457
457
914
914
1321
1321
660
490
490
490
490
490
490
350
630
350
270
400
540
670
670
810
810
1100
1100
1390
1390
1668
1644
1890
1890
2160
2160
210
210
420
420
630
630
630
840
840
840
450
900
1350
1800
750
750
750
500
500
500
375
375

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
914
P
1.43 152 1.37
26.9
19
552
31.8
S
0.49 139.7 5.72
S
2.14
S
1.81
914
P
1.44 152 1.38
33.5
19
552
32.3
S
0.55 155.2 5.74
C
2.11
S
1.91
1829
P
3.57 152 1.70
26.9
19
552 151.1
S
0.76 85.0 4.33
S
1.79
S
2.00
1829
P
2.89 152 1.38
33.5
19
552 137.3
S
0.71 101.0 3.73
S
1.64
S
1.73
1321
P
4.95 102 1.25
20.9
19
611 317.0
S
0.69 33.8 2.19
S
1.08
S
1.07
1321
P
4.95 102 2.53
30.8
19
326 156.1
S
0.92 52.4 2.80
S
1.16
S
1.31
660
P
2.48 102 1.25
30.1
19
334 118.4
S
0.73 46.0 2.48
S
1.03
S
1.12
490
P
3.45 45 0.95
13.4
30
427 258.0
S
1.11 76.2 3.51
S
S
490
P
3.45 45 1.11
13.4
30
427 220.8
S
1.05 81.1 3.74
S
1.46
S
1.73
490
P
3.38 45 1.40
14.5
30
427 170.0
S
1.05 100.8 4.40
S
1.60
S
1.98
490
P
3.38 45 1.86
13.4
30
427 127.9
S
0.92 100.8 4.54
S
1.50
S
1.94
490
P
3.31 45 0.91
24.9
30
427 252.8
S
1.11 88.0 2.86
S
S
490
P
3.36 45 1.86
24.9
30
427 126.8
S
0.76 105.8 3.50
S
1.27
S
1.57
350
P
3.43 45 1.10
12.4
30
427 221.0
S
1.24 59.3 3.96
S
S
630
P
3.44 45 1.11
13.7
30
427 220.1
S
1.01 101.2 3.62
S
1.44
S
1.68
350
P
2.46 45 0.95
12.6
30
427 154.2
S
1.18 100.5 4.79
S
S
270
P
1.00 100 2.07
32.4
30
465
24.2
S
0.95 388.5 16.03 C
1.28
C
1.33
400
P
1.48 100 2.07
32.4
30
465
35.8
S
0.95 260.0 10.73 C
1.52
C
1.20
540
P
2.00 100 2.07
32.4
30
465
48.3
S
0.72 147.2 6.07
C
1.46
S
2.29
670
P
2.48 100 2.07
32.4
30
465
71.6
S
0.50 81.6 3.37
S
1.19
S
1.40
670
P
2.48 100 2.07
32.4
30
465
71.6
S
0.53 87.0 3.59
S
1.26
S
1.49
810
P
3.00 100 2.07
32.4
30
465
96.6
S
0.44 60.3 2.49
S
0.93
S
1.09
810
P
3.00 100 2.07
32.4
30
465
96.6
S
0.56 76.5 3.16
S
1.18
S
1.39
1100
P
4.07 100 2.07
32.4
30
465 148.5
S
0.61 60.8 2.51
S
1.03
S
1.17
1100
P
4.07 100 2.07
32.4
30
465 148.5
S
0.68 68.2 2.81
S
1.16
S
1.31
1390
P
5.00 100 2.01
33.9
30
465 198.9
S
0.75 62.3 2.44
S
1.10
S
1.17
1390
P
5.00 100 2.01
33.9
30
465 198.9
S
0.82 68.2 2.67
S
1.20
S
1.28
1668
P
6.00 100 2.01
34.0
30
465 248.7
S
0.95 65.7 2.57
S
1.23
S
1.26
1644
P
6.00 100 2.04
34.0
30
465 245.1
S
0.96 65.7 2.61
S
1.24
S
1.27
1890
P
6.92 100 2.05
34.9
30
465 289.3
S
0.98 58.9 2.31
S
1.17
S
1.14
1890
P
6.92 100 2.05
36.0
30
465 289.3
S
0.98 58.9 2.28
S
1.16
S
1.13
2160
P
7.94 100 2.05
32.9
30
465 337.8
F
0.98 50.5 2.05
S
S
2160
P
7.94 100 2.05
32.9
30
465 337.8
F
1.07 54.9 2.23
S
S
210
P
3.00 30 1.71
35.1
15
451 117.0
S
0.93
7.3
4.22
S
1.56
S
1.92
210
P
3.00 30 1.71
35.1
15
451 117.0
S
0.91
7.2
4.16
S
1.54
S
1.89
420
P
3.00 50 1.62
31.3
15
427 123.8
S
0.76 21.2 3.26
S
1.26
S
1.48
420
P
3.00 50 1.62
31.3
15
427 123.8
S
0.83 23.2 3.57
S
1.38
S
1.62
630
P
3.00 75 1.62
33.8
15
413 123.8
S
0.75 46.4 3.05
S
1.24
S
1.39
630
P
3.00 75 1.62
33.8
15
413 123.8
S
0.69 42.9 2.82
S
1.15
S
1.29
630
P
3.00 75 1.62
33.8
15
413 123.8
S
0.69 42.9 2.82
S
1.15
S
1.29
840
P
3.00 100 1.68
34.6
15
439 119.4
S
0.62 74.1 2.71
S
1.14
S
1.23
840
P
3.00 100 1.68
34.6
15
439 119.4
S
0.59 71.3 2.61
S
1.09
S
1.19
840
P
3.00 100 1.68
34.6
15
439 119.4
S
0.59 71.3 2.61
S
1.09
S
1.19
450
P
3.00 60 1.29
38.3
30
425 154.5
S
0.86 21.6 2.80
S
1.18
S
1.32
900
P
3.00 80 1.28
38.3
30
425 156.0
S
0.87 64.7 2.80
S
1.27
S
1.32
1350
P
3.00 120 1.28
38.3
30
425 156.0
S
0.68 101.5 2.20
S
1.05
S
1.04
1800
P
3.00 120 1.28
38.3
30
425 156.0
S
0.68 152.1 2.19
S
1.11
S
1.04
750
P
2.78 100 1.82
22.2
30
439
97.7
S
0.50 58.4 2.91
S
1.04
S
1.24
750
P
2.78 100 1.78
22.2
30
490 100.1
S
0.60 74.6 3.72
S
1.34
S
1.59
750
P
2.78 100 2.47
27.6
30
426
72.0
S
0.61 91.2 4.07
S
1.38
S
1.66
500
U2 1.85 100 1.82
22.3
30
439
65.1
S
0.70 89.5 4.45
C
1.46
C
1.01
500
U2 1.85 100 1.78
22.3
30
490
66.7
S
0.78 106.0 5.26
C
1.74
C
1.19
500
U2 1.85 100 2.47
26.1
30
426
48.0
S
0.89 143.6 6.60
C
1.96
C
1.38
375
U2 1.29 100 1.93
38.1
30
465
68.2
S
0.82 165.8 5.87
C
1.10
C
0.93
375
U2 1.27 100 1.89
38.1
30
465
70.2
S
0.87 177.0 6.14
C
1.15
C
0.99

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


12

Author
and Notes
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450

de Cossio

(discussion
to 326
report!)
(sept
1962 issue)
(2 tests
removed
E29.4-9.8A
E29.4-9.8B
as listed flex
but fail at
67% of Mn.)

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1962 12/1
1962 12/2
1962 13/1
1962 13/2
1962 14/1
1962 14/2
1962 15/1
1962 15/2
1962 16/1
1962 16/2
1962 17/1
1962 17/2
19 1962 32-8E
1962 32-8F
1962 48-8F
1962 48-8E
1962 64-8F
1962 64-8E
1962 32-8D
1962 32-8C
1962 48-8D
1962 48-8C
1962 64-8C
1962 64-8D
1962 32-8A
1962 32-8B
1962 B32-8A
1962 B32-8B
1962 C32-8A
1962 C32-8B
1962 48-8B
1962 48-8A
1962 64-8A
1962 64-8B
1962 A2.1-16.8A
1962 A2.1-16.8B
1962 A3-12A
1962 A3-12B
1962 A3-12C
1962 A4.25-17A
1962 A4.25-17B
1962 B3-12A
1962 B3-12B
1962 B4.25-17A
1962 B4.25-17B
1962 C4.25-17A
1962 C4.25-17B
1962 A4.7-14.7A
1962 A4.7-14.7B
1962 A4.25-8.5A

bw
(mm)
190
189
190
189
190
190
190
189
190
189
189
189
321
319
479
479
639
639
320
319
479
483
640
640
322
317
318
318
319
319
505
479
640
636
21
21
30
30
30
42
42
29
30
42
42
42
42
46
46
42

b
(mm)
190
189
190
189
190
190
190
189
190
189
189
189
321
319
479
479
639
639
320
319
479
483
640
640
322
317
318
318
319
319
505
479
640
636
21
21
30
30
30
42
42
29
30
42
42
42
42
46
46
42

h
(mm)
323
322
323
322
323
323
322
323
323
324
323
324
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
203
203
152
152
152
203
203
152
152
203
203
203
203
178
178
102

d
(mm)
273
272
273
272
273
273
272
273
273
274
273
274
83
83
83
82
83
87
84
82
84
83
82
81
81
81
80
80
80
80
82
81
82
81
168
168
122
120
122
170
172
120
120
170
170
170
170
147
147
86

a:M/V
(mm)
500
500
625
625
750
750
1000
1000
1250
1250
1500
1500
332
330
331
329
332
347
336
326
336
332
328
324
324
325
318
320
320
318
326
324
327
322
450
450
325
320
325
680
688
480
480
680
680
454
454
393
393
230

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
500
U2 1.83 100 2.05
36.8
30
465
58.0
S
0.87 144.4
500
U2 1.84 100 2.07
36.7
30
465
57.4
S
0.69 114.6
625
U2 2.29 100 2.05
37.3
30
465
55.7
S
0.74 106.6
625
U2 2.30 100 2.07
37.3
30
465
55.1
S
0.75 106.7
750
U2 2.75 100 2.05
36.2
30
465
54.3
S
0.69 85.9
750
U2 2.75 100 2.05
36.2
30
465
54.3
S
0.69 86.3
1000 U2 3.68 100 2.05
38.3
30
465
52.5
S
0.82 80.9
1000 U2 3.66 100 2.06
38.3
30
465
52.4
S
0.87 86.0
1250 U2 4.58 100 2.05
37.8
30
465
51.8
S
1.03 84.2
1250 U2 4.56 100 2.05
37.8
30
465
51.8
S
1.02 83.7
1500 U2 5.49 100 2.06
35.5
30
465
51.0
F
1.13 78.0
1500 U2 5.47 100 2.05
35.5
30
465
51.2
S
1.12 77.6
332
P
4.00 17 1.87
23.2
12
418 160.4
S
0.78 32.8
330
P
4.00 17 1.87
21.2
12
418 160.4
S
0.82 33.2
331
P
4.00 17 1.98
27.9
12
408 151.5
S
1.01 60.7
329
P
4.00 16 1.99
26.7
12
459 150.8
S
0.80 51.0
332
P
4.00 17 1.88
30.4
12
373 159.6
S
1.04 71.3
347
P
4.00 17 1.92
31.2
12
373 156.3
S
0.91 67.7
336
P
4.00 17 1.85
21.2
12
367 162.2
S
0.92 34.1
326
P
4.00 16 1.91
23.2
12
367 157.1
S
0.93 34.9
336
P
4.00 17 1.94
26.6
12
383 154.6
S
1.14 65.0
332
P
4.00 17 1.95
25.2
12
404 153.8
S
1.01 58.7
328
P
4.00 16 1.90
28.5
12
383 157.9
S
1.26 85.2
324
P
4.00 16 1.95
28.5
12
383 153.8
S
1.21 81.6
324
P
4.00 16 1.90
23.7
12
383 157.9
S
0.96 37.1
325
P
4.00 16 1.85
23.7
12
383 162.2
S
1.01 38.0
318
P
4.00 16 2.81
26.8
12
403 106.8
S
0.91 49.0
320
P
4.00 16 2.80
26.8
12
432 107.1
S
0.92 51.9
320
P
4.00 16 1.95
26.6
12
394 153.8
S
1.01 41.2
318
P
4.00 16 1.95
26.6
12
394 153.8
S
1.04 42.2
326
P
4.00 16 1.98
27.8
12
399 151.5
S
1.08 65.3
324
P
4.00 16 2.01
27.8
12
410 149.3
S
1.04 62.0
327
P
4.00 16 1.90
28.5
12
397 157.9
S
1.27 87.0
322
P
4.00 16 1.94
29.2
12
440 154.6
S
1.18 85.5
450
P
2.67 34 2.00
34.6
12
410
83.5
S
0.51
4.7
450
P
2.67 34 2.00
34.6
12
410
83.5
S
0.50
4.7
325
P
2.67 24 1.98
28.5
12
394
84.3
S
0.48
4.3
320
P
2.67 24 1.97
29.0
12
394
84.8
S
0.47
4.2
325
P
2.67 24 1.97
28.5
12
396
84.8
S
0.49
4.4
680
P
4.00 34 2.00
13.7
12
408 150.0
S
0.56
5.3
688
P
4.00 34 1.94
13.7
12
408 154.6
S
0.63
6.0
480
P
4.00 24 2.00
29.0
12
394 150.0
S
0.82
4.8
480
P
4.00 24 1.97
29.0
12
394 152.3
S
0.69
4.0
680
P
4.00 34 2.00
13.4
12
408 150.0
S
0.59
5.5
680
P
4.00 34 1.94
13.7
12
408 154.6
S
0.59
5.6
454
P
2.67 34 1.96
13.7
12
421
85.2
S
0.47
6.7
454
P
2.67 34 1.96
13.7
12
421
85.2
S
0.41
5.9
393
P
2.67 29 2.08
28.3
12
436
80.3
S
0.51
9.6
393
P
2.67 29 2.08
28.3
12
436
80.3
S
0.52
9.8
230
P
2.67 17 1.97
29.7
12
397
84.8
S
0.62
5.6

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

13

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
5.53
C
1.51
C
0.98
4.43
C
1.21
C
0.78
4.05
S
1.40
S
1.61
4.09
S
1.41
S
1.63
3.31
S
1.14
S
1.31
3.33
S
1.14
S
1.31
3.05
S
1.05
S
1.20
3.24
S
1.11
S
1.28
3.18
S
1.09
S
1.25
3.17
S
1.08
S
1.24
3.06
F
S
3.03
F
S
3.07
S
1.15
S
1.42
3.30
S
1.22
S
1.51
3.49
S
1.32
S
1.62
3.02
S
1.13
S
1.39
2.93
S
1.15
S
1.37
2.63
S
1.03
S
1.23
3.32
S
1.23
S
1.52
3.35
S
1.24
S
1.54
3.77
S
S
3.51
S
1.31
S
1.62
3.66
S
S
3.55
S
S
3.52
S
1.31
S
1.62
3.65
S
1.37
S
1.69
4.51
S
1.52
S
1.98
4.74
S
1.60
S
2.08
3.77
S
1.42
S
1.74
3.88
S
1.46
S
1.79
3.62
S
1.37
S
1.68
3.65
S
1.37
S
1.69
3.75
S
S
3.72
S
S
2.75
S
1.00
S
1.18
2.70
S
0.98
S
1.16
2.67
S
0.91
S
1.13
2.59
S
0.89
S
1.10
2.69
S
0.92
S
1.14
2.40
S
0.86
S
1.06
2.67
S
0.97
S
1.18
3.05
S
1.19
S
1.41
2.51
S
0.98
S
1.17
2.56
S
0.91
S
1.12
2.51
S
0.91
S
1.11
3.04
S
0.98
S
1.19
2.67
S
0.86
S
1.04
3.19
S
1.10
S
1.34
3.25
S
1.12
S
1.36
3.38
S
1.14
S
1.44

Author
and Notes
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490 Ruesch, Haugli
491
492
493 Bresler &
494 Scordelis
495

bw
Ref Year Beam
b
#
Name
(mm) (mm)
19 1962 A4.25-8.5B
42
42
1962 A4.25-8.5C
42
42
1962 A6-12A
60
60
1962 A6-12B
60
60
1962 A6-12C
60
60
1962 A8.5-17A
87
87
1962 A8.5-17B
85
85
1962 A8.5-17C
86
86
1962 A10.4-13.9A 103 103
1962 A10.4-13.9B 103 103
1962 A12-12A
120 120
1962 A12-12B
120 120
1962 A12-12C
120 120
1962 A12-12D
120 120
1962 A14.7-9.8A
147 147
1962 A14.7-9.8B
146 146
1962 B12-6A
120 120
1962 B12-6B
120 120
1962 A12-6A
121 121
1962 A12-6B
120 120
1962 A12-6C
122 122
1962 A12-6D
120 120
1962 A12-6E
120 120
1962 D29.4-9.8A
290 290
1962 D29.4-9.8B
294 294
1962 D29.4-9.8C
293 293
1962 D29.4-9.8D
294 294
1962 A29.4-9.8A
293 293
1962 A29.4-9.8B
293 293
1962 C29.4-9.8A
294 294
1962 C29.4-9.8B
294 294
1962 B29.4-9.8A
294 294
1962 B29.4-9.8B
294 294
1962 A34-8.5A
339 339
1962 A34-8.5B
339 339
1962 A.8.5-34A
85
85
1962 A.8.5-34B
87
87
1962 A50-25A
501 501
1962 A50-25B
502 502
20 1962 X
90
90
1962 Y
120 120
1962 Z
180 180
21 1963 0A-1
310 310
1963 0A-2
305 305
1963 0A-3
307 307

h
(mm)
102
102
152
152
152
203
203
203
178
178
152
152
152
152
127
127
76
76
76
76
76
76
76
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
102
102
406
406
305
305
134
229
302
556
561
556

d
(mm)
86
86
121
122
120
171
170
170
139
140
121
122
121
120
99
99
62
63
60
62
62
61
61
100
100
98
99
99
99
99
99
98
98
86
86
341
340
253
252
111
199
262
461
466
462

a:M/V
(mm)
231
230
323
326
321
456
454
454
372
374
323
326
323
320
264
263
165
168
161
165
165
163
164
400
400
392
396
264
264
264
264
392
392
230
231
910
909
675
674
400
717
947
1753
2210
3124

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
231
P
2.67 17 1.97
29.7
12
397
84.8
S
0.64
5.8
230
P
2.67 17 1.97
29.7
12
397
84.8
S
0.64
5.8
323
P
2.67 24 1.94
29.7
12
390
86.1
S
0.60 10.6
326
P
2.67 24 1.92
29.7
12
390
87.0
S
0.60 10.5
321
P
2.67 24 1.94
29.7
12
390
86.1
S
0.60 10.4
456
P
2.67 34 1.92
35.0
12
392
87.0
S
0.65 23.5
454
P
2.67 34 1.96
35.0
12
392
85.2
S
0.66 23.9
454
P
2.67 34 1.95
33.9
12
390
85.6
S
0.58 21.0
372
P
2.67 28 1.97
23.9
12
440
84.8
S
0.59 21.5
374
P
2.67 28 1.96
23.9
12
440
85.2
S
0.65 23.8
323
P
2.67 24 1.95
23.7
12
402
85.6
S
0.79 27.0
326
P
2.67 24 1.96
29.2
12
402
85.2
S
0.72 26.0
323
P
2.67 24 1.95
31.0
12
402
85.6
S
0.65 23.8
320
P
2.67 24 1.97
31.0
12
402
84.8
S
0.65 23.7
264
P
2.67 20 1.96
26.5
12
450
85.2
S
0.59 22.8
263
P
2.67 20 1.97
26.5
12
450
84.8
S
0.67 25.8
165
P
2.67 12 2.88
26.0
12
434
58.0
S
0.66 16.4
168
P
2.67 13 2.84
26.0
12
434
58.8
S
0.72 17.9
161
P
2.67 12 1.44
30.0
12
392 116.0
S
1.24 17.0
165
P
2.67 12 1.92
30.0
12
392
87.0
S
0.87 15.5
165
P
2.67 12 1.90
30.0
12
392
87.9
S
0.88 15.7
163
P
2.67 12 1.94
24.1
12
404
86.1
S
0.95 16.6
164
P
2.67 12 1.93
30.3
12
404
86.5
S
1.02 18.6
400
P
4.00 20 2.90
24.6
12
382 103.4
S
0.64 37.8
400
P
4.00 20 2.90
24.6
12
382 103.4
S
0.57 34.3
392
P
4.00 20 2.46
24.6
12
422 122.0
S
0.76 42.9
396
P
4.00 20 2.92
24.6
12
422 102.7
S
0.75 47.5
264
P
2.67 20 1.96
27.2
12
426
85.2
S
0.69 50.1
264
P
2.67 20 1.96
27.2
12
426
85.2
S
0.72 52.5
264
P
2.67 20 1.95
14.9
12
372
85.6
S
0.67 36.3
264
P
2.67 20 1.95
18.0
12
372
85.6
S
0.74 43.4
392
P
4.00 20 1.97
25.6
12
378 152.3
S
0.94 41.8
392
P
4.00 20 1.97
23.2
12
378 152.3
S
1.05 45.9
230
P
2.67 17 1.95
28.8
12
396
85.6
F
0.89 57.9
231
P
2.67 17 1.94
28.8
12
396
86.1
F
0.92 59.5
910
P
2.67 68 1.86
28.0
12
408
89.8
S
0.42 28.6
909
P
2.67 68 1.80
25.8
12
416
92.8
S
0.40 27.6
675
P
2.67 51 1.81
34.5
12
399
92.3
S
0.63 188.7
674
P
2.67 50 1.85
34.1
12
394
90.3
S
0.57 171.2
400
P
3.60 10 2.65
23.0
30
481
98.2
S
0.61 14.6
717
P
3.60 10 2.65
23.0
30
407
98.0
S
0.58 30.1
947
P
3.62 10 2.64
24.2
30
412
99.0
S
0.52 54.7
1753
P
3.80 127 1.81
22.6
19
555 155.2
S
0.60 166.8
2210
P
4.74 127 2.27
23.7
19
555 164.9
S
0.69 177.9
3124
P
6.77 127 2.73
37.6
19
552 211.5
S
0.78 189.0

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

14

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
3.49
S
1.18
S
1.48
3.49
S
1.17
S
1.48
3.19
S
1.11
S
1.36
3.15
S
1.10
S
1.35
3.19
S
1.11
S
1.36
3.24
S
1.19
S
1.41
3.36
S
1.23
S
1.45
2.99
S
1.09
S
1.29
3.68
S
1.25
S
1.53
4.05
S
1.38
S
1.69
4.60
S
1.54
S
1.92
3.97
S
1.37
S
1.69
3.53
S
1.23
S
1.51
3.57
S
1.24
S
1.53
3.67
S
1.23
S
1.55
4.20
S
1.40
S
1.77
5.23
S
1.53
S
2.01
5.63
S
1.65
S
2.17
5.12
S
S
4.60
S
1.54
S
1.97
4.60
S
1.54
S
1.97
5.56
S
1.79
S
2.32
5.53
S
1.85
S
2.37
3.17
S
1.06
S
1.38
2.83
S
0.94
S
1.23
3.62
S
1.27
S
1.61
3.96
S
1.32
S
1.72
3.99
S
1.34
S
1.68
4.18
S
1.40
S
1.77
3.89
S
1.20
S
1.54
4.23
S
1.34
S
1.71
3.46
S
1.31
S
1.59
3.98
S
1.48
S
1.82
4.45
S
S
4.56
S
S
2.26
S
0.90
S
0.97
2.22
S
0.89
S
0.95
3.06
S
1.21
S
1.34
2.79
S
1.09
S
1.22
3.67
S
1.19
S
1.57
3.17
S
1.07
S
1.35
2.84
S
1.00
S
1.22
2.96
S
1.31
S
1.36
3.10
S
1.38
S
1.43
2.62
S
1.33
S
1.27

Author
and Notes
496 Mathey and
497 Watstein
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521 de Pavia
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532 Krefeld & Thurston
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
22 1963 I-1
1963 I-2
1963 II-3
1963 II-4
1963 III-5
1963 III-6
1963 IV-7
1963 IV-8
1963 V-9
1963 V-10
1963 VI-11
1963 VI-12
1963 V-13
1963 V-14
1963 VI-15
1963 VI-16
1963 IIIa-17
1963 IIIa-18
1963 Va-19
1963 Va-20
1963 VIb-21
1963 VIb-22
1963 VIb-23
1963 VIa-24
1963 VIa-25
23 1965 G23S-11
1965 G23S-21
1965 G24S-11
1965 G24S-21
1965 G33S-11
1965 G33S-21
1965 G33S-31
1965 G34S-11
1965 G34S-21
1965 G43S-11
1965 G44S-11
24 1966 II-4A3
1966 II-5A3
1966 II-11A2
1966 II-12A2
1966 III-18A2
1966 III-18B2
1966 III-18C2
1966 III-18D2
1966 IV-13A2
1966 IV-14A2
1966 IV-15A2
1966 IV-15B2
1966 IV-16A2
1966 IV-17A2

bw
(mm)
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
51
51
51
51
76
76
76
76
76
102
102
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

b
(mm)
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
51
51
51
51
76
76
76
76
76
102
102
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

h
(mm)
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
330
330
330
330
229
229
229
229
229
178
178
457
457
381
305
381
381
381
381
381
305
381
381
305
305

d
(mm)
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
403
305
305
305
305
203
203
203
203
203
152
152
390
390
314
238
316
316
316
316
319
243
316
316
240
243

a:M/V
(mm)
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
1524
1524
1524
1524
1143
1143
1143
1524
1524
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
915
915
915
914
915
915
915
915
914
914
915
915
914
914

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
610
P
1.51 89 3.05
25.4
25
267
24.8
S
0.88 312.9 9.14
C
1.76
C
1.66
610
P
1.51 89 3.05
23.0
25
267
24.8
S
0.89 310.7 9.54
C
1.91
C
1.82
610
P
1.51 89 1.88
21.9
25
466
40.2
S
0.72 261.8 8.24
C
1.80
C
1.61
610
P
1.51 89 1.88
26.4
25
466
40.2
S
0.82 312.9 8.96
C
1.83
C
1.59
610
P
1.51 89 1.85
25.7
25
490
40.9
S
0.74 288.5 8.37
C
1.73
C
1.51
610
P
1.51 89 1.85
25.6
25
490
40.9
S
0.75 290.7 8.45
C
1.75
C
1.53
610
P
1.51 89 1.86
24.1
25
443
40.7
S
0.82 290.8 8.71
C
1.84
C
1.62
610
P
1.51 89 1.86
24.9
25
443
40.7
S
0.85 304.0 8.96
C
1.87
C
1.64
610
P
1.51 89 1.16
23.1
25
698
65.2
S
0.64 224.0 6.85
C
1.60
C
1.30
610
P
1.51 89 1.16
27.0
25
698
65.2
S
0.74 268.4 7.60
C
1.70
C
1.34
610
P
1.51 89 1.17
25.4
25
698
64.7
S
0.63 224.0 6.54
C
1.48
C
1.19
610
P
1.51 89 1.17
25.7
25
698
64.7
S
0.75 268.4 7.80
C
1.76
C
1.41
610
P
1.51 89 0.75
22.4
25
712 100.9
S
0.90 222.4 6.91
C
1.80
C
1.34
610
P
1.51 89 0.75
26.7
25
712 100.9
S
0.88 224.0 6.38
C
1.59
C
1.13
610
P
1.51 89 0.75
25.5
25
712 100.9
S
0.71 179.5 5.23
C
1.31
C
0.95
610
P
1.51 89 0.75
22.8
25
712 100.9
S
0.76 188.6 5.81
C
1.50
C
1.11
1524
P
3.78 89 2.54
29.2
25
505 109.6
S
0.43 88.1 2.40
S
0.94
S
1.06
1524
P
3.78 89 2.54
25.2
25
505 109.6
S
0.42 80.7 2.37
S
0.91
S
1.04
1524
P
3.78 89 0.93
23.5
25
694 299.3
S
0.54 63.3 1.92
S
1.01
S
0.94
1524
P
3.78 89 0.93
25.6
25
694 299.3
S
0.55 65.9 1.92
S
1.02
S
0.94
1143
P
2.84 89 0.84
26.1
25
707 218.7
S
0.48 71.4 2.05
S
1.03
S
0.98
1143
P
2.84 89 0.84
25.8
25
707 218.7
S
0.42 62.4 1.81
S
0.90
S
0.87
1143
P
2.84 89 0.84
30.6
25
707 218.7
S
0.49 75.1 2.00
S
1.03
S
0.96
1524
P
3.78 89 0.47
26.3
25
696 592.1
S
0.83 54.5 1.56
S
1.09
F
0.79
1524
P
3.78 89 0.47
25.8
25
696 592.1
S
0.76 49.9 1.45
S
1.00
F
0.73
203
P
0.67 98 0.83
24.6
10
483
40.2
S
1.07 89.8 14.09 C
1.23
C
1.58
203
P
0.67 98 0.46
23.6
10
483
72.5
F
1.09 53.3 8.54
F
F
203
P
0.67 98 0.83
38.6
10
483
40.2
F
1.04 90.7 11.35 F
F
203
P
0.67 98 0.46
36.1
10
483
72.5
F
1.01 50.2 6.50
F
F
203
P
1.00 98 1.67
23.3
10
483
29.9
S
0.86 85.3 13.75 C
1.29
C
1.38
203
P
1.00 98 0.83
21.0
10
483
60.2
F
0.99 54.5 9.23
C
F
203
P
1.00 98 2.58
19.9
10
483
19.4
S
0.88 106.9 18.62 C
1.71
C
2.02
203
P
1.00 98 1.67
35.2
10
483
29.9
S
1.02 109.8 14.40 C
1.20
C
1.18
203
P
1.00 98 0.83
34.2
10
483
60.2
F
0.97 56.0 7.45
F
F
203
P
1.33 98 1.67
24.2
10
483
39.9
S
1.02 76.9 12.15 C
1.46
C
1.21
203
P
1.33 98 1.67
37.0
10
483
39.9
S
1.02 83.6 10.69 C
1.14
F
0.86
915
P
2.35 178 2.06
30.6
25
400
65.3
S
0.47 109.9 3.02
C
1.00
S
1.22
915
P
2.35 178 3.09
29.9
25
400
43.5
S
0.54 170.4 4.74
C
1.49
S
1.71
915
P
2.92 178 3.41
30.2
25
400
56.2
S
0.45 73.4 3.36
S
1.10
S
1.31
914
P
3.85 178 4.50
30.1
25
400
63.2
S
0.58 64.1 3.88
S
1.22
S
1.55
915
P
2.90 178 2.68
19.3
25
370
70.7
S
0.55 63.2 3.59
S
1.18
S
1.40
915
P
2.90 178 2.68
19.9
25
370
70.7
S
0.62 72.1 4.04
S
1.33
S
1.58
915
P
2.90 178 2.68
22.6
25
370
70.7
S
0.60 73.4 3.86
S
1.29
S
1.53
915
P
2.90 178 2.68
22.1
25
370
70.7
S
0.49 60.0 3.20
S
1.06
S
1.27
914
P
2.87 178 0.80
19.9
25
379 233.1
S
1.04 48.5 2.69
S
1.27
S
1.28
914
P
3.77 178 1.05
20.7
25
379 263.3
S
1.01 35.1 2.51
S
1.16
S
1.21
915
P
2.90 178 1.34
20.1
25
370 141.4
S
0.65 45.8 2.55
S
1.02
S
1.15
915
P
2.90 178 1.34
20.7
25
370 141.4
S
0.73 52.0 2.86
S
1.15
S
1.29
914
P
3.81 178 1.77
22.2
25
370 158.8
S
0.80 41.8 2.92
S
1.15
S
1.34
914
P
3.77 178 2.09
22.0
25
379 132.3
S
0.72 44.0 3.05
S
1.14
S
1.37

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

15

Author
and Notes
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1966 IV-18E2
1966 IV-19A2
1966 IV-20A2
1966 IV-21A2
1966 V-1AC
1966 V-2AC
1966 V-3AC
1966 V-4AC
1966 V-5AC
1966 V-6AC
1966 V-1CC
1966 V-2CC
1966 V-3CC
1966 V-4CC
1966 V-5CC
1966 V-6CC
1966 V-3EC
1966 V-4EC
1966 V-5GC
1966 V-6EC
1966 V-3GC
1966 V-4GC
1966 V-5GC
1966 V-6GC
1966 V-3JC
1966 V-4JC
1966 V-5JC
1966 V-6JC
1966 VII-6C
1966 VIII-3AAC
1966 VIII-4AAC
1966 VIII-5AAC
1966 VIII-6AAC
1966 VIII-3AC
1966 VIII-4AC
1966 VIII-5AC
1966 VIII-6AC
1966 VIII-4CC
1966 VIII-5CC
1966 VIII-6CC
1966 VIII-4EC
1966 VIII-5EC
1966 VIII-6EC
1966 IX-3AAC
1966 IX-4AAC
1966 IX-5AAC
1966 IX-6AAC
1966 IX-3AC
1966 IX-4AC
1966 IX-5AC
1966 IX-6AC
1966 IX-3CC
1966 IX-4CC
1966 IX-5CC
1966 IX-6CC

bw
(mm)
152
152
152
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

b
(mm)
152
152
152
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

h
(mm)
381
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
316
240
238
238
256
254
256
254
252
250
256
254
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
252
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
254
252
250
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250

a:M/V
(mm)
915
914
914
914
1219
1219
1219
1219
1219
1220
1523
1524
1523
1524
1524
1524
1828
1829
1828
1828
2134
2134
2133
2133
2438
2438
2438
2438
914
915
914
914
914
1219
1219
1219
1220
1524
1524
1524
1829
1828
1828
915
914
914
914
1219
1219
1219
1220
1523
1524
1524
1524

f c'
ag
fy
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
915
P
2.90 178 2.68
19.8
25
370
70.7
S
0.70
914
P
3.81 178 3.53
20.6
25
370
79.6
S
0.59
914
P
3.85 178 4.52
21.0
25
400
62.9
S
0.62
914
P
3.85 178 5.01
19.9
25
400
56.8
S
0.74
1219
P
4.77 178 0.99
21.9
25
379 380.8
F
1.20
1219
P
4.80 178 1.32
23.0
25
394 287.9
S
1.04
1219
P
4.77 178 1.99
20.8
25
379 189.4
S
0.91
1219
P
4.80 178 2.63
16.5
25
394 144.5
S
0.72
1219
P
4.83 178 3.35
18.3
25
370 114.3
S
0.70
1220
P
4.87 178 4.30
22.8
25
400
90.0
S
0.72
1523
P
5.96 178 1.00
19.0
25
379 496.0
F
1.22
1524
P
6.00 178 1.32
20.8
25
394 378.8
F
1.06
1523
P
5.96 178 1.99
20.5
25
379 249.2
S
0.92
1524
P
6.00 178 2.63
20.6
25
394 190.1
S
0.85
1524
P
6.04 178 3.35
20.3
25
370 150.3
S
0.88
1524
P
6.09 178 4.30
20.6
25
400 118.3
S
0.83
1828
P
7.16 178 1.99
18.8
25
379 309.3
F
1.21
1829
P
7.20 178 2.63
21.2
25
394 235.7
S
1.05
1828
P
7.24 178 3.35
19.5
25
379 186.3
S
0.95
1828
P
7.30 178 4.30
19.1
25
400 146.5
S
1.02
2134
P
8.35 178 1.99
22.4
25
400 369.3
F
1.07
2134
P
8.40 178 2.63
21.0
25
394 281.4
S
1.09
2133
P
8.45 178 3.35
21.9
25
370 222.4
S
1.11
2133
P
8.52 178 4.30
21.4
25
400 174.8
S
1.02
2438
P
9.54 178 1.99
22.2
25
379 429.1
F
1.14
2438
P
9.60 178 2.63
22.2
25
394 327.0
F
1.04
2438
P
9.66 178 3.35
22.8
25
370 258.4
F
1.19
2438
P
9.74 178 4.30
21.4
25
400 203.1
F
1.01
914
P
3.62 178 3.35
20.1
25
370
78.2
S
0.61
915
P
3.58 178 1.99
34.6
25
379 129.6
S
0.78
914
P
3.60 178 2.63
29.2
25
394
98.9
S
0.66
914
P
3.62 178 3.35
32.8
25
370
78.2
S
0.56
914
P
3.65 178 4.30
34.4
25
400
61.6
S
0.47
1219
P
4.77 178 1.99
31.9
25
379 189.4
S
1.01
1219
P
4.80 178 2.63
30.5
25
394 144.5
S
0.81
1219
P
4.83 178 3.35
32.8
25
370 114.3
S
0.71
1220
P
4.87 178 4.30
34.1
25
400
90.0
S
0.62
1524
P
6.00 178 2.63
38.4
25
394 190.1
S
0.93
1524
P
6.04 178 3.35
37.4
25
370 150.3
S
0.90
1524
P
6.09 178 4.30
38.4
25
400 118.3
S
0.79
1829
P
7.20 178 2.63
36.8
25
394 235.7
F
1.11
1828
P
7.24 178 3.35
37.4
25
370 186.3
S
1.01
1828
P
7.30 178 4.30
33.8
25
400 146.5
S
0.78
915
P
3.58 178 1.99
12.6
25
379 129.6
S
0.76
914
P
3.60 178 2.63
12.9
25
394
98.9
S
0.74
914
P
3.62 178 3.35
15.4
25
370
78.2
S
0.74
914
P
3.65 178 4.30
13.4
25
400
61.6
S
1.07
1219
P
4.77 178 1.99
13.7
25
379 189.4
S
0.89
1219
P
4.80 178 2.63
12.9
25
394 144.5
S
0.93
1219
P
4.83 178 3.35
15.4
25
370 114.3
S
0.86
1220
P
4.87 178 4.30
12.4
25
400
90.0
S
1.01
1523
P
5.96 178 1.99
12.2
25
379 249.2
S
0.99
1524
P
6.00 178 2.63
17.1
25
394 190.1
S
0.82
1524
P
6.04 178 3.35
14.7
25
370 150.3
S
0.88
1524
P
6.09 178 4.30
13.7
25
400 118.3
S
1.11

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


16

Vu
(kN)
81.8
46.3
50.7
76.5
32.9
37.8
44.0
37.8
41.8
53.4
26.7
30.2
35.6
40.0
44.5
44.5
37.8
41.8
39.6
42.3
31.6
36.9
41.8
40.5
28.0
31.6
40.0
35.1
51.2
55.6
57.8
56.9
60.0
53.4
53.8
54.3
59.2
52.5
57.4
63.2
51.6
53.4
48.9
40.5
42.7
50.3
62.3
36.9
40.0
43.6
40.9
31.1
35.1
34.2
39.6

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
4.60
S
1.51
S
1.80
3.36
S
1.07
S
1.36
3.67
S
1.11
S
1.40
4.27
S
1.25
S
1.57
2.17
F
F
2.45
S
1.17
S
1.20
2.98
S
1.21
S
1.39
2.90
S
1.04
S
1.29
3.06
S
1.04
S
1.31
3.52
S
1.16
S
1.48
1.89
F
F
2.06
F
F
2.43
S
1.06
S
1.17
2.75
S
1.10
S
1.28
3.09
S
1.14
S
1.40
3.10
S
1.07
S
1.35
2.69
S
S
2.82
S
1.20
S
1.35
2.80
S
1.09
S
1.30
3.05
S
1.10
S
1.37
2.06
F
F
2.50
S
1.12
S
1.22
2.79
S
S
2.76
S
1.06
S
1.28
1.84
F
F
2.08
F
F
2.62
F
S
2.40
F
S
3.57
S
1.14
S
1.43
2.92
S
1.17
S
1.35
3.33
S
1.20
S
1.45
3.11
S
1.06
S
1.32
3.23
S
1.04
S
1.31
2.92
S
1.27
S
1.40
3.03
S
1.20
S
1.40
2.96
S
1.10
S
1.34
3.19
S
1.11
S
1.39
2.63
S
1.17
S
1.27
2.93
S
1.19
S
1.38
3.22
S
1.22
S
1.47
2.64
S
S
2.73
S
1.18
S
1.31
2.66
S
1.04
S
1.24
3.53
S
1.22
S
1.50
3.70
S
1.19
S
1.49
4.01
S
1.24
S
1.56
5.37
S
1.55
S
1.90
3.08
S
1.17
S
1.40
3.47
S
1.21
S
1.51
3.48
S
1.16
S
1.47
3.66
S
1.12
S
1.43
2.76
S
1.10
S
1.29
2.64
S
1.02
S
1.22
2.80
S
0.99
S
1.24
3.38
F
S

Author
and Notes
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1966 IX-4EC
1966 IX-5EC
1966 X-*-C
1966 XI-*-PCa
1966 XI-*-PCb
1966 s-I-*-OCa
1966 s-I-*-OCb
1966 s-II-*-OCa
1966 s-II-*-OCb
1966 I-4A1
1966 I-4B1
1966 I-5A1
1966 I-5B1
1966 II-4A2
1966 II-5A2
1966 II-11A1
1966 II-12A1
1966 IV-13A1
1966 IV-14A1
1966 IV-15A1
1966 IV-16A1
1966 IV-17A1
1966 IV-17B1
1966 IV-18A1
1966 IV-19A1
1966 IV-20A1
1966 IV-21A1
1966 V-**-1AU
1966 V-**-2AU
1966 V-**-3AU
1966 V-**-4AU
1966 V-**-5AU
1966 V-**-6AU
1966 V-**-1CU
1966 V-**-2CU
1966 V-**-3CU
1966 V-**-4CU
1966 V-**-5CU
1966 V-**-6CU
1966 V-**-3EU
1966 V-**-4EU
1966 V-**-5EU
1966 V-**-6EU
1966 V-**-3GU
1966 V-**-4GU
1966 V-**-5GU
1966 V-**-6GU
1966 V-**-3JU
1966 V-**-4JU
1966 V-**-5JU

bw
(mm)
152
152
203
152
152
152
152
254
254
203
203
203
203
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

b
(mm)
152
152
203
152
152
152
152
254
254
203
203
203
203
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

h
(mm)
305
305
533
305
305
305
305
508
508
457
457
457
457
457
457
381
305
381
305
381
305
305
305
381
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
254
252
483
250
250
254
254
456
456
390
390
390
390
390
390
314
238
319
243
316
240
243
243
316
240
238
238
256
254
256
254
252
250
256
254
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252

a:M/V
(mm)
1829
1828
1525
1828
1828
1524
1524
1830
1830
457
457
457
457
457
457
458
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
609
610
609
610
609
610
761
762
761
762
762
762
914
914
914
914
1067
1067
1067
1066
1219
1219
1219

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
1829
P
7.20 178 2.63
14.3
25
394 235.7
F
1.12 35.6 2.93
S
S
1828
P
7.24 178 3.35
15.1
25
370 186.3
F
1.04 34.7 2.79
S
S
1525
P
3.16 178 1.56
16.8
25
394 138.5
S
0.57 84.5 2.53
S
1.04
S
1.12
1828
P
7.30 178 4.30
36.3
25
400 146.5
S
0.82 53.4 2.80
S
1.11
S
1.31
1828
P
7.30 178 4.30
36.3
25
400 146.5
S
0.82 53.4 2.80
S
1.11
S
1.31
1524
P
6.00 178 2.63
35.7
25
394 190.1
S
0.87 48.5 2.52
S
1.10
S
1.21
1524
P
6.00 178 2.63
39.0
25
394 190.1
S
0.93 52.5 2.61
S
1.16
S
1.26
1830
P
4.02 178 2.22
38.3
25
370 135.8
S
0.71 146.8 2.47
S
1.09
S
1.15
1830
P
4.02 178 2.22
38.3
25
370 135.8
S
0.64 133.4 2.24
S
1.00
S
1.05
457
U2 1.17 178 2.06
29.2
25
401
66.6
S
0.87 231.1 6.49
C
1.11
C
1.05
457
U2 1.17 178 2.06
27.5
25
401
66.6
S
0.95 250.3 7.25
C
1.27
C
1.20
457
U2 1.17 178 3.06
29.4
25
400
44.8
S
0.88 314.1 8.79
C
1.40
C
1.41
457
U2 1.17 178 3.06
29.6
25
400
44.8
S
1.00 357.4 9.98
C
1.59
C
1.60
457
U2 1.17 178 2.06
28.1
25
400
66.6
S
0.92 244.4 7.01
C
1.22
C
1.15
457
U2 1.17 178 3.09
29.4
25
400
44.4
S
1.01 363.8 10.19 C
1.62
C
1.64
458
U2 1.46 178 3.41
27.0
25
400
37.0
S
0.85 175.6 8.51
C
1.48
C
1.26
457
U2 1.92 178 4.50
30.6
25
370
26.1
F
0.85 133.6 8.03
C
S
457
U2 1.43 178 0.80
20.2
25
400 158.5
F
1.20 77.0 4.24
F
F
457
U2 1.88 178 1.05
22.8
25
400 112.5
F
1.21 65.7 4.48
C
S
457
U2 1.45 178 1.34
19.2
25
400
94.3
S
1.04 101.3 5.79
C
1.33
F
1.03
457
U2 1.91 178 1.77
21.0
25
400
66.6
S
0.97 77.7 5.59
C
1.45
S
2.17
457
U2 1.88 178 2.09
18.3
25
401
56.5
S
1.02 89.8 6.82
C
1.82
S
2.47
457
U2 1.88 178 2.09
21.0
25
401
56.5
S
1.02 94.1 6.69
C
1.70
S
2.47
457
U2 1.45 178 2.68
20.2
25
370
47.2
S
1.03 158.1 8.79
C
1.77
C
1.53
457
U2 1.91 178 3.53
21.2
25
370
33.4
S
1.00 118.1 8.44
C
1.96
S
2.60
457
U2 1.92 178 4.52
21.3
25
400
26.0
S
1.00 123.7 8.91
C
2.01
S
2.55
457
U2 1.92 178 4.93
21.2
25
400
23.8
S
1.02 166.5 9.01
C
2.01
S
2.57
609
U2 2.39 178 0.99
21.9
25
379 114.4
F
1.17 51.0 3.37
S
S
610
U2 2.40 178 1.32
21.2
25
394
85.7
F
1.06 60.2 4.07
S
S
609
U2 2.39 178 1.99
22.7
25
379
56.9
S
0.94 73.5 4.77
S
1.54
S
1.79
610
U2 2.40 178 2.63
17.9
25
394
43.0
S
0.82 71.8 5.29
S
1.55
S
1.74
609
U2 2.41 178 3.35
20.6
25
370
33.8
S
0.86 87.4 6.03
S
1.71
S
1.85
610
U2 2.43 178 4.30
20.6
25
400
26.3
S
0.96 101.8 7.07
S
1.91
S
2.02
761
U2 2.98 178 1.00
19.0
25
379 110.1
F
1.11 40.3 2.86
F
S
762
U2 3.00 178 1.32
20.8
25
394
83.3
S
0.95 45.2 3.08
S
1.09
S
1.26
761
U2 2.98 178 1.99
20.5
25
379
55.3
S
0.93 59.6 4.07
S
1.29
S
1.49
762
U2 3.00 178 2.63
20.6
25
394
41.8
S
0.85 66.3 4.55
S
1.35
S
1.52
762
U2 3.02 178 3.35
20.4
25
370
32.8
S
0.81 69.0 4.78
S
1.35
S
1.45
762
U2 3.04 178 4.30
20.6
25
400
25.5
S
0.73 65.0 4.53
S
1.22
S
1.29
914
U2 3.58 178 1.99
17.6
25
379
54.3
F
1.01 53.2 3.92
S
S
914
U2 3.60 178 2.63
20.2
25
394
41.1
S
0.94 62.8 4.34
S
1.29
S
1.44
914
U2 3.62 178 3.35
19.3
25
370
32.2
S
0.94 66.7 4.75
S
1.33
S
1.41
914
U2 3.65 178 4.30
20.1
25
400
25.1
S
0.79 59.1 4.16
S
1.12
S
1.19
1067 U2 4.18 178 1.99
22.6
25
379
53.7
F
1.05 52.1 3.39
S
S
1067 U2 4.20 178 2.63
22.1
25
394
40.6
F
1.02 62.3 4.12
S
S
1067 U2 4.23 178 3.35
21.3
25
370
31.9
S
0.89 58.0 3.94
S
1.11
S
1.19
1066 U2 4.26 178 4.30
21.2
25
379
24.8
F
0.95 66.3 4.54
S
S
1219 U2 4.77 178 1.99
22.2
25
400
53.2
F
0.95 43.4 2.85
F
S
1219 U2 4.80 178 2.63
22.2
25
394
40.2
S
0.94 51.0 3.37
S
1.00
S
1.12
1219 U2 4.83 178 3.35
21.5
25
370
31.6
F
1.01 59.4 4.01
S
S

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


17

Author
and Notes
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684 Baron, Mark J
685
686
687 Kani
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1966 V-**-6JU
1966 VII-6U
1966 IX-**-3AAU
1966 IX-**-4AAU
1966 IX-**-5AAU
1966 IX-**-6AAU
1966 IX-**-4AU
1966 IX-**-5AU
1966 IX-**-6AU
1966 IX-**-4CU
1966 IX-**-5CU
1966 IX-**-6CU
1966 IX-**-3AAU
1966 IX-**-4AAU
1966 IX-**-5AAU
1966 IX-**-6AAu
1966 IX-**-3AU
1966 IX-**-4AU
1966 IX-**-5AU
1966 IX-**-6AU
1966 IX-**-3CU
1966 IX-**-4CU
1966 IX-**-5CU
1966 IX-**-6CU
1966 IX-**-3EU
1966 IX-**-4EU
1966 IX-**-5EU
1966 IX-**-6EU
1966 IX-**-3GU
1966 IX-**-4GU
1966 IX-**-5GU
1966 X-*-U
1966 s-II-*-OU
25 1966 1
1966 2
1966 4
26 1964 23
1964 24
1964 25
1964 26
1964 27
1964 28
1964 29
1964 30
1964 31
1964 32
1964 33
1964 34
1964 35
1964 36

bw
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
203
254
203
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
155
153

b
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
203
254
203
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
155
153

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
533
508
152
152
152
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
250
252
256
254
252
250
254
252
250
254
252
251
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
250
256
254
252
483
456
127
127
127
271
271
271
271
271
271
271
271
271
271
271
271
269
273

a:M/V
(mm)
1219
457
457
457
457
457
610
610
610
762
762
762
457
457
457
457
609
610
610
610
761
762
762
762
914
914
914
914
1067
1067
1067
763
915
584
584
584
407
407
543
543
678
678
1221
1221
1628
1628
1424
1424
953
953

a:STM
(mm)
1219
457
457
457
457
457
610
610
610
762
762
762
457
457
457
457
609
610
610
610
761
762
762
762
914
914
914
914
1067
1067
1067
763
915
1524
1524
1524
407
407
543
543
678
678
1221
1221
1628
1628
1424
1424
953
953

Load
Type
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
U2
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
4.87 178 4.30
21.0
25
400
24.6
F
0.84 51.5 3.54
S
S
1.81 178 3.35
20.4
25
370
35.5
S
1.01 123.3 8.54
C
2.09
S
2.67
1.79 178 1.99
34.6
25
379
60.0
F
1.07 110.3 5.80
C
S
1.80 178 2.63
35.7
25
394
45.3
S
0.99 132.4 6.89
C
1.45
S
2.58
1.81 178 3.35
29.0
25
370
35.5
F
1.02 145.2 8.44
C
S
1.83 178 4.30
34.4
25
400
27.6
S
0.85 156.0 8.39
C
1.63
S
2.64
2.40 178 2.63
31.7
25
394
43.0
S
0.87 93.0 5.14
S
1.61
S
1.86
2.42 178 3.35
31.7
25
370
33.7
S
0.87 105.1 5.85
S
1.73
S
1.95
2.44 178 4.30
34.1
25
400
26.3
S
0.82 123.0 6.64
S
1.88
S
2.04
3.00 178 2.63
32.3
25
394
41.8
S
0.90 81.2 4.44
S
1.39
S
1.60
3.02 178 3.35
32.3
25
370
32.8
S
0.78 79.4 4.37
S
1.29
S
1.45
3.04 178 4.30
36.8
25
400
25.5
S
0.69 89.9 4.67
S
1.33
S
1.44
1.79 178 1.99
12.6
25
379
60.0
S
1.21 92.3 8.06
S
S
1.80 178 2.63
12.3
25
394
45.3
S
1.02 80.6 7.16
S
2.03
S
2.23
1.81 178 3.35
13.9
25
370
35.5
F
1.09 97.2 8.15
S
S
1.83 178 4.30
13.4
25
400
27.6
S
1.15 97.2 8.38
S
S
2.39 178 1.99
13.7
25
379
56.9
S
1.16 76.6 6.40
S
S
2.40 178 2.63
12.7
25
394
43.0
S
0.96 64.4 5.63
S
1.59
S
1.73
2.42 178 3.35
15.0
25
370
33.7
F
1.08 84.7 6.85
S
S
2.44 178 4.30
12.4
25
400
26.3
S
0.98 62.9 5.63
S
1.46
S
1.61
2.98 178 1.99
12.2
25
379
55.3
S
0.94 49.2 4.36
S
1.30
S
1.47
3.00 178 2.63
17.1
25
394
41.8
S
0.82 58.9 4.43
S
1.29
S
1.43
3.02 178 3.35
14.7
25
370
32.8
S
1.04 67.2 5.48
S
1.50
S
1.57
3.04 178 4.30
13.7
25
400
25.5
S
1.01 59.8 5.11
S
1.33
S
1.46
3.58 178 1.99
15.2
25
379
54.3
S
1.00 49.7 3.95
S
1.21
S
1.37
3.60 178 2.63
14.3
25
394
41.1
S
0.79 43.3 3.56
S
1.02
S
1.10
3.62 178 3.35
15.1
25
370
32.2
S
0.96 55.2 4.45
S
1.22
S
1.27
3.65 178 4.30
12.8
25
400
25.1
S
1.12 53.4 4.71
S
S
4.18 178 1.99
13.5
25
379
53.7
S
1.01 41.9 3.52
S
1.06
S
1.19
4.20 178 2.63
11.6
25
394
40.6
F
0.99 38.8 3.55
F
S
4.23 178 3.35
11.2
25
370
31.9
S
1.15 42.7 4.00
F
F
1.58 178 1.56
21.1
25
394
78.9
S
0.80 172.1 4.60
C
1.57
C
1.31
2.01 178 2.22
37.2
25
370
52.5
S
0.69 212.8 3.63
C
1.33
S
1.42
4.60 38 1.55
30.6
19
429 232.3
S
1.18 38.3 3.23
S
S
4.60 38 1.55 X 30.6
19
429 232.3
S
1.07 34.7 2.93
S
1.30
S
1.42
4.60 38 1.55 X 27.0
19
429 232.3
S
0.95 30.2 2.72
S
1.18
S
1.31
1.50 152 1.87
26.9
19
396
40.1
F
0.96 163.8 9.20
C
C
1.50 152 1.87
27.9
19
396
40.1
S
1.06 182.0 10.04 C
1.56
C
1.25
2.00 152 1.87
24.6
19
396
53.4
S
0.83 104.1 6.12
C
1.71
S
2.28
2.00 152 1.87
27.1
19
396
53.4
S
0.61 78.1 4.37
C
1.18
S
1.65
2.50 152 1.87
29.8
19
396
80.1
S
0.49 51.4 2.74
S
1.01
S
1.15
2.50 152 1.87
29.2
19
396
80.1
S
0.52 54.3 2.93
S
1.07
S
1.23
4.50 152 1.87
24.6
19
350 186.9
S
0.85 42.9 2.52
S
1.08
S
1.19
4.50 152 1.87
25.2
19
350 186.9
S
0.91 46.3 2.69
S
1.16
S
1.27
6.00 152 1.87
24.0
19
350 267.0
F
1.02 38.7 2.30
S
S
6.00 152 1.87
24.3
19
350 267.0
F
1.04 39.6 2.34
S
S
5.25 152 1.87
27.6
19
350 227.0
F
1.02 45.4 2.52
S
S
5.25 152 1.87
27.6
19
350 227.0
F
0.98 43.4 2.41
S
S
3.53 152 1.82
26.1
19
491 139.2
S
0.53 44.9 2.53
S
1.02
S
1.16
3.49 152 1.82
26.1
19
491 136.5
S
0.60 51.6 2.92
S
1.17
S
1.33

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

18

Author
and Notes
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1967 40
1967 41
1967 43
1967 44
1967 45
1967 46
1967 47
1967 48
1967 52
1967 53
1967 54
1967 55
1967 56
1967 57
1967 58
1967 59
1967 60
1967 61
1967 63
1967 64
1967 65
1967 66
1967 67
1967 68
1967 69
1967 71
1967 72
1967 74
1967 75
1967 76
1967 79
1966 81
1966 82
1966 83
1966 84
1966 85
1966 87
1966 88
1966 91
1966 92
1966 93
1966 94
1966 95
1966 96
1966 97
1966 98
1966 99
1966 100
1966 102
1966 103

bw
(mm)
152
152
151
152
151
151
151
151
152
151
151
150
153
153
152
154
155
156
154
156
150
156
157
157
155
155
152
152
152
152
153
153
155
156
151
154
154
153
154
152
155
153
153
153
152
153
152
153
153
155

b
(mm)
152
152
151
152
151
151
151
151
152
151
151
150
153
153
152
154
155
156
154
156
150
156
157
157
155
155
152
152
152
152
153
153
155
156
151
154
154
153
154
152
155
153
153
153
152
153
152
153
153
155

h
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
610
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
140
141
137
137
133
136
132
133
140
132
136
135
137
139
138
140
139
542
543
541
552
541
528
539
542
544
549
523
524
518
556
274
271
271
271
274
269
266
269
270
273
273
275
275
276
275
272
270
269
274

a:M/V
(mm)
747
340
813
813
272
272
678
678
544
136
136
406
476
747
476
373
407
1085
2170
4340
1359
3255
543
4883
543
1628
1087
1631
1631
1359
3805
1628
2170
814
1085
272
272
271
1628
1899
1763
543
678
1085
815
679
679
544
543
814

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
747
P
5.35 152 2.59
27.1
19
388 168.0
S
1.03 32.0 3.50
S
1.36
S
1.64
340
P
2.41 152 2.61
27.2
19
381
53.9
S
0.74 51.5 5.52
S
1.68
S
2.09
813
P
5.93 152 2.73
28.0
19
392 180.2
S
1.00 29.1 3.19
S
1.26
S
1.51
813
P
5.93 152 2.73
28.0
19
392 180.8
F
1.04 30.2 3.30
S
S
272
P
2.05 152 2.83
25.5
19
392
37.0
S
0.80 64.6 7.67
C
1.53
S
2.55
272
P
2.00 152 2.76
25.5
19
392
36.2
S
0.83 69.1 8.02
C
1.61
S
2.64
678
P
5.13 152 2.84
24.8
19
392 145.4
S
0.89 28.2 3.42
S
1.25
S
1.56
678
P
5.09 152 2.82
24.8
19
392 145.0
S
0.84 27.1 3.26
S
1.19
S
1.49
544
P
3.89 152 2.67
24.8
19
392 108.4
S
0.67 28.9 3.28
S
1.12
S
1.44
136
P
1.03 152 2.84
26.7
19
392
18.1
S
0.99 155.3 18.13 C
1.12
C
1.01
136
P
1.00 152 2.76
26.7
19
392
18.1
S
0.96 157.8 17.90 C
1.10
C
1.03
406
P
3.02 152 2.80
25.1
19
392
72.0
S
0.60 32.6 3.87
S
1.21
S
1.56
476
P
3.46 152 2.67
27.2
19
403
92.3
S
0.56 28.0 3.07
S
1.03
S
1.32
747
P
5.39 152 2.61
26.4
19
375 168.0
S
1.03 31.2 3.44
S
1.33
S
1.61
476
P
3.44 152 2.66
20.3
19
417
91.6
S
0.63 28.9 3.66
S
1.18
S
1.52
373
P
2.67 152 2.63
26.6
19
392
63.4
S
0.78 50.2 5.43
S
1.69
S
2.14
407
P
2.93 152 2.64
26.8
19
392
73.2
S
0.67 39.3 4.26
S
1.36
S
1.74
1085
P
2.00 76 2.55
26.8
19
349
39.4
S
0.54 163.3 4.49
S
1.62
S
1.54
2170
P
4.00 64 2.77
26.2
19
352 108.2
S
0.58 93.2 2.62
S
1.10
S
1.15
4340
P
8.03 64 2.75
25.7
19
352 255.6
S
1.00 79.0 2.22
S
1.16
S
1.08
1359
P
2.46 152 2.82
27.0
19
374
51.8
S
0.41 112.4 3.15
S
1.18
S
1.18
3255
P
6.01 64 2.75
26.4
19
352 182.5
S
0.85 90.8 2.52
S
1.20
S
1.19
543
P
1.03 152 2.75
30.3
19
407
18.7
S
0.77 548.0 14.42 C
1.32
C
1.44
4883
P
9.06 51 2.70
27.2
19
407 298.9
F
0.97 75.7 2.07
S
S
543
P
1.00 229 2.67
27.4
19
373
18.8
S
0.89 585.6 16.01 C
1.38
C
1.70
1628
P
2.99 229 2.41
27.4
19
373
82.7
S
0.50 102.1 2.79
S
1.13
S
1.17
1087
P
1.98 152 2.71
24.8
19
384
36.6
S
0.59 196.9 5.69
C
1.92
S
1.87
1631
P
3.12 152 2.84
27.2
19
366
74.5
S
0.52 107.7 3.12
S
1.21
S
1.28
1631
P
3.11 152 2.84
27.3
19
367
74.5
S
0.52 107.9 3.11
S
1.21
S
1.28
1359
P
2.63 64 2.87
30.8
19
372
56.6
S
0.45 114.8 3.16
S
1.19
S
1.23
3805
P
6.84 152 2.72
26.1
19
381 214.8
S
0.85 83.7 2.31
S
1.16
S
1.11
1628
P
5.93 152 2.76
27.5
19
343 178.8
S
0.95 51.2 2.79
S
1.18
S
1.32
2170
P
8.00 152 2.77
27.5
19
343 252.9
F
1.02 40.3 2.20
S
S
814
P
3.00 152 2.74
27.4
19
343
72.9
S
0.61 65.0 3.53
S
1.21
S
1.44
1085
P
4.00 152 2.84
27.4
19
342 105.9
S
0.70 55.4 3.11
S
1.15
S
1.37
272
P
0.99 64 2.69
25.5
19
381
18.5
S
0.71 233.6 13.25 C
1.48
C
1.91
272
P
1.01 64 2.72
27.2
19
366
18.5
S
0.74 239.6 13.33 C
1.40
C
1.74
271
P
1.02 152 2.81
31.4
19
401
18.1
F
1.02 359.8 19.03 C
C
1628
P
6.06 152 2.70
27.4
19
364 186.9
S
0.96 51.0 2.82
S
1.20
S
1.34
1899
P
7.03 152 2.73
27.4
19
369 221.1
F
0.99 45.9 2.56
S
S
1763
P
6.46 152 2.66
30.3
19
372 205.7
S
1.03 53.8 2.79
S
1.24
S
1.34
543
P
1.99 64 2.77
25.3
19
352
35.8
S
0.70 110.6 6.32
S
1.94
S
2.07
678
P
2.47 64 2.75
25.3
19
338
53.3
S
0.58 72.8 4.13
S
1.34
S
1.54
1085
P
3.94 152 2.76
25.3
19
335 106.8
S
0.73 56.3 3.20
S
1.18
S
1.40
815
P
2.95 152 2.68
27.2
19
366
72.8
S
0.57 62.5 3.42
S
1.18
S
1.40
679
P
2.47 64 2.68
26.2
19
366
54.9
S
0.59 76.3 4.27
S
1.40
S
1.62
679
P
2.50 64 2.73
26.2
19
366
55.0
S
0.60 77.2 4.38
S
1.43
S
1.66
544
P
2.02 64 2.75
27.2
19
366
36.9
S
0.69 111.9 6.25
S
1.94
S
2.10
543
P
2.02 152 0.76
25.3
19
423 133.7
S
0.80 48.8 2.83
C
0.94
S
1.28
814
P
2.97 152 0.74
29.4
19
423 267.3
S
0.93 38.8 2.03
S
1.07
S
0.99

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

19

Author
and Notes
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1966 104
1966 105
1966 106
1966 107
1966 108
1966 109
1966 110
1966 111
1966 112
1966 113
1966 114
1966 115
1966 116
1966 117
1966 121
1966 122
1966 123
1966 124
1966 126
1966 127
1966 128
1966 129
1966 130
1966 131
1966 132
1966 133
1966 134
1966 135
1966 141
1966 142
1966 143
1966 144
1966 145
1966 146
1966 147
1966 148
1966 149
1966 150
1966 151
1966 152
1966 153
1966 162
1966 163
1966 164
1966 165
1966 166
1966 167
1966 168
1966 169
1966 170

bw
(mm)
154
152
154
154
154
153
159
154
153
152
153
152
152
152
152
150
155
154
155
154
154
155
153
151
154
154
154
149
151
156
154
154
153
154
152
152
153
153
154
149
152
153
156
156
151
152
154
154
152
154

b
(mm)
154
152
154
154
154
153
159
154
153
152
153
152
152
152
152
150
155
154
155
154
154
155
153
151
154
154
154
149
151
156
154
154
153
154
152
152
153
153
154
149
152
153
156
156
151
152
154
154
152
154

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
269
272
268
267
269
271
269
272
273
274
270
272
271
275
272
276
271
271
272
271
271
275
276
274
271
273
273
274
270
276
274
270
273
272
287
274
272
273
273
270
273
272
273
271
278
271
274
280
274
285

a:M/V
(mm)
1072
679
678
1356
271
407
1356
678
678
408
544
679
815
1087
815
1087
1085
1356
814
271
1628
407
1467
679
679
1359
544
544
544
544
1085
1356
425
271
678
408
678
678
679
815
815
543
678
1085
1356
815
272
1221
272
1221

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
1072
P
3.98 152 0.76
25.3
19
423 393.4
S
1.09 33.6 1.95
S
1.10
F
0.97
679
P
2.50 152 0.77
26.2
19
383 194.2
S
0.91 41.5 2.36
S
1.12
S
1.12
678
P
2.53 152 0.76
28.8
19
422 201.2
S
0.91 44.6 2.44
S
1.19
S
1.16
1356
P
5.08 152 0.76
26.6
19
422 536.6
S
1.06 25.7 1.45
F
0.91
F
0.74
271
P
1.01 152 0.76
25.0
19
422
66.5
F
1.21 147.1 8.55
F
F
407
P
1.50 152 0.76
25.0
19
457
99.4
S
0.82 71.9 4.17
C
0.82
F
0.54
1356
P
5.05 152 0.73
27.4
19
407 557.3
F
1.19 27.9 1.50
F
F
678
P
2.49 152 0.76
27.0
19
368 197.4
S
0.99 43.3 2.40
S
1.15
S
1.14
678
P
2.48 152 0.76
27.0
19
368 195.6
S
0.89 39.4 2.18
S
1.05
S
1.04
408
P
1.49 152 0.77
25.5
19
486
96.3
S
0.91 87.2 4.98
C
0.98
F
0.66
544
P
2.02 152 0.80
25.5
19
486 127.0
S
0.85 61.4 3.54
C
1.17
S
1.59
679
P
2.50 152 0.77
26.2
19
383 195.1
S
1.00 45.3 2.58
S
1.23
S
1.22
815
P
3.01 152 0.78
26.4
19
384 258.7
S
1.03 39.3 2.23
S
1.14
S
1.08
1087
P
3.96 152 0.77
26.4
19
384 386.2
F
1.12 32.6 1.83
F
F
815
P
2.99 152 1.85
20.3
19
330 107.8
S
0.70 49.0 3.15
S
1.16
S
1.35
1087
P
3.94 152 1.84
19.9
19
343 159.8
S
0.72 38.8 2.54
S
1.02
S
1.16
1085
P
4.00 152 1.79
15.4
19
346 167.6
S
0.76 37.8 2.75
S
1.07
S
1.24
1356
P
5.00 152 1.80
15.4
19
345 222.0
S
0.81 32.0 2.35
S
0.98
S
1.10
814
P
2.99 152 1.78
16.3
19
346 111.5
S
0.63 42.7 3.01
S
1.08
S
1.28
271
P
1.00 152 1.81
15.7
19
346
27.6
F
1.01 201.4 14.67 C
C
1628
P
6.00 152 1.80
15.7
19
346 277.5
F
1.05 34.9 2.53
S
S
407
P
1.48 152 1.78
17.6
19
348
41.7
S
1.02 143.3 9.69
C
1.79
C
1.56
1467
P
5.32 152 1.79
18.0
19
346 242.1
S
1.02 40.1 2.69
S
1.18
S
1.28
679
P
2.48 152 1.85
18.1
19
401
79.8
S
0.53 49.6 3.38
S
1.16
S
1.35
679
P
2.51 152 1.81
18.6
19
417
83.2
S
0.52 49.8 3.34
S
1.16
S
1.35
1359
P
4.97 152 1.81
19.9
19
508 219.5
S
0.68 38.5 2.48
S
1.07
S
1.17
544
P
1.99 152 1.81
17.4
19
419
55.0
S
0.50 59.9 4.11
C
1.32
S
1.46
544
P
1.98 152 1.86
17.4
19
411
53.3
S
0.66 76.8 5.41
C
1.74
S
1.91
544
P
2.01 152 0.81
19.3
19
382 125.2
S
0.86 48.7 3.27
C
1.16
S
1.44
544
P
1.97 152 0.77
19.3
19
382 128.3
S
1.00 58.3 3.70
C
1.37
S
1.63
1085
P
3.96 152 0.74
17.7
19
428 397.4
S
1.00 30.2 2.06
S
1.10
S
1.02
1356
P
5.03 152 0.76
17.7
19
429 532.5
F
1.15 27.3 1.89
F
F
425
P
1.55 152 0.73
16.2
19
424 106.1
F
1.11 82.5 5.90
C
F
271
P
1.00 152 0.73
16.2
19
407
68.1
F
1.15 127.7 9.12
F
F
678
P
2.36 152 0.70
16.8
19
417 194.4
S
0.87 42.3 2.84
S
1.28
S
1.31
408
P
1.49 152 0.79
19.9
19
382
94.5
S
1.04 79.9 5.18
C
1.08
F
0.79
678
P
2.50 152 0.78
18.0
19
380 192.4
S
0.99 43.7 2.99
S
1.33
S
1.39
678
P
2.48 152 0.77
18.0
19
380 192.7
S
1.03 46.2 3.13
S
1.40
S
1.45
679
P
2.49 152 0.78
19.3
19
382 192.2
S
0.78 35.6 2.33
S
1.05
S
1.08
815
P
3.02 152 0.79
19.7
19
384 255.6
S
0.88 32.5 2.19
S
1.05
S
1.05
815
P
2.99 152 0.76
19.7
19
384 261.1
S
0.88 32.8 2.15
S
1.04
S
1.03
543
P
1.99 152 0.77
34.3
19
377 129.5
S
1.02 59.0 2.90
F
0.91
S
1.34
678
P
2.49 152 0.76
35.4
19
378 196.9
S
0.87 40.5 1.93
C
0.96
S
0.93
1085
P
4.00 152 0.73
33.8
19
412 414.1
S
1.19 35.8 1.75
F
F
1356
P
4.89 152 0.73
33.9
19
412 532.9
F
1.21 29.7 1.46
F
F
815
P
3.01 152 0.78
35.4
19
377 256.7
S
1.05 40.3 1.98
S
1.06
F
0.97
272
P
0.99 152 0.76
36.4
19
381
65.6
F
1.10 128.4 6.07
F
F
1221
P
4.35 152 0.72
34.6
19
412 468.6
F
1.18 32.6 1.55
F
F
272
P
0.99 152 0.76
36.4
19
381
64.8
F
1.10 128.4 6.13
F
F
1221
P
4.28 152 0.74
33.9
19
396 444.7
F
1.12 31.9 1.50
F
F

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

20

Author
and Notes
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1966 174
1966 177
1966 178
1966 179
1966 180
1966 181
1966 182
1966 183
1966 184
1966 186
1966 187
1966 188
1966 191
1966 192
1966 193
1966 194
1966 195
1966 196
1966 197
1966 199
1966 201
1966 202
1966 203
1966 204
1966 205
1966 206
1966 207
1966 208
1966 209
1966 210
1966 211
1966 212
1966 213
1966 214
1966 215
1966 216
1966 246
1966 248
1966 249
1966 250
1966 251
1966 265
1966 266
1966 267
1966 268
1966 269
1966 270
1966 271
1967 272
1967 273

bw
(mm)
153
153
153
153
153
154
155
154
154
155
154
153
154
154
153
154
153
154
150
152
155
154
152
152
153
152
153
157
153
154
153
155
154
153
154
152
153
153
153
152
154
153
153
153
153
154
152
611
611
612

b
(mm)
153
153
153
153
153
154
155
154
154
155
154
153
154
154
153
154
153
154
150
152
155
154
152
152
153
152
153
157
153
154
153
155
154
153
154
152
153
153
153
152
154
153
153
153
153
154
152
611
611
612

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
272
277
269
264
269
272
268
269
271
272
271
277
275
272
278
278
275
269
274
273
274
273
268
275
275
270
275
275
273
272
270
273
276
272
274
274
274
282
276
274
276
269
272
269
275
274
273
269
271
271

a:M/V
(mm)
270
1359
407
678
949
543
1356
271
407
1085
1628
543
815
1467
678
814
1085
1359
679
544
272
1628
271
543
544
679
1899
1221
1899
679
815
815
1223
679
679
1767
952
678
270
406
544
407
673
949
816
270
542
1631
1359
1087

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
270
P
0.99 152 0.51
36.4
19
396
96.7
S
1.30 106.5 5.12
F
F
1359
P
4.91 152 0.50
34.6
19
400 778.4
F
1.11 18.6 0.90
F
F
407
P
1.51 152 0.52
34.5
19
400 146.6
S
1.24 67.2 3.33
F
F
678
P
2.57 152 0.53
32.3
19
400 297.8
S
1.05 33.6 1.76
F
0.95
F
0.87
949
P
3.53 152 0.52
34.5
19
400 490.2
F
1.07 24.9 1.24
F
F
543
P
2.00 152 1.79
33.9
19
390
55.8
S
0.51 65.2 3.22
C
0.82
S
1.27
1356
P
5.05 152 1.80
33.9
19
386 224.9
S
0.97 48.8 2.43
S
1.16
S
1.18
271
P
1.01 152 1.80
35.4
19
394
27.9
F
1.01 260.3 12.69 F
F
407
P
1.50 152 1.80
35.1
19
394
41.8
S
0.94 163.3 7.97
C
1.17
F
0.88
1085
P
3.99 152 1.78
35.1
19
394 168.1
S
0.85 55.4 2.68
S
1.19
S
1.27
1628
P
6.00 152 1.79
32.6
19
386 279.0
F
0.94 39.7 2.01
S
S
543
P
1.96 152 1.76
33.1
19
384
55.6
S
0.72 92.6 4.56
C
1.21
S
1.79
815
P
2.96 152 1.80
34.0
19
497 109.1
S
0.49 53.1 2.60
S
1.04
S
1.17
1467
P
5.39 152 1.83
35.8
19
347 239.4
F
1.08 47.7 2.29
S
S
678
P
2.44 152 1.80
34.6
19
352
80.0
S
0.58 56.7 2.73
S
1.03
S
1.16
814
P
2.93 152 1.80
34.6
19
352 107.5
S
0.62 51.2 2.45
S
0.98
S
1.10
1085
P
3.94 152 1.82
34.6
19
352 161.5
S
0.77 47.3 2.29
S
1.01
S
1.08
1359
P
5.05 152 1.85
36.2
19
380 218.5
S
1.00 51.2 2.47
S
1.18
S
1.20
679
P
2.48 152 1.84
36.0
19
376
80.9
S
0.59 60.1 2.93
S
1.11
S
1.26
544
P
1.99 152 1.83
36.0
19
410
54.4
S
0.56 76.8 3.70
C
0.93
S
1.46
272
P
0.99 152 2.65
35.2
19
381
18.7
S
0.71 253.7 12.14 C
0.88
C
0.94
1628
P
5.97 152 2.68
33.9
19
377 185.5
S
0.85 49.9 2.46
S
1.09
S
1.18
271
P
1.01 152 2.75
34.8
19
369
18.4
F
1.05 357.6 17.88 C
C
543
P
1.97 152 2.69
34.8
19
369
36.6
S
0.84 147.1 7.21
C
1.72
S
2.52
544
P
1.98 152 2.66
35.2
19
381
37.1
S
0.70 125.5 6.04
C
1.45
S
2.12
679
P
2.51 152 2.73
35.2
19
381
55.6
S
0.71 100.3 4.95
S
1.68
S
1.96
1899
P
6.92 152 2.66
34.6
19
370 222.0
F
0.96 48.2 2.34
S
S
1221
P
4.44 152 2.68
35.7
19
379 128.3
S
0.73 60.1 2.81
S
1.14
S
1.29
1899
P
6.96 152 2.76
35.7
19
379 216.0
F
1.04 53.9 2.60
S
S
679
P
2.50 152 2.67
35.2
19
381
56.1
S
0.56 79.0 3.82
S
1.30
S
1.51
815
P
3.02 152 2.73
35.2
19
381
74.0
S
0.49 57.2 2.81
S
1.00
S
1.18
815
P
2.98 152 2.66
35.2
19
381
74.5
S
0.51 60.5 2.90
S
1.04
S
1.22
1223
P
4.44 152 2.66
36.7
19
381 129.4
S
0.71 57.4 2.69
S
1.09
S
1.24
679
P
2.50 152 2.71
36.0
19
412
55.4
S
0.54 82.0 3.95
S
1.34
S
1.56
679
P
2.48 152 2.67
36.0
19
412
55.5
S
0.57 88.1 4.19
S
1.43
S
1.66
1767
P
6.45 152 2.70
36.4
19
370 201.5
F
1.02 55.6 2.66
S
S
952
P
3.47 152 0.51
27.6
19
400 487.7
S
1.08 25.4 1.38
F
0.89
F
0.70
678
P
2.41 152 0.49
27.6
19
400 285.1
S
1.10 37.2 1.97
S
1.10
F
0.97
270
P
0.98 152 0.49
28.0
19
376
99.9
S
1.36 104.1 5.60
F
F
406
P
1.49 152 0.50
28.0
19
376 149.5
S
1.25 62.8 3.43
F
F
544
P
1.97 152 0.48
26.2
19
391 203.9
S
1.08 41.9 2.32
F
0.89
S
1.11
407
P
1.51 152 0.52
18.1
19
400 146.6
S
1.01 53.0 3.62
F
0.85
F
0.55
673
P
2.48 152 0.50
18.1
19
396 297.0
S
1.05 32.5 2.21
S
1.15
S
1.07
949
P
3.53 152 0.52
20.7
19
400 489.3
S
1.08 24.5 1.57
F
0.95
F
0.79
816
P
2.96 152 0.49
20.1
19
396 399.7
S
1.04 27.2 1.73
F
0.99
F
0.86
270
P
0.99 152 0.49
18.1
19
396 100.1
S
1.14 89.0 6.00
F
F
542
P
1.99 152 0.50
20.1
19
396 199.5
S
1.07 41.4 2.68
C
1.07
S
1.25
1631
P
6.07 152 2.75
27.0
19
377 184.6
S
1.00 217.2 3.07
S
1.30
S
1.45
1359
P
5.02 152 2.73
27.0
19
377 147.4
S
0.87 227.8 3.19
S
1.28
S
1.47
1087
P
4.01 152 2.72
27.2
19
377 110.7
S
0.62 206.2 2.87
S
1.07
S
1.27

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

21

Author
and Notes
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1967 274
1967 3041
1967 3042
1967 3043
1967 3044
1967 3045
1967 3046
1967 3047
Kani's "Lost test"
1969 3061
1966 162'
1966 163'
1966 166'
Rajagopalan
27 1968 S-1
& Ferguson
1968 S-2
1968 S-3
1968 S-4
1968 S-5
1968 S-6
1968 S-7
1968 S-9
1968 S-12
1968 S-13
(discussion)
1968 S-14
(discussion)
1968 S-15
Bhal
28 1968 B1
1968 B2
(self weight
1968 B3
added)
1968 B4
1968 B5
1968 B6
1968 B7
1968 B8
Taylor
29 1968 1A
1968 2A
1968 1B
1968 2B
1968 3B
1968 5A
1968 5B
Mattock
30 1969 1
1969 3
1969 10
1969 15
1969 18
1969 22
1969 24
Swamy, R.N., Andr 31 1970 1
1970 3
1970 6
1970 8

bw
(mm)
612
152
154
154
152
155
155
155
154
154
152
154
154
154
152
152
152
151
152
152
153
152
151
761
240
240
240
240
240
240
240
240
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
102
152
102
102

b
(mm)
612
152
154
154
152
155
155
155
154
154
152
154
154
154
152
152
152
151
152
152
153
152
151
761
240
240
240
240
240
240
240
240
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
102
152
102
102

h
(mm)
305
1219
1219
1219
1219
1219
1219
1219
1202
305
305
305
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
311
349
311
350
650
950
1250
650
650
950
950
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
152
229
152
152

d
(mm)
270
1097
1095
1092
1097
1092
1097
1095
1091
267
272
274
259
265
267
268
262
267
268
262
268
265
269
269
297
600
900
1200
600
600
900
900
370
370
370
370
370
370
370
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
127
197
127
127

a:M/V
(mm)
815
2195
2737
3277
4364
5461
7673
8758
3378
543
678
815
1016
1016
1118
1118
1118
1118
1118
1118
1118
1118
1119
1119
900
1800
2700
3600
1800
1800
2700
2700
1118
1118
1118
1118
1118
914
914
762
762
762
1372
1372
1372
1372
191
492
445
572

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
815
P
3.02 152 2.73
27.2
19
377
74.0
S
0.57 250.2 3.49
S
1.20
S
1.43
2195
P
2.00 432 2.72
26.9
19
377
36.7
S
0.49 326.2 4.53
C
1.36
S
1.51
2737
P
2.50 432 2.70
26.4
19
375
55.5
S
0.45 237.0 3.29
S
1.55
S
1.25
3277
P
3.00 229 2.71
27.0
19
376
73.7
S
0.37 165.1 2.28
S
1.12
S
0.93
4364
P
3.98 229 2.72
29.5
19
376 109.3
S
0.46 159.1 2.11
S
1.12
S
0.94
5461
P
5.00 229 2.70
28.3
19
381 148.2
S
0.56 152.4 2.04
S
1.14
S
0.94
7673
P
6.99 229 2.70
26.7
19
360 221.8
S
0.83 154.2 2.11
S
1.30
S
1.02
8758
P
8.00 229 2.69
26.7
19
376 260.7
S
0.88 147.1 2.02
S
1.30
S
0.98
3378
P
3.10 152 0.80
27.4
19
345 260.7
S
0.69 97.5 1.33
S
0.92
F
0.65
543
P
2.03 152 0.76
34.3
19
379 135.0
S
1.12 62.1 3.10
F
S
678
P
2.50 152 0.78
35.4
19
378 191.8
S
0.82 38.0 1.87
C
0.91
S
0.90
815
P
2.97 152 0.76
35.4
19
379 259.8
S
0.98 38.3 1.84
S
0.99
F
0.90
1016
P
3.93 50 1.43
36.6
13
655 205.4
S
0.44 35.6 1.78
S
0.87
S
0.86
1016
P
3.83 50 0.98
33.1
13
655 288.9
S
0.62 37.4 1.92
S
1.05
S
0.95
1118
P
4.19 50 0.81
29.0
13
524 394.1
S
0.83 31.1 1.71
S
1.01
S
0.86
1118
P
4.17 50 0.63
33.1
13
524 501.6
S
0.92 28.0 1.43
S
0.96
F
0.73
1118
P
4.27 50 0.53
27.9
13 1779 618.2
S
0.48 33.6 1.92
S
1.34
S
0.98
1118
P
4.18 50 0.35
31.0
13 1779 912.0
S
0.52 27.4 1.47
S
1.23
S
0.75
1118
P
4.17 50 0.25
28.6
13 1779 1254.0 S
0.75 30.0 1.65
S
1.57
S
0.86
1118
P
4.27 50 0.53
25.1
13 1779 616.3
S
0.36 24.5 1.48
S
1.01
S
0.75
1118
P
4.16 50 0.25
29.7
13 1779 1259.9 S
0.61 24.6 1.32
S
1.27
S
0.69
1118
P
4.22 50 1.73
23.7
13
655 186.2
S
0.51 40.0 2.46
S
1.08
S
1.15
1119
P
4.16 50 0.63
29.8
13
524 500.5
S
0.83 25.0 1.36
S
0.89
F
0.69
1119
P
4.16 50 0.63
33.0
13
524 500.5
S
0.98 150.8 1.54
S
1.03
F
0.78
900
P
3.03 59 1.26
23.2
30
434 161.7
S
0.64 70.7 2.48
S
1.04
S
1.15
1800
P
3.00 120 1.26
29.6
30
434 159.3
S
0.51 119.5 1.84
S
0.90
S
0.86
2700
P
3.00 180 1.26
27.5
30
434 159.3
S
0.48 166.8 1.77
S
0.95
S
0.83
3600
P
3.00 240 1.26
25.2
30
434 159.3
S
0.41 185.2 1.54
S
0.89
S
0.71
1800
P
3.00 120 0.63
26.6
30
434 318.6
S
0.86 106.2 1.72
S
1.05
F
0.85
1800
P
3.00 120 0.63
24.7
30
430 318.6
S
0.94 114.1 1.92
S
1.15
S
0.94
2700
P
3.00 180 0.63
27.2
30
434 318.6
S
0.76 139.8 1.49
S
1.00
F
0.74
2700
P
3.00 180 0.63
27.7
30
430 318.6
S
0.70 127.5 1.35
S
0.91
F
0.67
1118
P
3.02 10 1.03
28.9
10
350 195.8
S
0.74 61.8 1.84
S
0.96
S
0.88
1118
P
3.02 10 1.55
33.2
10
350 130.5
S
0.75 91.6 2.55
S
1.19
S
1.17
1118
P
3.02 10 1.03
28.9
10
350 195.8
S
0.91 75.6 2.26
S
1.17
S
1.08
1118
P
3.02 10 1.55
33.2
10
350 130.5
S
0.82 100.5 2.79
S
1.30
S
1.28
1118
P
3.02 10 1.03
31.6
10
350 195.8
S
0.91 76.1 2.17
S
1.14
S
1.04
914
P
2.47 10 1.03
29.9
10
350 142.6
S
0.79 80.5 2.36
S
1.15
S
1.09
914
P
2.47 10 1.03
29.9
10
350 142.6
S
0.79 80.5 2.36
S
1.15
S
1.09
762
P
3.00 10 1.03
17.1
19
400 194.2
S
0.80 36.5 2.75
S
1.17
S
1.27
762
P
3.00 10 1.03
46.9
19
400 194.2
S
1.09 54.7 2.49
S
1.26
S
1.21
762
P
3.00 10 3.10
18.6
19
400
64.5
S
0.58 56.0 4.06
S
1.28
S
1.53
1372
P
5.40 10 1.03
25.9
19
400 427.2
S
1.17 31.1 1.91
F
F
1372
P
5.40 10 2.07
18.1
19
400 212.6
S
0.82 35.6 2.61
S
1.09
S
1.23
1372
P
5.40 10 3.10
16.1
19
400 141.9
S
0.84 40.0 3.11
S
1.12
S
1.37
1372
P
5.40 10 3.10
29.2
19
400 141.9
S
0.79 52.5 3.03
S
1.20
S
1.40
191
P
1.50 64 1.64
26.5
19
483
45.7
S
1.26 70.5 12.78 C
C
492
P
2.50 64 1.70
26.8
19
483
88.2
S
0.68 54.7 4.25
S
1.51
S
1.80
445
P
3.50 64 1.64
26.5
19
483 152.4
S
0.86 20.7 3.75
S
1.45
S
1.73
572
P
4.50 64 1.64
26.5
19
483 213.4
S
1.03 19.3 3.51
S
1.48
S
1.68

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

22

Author
Ref
and Notes
#
901 Placas and
32
902 Regan
903 (ACI Sept 71)
904
905
906
907
908 Manuel, Slight
33
909 and Suter
910 (ACI Dec 71)
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920 Batson, Jenkins
34
921 and Spatney
922 (ACI Oct 72)
923 Haddadin, Hong
35
924 Mattock
925 Smith, R.B.L., "She 36
926
927
928 Taylor
37
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943 Aster &
38
944 Koch
945
946 (self weight
947 added)
948
949
950
951

Year Beam
Name
1971 R1
1971 R2
1971 R3
1971 R7
1971 D2
1971 T2
1971 T18
1971 1
1971 2
1971 3
1971 4
1971 5
1971 6
1971 7
1971 8
1971 9
1971 10
1971 11
1971 12
1972 A1
1972 A2
1972 A3
1971 A1
1971 C1
1970 8/0
1970 10/0
1970 12/0
1972 A1
1972 A2
1972 B1
1972 B2
1972 B3
1972 C1
1972 C2
1972 C3
1972 C4
1972 C5
1972 C6
1972 D1
1972 D2
1972 D3
1972 D4
1974 11
1974 16
1974 2
1974 12
1974 3
1974 8
1974 9
1974 10
1974 17

bw
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
178
178
150
150
150
400
400
200
200
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
60
60
60
60
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

b
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
610
610
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
610
610
150
150
150
400
400
200
200
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
60
60
60
60
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
152
152
152
470
470
230
230
230
1000
1000
500
500
500
250
250
250
250
250
250
150
150
150
150
539
794
281
540
289
544
544
544
794

d
(mm)
272
272
272
272
272
272
254
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
127
127
127
381
381
200
200
200
930
930
465
465
465
233
233
233
233
233
233
139
139
139
139
500
750
250
500
250
500
500
500
750

a:M/V
(mm)
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
122
122
122
122
264
264
264
264
406
406
406
406
610
610
610
953
1619
610
763
915
2800
2800
1400
1400
1400
700
700
700
700
700
700
420
420
420
420
1825
2750
920
1825
920
2750
2750
2750
2750

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
914
P
3.36 10 0.98
26.2
19
621 242.5
S
0.70 44.9 2.55
S
1.25
S
1.23
914
P
3.36 10 1.46
26.2
19
621 162.0
S
0.53 47.1 2.68
S
1.14
S
1.25
914
P
3.36 10 1.46
24.8
19
621 162.0
S
0.51 44.9 2.62
S
1.11
S
1.22
914
P
3.36 10 1.46
28.1
19
621 162.0
S
0.60 54.3 2.98
S
1.28
S
1.39
914
P
3.36 10 1.46
30.3
19
621 162.0
S
0.57 52.5 2.77
S
1.21
S
1.30
914
P
3.36 10 1.46
28.1
19
621 162.0
S
0.51 54.7 3.00
S
1.29
S
1.40
914
P
3.60 10 4.16
28.4
19
621
62.5
S
0.31 74.7 4.36
S
1.41
S
1.73
122
P
0.30 152 0.97
33.8
19
410
15.5
S
0.87 444.8 22.31 C
0.92
C
1.51
122
P
0.30 152 0.97
35.2
19
410
15.5
S
0.87 444.8 21.87 C
0.90
C
1.45
122
P
0.30 152 0.97
30.1
19
392
15.5
S
0.76 367.0 19.49 C
0.84
C
1.40
122
P
0.30 152 0.97
31.9
19
410
15.5
S
0.79 400.3 20.66 C
0.87
C
1.44
264
P
0.65 152 0.97
34.3
19
410
33.5
F
1.21 284.7 14.18 F
F
264
P
0.65 152 0.97
37.4
19
410
33.5
F
1.14 269.1 12.82 F
F
264
P
0.65 152 0.97
32.0
19
410
33.5
F
1.28 300.2 15.48 F
F
264
P
0.65 152 0.97
38.9
19
410
33.5
F
1.18 280.2 13.10 F
F
406
P
1.00 152 0.97
37.7
19
410
51.6
F
1.23 189.0 8.98
F
F
406
P
1.00 152 0.97
44.8
19
410
51.6
F
1.06 164.6 7.17
F
F
406
P
1.00 152 0.97
37.2
19
392
51.6
F
1.16 171.2 8.19
F
F
406
P
1.00 152 0.97
33.7
19
410
51.6
F
1.12 171.2 8.60
F
F
610
P
4.80 10 3.10
34.7
19
276 122.6
S
0.98 19.2 3.04
S
1.11
S
1.39
610
P
4.80 10 3.10
34.7
19
276 122.6
S
0.96 18.8 2.98
S
1.09
S
1.36
610
P
4.80 10 3.10
34.7
19
276 122.6
S
1.05 20.7 3.28
S
1.20
S
1.50
953
P
2.50
0 3.81
29.5
19
517
39.4
S
0.25 116.8 3.82
S
1.24
S
1.33
1619
P
4.25
0 3.81
25.9
19
517
85.3
S
0.32 87.4 3.05
S
1.11
S
1.28
610
U2 3.05 100 2.01
28.0
19
500
54.6
S
0.76 49.4 3.75
S
1.22
S
1.43
763
U2 3.81 100 2.01
34.5
19
500
53.5
S
0.77 43.9 3.00
S
1.00
S
1.17
915
U2 4.58 100 2.01
36.2
19
500
52.8
S
0.94 46.3 3.09
S
1.04
S
1.21
2800
P
3.01 186 1.35
28.7
38
420 148.9
S
0.58 358.4 2.16
S
1.15
S
1.00
2800
P
3.01 186 1.35
25.1
19
420 148.9
S
0.54 328.4 2.12
S
1.16
S
0.97
1400
P
3.01 93 1.35
24.2
38
420 148.9
S
0.69 104.3 2.75
S
1.21
S
1.26
1400
P
3.01 93 1.35
22.0
19
420 148.9
S
0.59 87.3 2.41
S
1.08
S
1.10
1400
P
3.01 93 1.35
28.4
9
420 148.9
S
0.55 85.3 2.07
S
1.04
S
0.96
700
P
3.00 47 1.35
22.7
19
420 148.5
S
0.60 22.5 2.44
S
0.98
S
1.11
700
P
3.00 47 1.35
22.7
9
420 148.5
S
0.64 24.0 2.60
S
1.10
S
1.19
700
P
3.00 47 1.35
24.4
9
420 148.5
S
0.72 27.5 2.87
S
1.23
S
1.32
700
P
3.00 47 1.35
18.5
9
420 148.5
S
0.62 22.5 2.71
S
1.11
S
1.22
700
P
3.00 47 1.35
19.9
9
420 148.5
S
0.74 27.0 3.13
S
1.29
S
1.41
700
P
3.00 47 1.35
25.6
2
420 148.5
S
0.72 27.5 2.81
S
1.28
S
1.29
420
P
3.02 28 1.35
28.4
2
420 149.7
S
0.84 11.6 3.14
S
1.34
S
1.45
420
P
3.02 28 1.35
28.4
2
420 149.7
S
0.88 12.1 3.28
S
1.40
S
1.52
420
P
3.02 28 1.35
28.4
2
420 149.7
S
0.77 10.6 2.87
S
1.23
S
1.33
420
P
3.02 28 1.35
28.4
2
420 149.7
S
0.83 11.4 3.09
S
1.32
S
1.43
1825
P
3.65 100 0.46 X 24.6
30
535 581.1
S
0.85 267.4 1.30
S
0.92
F
0.66
2750
P
3.67 150 0.42 X 30.4
30
536 636.9
S
0.93 406.7 1.19
S
0.98
F
0.60
920
P
3.68 50 0.64 X 26.9
30
554 418.8
S
0.99 218.0 2.02
S
1.17
S
1.01
1825
P
3.65 100 0.65 X 27.3
30
535 406.4
S
0.75 330.2 1.52
S
0.96
S
0.76
920
P
3.68 50 0.91 X 27.3
30
535 293.9
S
0.76 222.5 2.05
S
1.04
S
1.01
2750
P
5.50 100 0.63
31.1
30
535 716.6
S
1.00 287.1 1.24
F
0.96
F
0.64
2750
P
5.50 100 0.63
19.9
30
535 716.6
S
0.95 260.6 1.41
S
0.99
F
0.72
2750
P
5.50 100 0.63
20.0
30
535 716.6
S
0.95 261.6 1.41
S
1.00
F
0.72
2750
P
3.67 150 0.42
28.7
30
535 636.9
S
0.83 363.5 1.09
S
0.89
F
0.56

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

23

Author
Ref Year Beam
and Notes
#
Name
952 Manuel, R.F., "Failu 39 1974 1
953
1974 2
954
1974 3
955
1974 4
956
1974 5
957
1974 5R
958
1974 6
959
1974 7
960
1974 8
961
1974 9
962
1974 10
963
1974 11
964 Cederwall K., Hedm 40 1974 734-34
965
1974 734-40
966 Hamadi and Regan 41 1980 G1
967
1980 G2
968
1980 G4
969 Marti; Pralong; Th 42 1977 PS11
970 Reineck; Koch; Sch 43 1978 N8
971
1978 N6
972
1978 N7
973
1978 s1_1
974 Kani
26 1979 804
975 Continuous
1979 802
976
1979 801
977
1979 803
978
1979 805
979
1979 806
980
1979 807
981
1979 808
982 Kani T-Beams
26 1979 4849
983
1979 4850
984
1979 4851
985
1979 4852
986
1979 4853
987
1979 4854
988
1979 4855
989
1979 4856
990
1979 4857
991
1979 4858
992
1979 4829
993
1979 4830
994
1979 4831
995
1979 4832
996
1979 4833
997
1979 4834
998
1979 4835
999
1979 4836
1000
1979 4837

bw
(mm)
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
135
135
100
100
100
400
500
500
500
150
153
152
152
153
152
152
152
152
154
155
155
157
155
156
155
156
153
154
153
155
155
156
155
155
155
153
154

b
(mm)
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
135
135
100
100
100
400
500
500
500
150
153
152
152
153
152
152
152
152
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457

h
(mm)
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
260
260
400
400
400
180
250
250
250
200
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
406
234
234
370
372
372
162
226
226
225
165
275
276
272
275
272
272
275
275
273
273
273
270
273
272
271
273
275
276
272
272
271
272
271
271
272
272
272

a:M/V
(mm)
102
163
203
102
203
203
244
203
244
305
366
432
800
600
1255
1255
2195
640
791
565
563
660
1903
1631
1087
816
682
544
407
272
272
1087
3261
815
1359
2174
3533
544
953
953
544
815
1087
1359
1631
1902
272
1631
1768

a:STM Load a/d


(mm) Type ratio
102
P
0.25
163
P
0.40
203
P
0.50
102
P
0.25
203
P
0.50
203
P
0.50
244
P
0.60
203
P
0.50
244
P
0.60
305
P
0.75
366
P
0.90
432
P
1.06
800
P
3.42
600
P
2.56
1255
P
3.39
1255
P
3.37
2195
P
5.90
640
P
3.95
791
P
3.50
565
P
2.50
563
P
2.50
660
P
4.00
3805
P
6.91
3263
P
5.92
2174
P
4.00
1632
P
2.97
1364
P
2.51
1087
P
2.00
813
P
1.48
544
P
0.99
272
P
0.99
1087
P
3.99
3261
P 11.93
815
P
3.02
1359
P
4.98
2174
P
8.01
3533
P 13.04
544
P
1.99
953
P
3.47
953
P
3.45
544
P
2.00
815
P
2.99
1087
P
4.02
1359
P
5.00
1631
P
6.03
1902
P
7.03
272
P
1.00
1631
P
6.01
1768
P
6.51

Bear
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
0.63
31.7
19
308
20.0
S
1.27 389.2 20.15 F
C
0.63
34.8
19
322
32.0
F
1.64 329.2 16.27 F
F
0.63
34.6
19
322
40.0
F
1.55 249.1 12.35 F
F
0.97
31.7
19
404
12.9
S
0.76 453.7 23.49 C
0.99
C
1.65
0.97
31.7
19
401
25.8
S
1.35 402.5 20.84 F
C
0.97
32.8
19
440
25.8
F
1.12 364.7 18.57 F
C
0.97
36.2
19
401
31.0
F
1.21 302.5 14.66 F
F
1.38
36.9
19
432
18.2
S
1.10 487.1 23.38 C
1.12
C
1.59
1.38
35.7
19
426
21.8
F
1.10 402.5 19.64 F
C
1.38
35.4
19
426
27.3
F
1.07 311.4 15.25 F
C
1.88
38.1
19
374
24.0
S
1.02 293.6 13.88 C
1.06
C
1.17
1.88
32.3
19
374
28.3
S
1.15 273.6 14.04 C
C
1.07
31.5
19
483 225.2
S
0.96 41.4 2.81
S
1.35
S
1.36
1.08
27.0
19
483 144.5
S
0.72 40.9 3.00
S
1.27
S
1.38
1.70
30.3
20
400 140.7
S
0.69 44.5 2.63
S
1.14
S
1.21
1.08
23.5
20
460 219.7
S
0.85 41.0 2.74
S
1.32
S
1.31
1.08
22.0
20
800 453.5
S
0.72 30.3 2.09
S
1.22
S
1.05
1.38
29.6
16
542 213.3
S
0.93 97.1 3.32
S
1.48
S
1.60
0.79
25.8
16
501 318.4
S
0.88 101.5 2.13
S
1.13
S
1.05
0.79
25.8
16
501 191.1
S
0.73 117.5 2.47
S
1.15
S
1.17
1.39
24.6
16
441 107.6
S
0.59 139.5 3.01
S
1.15
S
1.31
1.87
85.1
16
523 160.8
S
0.82 46.3 2.71
S
1.39
S
1.33
2.69
37.3
19
421 219.7
S
0.86 48.5 2.27
S
1.07
S
1.10
2.68
34.5
19
414 183.6
S
0.80 50.7 2.48
S
1.10
S
1.19
2.69
34.8
19
439 111.5
S
0.55 54.3 2.67
S
1.04
S
1.21
2.70
35.2
19
429
73.0
S
0.41 54.7 2.65
S
0.94
S
1.11
2.76
35.7
19
424
54.7
S
0.41 64.5 3.14
S
1.06
S
1.24
2.77
35.7
19
428
36.1
S
0.35 69.8 3.40
S
1.08
S
1.19
2.75
36.2
19
419
17.5
S
0.33 88.5 4.23
S
1.34
S
1.21
2.75
36.2
19
421
0.0
S
0.31 123.7 5.91
C
1.15
C
0.85
5.46
17.9
19
379
9.1
S
0.51 273.1 18.50 C
1.38
C
1.86
5.49
17.9
19
381
54.4
S
0.41 70.5 4.74
S
1.41
S
1.69
5.48
17.9
19
381 199.3
S
0.91 51.6 3.47
S
1.38
S
1.62
5.42
17.9
19
391
37.2
S
0.43 97.4 6.52
S
1.84
S
2.03
5.43
17.9
19
385
73.3
S
0.46 62.3 4.19
S
1.31
S
1.63
5.43
17.9
19
378 129.0
S
0.67 55.6 3.74
S
1.32
S
1.64
5.48
19.0
19
388 219.8
F
0.94 49.8 3.27
S
S
5.43
19.0
19
379
18.3
S
0.54 186.4 12.10 C
2.90
C
2.31
5.43
17.6
19
348
45.4
S
0.42 77.0 5.24
S
1.52
S
1.75
5.38
17.6
19
356
45.5
S
0.40 74.1 5.01
S
1.45
S
1.68
2.72
19.0
19
401
36.7
S
0.64 128.5 8.50
C
2.19
C
1.60
2.69
19.0
19
401
74.1
S
0.48 64.1 4.19
S
1.38
S
1.65
2.70
19.0
19
407 111.6
S
0.58 59.2 3.89
S
1.39
S
1.67
2.67
19.0
19
401 149.8
S
0.69 55.8 3.62
S
1.38
S
1.63
2.70
19.2
19
405 186.2
S
0.69 46.9 3.07
S
1.24
S
1.42
2.70
18.9
19
403 223.4
S
0.88 50.5 3.32
S
1.40
S
1.57
2.71
19.0
19
403
18.5
S
0.72 267.3 17.49 C
1.38
C
1.68
2.75
18.5
19
364 182.0
S
0.78 48.5 3.27
S
1.30
S
1.51
2.74
18.5
19
364 201.4
S
0.85 48.5 3.25
S
1.33
S
1.52

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

24

#
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050

Author
and Notes

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1979 4838
1979 4839
1979 4840
1979 4840A
1979 4840B
1979 4840C
1979 4840D
1979 4840E
1979 4809
1979 4810
1979 4811
1979 4812
1979 4813
1979 4814
1979 4815
1979 4817
1979 4818
1979 461
1979 462
1979 463
1979 464
1979 465
1979 466
1979 467
1979 468
1979 469
1979 470
1979 471
1979 472
1979 473
1979 474
1979 475
1979 476
1979 477
1979 478
1979 479
1979 480
1979 481
1979 442
1979 443
1979 444
1979 445
1979 447
1979 448
1979 449
1979 450
1979 451
1979 452
1979 453
1979 454

bw
(mm)
152
152
152
153
155
153
152
153
155
154
155
155
154
154
156
155
155
153
153
153
153
154
155
156
156
154
154
153
154
154
154
153
152
152
152
153
152
152
155
155
155
153
155
154
155
154
154
154
154
153

b
(mm)
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
279
273
275
274
274
295
269
271
267
272
271
273
269
271
271
271
272
275
275
273
276
280
279
273
274
271
276
269
267
268
270
269
269
271
271
272
277
276
252
250
251
268
278
279
266
270
273
275
274
270

a:M/V
(mm)
1359
1902
2040
953
2174
2174
953
953
544
1631
544
815
1087
1359
815
272
953
2718
1631
1087
3261
274
1361
2174
544
815
3810
1087
1082
1087
1087
1087
3805
1631
2718
4077
1224
1232
544
678
813
272
1628
2169
2713
678
3261
272
815
1087

a:STM Load a/d


(mm) Type ratio
1359
P
4.88
1902
P
6.97
2040
P
7.42
953
P
3.48
2174
P
7.93
2174
P
7.37
953
P
3.54
953
P
3.52
544
P
2.04
1631
P
6.00
544
P
2.00
815
P
2.99
1087
P
4.04
1359
P
5.01
815
P
3.01
272
P
1.00
953
P
3.50
2718
P
9.90
1631
P
5.93
1087
P
3.98
3261
P 11.82
274
P
0.98
1361
P
4.89
2174
P
7.98
544
P
1.98
815
P
3.01
3810
P 13.79
1087
P
4.03
1082
P
4.06
1087
P
4.05
1087
P
4.03
1087
P
4.03
3805
P 14.16
1631
P
6.01
2718
P 10.02
4077
P 15.00
1224
P
4.43
1232
P
4.47
544
P
2.16
678
P
2.71
813
P
3.23
272
P
1.01
1628
P
5.86
2169
P
7.76
2713
P 10.19
678
P
2.51
3261
P 11.93
272
P
0.99
815
P
2.98
1087
P
4.03

Bear
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
2.60
18.0
19
328 149.2
S
0.78 52.3 3.49
S
1.33
S
1.57
2.71
18.0
19
323 219.9
S
0.93 44.0 3.00
S
1.25
S
1.42
2.73
18.0
19
323 235.5
S
1.01 45.4 3.07
S
1.31
S
1.46
2.70
17.6
19
343
91.7
S
0.49 49.2 3.36
S
1.14
S
1.38
2.71
17.3
19
321 256.0
F
0.96 40.3 2.75
S
S
2.52
20.6
19
483 253.1
S
0.69 45.4 2.67
S
1.20
S
1.28
2.80
20.6
19
463
90.7
S
0.41 54.3 3.51
S
1.21
S
1.46
2.78
20.6
19
477
90.8
S
0.44 60.0 3.85
S
1.33
S
1.60
1.86
18.2
19
406
55.8
S
0.76 107.2 7.33
C
1.97
C
1.32
1.82
18.2
19
407 274.8
S
1.00 47.4 3.20
S
1.45
S
1.54
1.80
19.3
19
408
55.9
S
0.69 97.6 6.37
C
1.73
C
1.18
1.78
19.3
19
408 111.3
S
0.61 58.0 3.76
S
1.39
S
1.62
1.84
19.3
19
402 165.7
S
0.69 48.3 3.19
S
1.28
S
1.46
1.83
19.3
19
397 219.6
S
0.90 50.5 3.32
S
1.43
S
1.57
1.81
19.2
19
370 110.9
S
0.61 53.2 3.45
S
1.27
S
1.48
1.82
19.0
19
392
27.5
S
1.00 262.0 17.18 C
1.45
C
1.64
1.75
17.6
19
402 143.4
S
0.55 42.7 2.91
S
1.12
S
1.30
8.11
30.1
19
391 109.7
S
0.68 72.9 3.82
S
1.38
S
1.70
8.08
30.1
19
391
61.1
S
0.45 79.6 4.15
S
1.31
S
1.65
8.12
25.4
19
365
36.7
S
0.45 109.0 6.20
S
1.77
S
2.05
8.08
26.3
19
372 134.0
S
0.82 68.5 3.81
S
1.42
S
1.73
7.91
26.8
19
361
6.2
S
0.49 400.3 21.65 C
1.39
C
1.91
7.89
26.8
19
361
49.3
S
0.39 77.2 4.16
S
1.26
S
1.53
7.97
26.8
19
361
87.5
S
0.62 75.2 4.11
S
1.39
S
1.74
7.91
25.9
19
366
12.5
S
0.49 236.9 13.11 C
2.71
C
2.18
8.15
25.6
19
372
24.6
S
0.43 139.9 7.95
S
2.16
S
2.27
8.07
27.1
19
395 158.5
F
1.11 63.2 3.43
S
S
8.30
25.4
19
388
36.6
S
0.40 97.6 5.66
S
1.61
S
1.87
8.26
26.2
19
386
37.0
S
0.38 94.5 5.40
S
1.54
S
1.80
8.24
26.2
19
385
37.1
S
0.39 95.2 5.41
S
1.54
S
1.81
8.18
26.6
19
367
37.0
S
0.38 90.3 5.09
S
1.46
S
1.70
8.21
26.6
19
384
37.0
S
0.38 94.7 5.36
S
1.53
S
1.79
8.27
28.3
19
374 159.1
S
0.93 65.4 3.62
S
1.43
S
1.69
8.07
27.1
19
388
62.1
F
0.96 74.3 4.16
S
S
8.04
27.1
19
388 112.2
S
0.72 72.1 4.03
S
1.44
S
1.79
8.05
27.2
19
368 174.0
F
0.99 64.1 3.55
S
S
8.00
27.2
19
376
42.8
S
0.34 77.4 4.24
S
1.25
S
1.50
7.97
27.2
19
368
43.5
S
0.35 77.2 4.24
S
1.25
S
1.51
5.98
24.4
19
361
19.3
S
0.49 156.3 9.76
C
1.88
S
2.79
6.01
24.4
19
361
28.5
S
0.50 128.5 8.06
S
2.22
S
2.39
6.00
24.4
19
361
37.2
S
0.47 101.0 6.33
S
1.81
S
2.09
5.54
29.0
19
395
9.1
S
0.60 403.0 21.86 C
1.32
C
1.64
5.35
26.2
19
381
91.0
S
0.50 62.7 3.44
S
1.18
S
1.46
5.44
29.9
19
361 124.3
S
0.66 62.9 3.21
S
1.22
S
1.46
5.54
29.0
19
381 166.0
S
0.86 62.9 3.41
S
1.38
S
1.60
5.49
29.0
19
381
27.5
S
0.54 161.9 8.70
S
2.47
S
2.63
5.51
26.1
19
374 198.6
S
0.93 56.9 3.19
S
1.34
S
1.52
5.40
25.8
19
374
9.2
S
0.58 370.7 20.73 C
1.35
C
1.76
5.45
25.9
19
374
36.3
S
0.39 96.1 5.38
S
1.57
S
1.78
5.60
25.4
19
376
54.0
S
0.39 70.1 4.05
S
1.25
S
1.52

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

25

#
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100

Author
and Notes

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1979 455
1979 456
1979 457
1979 458
1979 459
1979 421
1979 422
1979 423
1979 424
1979 426
1979 427
1979 428
1979 429
1979 430
1979 431
1979 432
1979 433
1979 401
1979 402
1979 403
1979 404
1979 405
1979 406
1979 407
1979 408
1979 409
1979 410
1979 411
1979 412
1979 4134
1979 141
1979 415
1979 416
1979 417
1979 418
1979 4891
1979 4892
1979 4893
1979 4894
1979 4895
1979 4896
1979 4897
1979 4898
1979 4899
1979 4900
1979 4901
1979 4902
1979 4903
1979 4904
1979 4905

bw
(mm)
154
153
153
152
152
153
155
153
153
155
154
154
154
153
153
153
153
154
156
152
154
154
154
154
155
155
154
154
155
153
153
153
153
152
155
154
154
154
154
155
155
208
155
155
155
153
154
154
155
155

b
(mm)
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
266
268
272
268
268
276
276
276
276
275
276
269
273
271
270
272
273
275
273
275
276
275
280
275
280
275
273
276
269
274
269
270
274
274
275
273
274
271
271
270
273
274
271
274
267
272
271
273
274
273

a:M/V
(mm)
1087
1087
953
2855
2990
406
544
678
813
2169
2713
1902
1359
953
1631
1631
1768
406
544
678
813
1085
1356
1628
544
2169
2713
2985
1359
1902
681
953
681
953
953
544
815
1087
1359
2174
3805
1631
3261
272
2718
2990
2990
1087
1224
953

a:STM Load a/d


(mm) Type ratio
1087
P
4.08
1087
P
4.06
953
P
3.51
2855
P 10.64
2990
P 11.15
406
P
1.47
544
P
1.97
678
P
2.46
813
P
2.95
2169
P
7.90
2713
P
9.84
1902
P
7.06
1359
P
4.98
953
P
3.52
1631
P
6.03
1631
P
6.01
1768
P
6.49
406
P
1.48
544
P
1.99
678
P
2.47
813
P
2.95
1085
P
3.94
1356
P
4.85
1628
P
5.92
544
P
1.94
2169
P
7.89
2713
P
9.93
2985
P 10.82
1359
P
5.05
1902
P
6.94
681
P
2.53
953
P
3.52
681
P
2.49
953
P
3.48
953
P
3.46
544
P
1.99
815
P
2.98
1087
P
4.02
1359
P
5.02
2174
P
8.05
3805
P 13.93
1631
P
5.94
3261
P 12.06
272
P
0.99
2718
P 10.19
2990
P 11.00
2990
P 11.05
1087
P
3.98
1224
P
4.47
953
P
3.49

Bear
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
5.60
26.3
19
385
55.1
S
0.43 78.5 4.50
S
1.39
S
1.71
5.59
26.3
19
385
54.7
S
0.47 85.0 4.85
S
1.50
S
1.84
5.60
26.6
19
385
44.8
S
0.36 78.1 4.39
S
1.32
S
1.57
5.59
27.1
19
353 172.6
S
0.97 62.9 3.56
S
1.44
S
1.67
5.59
27.1
19
353 181.6
S
1.01 62.9 3.56
S
1.46
S
1.68
2.69
34.1
19
373
27.4
S
0.75 202.4 9.87
C
1.21
C
1.06
2.65
28.0
19
386
37.1
S
0.70 145.0 7.70
C
1.79
C
1.26
2.68
27.0
19
386
54.3
S
0.66 108.5 5.93
S
1.95
S
2.25
2.69
30.1
19
395
72.6
S
0.48 68.5 3.56
S
1.24
S
1.47
2.67
32.7
19
373 258.1
S
1.10 55.6 2.76
S
S
2.70
25.2
19
372 327.7
F
1.13 45.1 2.55
S
S
2.73
27.4
19
409 222.3
S
0.97 58.3 3.24
S
1.45
S
1.56
2.69
27.4
19
412 147.8
S
0.74 63.6 3.49
S
1.40
S
1.61
2.76
26.3
19
402
91.3
S
0.55 66.3 3.76
S
1.34
S
1.60
2.76
26.3
19
402 182.2
S
0.84 58.3 3.31
S
1.39
S
1.56
2.69
26.7
19
359 185.9
S
0.93 57.6 3.24
S
1.38
S
1.53
2.67
26.7
19
359 205.2
S
0.99 56.7 3.17
S
1.38
S
1.51
1.77
26.9
19
363
41.7
S
1.14 198.8 10.92 C
C
1.78
29.4
19
438
56.1
S
0.98 154.8 8.08
C
1.96
C
1.24
1.80
27.4
19
417
81.5
S
1.00 120.3 6.61
S
2.42
S
2.77
1.78
26.3
19
417 109.5
S
0.55 55.6 3.08
S
1.18
S
1.36
1.78
29.4
19
438 165.0
S
0.62 49.6 2.60
S
1.12
S
1.22
1.75
26.9
19
438 220.3
S
0.76 48.7 2.62
S
1.20
S
1.26
1.78
30.1
19
401 276.4
S
1.04 50.7 2.63
S
1.31
S
1.29
1.74
31.7
19
417
55.8
S
1.00 154.8 7.63
C
1.90
C
1.24
1.77
31.3
19
438 390.1
S
1.09 43.4 2.18
S
1.22
S
1.09
1.82
27.0
19
354 490.7
F
1.16 30.2 1.66
F
F
1.81
27.1
19
352 542.2
F
1.13 26.9 1.47
F
F
1.82
26.5
19
502 221.8
S
0.74 52.3 2.93
S
1.33
S
1.41
1.82
26.5
19
477 325.3
S
0.93 45.8 2.55
S
1.30
S
1.26
1.87
26.3
19
414
81.8
S
0.85 100.7 5.75
S
2.08
S
2.40
1.85
26.3
19
403 136.1
S
0.66 55.2 3.13
S
1.25
S
1.42
1.78
26.5
19
379
83.8
S
0.77 83.0 4.65
S
1.70
S
1.95
1.78
27.2
19
392 139.5
S
0.70 55.4 3.06
S
1.25
S
1.40
1.71
27.2
19
386 143.7
S
0.63 48.5 2.63
S
1.08
S
1.21
8.03
35.0
19
388
12.4
S
0.53 286.9 13.89 C
2.51
C
1.95
8.06
35.0
19
379
24.6
S
0.47 167.7 8.10
S
2.26
S
2.43
8.08
35.0
19
382
37.3
S
0.45 118.8 5.80
S
1.71
S
2.04
8.09
35.0
19
370
49.7
S
0.45 93.2 4.55
S
1.41
S
1.75
8.07
35.7
19
374
87.4
S
0.69 89.4 4.31
S
1.50
S
1.87
7.98
35.0
19
388 162.2
S
0.97 75.4 3.63
S
1.49
S
1.71
5.89
36.6
19
377
84.0
S
0.51 91.9 3.21
S
1.13
S
1.39
8.04
36.6
19
381 137.5
S
0.95 84.5 4.00
S
1.58
S
1.86
7.83
35.0
19
369
6.3
S
0.63 562.2 26.90 C
1.49
C
1.94
8.14
34.8
19
376 113.0
S
0.84 86.5 4.27
S
1.58
S
1.93
8.11
38.3
19
381 123.3
S
0.88 86.5 4.04
S
1.56
S
1.86
8.15
35.1
19
386 123.4
S
0.90 87.8 4.30
S
1.63
S
1.97
7.99
35.1
19
386
37.3
S
0.40 108.5 5.23
S
1.55
S
1.84
7.95
34.5
19
374
43.6
S
0.42 98.5 4.76
S
1.44
S
1.76
7.89
35.0
19
372
31.6
S
0.43 127.9 6.14
S
1.77
S
2.04

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

26

#
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153

Author
and Notes

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1979 4881
1979 4882
1979 4882A
1979 4883
1979 4883A
1979 4884
1979 4885
1979 4886
1979 4887
1979 4888
1979 4888A
1979 4889
1979 4890
1979 4890A
1979 4871B
1979 4872
1979 4872A
1979 4872B
1979 4873
1979 4873A
1979 4873B
1979 4874
1979 4875
1979 4876
1979 4878
1979 4878A
1979 4878B
1979 4879
1979 4880B
1979 4880B
1979 4861
1979 4862
1979 4863
1979 1864
1979 1865
1979 1867
1979 1868A
1979 4868B
1979 4869A
1979 4869B
1979 6041
1979 6042
1979 6043
1979 6044
1979 6045
1979 6046
1979 6048
1979 6049
1979 6050
1979 6021
1979 6022
1979 6023
1979 6024

bw
(mm)
155
155
154
155
154
155
156
155
156
156
154
154
154
155
155
152
154
154
153
153
154
154
154
154
153
154
155
154
155
153
154
153
154
153
155
156
154
155
154
154
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

b
(mm)
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
457
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762
762

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
274
274
273
271
271
269
273
271
273
272
273
272
268
272
272
269
271
273
270
271
274
271
272
273
272
278
279
271
271
273
271
269
273
271
269
274
272
270
271
270
275
271
268
275
277
275
271
275
273
274
274
272
275

a:M/V
(mm)
544
815
815
1087
1087
1631
2174
272
2446
2718
2718
953
2583
1224
544
815
815
815
1087
1087
1087
1631
272
409
953
884
884
1359
988
988
544
815
1087
1631
681
1224
815
815
953
953
1902
2446
2990
815
1359
1087
4077
544
2990
1087
1631
2174
1087

a:STM Load a/d


(mm) Type ratio
544
P
1.99
815
P
2.97
815
P
2.99
1087
P
4.01
1087
P
4.02
1631
P
6.07
2174
P
7.96
272
P
1.00
2446
P
8.96
2718
P 10.00
2718
P
9.97
953
P
3.50
2583
P
9.64
1224
P
4.50
544
P
2.00
815
P
3.03
815
P
3.01
815
P
2.99
1087
P
4.02
1087
P
4.01
1087
P
3.97
1631
P
6.02
272
P
1.00
409
P
1.50
953
P
3.51
884
P
3.18
884
P
3.17
1359
P
5.01
988
P
3.64
988
P
3.63
544
P
2.01
815
P
3.03
1087
P
3.99
1631
P
6.02
681
P
2.53
1224
P
4.47
815
P
3.00
815
P
3.02
953
P
3.51
953
P
3.52
1902
P
6.93
2446
P
9.04
2990
P 11.15
815
P
2.97
1359
P
4.90
1087
P
3.96
4077
P 15.06
544
P
1.98
2990
P 10.97
1087
P
3.97
1631
P
5.94
2174
P
7.99
1087
P
3.95

Bear
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
5.41
35.4
19
366
18.4
S
0.61 228.2 10.88 C
2.06
C
1.53
5.39
35.4
19
381
36.6
S
0.58 150.3 7.14
S
2.15
S
2.50
5.48
38.3
19
380
36.3
S
0.49 127.4 5.92
S
1.79
S
2.09
5.46
37.4
19
386
55.1
S
0.43 84.7 3.96
S
1.28
S
1.57
5.49
34.5
19
350
55.0
S
0.48 85.6 4.22
S
1.35
S
1.66
5.50
37.4
19
379
92.2
S
0.61 78.1 3.68
S
1.33
S
1.62
5.40
37.4
19
379 128.9
S
0.79 77.0 3.56
S
1.40
S
1.65
5.48
37.7
19
379
9.2
S
0.68 482.2 22.48 C
1.25
C
1.51
5.39
37.7
19
382 147.5
S
0.85 74.1 3.41
S
1.40
S
1.60
5.42
37.7
19
381 166.1
S
0.87 68.1 3.15
S
1.33
S
1.50
5.44
35.0
19
357 164.9
S
1.01 73.4 3.55
S
1.48
S
1.68
5.45
34.5
19
354
46.0
S
0.47 96.1 4.70
S
1.46
S
1.76
5.54
34.5
19
354 156.0
S
0.97 72.3 3.59
S
1.47
S
1.69
5.41
34.5
19
369
64.6
S
0.51 84.5 4.11
S
1.36
S
1.68
2.69
35.7
19
403
37.2
S
0.65 139.7 6.67
C
1.39
C
0.91
2.82
34.8
19
412
72.1
S
0.48 70.7 3.52
S
1.24
S
1.48
2.73
34.5
19
394
73.9
S
0.56 77.4 3.81
S
1.35
S
1.60
2.70
34.5
19
399
73.8
S
0.54 76.5 3.72
S
1.33
S
1.57
2.77
34.8
19
392 109.1
S
0.67 69.8 3.44
S
1.33
S
1.55
2.74
34.1
19
404 110.1
S
0.67 71.4 3.54
S
1.37
S
1.59
2.70
34.1
19
409 110.3
S
0.57 61.8 3.03
S
1.17
S
1.36
2.74
34.8
19
395 183.3
S
0.90 63.2 3.09
S
1.36
S
1.48
2.70
35.4
19
404
18.5
S
0.91 371.9 17.99 C
1.17
C
1.26
2.70
35.4
19
404
27.7
S
0.81 230.9 11.11 C
1.34
C
1.14
2.75
35.4
19
404
91.3
S
0.49 60.7 2.95
S
1.10
S
1.29
2.68
36.7
19
363
81.5
S
0.56 68.9 3.20
S
1.17
S
1.38
2.65
36.7
19
366
81.9
S
0.59 74.3 3.41
S
1.25
S
1.47
2.73
35.4
19
401 146.6
S
0.75 64.5 3.12
S
1.30
S
1.46
2.71
35.7
19
403
97.6
S
0.55 65.4 3.14
S
1.19
S
1.39
2.74
35.7
19
403
95.7
S
0.54 64.3 3.12
S
1.17
S
1.38
1.84
35.4
19
429
54.8
S
1.06 166.6 8.09
C
1.82
C
1.09
1.85
35.4
19
421 109.5
S
0.63 63.6 3.13
S
1.25
S
1.41
1.82
35.4
19
421 164.4
S
0.79 60.7 2.93
S
1.29
S
1.39
1.87
35.4
19
423 269.0
S
0.94 48.9 2.39
S
1.21
S
1.18
1.83
37.0
19
392
83.3
S
0.74 84.3 3.99
C
1.45
S
1.73
1.79
37.0
19
401 194.4
S
0.93 61.2 2.84
S
1.32
S
1.37
1.85
34.4
19
419 108.5
S
0.63 64.9 3.18
S
1.26
S
1.43
1.84
34.4
19
419 109.4
S
0.57 58.3 2.85
S
1.13
S
1.28
1.85
34.4
19
414 135.4
S
0.70 61.2 3.01
S
1.26
S
1.39
1.84
34.4
19
408 137.0
S
0.81 68.7 3.39
S
1.42
S
1.57
9.27
27.7
19
349
64.0
S
0.44 74.9 4.10
S
1.29
S
1.63
9.42
26.8
19
334
85.4
S
0.62 76.5 4.31
S
1.44
S
1.82
9.50
26.8
19
345 106.8
S
0.65 66.7 3.79
S
1.33
S
1.67
9.28
28.7
19
354
21.2
S
0.34 134.3 7.22
S
1.94
S
2.06
9.19
28.7
19
354
42.4
S
0.33 79.4 4.22
S
1.24
S
1.50
9.27
26.8
19
346
31.9
S
0.34 98.5 5.48
S
1.54
S
1.74
9.40
25.8
19
346 149.6
S
1.01 76.5 4.40
S
1.68
S
2.02
9.27
24.9
19
349
10.7
S
0.44 235.5 13.58 C
2.79
C
2.27
9.34
25.4
19
345 106.8
S
0.70 72.9 4.20
S
1.47
S
1.84
4.50
27.4
19
372
66.0
S
0.52 84.1 4.63
S
1.51
S
1.85
4.44
27.4
19
364 111.3
S
0.59 62.9 3.46
S
1.26
S
1.53
4.51
27.4
19
379 154.9
S
0.73 59.8 3.31
S
1.32
S
1.54
4.44
25.7
19
374
66.4
S
0.50 82.3 4.66
S
1.51
S
1.85

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


27

#
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198

Author
and Notes

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1979 6025
1979 6026
1979 6027
1979 6028
1979 6029
1979 6030
Taylor, M. A., El-Ha 44 1980 1
Palaskas, Attiogbe 45 1981 #2
and Darwin
1981 A00
1981 B00
1981 C00
Nakazawa, T., "The 46 1980 1
1980 2
(failure modes
1980 3
not listed, so
1980 4
taken as
1980 5
predicted)
1980 6
1980 7
1980 8
1980 9
1980 10
1980 11
1980 12
1980 13
1980 14
1980 15
1980 16
1980 17
1980 18
1980 19
1980 20
1980 21
1980 22
1980 23
1980 24
1980 25
1980 26
1980 27
1980 28
Fukuhara, M., Koku 47 1980 (1)-1
1980 (2)-1
(assume j = 0.85d)
1980 (2)-2
1980 (3)-1
1980 (4)-1
1980 (4)-2

bw
(mm)
152
152
152
152
152
152
216
191
191
191
191
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
180
180
180
180
180
180

b
(mm)
762
762
762
762
762
762
813
610
610
610
610
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
180
180
180
180
180
180

h
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
305
635
457
457
457
457
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
400

d
(mm)
273
275
271
273
274
271
561
374
395
401
391
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
270
340
340
340
340
340
340

a:M/V
(mm)
1359
2446
815
2446
544
1224
1219
1549
1549
1549
1549
270
405
540
675
810
945
1080
270
405
540
675
810
945
1080
270
405
540
675
810
945
1080
270
405
540
675
810
945
1080
600
600
600
800
600
600

f c'
ag
fy
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa)
1359
P
4.98 152 4.48
25.7
19
372
2446
P
8.88 152 4.46
25.7
19
371
815
P
3.01 152 4.52
27.5
19
374
2446
P
8.97 152 4.48
27.5
19
379
544
P
1.99 152 4.50
28.7
19
364
1224
P
4.52 152 4.55
24.9
19
374
1219
P
2.17 356 1.77
30.9
25
483
1549
P
4.14 203 0.69
32.8
19 1674
1549
P
3.93 203 0.66
32.7
19 1674
1549
P
3.86 203 0.49
32.0
19 1674
1549
P
3.96 203 0.94
29.4
19 1674
270
P
1.00 50 0.53
25.0
19
319
405
P
1.50 50 0.53
26.2
19
319
540
P
2.00 50 0.53
23.0
19
319
675
P
2.50 50 0.53
22.5
19
319
810
P
3.00 50 0.53
27.8
19
319
945
P
3.50 50 0.53
27.9
19
319
1080
P
4.00 50 0.53
28.6
19
319
270
P
1.00 50 0.70
17.5
19
319
405
P
1.50 50 0.70
22.6
19
319
540
P
2.00 50 0.70
23.2
19
319
675
P
2.50 50 0.70
20.3
19
319
810
P
3.00 50 0.70
21.0
19
319
945
P
3.50 50 0.70
20.0
19
319
1080
P
4.00 50 0.70
18.8
19
319
270
P
1.00 50 1.47
25.3
19
358
405
P
1.50 50 1.47
25.3
19
358
540
P
2.00 50 1.47
24.2
19
358
675
P
2.50 50 1.47
28.7
19
358
810
P
3.00 50 1.47
23.5
19
358
945
P
3.50 50 1.47
25.8
19
358
1080
P
4.00 50 1.47
30.5
19
358
270
P
1.00 50 1.91
34.4
19
358
405
P
1.50 50 1.91
34.8
19
358
540
P
2.00 50 1.91
34.3
19
358
675
P
2.50 50 1.91
34.8
19
358
810
P
3.00 50 1.91
38.6
19
358
945
P
3.50 50 1.91
38.6
19
358
1080
P
4.00 50 1.91
34.1
19
358
1200
P
1.76 275 3.20
23.6
19
343
1200
P
1.76 275 3.20
31.8
19
368
1200
P
1.76 275 3.20
31.8
19
368
1600
P
2.35 275 3.20
23.6
19
343
1200
P
1.76 275 3.20
19.5
19
343
1200
P
1.76 275 3.20
19.5
19
343

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

28

M
Vd
88.8
176.8
44.5
177.6
22.1
77.4
66.2
453.7
445.9
586.2
313.7
94.3
141.5
188.7
283.0
377.4
471.7
566.0
71.4
107.1
142.9
214.3
285.7
357.1
428.6
34.0
51.0
68.0
102.0
136.1
170.1
204.1
26.2
39.3
52.4
78.5
104.7
130.9
157.1
23.9
23.9
23.9
42.3
23.9
23.9

Rep.
Mode
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
S
S
S
F
F
F
F
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

MMAX
Mn
0.52
0.86
0.52
0.91
0.72
0.54
1.08
0.39
0.33
0.46
0.22
1.10
1.17
1.04
0.99
1.12
1.30
1.08
1.18
1.12
1.09
1.20
1.05
1.22
0.91
0.89
0.98
0.98
0.90
0.97
0.85
0.97
0.68
0.69
0.76
0.73
0.71
0.69
0.82
0.35
0.33
0.32
0.39
0.34
0.41

Vu

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
67.2 3.84
S
1.32
S
1.63
62.0 3.52
S
1.44
S
1.65
111.9 6.23
S
1.90
S
2.23
66.7 3.68
S
1.52
S
1.74
223.1 12.02 C
2.49
C
1.85
77.6 4.54
S
1.51
S
1.86
491.0 8.78
C
2.29
S
3.56
72.1 2.13
S
1.39
S
1.08
64.9 1.82
S
1.20
S
0.92
71.2 1.98
S
1.46
S
1.01
59.2 1.76
S
1.00
S
0.87
72.4 4.30
F
F
51.5 2.99
F
F
34.1 2.12
F
F
25.8 1.62
F
F
24.5 1.38
F
F
24.5 1.38
F
F
17.8 0.99
F
F
98.6 7.01
C
C
63.8 3.99
C
F
46.6 2.87
S
1.28
S
1.31
40.5 2.67
S
S
29.7 1.93
F
F
29.4 1.96
F
F
19.0 1.30
F
F
166.8 9.86
C
1.34
C
1.62
122.6 7.25
C
1.77
C
1.56
90.7 5.48
S
1.96
S
2.17
68.7 3.81
S
1.49
S
1.67
60.1 3.68
S
1.48
S
1.66
45.4 2.66
S
1.14
S
1.24
46.6 2.51
S
1.16
S
1.20
166.8 8.45
C
1.00
C
1.19
112.8 5.68
C
1.19
C
1.04
93.2 4.73
S
1.65
S
1.84
71.1 3.58
S
1.33
S
1.53
58.7 2.81
S
1.12
S
1.27
49.1 2.35
S
0.99
S
1.09
50.3 2.56
S
1.11
S
1.20
97.5 3.94
S
1.20
S
1.13
104.6 3.65
S
1.14
S
1.06
101.0 3.53
S
1.10
S
1.02
81.1 3.28
S
1.04
S
1.13
85.7 3.82
S
1.14
S
1.09
104.6 4.66
S
1.39
S
1.33

Author
Ref
and Notes
#
1199 Chana
48
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235 Niwa, J., Maekawa 49
1236
1981
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243 Batchelor, B. d., Kw 50
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248 (midspan rho)

Year Beam
Name
1981 2.1a
1981 2.1b
1981 2.2a
1981 2.2b
1981 2.3a
1981 2.3b
1981 3.1a
1981 3.1b
1981 3.2a
1981 3.2b
1981 3.3a
1981 3.3b
1981 D1
1981 D2
1981 D3
1981 4.1a
1981 4.1b
1981 4.2a
1981 4.2b
1981 4.3a
1981 4.3b
1981 4.4a
1981 4.4b
1981 5.1a
1981 5.1b
1981 5.2a
1981 5.2b
1981 6.1
1981 6.2
1981 6.3
1981 6.4
1981 6.5
1981 6.6
1981 6.7
1981 6.8
1981 6.9
1981 T1
1981 T2
1981 T3
1981 T4
1981 T5
1981 T6
1981 T7
1981 T8
1981 4-C-1
1981 4-C-2
1981 1-S-1
1981 1-S-2
1981 3-S-1
1981 3-S-2

bw
(mm)
203
203
203
203
203
203
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
200
200
200
200
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
152
152
152
155
154
151

b
(mm)
203
203
203
203
203
203
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
200
200
200
200
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
152
152
152
155
154
151

h
(mm)
406
406
406
406
406
406
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
203
203
203
203
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
300
600
300
600
600
600
300
300
248
248
289
302
305
305

d
(mm)
356
356
356
356
356
356
177
177
177
177
177
177
177
177
177
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
170
170
170
170
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
228
507
228
507
507
507
228
228
226
226
251
264
255
255

a:M/V
(mm)
1068
1068
1068
1068
1068
1068
531
531
531
531
531
531
531
531
531
318
318
318
318
318
318
318
318
510
510
510
510
126
126
126
126
126
126
126
126
126
200
200
200
150
200
150
150
150
686
357
762
686
762
762

a:STM Load a/d Bear A


(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) *
1068
P
3.00 10 1.69
1068
P
3.00 10 1.69
1068
P
3.00 10 1.69
1068
P
3.00 10 1.69
1068
P
3.00 10 1.69
1068
P
3.00 10 1.69
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
531
P
3.00 10 1.74
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
318
P
3.00 10 1.72
510
P
3.00 10 1.80
510
P
3.00 10 1.80
510
P
3.00 10 1.80
510
P
3.00 10 1.80
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
126
P
3.01 10 1.70
200
P
0.88 140 6.00
200
P
0.39 100 3.00
200
P
0.88 100 3.00
150
P
0.30 140 3.00
200
P
0.39 140 6.00
150
P
0.30 100 6.00
150
P
0.66 100 6.00
150
P
0.66 140 3.00
686
P
3.03 10 0.17
686
P
1.58 10 0.17
762
P
3.04 10 0.24
686
P
2.60 10 0.22
762
P
2.99 10 0.19
762
P
2.99 10 0.26 X

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

29

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
49.3
20
414 118.6
S
0.62 96.0 2.27
S
1.02
S
1.06
49.3
20
414 118.6
S
0.63 97.1 2.30
S
1.03
S
1.07
41.6
10
414 118.6
S
0.58 87.4 2.25
S
1.05
S
1.04
41.6
10
414 118.6
S
0.62 94.4 2.44
S
1.13
S
1.12
45.2
20
414 118.6
S
0.65 99.4 2.46
S
1.09
S
1.14
45.2
20
414 118.6
S
0.63 96.4 2.39
S
1.06
S
1.10
34.5
10
414 114.7
S
0.64 23.8 2.75
S
1.10
S
1.25
34.5
10
414 114.7
S
0.64 23.9 2.76
S
1.10
S
1.25
36.8
10
414 114.7
S
0.65 24.5 2.74
S
1.10
S
1.25
36.8
10
414 114.7
S
0.68 25.5 2.86
S
1.15
S
1.30
40.1
10
414 114.7
S
0.69 26.5 2.84
S
1.16
S
1.30
40.1
10
414 114.7
S
0.61 23.2 2.49
S
1.02
S
1.14
31.6
10
414 114.7
S
0.60 22.1 2.67
S
1.05
S
1.20
32.4
10
414 114.7
S
0.63 23.4 2.79
S
1.10
S
1.26
44.7
10
414 114.7
S
0.55 21.4 2.18
S
0.90
S
1.00
30.9
5
414 116.6
S
0.76
9.8
3.35
S
1.28
S
1.51
30.9
5
414 116.6
S
0.67
8.7
2.95
S
1.12
S
1.33
30.9
5
414 116.6
S
0.69
9.0
3.06
S
1.17
S
1.38
30.9
5
414 116.6
S
0.75
9.7
3.31
S
1.26
S
1.49
52.2
5
414 116.6
S
0.85 11.7 3.07
S
1.27
S
1.43
52.2
5
414 116.6
S
0.89 12.4 3.24
S
1.35
S
1.51
52.2
5
414 116.6
S
0.70
9.6
2.52
S
1.05
S
1.18
52.2
5
414 116.6
S
0.76 10.5 2.75
S
1.14
S
1.28
40.3
10
414 111.4
S
0.64 47.8 2.67
S
1.07
S
1.22
40.3
10
414 111.4
S
0.64 47.8 2.67
S
1.07
S
1.22
39.6
10
414 111.4
S
0.73 55.0 3.10
S
1.24
S
1.41
39.6
10
414 111.4
S
0.75 56.0 3.16
S
1.27
S
1.44
35.8
2
414 117.8
S
1.05
2.1
4.37
S
1.62
S
1.99
38.0
2
414 117.8
S
0.93
1.9
3.81
S
1.43
S
1.74
39.1
2
414 117.8
S
1.02
2.1
4.11
S
1.55
S
1.88
60.0
2
414 117.8
S
0.97
2.1
3.30
S
1.34
S
1.55
46.9
2
414 117.8
S
1.24
2.6
4.66
S
S
64.0
2
414 117.8
S
1.27
2.7
4.19
S
S
43.1
2
414 117.8
S
1.13
2.4
4.40
S
S
42.6
2
414 117.8
S
1.07
2.2
4.20
S
1.60
S
1.93
45.0
2
414 117.8
S
1.09
2.3
4.17
S
1.61
S
1.93
35.8
19
364
7.3
S
0.86 314.5 27.76 C
1.12
C
1.27
54.7
19
389
6.6
S
0.39 514.0 16.51 C
0.73
C
1.22
13.1
19
364
14.6
S
0.81 114.0 16.63 C
1.16
C
1.43
13.1
19
389
4.9
S
0.23 212.5 13.94 C
1.06
C
1.77
66.6
19
389
3.3
S
0.37 881.5 25.65 C
0.84
C
1.40
35.8
19
389
2.5
S
0.23 577.5 22.92 C
1.32
C
2.21
59.9
19
364
5.5
S
0.75 446.0 30.43 C
0.83
C
1.10
58.8
19
364
11.0
F
1.40 470.5 32.41 F
F
46.6
19 1167 1186.9 S
0.90 19.9 1.02
S
1.06
F
0.53
45.0
19 1167 338.5
S
1.13 47.8 2.49
S
S
33.7
19
472 862.3
F
1.21 16.7 0.90
F
F
33.7
19
472 723.0
F
1.08 17.3 0.88
F
F
37.2
19 1641 1061.6 S
0.75 28.9 1.45
S
1.39
S
0.75
37.2
19 1641 780.4
F
1.03 51.6 2.65
S
S

Author
Ref Year
and Notes
#
1249 Smith and Vantsiot 51 1982
1250
1982
1251
1982
1252
1982
1253
1982
1254 Heger, F.J., and Mc 52 1982
1255
1982
1256
1982
1257
1982
1258
1982
1259
1982
1260
1982
1261
1982
1262
1982
1263
1982
1264
1982
1265
1982
1266 Mphonde &
53 1984
1267 Frantz
1984
1268
1984
1269
1984
1270
1984
1271
1984
1272
1984
1273
1984
1274
1984
1275
1984
1276
1984
1277
1984
1278
1984
1279
1984
1280
1984
1281
1984
1282
1984
1283
1984
1284 (suspect result)
1984
1285 Elzanaty, Nilson, Sl 54 1984
1286
1984
1287
1984
1288
1984
1289
1984
1290
1984
1291
1984
1292
1984
1293
1984
1294
1984
1295
1984
1296
1984
1297
1984
1298
1984
1299
1984

bw
Beam
Name
(mm)
0A0-44
102
0A0-48
102
0B0-49
102
0C0-50
102
0D0-47
102
SW9-0A
914
SW9-0B
914
SW9-6A-15 914
SW9-0B-15 914
SW9M-0A
914
SW9M-0B
914
SW9M-0A-15 914
SW9M-0B-15 914
SW14-0A
914
SW14-0B
914
SW1B-0A
914
SW1B-0B
914
AO-3-3b
152
AO-3-3c
152
AO-7-3a
152
AO-7-3b
152
AO-11-3a
152
AO-11-3b
152
AO-15-3a
152
AO-15-3b
152
AO-15-3c
152
AO-3-2
152
AO-7-2
152
AO-11-2
152
AO-15-2a
152
AO-15-2b
152
AO-3-1
152
AO-7-1
152
AO-11-1
152
AO-15-1a
152
AO-15-1b
152
F7
178
F11
178
F12
178
F8
178
F13
178
F14
178
F1
178
F2
178
F10
178
F9
178
F15
178
F3
178
F4
178
F5
178
F6
178

b
(mm)
102
102
102
102
102
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
914
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178

h
(mm)
356
356
356
356
356
224
227
225
225
225
226
225
226
227
226
225
225
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
337
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305
305

d
(mm)
305
305
305
305
305
184
190
188
186
187
185
190
174
191
186
184
180
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
268
270
268
273
270
268
270
268
267
268
268
268
268
268
268

a:M/V
(mm)
235
235
308
409
613
597
597
381
381
597
597
381
381
597
597
597
597
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
1067
740
740
740
740
740
448
448
448
448
448
1073
1080
1073
1092
1080
1073
1080
1073
1067
1073
1073
537
537
1610
1610

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
235
P
0.77 102 1.93
20.5
13
422
20.0
S
0.56 141.8 12.12 C
0.90
C
1.22
235
P
0.77 102 1.93
20.9
13
422
20.0
S
0.54 136.1 11.52 C
0.84
C
1.14
308
P
1.01 102 1.93
21.7
13
422
26.2
S
0.76 149.0 12.38 C
1.23
C
1.39
409
P
1.34 102 1.93
20.7
13
422
34.7
S
0.80 115.6 9.84
C
1.48
C
1.39
613
P
2.01 102 1.93
19.5
13
422
52.4
S
0.77 73.4 6.43
C
2.01
S
2.30
597
P
3.24 50 0.62
48.5
19
603 361.3
S
0.93 167.6 1.72
S
1.06
F
0.87
597
P
3.14 50 0.60
48.5
19
603 355.7
S
0.83 155.5 1.54
S
0.95
F
0.78
381
P
2.03 50 0.61
48.5
19
603 169.3
F
0.97 267.7 2.70
F
S
381
P
2.05 50 0.62
48.5
19
603 170.8
F
0.99 270.7 2.76
F
S
597
P
3.19 50 0.61
48.5
19
594 358.6
S
0.86 155.7 1.57
S
0.97
F
0.79
597
P
3.23 50 0.62
48.5
19
594 360.6
S
0.97 174.3 1.78
S
1.10
F
0.90
381
P
2.01 50 0.60
48.5
19
594 167.3
F
1.08 299.8 2.99
C
S
381
P
2.19 50 0.66
48.5
19
594 181.3
S
1.23 308.1 3.35
F
S
597
P
3.13 50 0.93
49.0
19
673 228.4
S
0.64 197.2 1.94
S
1.01
S
0.96
597
P
3.21 50 0.96
49.0
19
673 231.2
S
0.65 195.9 1.98
S
1.03
S
0.98
597
P
3.25 50 1.24
48.3
19
633 180.7
S
0.58 202.6 2.09
S
0.99
S
1.01
597
P
3.31 50 1.27
48.3
19
633 182.2
S
0.66 222.8 2.34
S
1.10
S
1.13
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
21.3
10
414
77.0
S
0.59 64.6 3.71
S
1.31
S
1.49
1067
P
3.57 50 2.33
27.8
10
414 110.4
S
0.68 66.8 3.35
S
1.35
S
1.49
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
38.6
10
414
77.0
S
0.59 82.2 3.50
S
1.34
S
1.50
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
42.7
10
414
77.0
S
0.58 82.8 3.35
S
1.30
S
1.45
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
76.9
10
414
77.0
S
0.57 89.7 2.86
S
1.32
S
1.30
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
76.6
10
414
77.0
S
0.57 89.4 2.85
S
1.32
S
1.29
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
83.4
10
414
77.0
S
0.59 93.4 2.98
S
1.38
S
1.36
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
96.1
10
414
77.0
S
0.62 100.0 3.19
S
1.48
S
1.47
1067
P
3.57 50 3.34
94.2
10
414
77.0
S
0.61 97.8 3.12
S
1.45
S
1.43
740
P
2.48 50 3.34
21.1
10
414
44.2
S
0.50 77.8 4.48
S
1.46
S
1.53
740
P
2.48 50 3.34
46.3
10
414
44.2
S
0.56 117.9 4.59
S
1.63
S
1.77
740
P
2.48 50 3.34
81.3
10
414
44.2
S
0.49 111.3 3.55
C
1.17
S
1.47
740
P
2.48 50 3.34
85.9
10
414
44.2
S
0.77 177.8 5.67
C
1.87
S
2.36
740
P
2.48 50 3.34
71.2
10
414
44.2
S
0.92 205.8 6.56
C
2.38
S
2.67
448
P
1.50 50 3.34
23.1
10
414
22.4
S
0.43 116.1 6.40
C
1.37
C
1.36
448
P
1.50 50 3.34
41.8
10
414
22.4
S
0.92 311.5 12.75 C
2.19
C
2.01
448
P
1.50 50 3.34
65.8
10
414
22.4
S
1.18 432.6 14.12 C
C
448
P
1.50 50 3.34
79.5
10
414
22.4
S
0.73 275.7 8.79
C
1.15
C
1.01
448
P
1.50 50 3.34
81.3
10
414
22.4
S
1.31 495.0 15.78 C
C
1073
P
4.00 10 0.60
20.7
13
434 500.0
S
1.17 33.7 1.87
F
F
1080
P
4.00 10 1.19
20.7
13
434 252.5
S
0.86 45.3 2.50
S
1.20
S
1.20
1073
P
4.00 10 2.44
20.7
13
434 123.0
S
0.63 55.7 3.09
S
1.18
S
1.36
1092
P
4.00 10 0.93
40.0
13
434 322.7
S
1.01 46.4 1.82
S
1.07
F
0.91
1080
P
4.00 10 1.19
40.0
13
434 252.5
S
0.82 46.6 1.85
S
0.99
S
0.91
1073
P
4.00 10 2.44
40.0
13
434 123.0
S
0.62 65.7 2.62
S
1.10
S
1.21
1080
P
4.00 10 1.19
65.5
13
434 252.5
S
1.00 58.7 1.82
S
1.12
F
0.91
1073
P
4.00 10 2.44
65.5
13
434 123.0
S
0.59 67.6 2.11
S
1.01
S
1.00
1067
P
4.00 10 3.21
65.5
13
434
93.6
S
0.55 79.0 2.48
S
1.08
S
1.14
1073
P
4.00 10 1.63
79.3
13
434 184.4
S
0.80 63.6 1.93
S
1.14
S
0.95
1073
P
4.00 10 2.44
79.3
13
434 123.0
S
0.59 68.6 2.08
S
1.07
S
1.00
537
P
2.00 10 1.19
69.0
13
434
84.0
S
0.72 85.3 2.59
C
0.88
S
1.18
537
P
2.00 10 2.44
69.0
13
434
41.0
S
0.56 129.6 3.94
C
1.13
S
1.57
1610
P
6.00 10 1.19
63.4
13
434 420.1
F
1.11 43.3 1.37
F
F
1610
P
6.00 10 2.50
63.4
13
434 200.0
S
0.79 61.5 1.95
S
1.04
S
0.96

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

30

Author
Ref
and Notes
#
1300 Kng (1985)
55
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305 Rogowsky
56
1306
1307
1308
1309 Muruyama, Y., Iwab 57
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323 Mansur, M.A., Ong 58
1324
1325
1326
1327 Ahmad and Lue
59
1328
1329
1330 rebar in A and
1331 B assume is
1332 85 ksi (#2 bars)
1333 for C (#3),
1334 assume it is
1335 70 ksi
1336 (based on
1337 flexural results)
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350

Year Beam
Name
1985 C
1985 D
1985 E
1985 F
1985 E-1
1986 BM1/1.0/T2
1986 BM1A/1.0
1986 BM1/1.5/T1
1986 BM1/2.0/T1
1986 N1
1986 N2
1986 NP1
1986 NP2
1986 NP3
1986 NS1
1986 NS2
1986 NS3
1986 NS4
1986 NL1
1986 NL2
1986 NL3
1986 NL4
1986 NL5
1986 A1
1986 A2
1986 A3
1986 A4
1987 A1
1987 A2
1987 A3
1987 A4
1987 A5
1987 A6
1987 A7
1987 A8
1987 A9
1987 A10
1987 A11
1987 A12
1987 A13
1987 A14
1987 A15
1987 A16
1987 A17
1987 A18
1987 B1
1987 B2
1987 B3
1987 B4
1987 B5
1987 B6

bw
(mm)
140
140
140
140
140
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
150
150
150
150
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127

b
(mm)
140
140
140
140
140
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
150
150
150
150
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127

h
(mm)
230
230
230
230
230
1000
1000
800
500
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
225
225
225
225
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254

d
(mm)
200
200
200
200
200
950
950
535
455
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
200
200
200
200
203
203
203
203
203
203
208
208
208
208
208
208
213
213
213
213
213
213
202
202
202
202
202
202

a:M/V
(mm)
500
500
500
500
500
1000
1000
1000
1000
625
625
775
775
775
750
750
750
750
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
400
560
720
880
813
610
549
467
406
203
832
624
562
478
416
208
851
639
575
490
426
213
807
605
545
464
403
202

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
500
P
2.50 10 0.56
19.8
30
504 267.5
S
0.91 26.5 2.56
S
1.24
S
1.23
500
P
2.50 10 0.81
18.9
30
497 185.8
S
0.77 30.5 3.02
S
1.27
S
1.40
500
P
2.50 10 1.10
18.9
30
492 136.4
S
0.85 43.0 4.26
S
1.62
S
1.89
500
P
2.50 10 1.82
18.9
30
507
82.5
S
0.73 54.0 5.34
S
1.75
S
2.15
500
P
2.50 10 1.10
20.1
30
492 136.4
S
0.79 40.4 3.88
S
1.49
S
1.73
1000
P
1.05 200 0.95
26.1
10
380
55.6
S
1.17 699.0 8.67
C
C
1000
P
1.05 200 0.95
26.4
10
367
55.6
S
1.04 600.0 7.40
C
1.41
C
1.60
1000
P
1.87 200 1.12
42.4
10
455
83.3
S
1.12 303.0 5.24
F
S
1000
P
2.20 200 0.88
43.2
10
455 136.3
S
1.13 177.0 3.56
C
S
625
P
2.50 90 1.55
47.1
19
343
96.8
S
0.98 97.1 3.41
S
1.40
S
1.54
625
P
2.50 90 1.55
51.0
19
343
96.8
S
0.83 83.4 2.81
S
1.17
S
1.28
775
P
3.10 90 3.18
47.2
19
343
66.0
S
0.57 87.3 3.06
S
1.09
S
1.30
775
P
3.10 90 3.18
47.3
19
343
66.0
S
0.74 112.8 3.95
S
1.40
S
1.68
775
P
3.10 90 3.18
49.2
19
343
66.0
S
0.62 95.2 3.27
S
1.17
S
1.39
750
P
3.00 90 2.57
45.5
19
343
77.8
S
0.72 93.2 3.33
S
1.24
S
1.45
750
P
3.00 90 2.57
46.8
19
343
77.8
S
0.70 91.2 3.21
S
1.20
S
1.40
750
P
3.00 90 3.18
49.1
19
343
62.9
S
0.55 86.3 2.97
S
1.05
S
1.25
750
P
3.00 90 3.18
50.5
19
343
62.9
S
0.52 82.4 2.79
S
0.99
S
1.18
1000
P
4.00 90 2.57
46.9
19
343 116.7
S
0.93 91.2 3.21
S
1.31
S
1.49
1000
P
4.00 90 2.57
43.9
19
343 116.7
S
0.83 80.4 2.93
S
1.18
S
1.35
1000
P
4.00 90 2.57
43.5
19
343 116.7
S
0.86 83.4 3.05
S
1.23
S
1.40
1000
P
4.00 90 3.18
47.9
19
343
94.3
S
0.76 89.3 3.11
S
1.19
S
1.40
1000
P
4.00 90 3.18
47.1
19
343
94.3
S
0.77 91.2 3.20
S
1.23
S
1.44
400
P
2.00 10 1.34
24.2
20
463
74.6
S
0.76 60.0 4.90
S
1.72
C
1.83
560
P
2.80 10 1.34
24.2
20
463 134.3
S
0.80 45.0 3.67
S
1.44
S
1.66
720
P
3.60 10 1.34
24.2
20
463 194.0
S
0.88 38.5 3.14
S
1.34
S
1.48
880
P
4.40 10 1.34
24.2
20
463 253.7
S
0.94 33.8 2.76
S
1.26
S
1.33
813
P
4.00 10 3.93
60.8
13
586
76.3
S
0.50 57.8 3.46
S
1.29
S
1.54
610
P
3.00 10 3.93
60.8
13
586
50.9
S
0.45 68.9 4.12
S
1.42
S
1.70
549
P
2.70 10 3.93
60.8
13
586
43.3
S
0.40 68.9 4.12
C
1.30
S
1.64
467
P
2.30 10 3.93
60.8
13
586
33.1
S
0.46 93.4 5.59
C
1.29
S
2.07
406
P
2.00 10 3.93
60.8
13
586
25.4
S
0.72 166.8 9.98
C
1.79
S
3.39
203
P
1.00 10 3.93
60.8
13
586
12.7
S
0.87 400.3 23.95 C
1.63
C
1.84
832
P
4.00 10 1.77
60.8
13
586 169.5
S
0.76 46.7 2.73
S
1.33
S
1.33
624
P
3.00 10 1.77
60.8
13
586 113.0
S
0.60 48.9 2.86
S
1.26
S
1.34
562
P
2.70 10 1.77
60.8
13
586
96.0
S
0.88 80.1 4.68
C
1.89
S
2.15
478
P
2.30 10 1.77
60.8
13
586
73.4
S
0.77 82.3 4.81
C
1.43
S
2.13
416
P
2.00 10 1.77
60.8
13
586
56.5
S
0.45 55.6 3.25
C
0.75
S
1.37
208
P
1.00 10 1.77
60.8
13
586
28.2
S
0.90 222.4 12.99 C
1.15
C
1.12
851
P
4.00 10 0.35
60.8
13
586 852.3
F
0.98 13.3 0.76
F
F
639
P
3.00 10 0.35
60.8
13
586 568.2
F
1.00 18.2 1.04
F
F
575
P
2.70 10 0.35
60.8
13
586 483.0
F
1.01 20.5 1.17
F
F
490
P
2.30 10 0.35
60.8
13
586 369.3
F
1.03 24.5 1.40
F
F
426
P
2.00 10 0.35
60.8
13
586 284.1
F
0.99 27.1 1.55
F
F
213
P
1.00 10 0.35
60.8
13
586 142.0
F
1.14 62.3 3.56
F
F
807
P
4.00 10 5.04
67.0
13
586
59.5
S
0.36 49.8 2.86
S
1.07
S
1.23
605
P
3.00 10 5.04
67.0
13
586
39.7
S
0.37 68.9 3.96
S
1.37
S
1.56
545
P
2.70 10 5.04
67.0
13
586
33.7
S
0.48 100.1 5.75
C
1.64
S
2.17
464
P
2.30 10 5.04
67.0
13
586
25.8
S
0.59 143.2 8.23
C
1.72
S
2.85
403
P
2.00 10 5.04
67.0
13
586
19.8
S
0.38 106.8 6.13
C
0.99
S
1.93
202
P
1.00 10 5.04
67.0
13
586
9.9
S
0.37 205.5 11.80 C
0.73
C
0.84

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

31

#
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394

Author
and Notes

Niwa,
Yamada
et al.
Rodrigues and
Darwin
Lehwalter PhD

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
1987 B7
1987 B8
1987 B9
1987 B10
1987 B11
1987 B12
1987 B13
1987 B14
1987 B15
1987 B16
1987 B17
1987 B18
1987 C1
1987 C2
1987 C3
1987 C4
1987 C5
1987 C7
1987 C8
1987 C9
1987 C10
1987 C11
1987 C12
1987 C13
1987 C14
1987 C15
1987 C16
1987 C17
1987 C18
60 1987 1
1987 2
1987 3
61 1987 D-0
1987 E-0
62 1988 V111
1988 V121
1988 V122
1988 V221
1988 V222
1988 V311
1988 V321
1988 V322
1988 V611
1988 V811

bw
(mm)
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
600
600
300
191
191
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250

b
(mm)
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
127
600
600
300
610
610
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250

h
(mm)
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
254
2100
2100
1100
457
457
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
200
200

d
(mm)
208
208
208
208
208
208
213
213
213
213
213
213
184
184
184
184
184
207
207
207
207
207
207
211
211
211
211
211
211
2000
2000
1000
400
392
930
930
930
930
930
930
930
930
160
160

a:M/V
(mm)
832
624
562
478
416
208
851
639
575
490
426
213
737
552
497
424
368
826
620
558
475
413
207
844
633
570
485
422
211
6000
6000
3000
1524
1524
465
465
465
930
930
1395
1395
1395
80
240

f c'
ag
fy
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa)
832
P
4.00 10 2.25
67.0
13
586
624
P
3.00 10 2.25
67.0
13
586
562
P
2.70 10 2.25
67.0
13
586
478
P
2.30 10 2.25
67.0
13
586
416
P
2.00 10 2.25
67.0
13
586
208
P
1.00 10 2.25
67.0
13
586
851
P
4.00 10 0.47
67.0
13
586
639
P
3.00 10 0.47
67.0
13
586
575
P
2.70 10 0.47
67.0
13
586
490
P
2.30 10 0.47
67.0
13
586
426
P
2.00 10 0.47
67.0
13
586
213
P
1.00 10 0.47
67.0
13
586
737
P
4.00 10 6.64
64.3
13
483
552
P
3.00 10 6.64
64.3
13
483
497
P
2.70 10 6.64
64.3
13
483
424
P
2.30 10 6.64
64.3
13
483
368
P
2.00 10 6.64
64.3
13
483
826
P
4.00 10 3.26
64.3
13
483
620
P
3.00 10 3.26
64.3
13
483
558
P
2.70 10 3.26
64.3
13
483
475
P
2.30 10 3.26
64.3
13
483
413
P
2.00 10 3.26
64.3
13
483
207
P
1.00 10 3.26
64.3
13
483
844
P
4.00 10 0.53
64.3
13
483
633
P
3.00 10 0.53
64.3
13
483
570
P
2.70 10 0.53
64.3
13
483
485
P
2.30 10 0.53
64.3
13
483
422
P
2.00 10 0.53
64.3
13
483
211
P
1.00 10 0.53
64.3
13
483
6000
P
3.00 200 0.28
27.1
25
999
6000
P
3.00 200 0.14
26.2
25
999
3000
P
3.00 200 0.14
24.6
25
999
3048
P
3.81 178 0.68
31.3
19 1674
3048
P
3.89 178 0.47
31.0
19 1674
465
P
0.50 232 0.66
16.8
16
420
465
P
0.50 232 0.66
18.8
32
420
465
P
0.50 232 0.66
15.8
32
420
930
P
1.00 232 1.08
20.4
16
420
930
P
1.00 232 1.08
15.4
32
420
1395
P
1.50 232 1.69
17.0
16
420
1395
P
1.50 232 1.69
16.9
32
420
1395
P
1.50 232 1.69
15.0
32
420
80
P
0.50 40 0.85
19.9
16
420
240
P
1.50 40 1.90
20.6
16
420

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

32

M
Vd
133.3
88.9
75.6
57.8
44.4
22.2
639.7
426.4
362.5
277.2
213.2
106.6
45.2
30.1
25.6
19.6
15.1
92.0
61.3
52.1
39.9
30.7
15.3
565.0
376.6
320.2
244.8
188.3
94.2
722.1
1444.1
1444.1
412.7
619.2
38.0
38.0
38.0
46.3
46.3
44.4
44.4
44.4
29.4
39.5

Rep.
Mode
S
S
S
S
S
S
F
F
F
F
F
F
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
F
F
F
F
F
F
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

MMAX
Mn
0.58
0.45
0.70
0.48
0.79
0.69
0.92
1.01
0.99
0.99
0.99
1.13
0.41
0.43
0.35
0.39
0.93
0.51
0.38
0.35
0.37
0.60
0.69
0.93
0.99
0.97
1.04
1.02
0.86
0.39
0.71
0.76
0.34
0.48
0.73
0.56
0.56
0.64
0.49
0.44
0.47
0.47
1.15
0.86

Vu
(kN)
44.5
46.7
80.1
64.1
122.3
213.5
16.7
24.5
26.7
31.1
36.0
82.3
54.3
75.6
68.9
89.0
246.9
45.4
44.5
45.4
56.9
106.8
244.6
15.6
22.2
24.0
30.2
34.2
57.8
402.0
382.0
102.0
72.7
68.4
849.0
654.0
642.0
588.0
430.0
369.0
387.0
375.0
221.0
140.0

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
2.48
S
1.19
S
1.18
2.60
S
1.13
S
1.19
4.46
C
1.66
S
1.99
3.57
C
0.97
S
1.52
6.81
C
1.45
S
2.76
11.89 C
0.97
C
0.98
0.91
F
F
1.33
S
F
1.45
F
F
1.69
F
F
1.96
F
F
4.48
F
F
3.48
S
1.15
S
1.41
4.85
C
1.28
S
1.76
4.43
C
0.95
S
1.52
5.71
C
0.90
S
1.77
15.85 C
1.96
S
4.53
2.60
S
1.07
S
1.19
2.55
S
0.96
S
1.10
2.60
C
0.88
S
1.08
3.26
C
0.81
S
1.28
6.11
C
1.18
S
2.23
14.00 C
1.03
C
1.13
0.87
F
F
1.25
F
F
1.35
F
F
1.69
F
F
1.92
F
F
3.24
F
F
0.77
S
0.91
S
0.40
0.75
S
1.15
F
0.39
0.83
S
1.02
F
0.43
2.05
S
1.31
S
1.03
1.98
S
1.48
S
1.01
10.73 C
1.03
C
1.65
7.81
C
0.72
C
1.14
8.37
C
0.82
C
1.33
6.74
C
1.06
C
1.27
5.68
C
0.98
C
1.23
4.64
C
1.36
C
1.33
4.88
C
1.44
C
1.41
5.01
C
1.55
C
1.54
14.91 F
C
9.29
C
1.49
C
1.21

Author
Ref
and Notes
#
1395 Regan and
63
1396 Rezai-Jorabi
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418 Johnson & Ramirez 64
1419 Shioya (all)
65
1420
66
1421 Yield strength
1422 adjusted for
1423 midspans with
1424 bar cutoffs
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433 suspect result
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439 Adebar and
67
1440 Collins
1441
1442
1443
1444

Year Beam
Name
1988 1
1988 2
1988 3
1988 4
1988 5
1988 6
1988 10
1988 11
1988 12
1988 13
1988 14
1988 15
1988 16
1988 17
1988 18
1988 19
1988 20
1988 22
1988 23
1988 24
1988 26
1988 16R
1988 17R
1989 6
1989 S3: No. 1
1989 S3: No. 2
1989 S3: No. 3
1989 S3: No. 4
1989 S3: No. 5
1989 S3: No. 6
1989 S3: No. 7
1989 S4: No. 1
1989 S4: No. 2
1989 S4: No. 3
1989 S4: No. 4
1989 S4: No. 5
1989 S4: No. 6
1989 UB-6-1.3-0
1989 UB-8-0.7-0
1989 UB-8-1.3-0
1989 UB-8-2.0-0
1989 UB-10-1.3-0
1989 with cuttoff
1989 w/o cutoff
1989 ST1
1989 ST2
1989 ST3
1989 ST16
1989 ST17
1989 ST23

bw
(mm)
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
400
600
600
800
800
800
1000
1000
1000
1000
1200
1200
1200
1200
800
1000
305
158
158
300
500
500
1000
1500
158
158
158
300
300
500
300
300
300
300
300
158
158
360
360
290
290
290
290

b
(mm)
400
600
800
400
600
800
400
400
600
600
800
800
800
1000
1000
1000
1000
1200
1200
1200
1200
800
1000
305
158
158
300
500
500
1000
1500
158
158
158
300
300
500
300
300
300
300
300
158
158
360
360
290
290
290
290

h
(mm)
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
610
120
220
655
1200
1200
2100
3140
120
220
220
655
655
1200
240
240
240
240
240
240
240
310
310
310
210
410
310

d
(mm)
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
80
80
80
80
83
83
539
100
200
600
1000
1000
2000
3000
100
200
200
600
600
1000
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
278
278
278
178
378
278

a:M/V
(mm)
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
550
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
350
450
450
1670
300
600
1800
3000
3000
6000
9000
300
600
600
1800
1800
3000
300
400
400
400
500
600
600
800
800
800
800
800
800

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
450
P
5.42 100 1.66
37.8
10
670 266.4
S
1.11 62.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.58
37.8
10
670 279.9
S
1.12 85.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.54
37.8
10
670 287.1
S
1.08 97.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.66
28.1
10
670 266.4
S
1.04 54.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.58
28.1
10
670 279.9
S
1.17 80.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.54
28.1
10
670 287.1
S
1.24 96.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.66
33.4
20
670 266.4
S
0.96 52.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.66
33.4
20
670 266.4
S
1.00 55.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.58
33.4
20
670 279.9
S
1.04 76.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.58
33.4
20
670 279.9
S
1.09 79.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.54
31.0
20
670 287.1
S
1.12 92.5
550
P
6.63 100 1.54
30.8
20
670 365.4
S
1.15 85.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.54
31.2
20
670 287.1
S
1.31 108.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.51
31.0
20
670 292.8
S
1.03 90.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.51
31.2
20
670 292.8
S
1.37 120.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.51
29.0
20
670 292.8
S
1.35 111.0
450
P
5.42 100 1.51
30.8
20
670 292.8
S
1.41 122.5
450
P
5.63 100 1.64
37.0
20
670 282.0
S
1.28 121.5
450
P
5.63 100 1.64
35.4
20
670 282.0
S
1.37 125.0
450
P
5.63 100 1.64
38.6
20
670 282.0
S
1.52 150.0
350
P
4.38 100 1.64
29.7
20
670 205.8
S
1.76 137.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.54
31.2
20
670 287.1
S
1.41 116.5
450
P
5.42 100 1.51
31.0
20
670 292.8
S
1.57 137.5
1670
P
3.10 102 2.49
55.9
19
525
84.4
S
0.32 191.5
300
U2 3.00 20 0.41 X 20.6
10
880 271.6
F
1.05 14.7
600
U2 3.00 40 0.41 X 19.7
10
880 271.6
F
1.06 29.5
1800 U2 3.00 120 0.43 X 21.1
10
880 257.8
S
0.62 104.8
3000 U2 3.00 200 0.40 X 27.2
10
740 276.7
S
0.60 228.8
3000 U2 3.00 200 0.40 X 21.9
25
740 276.7
S
0.67 251.4
6000 U2 3.00 400 0.40
28.5
25
370 276.4
S
1.06 840.0
9000 U2 3.00 600 0.41
24.3
25
400 271.2
S
0.81 1575.0
300
U2 3.00 20 0.41 X 20.6
10
880 271.6
S
0.91 12.8
600
U2 3.00 40 0.41 X 28.5
1
880 271.6
S
0.98 28.3
600
U2 3.00 40 0.41 X 21.6
25
880 271.6
S
1.04 29.4
1800 U2 3.00 120 0.43 X 27.3
3
880 257.8
S
0.50 86.4
1800 U2 3.00 120 0.43 X 21.2
25
880 257.8
S
0.79 132.2
3000 U2 3.00 200 0.40 X 28.2
5
740 276.7
S
0.49 186.5
300
U2 1.50 40 1.33
23.5
5
353
94.2
S
0.73 80.4
400
U2 2.00 40 0.66
22.8
5
353 175.9
S
1.31 64.8
400
U2 2.00 40 1.33
22.7
5
353
87.9
S
0.91 84.6
400
U2 2.00 40 1.99
22.9
5
353
58.6
S
0.79 102.6
500
U2 2.50 40 1.33
20.1
5
353
84.8
S
0.84 64.8
600
U2 3.00 40 1.62 X 23.5
10
880
67.9
S
0.61 49.1
600
U2 3.00 40 1.62
23.5
10
440
67.9
S
1.08 55.6
1600
P
2.88 10 1.57
52.5
19
536 119.7
S
0.48 127.5
1600
P
2.88 10 1.57
52.5
19
536 119.7
S
0.45 118.7
1600
P
2.88 10 1.95
49.3
19
536
96.4
S
0.42 107.7
1600
P
4.49 10 3.04
51.5
19
536 114.9
S
0.49 75.1
1600
P
2.12 10 1.37
51.5
19
536
81.6
S
0.34 118.9
1600
P
2.88 10 0.99
58.9
19
536 189.2
S
0.64 89.9

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

33

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
3.69
S
S
3.34
S
S
2.88
S
1.41
S
1.43
3.73
S
1.68
S
1.82
3.65
S
S
3.30
S
S
3.29
S
1.51
S
1.62
3.45
S
1.58
S
1.70
3.18
S
1.48
S
1.57
3.33
S
1.55
S
1.64
3.01
S
S
2.78
S
S
3.51
S
S
2.35
S
1.10
S
1.16
3.12
S
S
2.99
S
S
3.20
S
S
2.51
F
F
2.64
F
F
3.03
F
F
3.16
F
F
3.78
S
S
3.58
S
S
1.88
S
0.84
S
0.84
2.47
S
S
2.54
S
S
1.53
S
1.00
S
0.74
1.06
S
0.87
F
0.52
1.29
S
0.89
F
0.63
0.95
F
0.86
F
0.46
0.85
S
0.90
F
0.42
2.15
S
1.08
S
1.04
2.02
S
1.23
S
0.99
2.41
S
1.25
S
1.17
1.11
S
0.84
S
0.54
1.92
S
1.13
S
0.93
0.85
S
0.76
F
0.41
3.33
C
0.94
C
0.74
2.72
F
F
3.56
S
1.37
S
1.49
4.30
S
1.49
S
1.63
2.90
S
1.09
S
1.19
3.86
S
1.35
S
1.53
4.37
S
1.53
S
1.73
2.12
S
0.94
S
0.99
1.97
S
0.87
S
0.92
2.29
S
0.94
S
1.04
2.44
S
0.96
S
1.13
1.82
S
0.80
S
0.81
1.75
S
0.93
S
0.86

Author
Ref Year Beam
and Notes
#
Name
1445 Thorenfeldt, Drangs 68 1990 B11
1446
1990 B12
1447
1990 B13
1448
1990 B14
1449
1990 B15
1450
1990 B21
1451
1990 B22
1452
1990 B23
1453
1990 B24
1454
1990 B25
1455
1990 B43
1456
1990 B44
1457
1990 B45
1458
1990 B51
1459
1990 B52
1460
1990 B53
1461
1990 B54
1462 (typo in paper)
1990 B55
1463
1990 B61
1464
1990 B61R
1465
1990 B62
1466
1990 B63
1467
1990 B63R
1468
1990 B64
1469
1990 B65
1470
1990 B65R
1471 Bazant and
69 1991 BK2.1
1472 Kazemi
1991 BK2.2
1473
1991 BK2.3
1474
1991 BK3.1
1475
1991 BK3.2
1476
1991 BK3.3
1477
1991 BK4.1
1478
1991 BK4.2
1479
1991 BK4.3
1480
1991 BK2.1_2
1481
1991 BK2.2_2
1482
1991 BK2.3_2
1483
1991 BK3.1_2
1484
1991 BK3.2_2
1485
1991 BK3.3_2
1486
1991 BK4.1_2
1487
1991 BK4.2_2
1488
1991 BK4.3_2
1489 Remmel (1991)
70 1991 s1_2
1490
1991 s1_4
1491
1991 s1_5

bw
(mm)
150
151
152
153
154
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
150
150
150

b
(mm)
150
151
152
153
154
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
38
150
150
150

h
(mm)
250
251
252
253
254
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
51
51
51
102
102
102
203
203
203
51
51
51
102
102
102
203
203
203
200
200
200

d
(mm)
221
221
207
207
207
221
221
207
207
207
207
207
207
221
221
207
207
207
442
442
442
414
414
414
414
414
41
41
41
83
83
83
165
165
165
41
41
41
83
83
83
165
165
165
165
160
160

a:M/V
(mm)
663
508
828
621
476
663
508
828
621
476
828
621
476
663
508
828
621
476
1326
1326
1017
1656
1656
1242
952
952
124
124
124
248
248
248
495
495
495
124
124
124
248
248
248
495
495
495
505
640
490

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
663
P
3.00 25 1.82
54.0
16
500 109.9
S
0.64 58.1
508
P
2.30 25 1.82
54.0
16
500
71.4
S
0.60 70.8
828
P
4.00 25 3.24
54.0
16
500
92.7
S
0.67 70.5
621
P
3.00 25 3.24
54.0
16
500
61.8
S
0.59 82.6
476
P
2.30 25 3.24
54.0
16
500
40.2
S
0.58 107.1
663
P
3.00 25 1.82
77.8
16
500 109.9
S
0.73 67.9
508
P
2.30 25 1.82
77.8
16
500
71.4
S
0.84 102.7
828
P
4.00 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
92.7
S
0.71 77.8
621
P
3.00 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
61.8
S
0.56 82.6
476
P
2.30 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
40.2
S
0.92 175.8
828
P
4.00 25 3.24
86.4
16
500
92.7
S
0.77 86.2
621
P
3.00 25 3.24
86.4
16
500
61.8
S
0.72 107.2
476
P
2.30 25 3.24
86.4
16
500
40.2
S
0.76 148.3
663
P
3.00 25 1.82
97.7
16
500 109.9
S
0.59 56.2
508
P
2.30 25 1.82
97.7
16
500
71.4
S
0.63 77.7
828
P
4.00 25 3.24
97.7
16
500
92.7
S
0.68 76.8
621
P
3.00 25 3.24
97.7
16
500
61.8
S
0.51 77.7
476
P
2.30 25 3.24
97.7
16
500
40.2
S
0.79 156.1
1326
P
3.00 25 1.82
77.8
16
500 109.9
S
0.48 179.8
1326
P
3.00 25 1.82
77.8
16
500 109.9
S
0.48 180.3
1017
P
2.30 25 1.82
77.8
16
500
71.4
S
0.90 438.7
1656
P
4.00 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
92.7
S
0.50 222.5
1656
P
4.00 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
92.7
S
0.52 229.4
1242
P
3.00 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
61.8
S
0.48 280.7
952
P
2.30 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
40.2
S
0.75 576.3
952
P
2.30 25 3.24
77.8
16
500
40.2
S
0.93 710.3
124
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.59
2.9
124
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.54
2.7
124
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.64
3.2
248
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.54
5.4
248
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.50
5.0
248
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.44
4.5
495
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.37
7.3
495
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.42
8.4
495
P
3.00 10 1.62
46.2
5
690 123.5
S
0.41
8.3
124
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.64
3.2
124
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.58
3.0
124
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.61
3.1
248
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.54
5.5
248
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.55
5.6
248
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.51
5.2
495
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.44
9.1
495
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.48
9.8
495
P
3.00 10 1.65
46.8
5
690 121.2
S
0.50 10.1
505
P
3.06 10 1.87
85.1
16
523 110.4
S
0.65 48.0
640
P
4.00 10 4.09
84.5
16
474
73.3
S
0.57 57.6
490
P
3.06 10 4.09
84.5
16
474
50.4
S
0.46 60.2

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

34

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
2.87
S
1.22
S
1.33
3.48
S
1.35
S
1.51
3.67
S
1.41
S
1.66
4.28
S
1.50
S
1.81
5.51
C
1.40
S
2.11
2.97
S
1.46
S
1.41
4.49
C
1.53
S
2.01
3.63
S
1.61
S
1.69
3.86
C
1.49
S
1.69
8.21
C
1.86
S
3.30
4.02
S
1.79
S
1.88
5.00
C
1.89
S
2.21
6.92
C
1.53
S
2.82
2.46
S
1.21
S
1.17
3.40
C
1.13
S
1.55
3.59
S
1.59
S
1.69
3.63
C
1.37
S
1.62
7.29
C
1.62
S
3.01
1.97
S
1.16
S
0.93
1.97
S
1.16
S
0.93
4.80
C
1.73
S
2.15
2.60
S
1.38
S
1.21
2.68
S
1.42
S
1.24
3.28
C
1.30
S
1.44
6.73
C
1.58
S
2.71
8.29
C
1.95
S
3.34
3.32
S
1.30
S
1.55
3.04
S
1.19
S
1.42
3.60
S
1.41
S
1.67
3.06
S
1.24
S
1.42
2.84
S
1.16
S
1.32
2.52
S
1.02
S
1.17
2.07
S
0.90
S
0.97
2.38
S
1.04
S
1.11
2.33
S
1.02
S
1.09
3.64
S
1.42
S
1.69
3.32
S
1.29
S
1.54
3.47
S
1.35
S
1.61
3.08
S
1.25
S
1.43
3.13
S
1.27
S
1.46
2.91
S
1.18
S
1.35
2.55
S
1.11
S
1.18
2.74
S
1.19
S
1.28
2.84
S
1.24
S
1.32
2.81
C
1.27
S
1.34
3.48
S
1.38
S
1.58
3.64
C
1.24
S
1.55

bw
Author
Ref Year Beam
and Notes
#
Name
(mm)
1492 Tan, K.H., Murugap 71 1993 1
60
1493 Tan, K.H., and Man 72 1992 S13
150
1494
1992 S14
150
1495 Xie et al
73 1994 NNN-1
127
1496
1994 NNN-2
127
1497
1994 NNN-3
127
1498
1994 NHN-1
127
1499
1994 NHN-2
127
1500
1994 NHN-3
127
1501 Walraven & Lehwa 74 1994 A1
200
1502
1994 A2
200
1503
1994 A3
200
1504
1994 V011
250
1505
1994 V012
250
1506
1994 V013
250
1507
1994 V014
250
1508
1994 V021
250
1509
1994 V023
250
1510
1994 V024
250
1511
1994 V031
250
1512
1994 V032
250
1513
1994 V033
250
1514
1994 V034
250
1515
1994 V711
250
1516
1994 V022
250
1517
1994 V511
250
1518
1994 V411
250
1519
1994 V211
250
1520 Hallgren
75 1994 B90SB13-2-8 163
1521
1994 B90SB14-2-8 158
1522
1994 B90SB22-2-8 158
1523
1994 B91SC2-2-62 155
1524
1994 B91SC4-2-69 156
1525
1994 B90SB17-2-4 157
1526
1994 B90SB18-2-4 155
1527
1994 B90SB21-2-8 155
1528
1994 B91SC1-2-62 156
1529
1994 B91SD1-4-61 156
1530
1994 B91SD2-4-61 156
1531
1994 B91SD3-4-66 156
1532
1994 B91SD4-4-66 155
1533
1994 B91SD5-4-58 156
1534
1994 B91SD6-4-58 150
1535
1994 B90SB5-2-33 156
1536
1994 B90SB6-2-33 156
1537
1994 B90SB9-2-31 156
1538
1994 B90SB10-2-3 157
1539 Scholz
76 1994 A-2
200
1540
1994 D-2
200
1541
1994 D-3
200

b
(mm)
140
150
150
127
127
127
127
127
127
200
200
200
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
163
158
158
155
156
157
155
155
156
156
156
156
155
156
150
156
156
156
157
200
200
200

h
(mm)
375
400
400
254
254
254
254
254
254
150
450
750
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
200
400
600
800
1000
233
235
234
237
236
232
235
235
234
247
248
248
248
249
249
232
235
233
234
400
400
400

d
(mm)
290
350
350
216
216
216
216
216
216
125
420
720
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
160
360
560
740
930
192
194
193
196
195
191
194
194
193
194
195
195
195
196
196
191
194
192
193
372
362
362

a:M/V
(mm)
580
525
700
216
432
648
216
432
648
375
1260
2160
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
160
360
560
740
930
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
1116
1086
1448

f c'
ag
fy
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa)
580
P
2.00 10 4.58
32.8
19
460
525
P
1.50 140 0.34
55.0
20 1480
700
P
2.00 140 0.34
30.6
20 1480
216
P
1.00 15 2.07
47.0
19
421
432
P
2.00 15 2.07
41.4
19
421
648
P
3.00 15 2.07
39.7
19
421
216
P
1.00 15 2.07
103.8 19
421
432
P
2.00 15 2.07
103.4 19
421
648
P
3.00 15 2.07
104.2 19
421
375
P
3.00 31 0.83
22.9
16
440
1260
P
3.00 84 0.74
22.9
16
440
2160
P
3.00 144 0.79
23.2
16
440
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
16.1
8
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
21.8
8
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
22.1
8
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
24.3
8
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
13.9
16
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
20.1
16
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
25.2
16
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
20.0
32
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
18.2
32
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
19.8
32
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
26.4
32
420
160
P
1.00 40 1.52
18.1
16
420
360
P
1.00 90 1.13
19.9
16
420
560
P
1.00 140 1.12
19.8
16
420
740
P
1.00 185 1.10
19.4
16
420
930
P
1.00 233 1.08
20.0
16
420
700
P
3.65 10 2.17
86.2
18
630
700
P
3.61 10 2.21
86.2
18
630
700
P
3.63 10 2.22
84.6
18
630
700
P
3.57 10 2.23
61.8
18
443
700
P
3.59 10 2.23
69.1
18
443
700
P
3.66 10 2.26
44.9
18
630
700
P
3.61 10 2.25
44.9
18
630
700
P
3.61 10 2.25
84.6
18
630
700
P
3.63 10 2.25
61.8
18
443
700
P
3.61 10 3.98
60.8
18
494
700
P
3.59 10 3.96
60.8
18
494
700
P
3.59 10 3.96
65.7
18
494
700
P
3.59 10 3.99
65.7
18
494
700
P
3.57 10 3.94
58.3
18
494
700
P
3.57 10 4.10
58.3
18
494
700
P
3.66 10 2.28
32.8
18
651
700
P
3.61 10 2.24
32.8
18
651
700
P
3.65 10 2.26
31.1
18
651
700
P
3.63 10 2.20
31.1
18
651
1116
P
3.00 10 0.81
80.6
16
500
1086
P
3.00 10 1.94
96.8
16
500
1448
P
4.00 10 1.94
96.8
16
500

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

35

M
Vd
21.8
223.7
298.3
24.2
48.3
96.6
24.2
48.3
96.6
241.2
270.1
252.5
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
44.1
33.0
44.1
44.6
45.3
46.3
122.1
117.9
118.2
115.2
116.2
117.9
115.7
115.7
116.7
65.5
65.3
65.3
64.9
65.2
62.7
117.1
116.4
116.9
119.4
246.7
102.9
154.3

Rep.
Mode
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

MMAX
Mn
0.41
0.97
0.53
0.73
0.54
0.53
1.06
0.90
0.60
1.14
0.84
0.66
0.64
0.86
0.92
1.12
0.64
0.94
1.04
0.88
0.88
0.67
1.14
0.96
0.73
0.62
0.50
0.55
0.78
0.71
0.71
0.91
0.97
0.62
0.65
0.65
0.95
0.66
0.67
0.60
0.58
0.58
0.62
0.63
0.59
0.56
0.61
0.85
0.55
0.73

Vu
(kN)
63.2
159.0
62.0
155.7
56.6
36.7
241.5
101.6
45.7
31.5
70.6
100.8
226.0
322.0
344.0
425.0
220.0
347.0
396.0
323.0
318.0
246.0
437.0
165.0
270.0
350.0
365.0
505.0
82.5
76.5
75.5
69.5
74.0
59.0
63.0
69.0
71.0
88.5
90.0
81.5
79.0
78.0
82.5
56.0
53.5
49.0
53.5
83.0
121.0
121.0

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
7.63
C
1.34
C
0.94
4.92
C
1.17
F
0.47
2.57
C
1.10
S
1.27
9.98
C
1.01
C
1.14
3.87
C
1.09
S
1.51
2.56
S
0.98
S
1.14
12.77 F
1.05
F
0.99
5.37
C
1.17
S
2.31
2.42
S
1.14
S
1.15
3.17
S
S
2.11
S
1.16
S
1.03
1.75
S
1.06
S
0.85
7.54
C
1.13
C
1.35
9.23
C
1.25
C
1.42
9.79
C
1.33
C
1.50
11.54 C
C
7.90
C
1.24
C
1.52
10.36 C
1.44
C
1.66
10.55 C
1.38
C
1.51
9.66
C
1.35
C
1.55
9.97
C
1.43
C
1.68
7.40
C
1.03
C
1.20
11.38 C
C
11.68 C
1.29
C
1.25
8.10
C
1.13
C
1.31
6.77
C
1.09
C
1.31
5.39
C
0.84
C
1.01
5.85
C
0.93
C
1.11
3.82
S
1.85
S
1.83
3.62
S
1.73
S
1.73
3.59
S
1.72
S
1.72
3.50
S
1.49
S
1.65
3.53
S
1.65
S
1.67
3.54
S
1.41
S
1.63
3.77
S
1.50
S
1.74
3.33
S
1.58
S
1.59
3.61
S
1.54
S
1.70
4.52
S
1.59
S
1.96
4.57
S
1.61
S
1.98
3.98
S
1.48
S
1.74
3.88
S
1.44
S
1.69
4.02
S
1.41
S
1.74
4.43
S
1.53
S
1.90
3.95
S
1.50
S
1.79
3.72
S
1.41
S
1.68
3.53
S
1.33
S
1.59
3.81
S
1.45
S
1.72
1.62
S
1.19
F
0.81
2.42
S
1.32
S
1.15
2.42
S
1.45
S
1.19

Author
Ref Year
and Notes
#
1542 Kim, J.-K., and Par 77 1994
1543
1994
1544
1994
1545
1994
1546
1994
1547
1994
1548
1994
1549
1994
1550
1994
1551
1994
1552
1994
1553
1994
1554
1994
1555
1994
1556
1994
1557
1994
1558
1994
1559
1994
1560
1994
1561
1994
1562 Matsui, Y., Kurihara 78 1995
1563
1995
1564
1995
1565
1995
1566
1995
1567
1995
1568
1995
1569
1995
1570
1995
1571
1995
1572
1995
1573
1995
1574
1995
1575
1995
1576
1995
1577
1995
1578
1995
1579
1995
1580
1995
1581
1995
1582 Yoon, Cook, Mithce 79 1996
1583
1996
1584
1996
1585 Hallgren
80 1996
1586
1996
1587
1996
1588 Tan et al
81 1997
1589 take cylinder as
1997
1590 0.8fc-cube
1997

Beam
Name
CTL-1
CTL-2
P1.0-1
P1.0-2
P3.4-1
P3.4-2
P4.6-1
P4.6-2
A1.5-1
A1.5-2
A4.5-1
A4.5-2
A6.0-1
A6.0-2
D142-1
D142-2
D550-1
D550-2
D915-1
D915-2
A1
A2
B1
B2
C1
C2
D1
D2
E1
E2
F1
F2
L1
L2
M1
M2
N1
N2
S1
S2
N1-S
M1-S
H1-S
B3
B5
B7
I-1/0.75
II-1/1.00
III-1/1.50

bw
(mm)
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
300
300
300
300
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
375
375
375
262
283
337
110
110
110

b
(mm)
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
300
300
300
300
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
375
375
375
262
283
337
110
110
110

h
(mm)
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
170
170
620
620
1000
1000
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
180
260
260
260
260
260
260
360
360
750
750
750
240
240
240
500
500
500

d
(mm)
270
270
272
272
267
267
255
255
270
270
270
270
270
270
142
142
550
550
915
915
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
225
225
225
225
225
225
360
360
655
655
655
208
211
208
443
443
443

a:M/V
(mm)
810
810
816
816
801
801
765
765
405
405
1215
1215
1620
1620
426
426
1650
1650
2745
2745
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
675
675
788
788
900
900
1080
1080
2113
2113
2113
550
550
550
375
500
750

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
810
P
3.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 106.7
S
0.58 71.1 2.55
S
1.06
S
1.18
810
P
3.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 106.7
S
0.58 71.6 2.56
S
1.07
S
1.18
816
P
3.00 10 1.01
53.7
25
477 197.6
S
0.83 58.3 2.07
S
1.07
S
1.01
816
P
3.00 10 1.01
53.7
25
477 197.6
S
0.80 56.4 2.00
S
1.04
S
0.98
801
P
3.00 10 3.35
53.7
25
477
59.7
S
0.39 78.1 2.83
S
0.99
S
1.19
801
P
3.00 10 3.35
53.7
25
477
59.7
S
0.39 78.5 2.84
S
0.99
S
1.20
765
P
3.00 10 4.68
53.7
25
477
42.8
S
0.37 89.7 3.40
S
1.08
S
1.33
765
P
3.00 10 4.68
53.7
25
477
42.8
S
0.39 95.4 3.62
S
1.15
S
1.41
405
P
1.50 10 1.87
53.7
25
477
40.0
S
0.86 212.5 7.61
C
1.77
C
1.52
405
P
1.50 10 1.87
53.7
25
477
40.0
S
0.87 215.3 7.71
C
1.79
C
1.54
1215
P
4.50 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 186.8
S
0.81 66.6 2.38
S
1.14
S
1.16
1215
P
4.50 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 186.8
S
0.78 63.8 2.28
S
1.10
S
1.11
1620
P
6.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 266.9
S
0.96 59.2 2.12
S
1.13
S
1.06
1620
P
6.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 266.9
S
0.99 61.0 2.19
S
1.17
S
1.09
426
P
3.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 106.8
S
0.63 41.0 2.79
S
1.10
S
1.29
426
P
3.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 106.8
S
0.61 39.3 2.68
S
1.05
S
1.24
1650
P
3.00 10 1.88
53.7
25
477 106.6
S
0.51 226.1 2.25
S
1.05
S
1.04
1650
P
3.00 10 1.88
53.7
25
477 106.6
S
0.48 214.5 2.14
S
0.99
S
0.99
2745
P
3.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 106.8
S
0.37 271.8 1.63
S
0.86
S
0.75
2745
P
3.00 10 1.87
53.7
25
477 106.8
S
0.45 332.1 1.99
S
1.05
S
0.92
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
32.4
19
367
75.5
S
0.69 27.5 3.88
S
1.29
S
1.63
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
32.4
19
367
75.5
S
0.80 31.9 4.50
S
1.49
S
1.89
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
38.4
19
367
75.5
S
0.71 29.3 3.80
S
1.29
S
1.62
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
38.4
19
367
75.5
S
0.74 30.7 3.98
S
1.35
S
1.70
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
48.7
19
367
75.5
S
0.69 29.6 3.41
S
1.20
S
1.49
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
48.7
19
367
75.5
S
0.75 32.3 3.71
S
1.31
S
1.62
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
70.9
19
367
75.5
S
0.75 33.4 3.22
S
1.31
S
1.45
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
70.9
19
367
75.5
S
0.76 33.9 3.28
S
1.34
S
1.47
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
83.4
19
367
75.5
S
0.84 38.3 3.70
S
1.51
S
1.68
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
83.4
19
367
75.5
S
0.94 42.5 4.11
S
1.67
S
1.87
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
127.5 19
367
75.5
S
0.74 34.4 3.33
S
1.36
S
1.55
450
P
3.00 10 2.65
127.5 19
367
75.5
S
1.04 48.1 4.65
S
1.89
S
2.17
675
P
3.00 10 2.55
124.5 19
403
78.4
S
0.95 69.7 4.49
S
1.99
S
2.10
675
P
3.00 10 2.55
124.5 19
403
78.4
S
0.58 42.5 2.74
S
1.22
S
1.28
788
P
3.50 10 2.55
124.5 19
403
98.0
S
0.69 43.4 2.79
S
1.30
S
1.34
788
P
3.50 10 2.55
124.5 19
403
98.0
S
0.70 43.8 2.82
S
1.32
S
1.35
900
P
4.00 10 2.55
124.5 19
403 117.6
S
0.75 41.3 2.66
S
1.30
S
1.29
900
P
4.00 10 2.55
124.5 19
403 117.6
S
0.71 38.8 2.50
S
1.22
S
1.22
1080
P
3.00 10 2.58
127.5 19
336
77.5
S
0.54 54.0 2.17
S
1.09
S
1.02
1080
P
3.00 10 2.58
127.5 19
336
77.5
S
0.83 83.1 3.35
S
1.67
S
1.57
2113
P
3.23 150 2.85
36.0
20
400
78.1
S
0.35 248.8 2.03
S
0.87
S
0.87
2113
P
3.23 150 2.85
67.0
10
400
78.1
S
0.38 295.8 1.77
S
1.01
S
0.80
2113
P
3.23 150 2.85
87.0
10
400
78.1
S
0.41 326.8 1.93
C
1.03
S
0.88
550
P
2.64 10 0.74
92.4
18
632 222.8
S
0.81 75.5 2.01
C
1.09
S
1.01
550
P
2.61 10 1.05
91.3
18
604 152.7
S
0.74 103.5 2.51
C
1.28
S
1.23
550
P
2.64 10 0.57
85.0
18
630 286.6
S
0.95 88.5 1.83
C
1.08
F
0.93
375
P
0.85 110 2.58
79.5
10
499
16.4
S
0.75 500.0 14.88 C
0.86
C
1.04
500
P
1.13 110 2.58
77.6
10
499
21.9
S
0.51 255.0 7.59
C
0.64
C
0.63
750
P
1.69 110 2.58
77.6
10
499
32.8
S
0.55 185.0 5.50
C
0.87
C
0.63

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

36

Author
and Notes
1591 Konig,
1592 Grimm &
1593 Remmel
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603 Kawano &
1604 Wantanabe
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611 Toronto BH
1612
1613
1614 Toronto BN
1615
1616
1617
1618 Yoshida
1619 Ghannoum
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
82 1997 s1.1
1997 s4.1
1997 s2.3
1997 s3.3
1997 s1.2
1997 s4.2
1997 s2.2
1997 s3.2
1997 s1.3
1997 s4.3
1997 s2.4
1997 s3.4
83 1997 A1A
1997 A1B
1997 A2A
1997 A2B
1997 A3A
1997 A3B
1997 A4A
1997 A4B
84 1998 BH25
1998 BH50
1998 BH100
1998 BN12.5
1998 BN25
1998 BN50
1998 BN100
85 2000 YB2000/0
86 1998 N220-l
1998 N350-l
1998 N485-l
1998 N960-l
1998 N220-h
1998 N350-h
1998 N485-h
1998 N960-h
1998 H220-l
1998 H350-l
1998 H485-l
1998 H960-l
1998 H220-h
1998 H350-h
1998 H485-h
1998 H960-h

bw
(mm)
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
105
105
176
176
350
350
600
600
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

b
(mm)
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
105
105
176
176
350
350
600
600
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400

h
(mm)
200
200
400
800
200
200
400
800
200
200
400
800
330
330
570
570
1050
1050
2200
2200
250
500
1000
125
250
500
1000
2000
220
350
485
960
220
350
485
960
220
350
485
960
220
350
485
960

d
(mm)
153
153
348
746
152
152
348
718
146
146
328
690
300
300
500
500
950
950
2000
2000
225
450
925
110
225
450
925
1890
190
313
440
889
190
313
440
889
190
313
440
889
190
313
440
889

a:M/V
(mm)
570
570
1230
2630
570
570
1230
2556
570
570
1230
2630
900
900
1500
1500
2850
2850
6000
6000
664
1313
2663
326
664
1313
2663
5405
475
783
1100
2223
475
783
1100
2223
475
783
1100
2223
475
783
1100
2223

ag
fy
Vu
f c'
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
570
P
3.73 50 1.34
90.1
16
660 203.1
S
0.68 70.1
570
P
3.73 50 1.34
110.9 16
660 203.1
S
0.71 74.2
1230
P
3.53 70 0.94
93.7
16
469 269.5
S
0.97 123.1
2630
P
3.53 149 0.83
94.4
16
487 305.5
S
0.77 192.8
570
P
3.75 50 2.21
91.2
16
517 124.2
S
0.59 75.8
570
P
3.75 50 2.21
110.9 16
517 124.2
S
0.69 90.3
1230
P
3.53 100 1.88
91.3
16
469 135.0
S
0.76 187.1
2556
P
3.56 144 1.72
93.7
16
487 149.0
S
0.54 259.1
570
P
3.90 50 4.22
93.7
16
487
68.8
S
0.49 98.6
570
P
3.90 50 4.22
110.9 16
487
68.8
S
0.59 122.3
1230
P
3.75 66 3.76
94.1
16
487
73.1
S
0.54 229.8
2630
P
3.81 138 3.57
94.1
16
487
78.8
S
0.45 379.0
900
P
3.00 60 1.26
24.8
20
400 158.3
S
0.72 33.5
900
P
3.00 60 1.26
24.8
20
400 158.3
S
0.63 29.5
1500
P
3.00 100 1.36
27.3
20
400 147.4
S
0.59 82.5
1500
P
3.00 100 1.36
27.3
20
400 147.4
S
0.72 101.5
2850
P
3.00 190 1.22
20.7
20
400 164.0
S
0.46 216.0
2850
P
3.00 190 1.22
20.6
20
400 164.0
S
0.51 237.5
6000
P
3.00 400 1.20
22.2
40
400 167.2
S
0.37 610.5
6000
P
3.00 400 1.20
23.1
40
400 167.2
S
0.33 560.0
664
P
2.95 50 0.89
99.0
10
437 219.3
S
0.98 85.0
1313
P
2.92 150 0.81
99.0
10
486 235.2
S
0.74 131.9
2663
P
2.88 150 0.76
99.0
10
550 248.2
S
0.49 193.1
326
P
2.96 50 0.91
37.0
10
458 215.5
S
0.92 40.1
664
P
2.95 50 0.89
37.0
10
437 219.3
S
0.87 72.9
1313
P
2.92 150 0.81
37.0
10
486 235.2
S
0.77 131.6
2663
P
2.88 150 0.76
37.0
10
550 248.2
S
0.51 191.7
5405
P
2.86 150 0.74
33.6
10
455 251.1
S
0.41 257.7
475
P
2.50 100 1.20
34.2
20
433 125.0
S
0.72 103.6
783
P
2.50 100 1.20
34.2
20
477 125.0
S
0.61 157.9
1100
P
2.50 100 1.20
34.2
20
385 125.0
S
0.62 186.8
2223
P
2.50 100 1.20
34.2
20
385 125.0
S
0.60 360.2
475
P
2.50 100 2.00
34.2
20
433
75.0
S
0.55 122.7
783
P
2.50 100 2.00
34.2
20
477
75.0
S
0.45 178.4
1100
P
2.50 100 2.00
34.2
20
385
75.0
S
0.46 214.6
2223
P
2.50 100 2.00
34.2
20
385
75.0
S
0.40 379.7
475
P
2.50 100 1.20
58.6
10
433 125.0
S
0.71 105.8
783
P
2.50 100 1.20
58.6
10
477 125.0
S
0.58 157.1
1100
P
2.50 100 1.20
58.6
10
385 125.0
S
0.64 197.7
2223
P
2.50 100 1.20
58.6
10
385 125.0
S
0.50 310.4
475
P
2.50 100 2.00
58.6
10
433
75.0
S
0.56 135.3
783
P
2.50 100 2.00
58.6
10
477
75.0
S
0.44 189.5
1100
P
2.50 100 2.00
58.6
10
385
75.0
S
0.40 198.2
2223
P
2.50 100 2.00
58.6
10
385
75.0
S
0.33 331.1

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

37

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
2.21
C
1.21
S
1.10
2.34
C
1.28
S
1.17
1.71
S
1.25
F
0.86
1.25
S
1.22
F
0.63
2.41
S
1.12
S
1.16
2.87
S
1.34
S
1.39
2.60
S
1.49
S
1.26
1.74
S
1.32
S
0.85
3.26
S
1.25
S
1.48
4.05
S
1.55
S
1.85
3.39
S
1.58
S
1.54
2.65
S
1.65
S
1.22
2.57
S
1.11
S
1.19
2.26
S
0.97
S
1.05
2.16
S
1.01
S
1.00
2.66
S
1.24
S
1.23
1.72
S
0.94
S
0.79
1.90
S
1.04
S
0.87
1.30
S
0.91
S
0.60
1.17
S
0.82
S
0.54
1.83
S
1.15
F
0.92
1.42
C
0.88
F
0.71
1.01
C
0.83
S
0.51
2.41
S
1.15
S
1.17
2.14
S
1.11
S
1.04
1.93
S
1.17
S
0.94
1.37
S
1.04
S
0.67
0.94
S
0.96
S
0.46
2.81
S
1.15
S
1.29
2.60
S
1.13
S
1.19
2.19
S
1.01
S
1.00
2.09
S
1.14
S
0.96
3.33
S
1.17
S
1.40
2.93
S
1.09
S
1.24
2.51
S
0.99
S
1.06
2.20
S
1.05
S
0.93
2.19
C
0.79
S
1.03
1.97
C
0.90
S
0.93
1.77
C
0.93
S
0.83
1.37
S
0.91
S
0.65
2.80
C
0.89
S
1.24
2.38
C
0.96
S
1.05
1.77
S
0.81
S
0.78
1.46
S
0.84
S
0.65

Author
and Notes
1635 Islam M.S., Pam H
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659 (suspect result)
1660 Kulkarni and Shah
1661
1662
1663 Shin et al
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669 Tan and Lu
1670
1671
1672 Kuchma &
1673 Collins
1674
1675 correct
1676 cutoffs
1677 13% up
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686 UDL

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
87 1998 M100-S0
1998 M100-S1
1998 M100-S2
1998 M100-S3
1998 M100-S4
1998 M80-S0
1998 M80-S1
1998 M80-S2
1998 M80-S3
1998 M80-S4
1998 M60-S0
1998 M60-S1
1998 M60-S2
1998 M60-S3
1998 M60-S4
1998 M40-S0
1998 M40-S1
1998 M40-S2
1998 M40-S3
1998 M40-S4
1998 M25-S0
1998 M25-S1
1998 M25-S2
1998 M25-S3
1998 M25-S4
88 1998 B4JL20-S
1998 B3NO15-S
1998 B3NO30-S
89 1999 MHB1.5-0
1999 MHB2.0-0
1999 MHB2.5-0
1999 HB1.5-0
1999 HB2.0-0
1999 HB2.5-0
90 1999 1-500/0.50
1999 1-500/0.75
1999 1-500/1.00
84 1999 SE100A/45
1999 SE100A/45R
1999 SE50A-45
1999 SE50A-45R
1999 SE100A-83
1999 SE50A-83
1999 B100
1999 B100R
1999 B100H
1999 B100B
1999 B100HE
1999 B100L
1999 B100L-R
1999 BRL100
1999 TTC

bw
(mm)
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
102
102
102
125
125
125
125
125
125
140
140
140
295
295
169
169
295
169
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
960

b
(mm)
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
102
102
102
125
125
125
125
125
125
140
140
140
295
295
169
169
295
169
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
960

h
(mm)
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
178
178
178
250
250
250
250
250
250
500
500
500
1000
1000
500
500
1000
500
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
650

d
(mm)
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
203
207
207
207
207
207
205
205
205
205
205
207
207
207
207
207
152
152
152
215
215
215
215
215
215
444
444
444
920
920
445
445
920
445
925
925
925
925
925
925
925
925
615

a:M/V
(mm)
800
600
400
600
800
800
600
400
600
800
800
600
400
600
800
800
600
400
600
800
800
600
400
600
800
760
608
532
323
430
538
323
430
538
250
375
500
2300
2300
1200
1200
2300
1200
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
1092

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
800
P
3.94 10 3.22
83.3
10
532
91.2
S
0.56 65.0 3.10
S
1.37
S
1.44
800
P
2.96 10 3.22
83.3
10
532
60.7
S
0.69 107.7 5.13
S
2.08
S
2.25
800
P
1.97 10 3.22
83.3
10
532
30.1
S
0.56 131.1 6.24
S
2.26
S
2.35
800
P
2.96 10 3.22
83.3
10
532
60.7
S
0.62 96.9 4.61
S
1.87
S
2.03
800
P
3.94 10 3.22
83.3
10
532
91.2
S
0.69 80.7 3.84
S
1.70
S
1.79
800
P
3.94 10 3.22
72.2
10
532
91.2
S
0.51 58.0 2.76
S
1.22
S
1.27
800
P
2.96 10 3.22
72.2
10
532
60.7
S
0.77 117.3 5.59
S
2.26
S
2.43
800
P
1.97 10 3.22
72.2
10
532
30.1
S
0.54 123.0 5.86
S
2.12
S
2.16
800
P
2.96 10 3.22
72.2
10
532
60.7
S
0.76 115.4 5.50
S
2.22
S
2.39
800
P
3.94 10 3.22
72.2
10
532
91.2
S
0.63 72.1 3.43
S
1.51
S
1.58
800
P
3.86 10 2.02
50.8
10
554 141.6
S
0.58 45.5 2.48
S
1.11
S
1.18
800
P
2.90 10 2.02
50.8
10
554
93.8
S
0.88 92.3 5.02
S
2.05
S
2.27
800
P
1.93 10 2.02
50.8
10
554
46.1
S
0.66 103.8 5.65
S
2.03
S
2.23
800
P
2.90 10 2.02
50.8
10
554
93.8
S
0.87 90.4 4.92
S
2.01
S
2.23
800
P
3.86 10 2.02
50.8
10
554 141.6
S
0.66 51.9 2.82
S
1.27
S
1.34
800
P
3.90 10 3.19
34.4
10
320
90.9
S
0.83 55.0 3.67
S
1.35
S
1.60
800
P
2.93 10 3.19
34.4
10
320
60.4
S
0.96 84.6 5.65
S
1.91
S
2.27
800
P
1.95 10 3.22
34.4
10
320
29.5
S
0.72 96.1 6.42
S
1.96
S
2.07
800
P
2.93 10 3.19
34.4
10
320
60.4
S
0.91 80.7 5.39
S
1.83
S
2.17
800
P
3.90 10 3.19
34.4
10
320
90.9
S
1.16 76.9 5.13
S
S
800
P
3.86 10 2.02
26.6
10
350 141.6
S
0.99 47.5 3.57
S
1.44
S
1.64
800
P
2.90 10 2.02
26.6
10
350
93.8
S
1.05 67.3 5.06
S
1.87
S
2.17
800
P
1.93 10 2.02
26.6
10
350
46.1
S
0.98 94.2 7.08
S
2.34
S
2.55
800
P
2.90 10 2.02
26.6
10
350
93.8
S
0.88 56.5 4.25
S
1.57
S
1.82
800
P
3.86 10 2.02
26.6
10
350 141.6
S
1.36 65.4 4.92
S
S
760
P
5.00 10 1.38
40.6
10
518 290.1
S
0.98 19.5 2.38
S
1.25
S
1.18
608
P
4.00 10 1.38
41.6
10
518 217.6
S
0.91 22.7 2.73
S
1.32
S
1.33
532
P
3.50 10 1.38
43.6
10
518 181.3
S
0.85 24.2 2.85
S
1.33
S
1.38
323
P
1.50 10 3.77
52.0
13
414
19.9
S
0.49 112.9 7.01
C
1.11
C
1.00
430
P
2.00 10 3.77
52.0
13
414
26.5
S
0.51 87.9 5.46
C
1.38
S
1.83
538
P
2.50 10 3.77
52.0
13
414
39.8
S
0.41 56.4 3.51
S
1.14
S
1.34
323
P
1.50 10 3.77
73.0
13
414
19.9
S
0.58 142.2 7.67
C
1.06
C
0.93
430
P
2.00 10 3.77
73.0
13
414
26.5
S
0.54 99.4 5.37
C
1.18
S
1.91
538
P
2.50 10 3.77
73.0
13
414
39.8
S
0.55 80.4 4.34
C
1.45
S
1.73
250
P
0.56 140 2.57
49.1
10
520
10.9
S
0.69 850.0 23.50 C
1.06
C
1.59
375
P
0.84 140 2.57
42.5
10
520
16.4
S
0.87 700.0 20.80 C
1.42
C
1.75
500
P
1.13 140 2.57
37.4
10
520
21.9
S
0.98 570.0 18.06 C
1.84
C
1.94
4600
P
2.50 152 1.03 X 50.0
10
480 145.6
S
0.45 227.1 1.43
S
0.98
S
0.68
4600
P
2.50 152 1.03 X 50.0
10
480 145.6
S
0.53 266.7 1.67
S
1.15
S
0.80
2400
P
2.70 152 1.03 X 53.0
10
480 164.7
S
0.59 77.4 1.70
S
0.98
S
0.82
2400
P
2.70 152 1.03 X 53.0
10
480 164.7
S
0.70 91.0 2.00
S
1.15
S
0.97
4600
P
2.50 152 1.03 X 86.0
10
480 145.6
S
0.40 207.9 1.11
S
0.98
S
0.54
2400
P
2.70 152 1.03 X 86.0
10
480 164.7
S
0.62 82.5 1.59
S
1.09
S
0.78
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
36.0
10
550 190.0
S
0.47 225.0 1.63
S
1.13
S
0.78
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
36.0
10
550 190.0
S
0.52 249.0 1.80
S
1.25
S
0.86
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
98.0
10
550 190.0
S
0.38 193.0 1.01
C
0.79
S
0.50
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
39.0
10
550 190.2
S
0.42 204.0 1.42
S
0.99
S
0.68
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
98.0
10
550 190.0
S
0.43 217.0 1.13
C
0.89
S
0.56
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
39.0
10
550 190.0
S
0.46 223.0 1.55
S
1.09
S
0.75
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
39.0
10
550 190.0
S
0.49 235.0 1.63
S
1.14
S
0.79
2700
P
2.92 152 0.51
94.0
10
550 380.0
S
0.63 163.0 0.85
C
0.82
F
0.44
1092 U2 1.78 110 0.51 X 45.0
10
490 235.4
S
0.88 505.0 1.54
C
1.03
F
0.43

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


38

Author
Ref Year
and Notes
#
1687 Kim & Kim & White 91 1999
1688
1999
1689
1999
1690
1999
1691
1999
1692 Pendyala and
92 2000
1693 Mendis
2000
1694
2000
1695
2000
1696
2000
1697
2000
1698 Adebar June 2000 93 2000
1699
2000
1700
2000
1701
2000
1702
2000
1703
2000
1704
2000
1705
2000
1706
2000
1707
2000
1708
2000
1709
2000
1710
2000
1711
2000
1712
2000
1713
2000
1714
2000
1715
2000
1716
2000
1717 Angelakos
94 2001
1718
2001
1719
2001
1720
2001
1721
2001
1722
2001
1723
2001
1724 Cao
95 2001
1725
2001
1726 Oh and Shin
96 2001
1727
2001
1728
2001
1729
2001
1730
2001
1731 Yost, J. R., Gross, 97 2001
1732
2001
1733
2001
1734 Tureyen & Frosch 114 2002
1735
2002
1736
2002

Beam
Name
1.5CNB
2CNB
2.5CNB
3CNB
4CNB
inf(30)(2)
inf(30)(5)
inf(60)(2)
inf(60)(5)
inf(100)(2)
inf(100)(5)
DF-1
DF-2
DF-2R
DF-3
DF-4
DF-5
DF-6
DF-7
DF-8
DF-8R
DF-9
DF-10
DF-10R
DF-11
DF-12
DF-13
DF-14
DF-15
DF-16
DB120
DB130
DB140
DB165
DB180
DB230
DB0.530
SB2003/0
SB2012/0
N4200
H4100
H4200
H4300
H4500
1Steel1
1Steelb
1Steelc
V-S-1
V-S-2
V-D-2

bw
(mm)
127
127
127
127
127
80
80
80
80
80
80
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
250
250
250
250
250
250
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
130
130
130
130
130
229
229
229
457
457
457

b
(mm)
127
127
127
127
127
80
80
80
80
80
80
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
250
250
250
250
250
250
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
130
130
130
130
130
229
229
229
457
457
457

h
(mm)
229
229
229
229
229
160
160
160
160
160
160
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1090
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
2000
2000
560
560
560
560
560
286
286
286
427
427
427

d
(mm)
191
191
191
191
191
140
140
140
140
140
140
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
996
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
962
1000
925
925
925
925
925
890
925
1925
1845
500
500
500
500
500
227
227
227
360
360
360

a:M/V
(mm)
286
381
476
572
762
280
700
280
700
280
700
2330
2330
2330
2330
2330
2400
2200
2330
2330
2330
2330
2330
2330
2000
1500
1500
1750
1751
1430
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
2700
5400
5400
425
250
425
625
1000
914
914
914
1219
1219
1219

ag
fy
f c'
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
M
Rep. MMAX

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN) (psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
286
P
1.50 95 1.65
30.1
13
461
45.4
S
1.08 112.8 10.23 C
1.43
F
1.04
381
P
2.00 95 1.65
30.1
13
461
60.5
S
0.89 70.1 6.35
C
1.49
S
2.52
476
P
2.50 95 1.65
30.1
13
461
90.7
S
0.71 44.7 4.06
C
1.48
S
1.75
572
P
3.00 95 1.65
37.7
13
461 121.0
S
0.54 29.4 2.38
S
0.97
S
1.09
762
P
4.00 95 1.65
34.9
13
461 181.5
S
0.75 30.3 2.55
S
1.14
S
1.22
280
P
2.00 10 2.02
34.0
10
410
49.6
S
0.63 25.0 4.61
S
1.51
S
1.76
700
P
5.00 10 2.02
34.0
10
410 198.2
F
1.04 16.5 3.04
S
S
280
P
2.00 10 2.02
63.0
10
410
49.6
S
0.73 31.0 4.20
C
1.20
S
1.73
700
P
5.00 10 2.02
63.0
10
410 198.2
F
0.94 16.0 2.17
S
S
280
P
2.00 10 2.02
87.0
10
410
49.6
S
0.80 35.0 4.53
C
1.13
S
1.93
700
P
5.00 10 2.02
87.0
10
410 198.2
F
1.03 18.0 2.33
S
S
2330
P
2.33 150 0.42
21.0
20
550 316.7
S
0.93 429.0 2.25
S
1.63
S
1.10
2330
P
2.33 150 0.42
18.4
20
550 316.7
S
0.69 315.0 1.77
S
1.25
S
0.86
2330
P
2.33 150 0.42
18.4
20
550 316.7
S
0.82 378.0 2.12
S
1.50
S
1.03
2330
P
2.33 150 0.42
18.4
20
550 316.7
S
0.72 329.0 1.85
S
1.30
S
0.90
2330
P
2.33 150 0.60
25.5
20
550 221.7
S
0.59 387.0 1.85
S
1.22
S
0.89
2400
P
2.41 150 0.66
25.5
20
550 213.6
S
0.55 381.0 1.82
S
1.18
S
0.87
2200
P
2.20 200 0.98
21.0
20
550 122.4
S
0.74 771.0 4.05
S
2.19
S
1.78
2330
P
2.33 150 0.98
20.6
20
550 135.7
S
0.44 435.0 2.31
S
1.27
S
1.03
2330
P
2.33 150 0.98
22.4
20
550 135.7
S
0.53 531.0 2.70
S
1.50
S
1.22
2330
P
2.33 150 0.98
22.4
20
550 135.7
S
0.58 579.0 2.95
S
1.64
S
1.33
2330
P
2.33 150 0.98
31.7
20
550 135.7
S
0.51 532.0 2.28
S
1.33
S
1.05
2330
P
2.33 150 0.98
31.7
20
550 135.7
S
0.50 524.0 2.24
S
1.31
S
1.03
2330
P
2.33 150 0.98
31.7
20
550 135.7
S
0.58 605.0 2.59
S
1.51
S
1.19
2000
P
2.00 150 0.84
19.5
20
550 119.0
S
0.66 330.0 3.60
S
1.96
C
1.38
1500
P
1.50 150 0.84
19.5
20
550
89.3
S
1.09 723.0 7.89
C
2.69
C
2.36
1500
P
1.50 150 0.84
20.3
20
550
89.3
S
0.82 550.0 5.88
C
1.98
C
1.72
1750
P
1.75 150 0.84
19.5
20
550 104.2
S
0.72 409.0 4.46
C
1.99
C
1.52
1751
P
1.82 150 1.75
20.3
20
550
52.0
S
0.36 330.0 3.67
C
1.24
C
0.96
1430
P
1.43 150 0.84
20.3
20
550
85.1
S
0.54 380.0 4.06
C
1.27
C
1.15
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
21.0
10
550 190.2
S
0.40 179.0 1.69
S
1.08
S
0.79
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
32.0
10
550 190.2
S
0.39 185.0 1.42
S
0.96
S
0.68
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
38.0
10
550 190.2
S
0.37 180.0 1.27
S
0.88
S
0.61
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
65.0
10
550 190.2
S
0.37 185.0 1.00
S
0.82
S
0.49
2700
P
2.92 152 1.01
80.0
10
550 190.2
S
0.34 172.0 0.90
C
0.71
S
0.44
2700
P
3.03 152 2.10
32.0
10
550
97.0
S
0.32 257.0 2.05
S
1.13
S
0.90
2700
P
2.92 152 0.50
32.0
10
550 380.4
S
0.66 165.0 1.27
S
1.08
F
0.63
5400
P
2.81 152 0.36
30.8
10
470 501.4
S
0.67 227.2 0.85
S
1.08
F
0.43
5400
P
2.93 152 1.52
27.5
10
550 126.8
S
0.31 407.0 1.69
S
1.37
S
0.76
425
P
0.85 100 1.56
23.7
16
483
27.2
S
0.57 265.2 10.09 C
1.10
C
1.47
250
P
0.50 100 1.56
49.1
16
483
16.0
S
0.72 642.2 16.98 C
1.00
C
1.54
425
P
0.85 100 1.56
49.1
16
483
27.2
S
0.77 401.1 10.60 C
0.93
C
1.07
625
P
1.25 100 1.56
49.1
16
483
40.1
S
0.95 337.4 8.92
C
1.27
C
1.12
1000
P
2.00 100 1.56
49.1
16
483
64.1
S
0.50 112.5 2.97
C
0.93
S
1.26
914
P
4.03 45 1.54
36.3
25
600 196.7
S
0.60 60.7 2.33
S
1.06
S
1.12
914
P
4.03 45 1.54
36.3
25
600 196.7
S
0.55 56.3 2.16
S
0.98
S
1.04
914
P
4.03 45 1.54
36.3
25
600 196.7
S
0.57 58.0 2.23
S
1.01
S
1.07
1219
P
3.39 10 0.96
40.9
19
524 248.6
S
0.79 179.2 2.05
S
1.14
S
1.01
1219
P
3.39 10 1.92
41.4
19
524 124.3
S
0.49 203.7 2.32
S
1.02
S
1.07
1219
P
3.39 10 0.36
43.7
19
745 662.8
S
1.07 134.8 1.49
S
1.24
F
0.77

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

39

Author
Ref Year
and Notes
#
1737 Tariq, M., and New 98 2003
1738
2003
1739
2003
1740
2003
1741
2003
1742
2003
1743 Cladera
99 2002
1744
2002
1745
2002
1746
2002
1747 Lertsrisakulrat, T., Y100 2002
1748
2002
1749
2002
1750 Yang et al
101 2003
1751
2003
1752
2003
1753
2003
1754
2003
1755
2003
1756
2003
1757
2003
1758
2003
1759
2003
1760
2003
1761
2003
1762
2003
1763
2003
1764
2003
1765
2003
1766
2003
1767
2003
1768
2003
1769
2003
1770
2003
1771 Lubell et al.
102 2004
1772 Rahal, Al-Shaleh, N103 2004
1773
2004
1774 OSU test
104 2004
1775 Sherwood et al.
105 2005
1776
2005
1777
2005
1778
2005
1779
2005
1780
2005
1781
2005
1782
2005
1783
2005
1784 Bentz & Buckley
106 2005
1785
2005
1786
2005
1787
2005
1788
2005
1789
2005
1790
2005
1791
2005
1792
2005

Beam
Name
R-S007Na
R-S007Nb
R-S010N1
R-S010N2
R-S015N1
R-S015N2
H50/1
H60/1
H75/1
H100/1
D200
D400
D600
L5-40
L5-60
L5-60R
L5-75
L5-100
UH5-40
UH5-60
UH5-75
UH5-100
L10-40
L10-40R
L10-60
L10-75
L10-75R
L10-100
UH10-40
UH10-40R
UH10-60
UH10-75
UH10-75R
UH10-100
AT-1
A65-NTR
B65-NTR
37T
AT-2-250A
AT-2-250B
AT-2-1000A
AT-2-1000B
AT-2-3000
AT-3-A
AT-3-C
AT-3-B
AT-3-D
SBB1.1
SBB1.2
SBB1.3
SBB2.1
SBB2.2
SBB2.3
SBB3.1
SBB3.2
SBB3.3

bw
(mm)
160
160
160
160
160
160
200
200
200
200
150
150
150
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
2010
200
200
356
250
250
1000
1000
3000
696
706
701
706
104
105
104
106
105
106
105
101
101

b
(mm)
160
160
160
160
160
160
200
200
200
200
150
150
150
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
160
2010
200
200
356
250
250
1000
1000
3000
696
706
701
706
104
105
104
106
105
106
105
101
101

h
(mm)
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
250
450
650
400
600
600
750
1000
400
600
750
1000
400
400
600
750
750
1000
400
400
600
750
750
1000
1005
370
370
1219
470
470
470
470
472
338
338
338
338
103
103
103
206
206
206
378
378
378

d
(mm)
346
346
346
346
325
325
359
359
359
359
200
400
600
355
555
555
685
935
355
555
685
935
355
355
555
685
685
935
355
355
555
685
685
935
920
330
305
1151
437
440
440
437
440
307
305
305
307
84
84
84
168
168
166
333
333
333

a:M/V
(mm)
950
950
1150
1150
1150
1150
1080
1080
1080
1080
200
400
600
200
300
300
375
500
200
300
375
500
400
400
600
750
750
1000
375
375
600
750
750
1000
2700
900
900
3353
1295
1295
1295
1295
1295
1039
1039
1039
1039
248
248
248
495
495
495
990
990
990

f c'
ag
fy
a:STM Load a/d Bear A
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa)
950
P
2.75 69 0.72
37.3
20
483
950
P
2.75 69 0.72
37.3
20
483
1150
P
3.32 69 1.08
43.2
20
483
1150
P
3.32 69 1.08
43.2
20
483
1150
P
3.54 65 1.54
34.1
20
483
1150
P
3.54 65 1.54
34.1
20
483
1080
P
3.01 100 2.24
49.9
12
500
1080
P
3.01 100 2.24
60.8
12
500
1080
P
3.01 100 2.24
68.9
12
500
1080
P
3.01 100 2.24
87.0
12
500
200
P
1.00 50 1.91
38.4
13 1026
400
P
1.00 100 1.69
35.5
13 1004
600
P
1.00 150 1.76
40.8
13 1006
200
P
0.56 100 1.01
31.4
19
804
300
P
0.54 100 0.97
31.4
19
804
300
P
0.54 100 0.97
31.4
19
804
375
P
0.55 100 1.05
31.4
19
804
500
P
0.53 100 0.90
31.4
19
606
200
P
0.56 100 1.01
78.5
19
804
300
P
0.54 100 0.97
78.5
19
804
375
P
0.55 100 1.05
78.5
19
804
500
P
0.53 100 0.90
78.5
19
605
400
P
1.13 100 1.01
31.4
19
804
400
P
1.13 100 1.01
31.4
19
804
600
P
1.08 100 0.97
31.4
19
804
750
P
1.09 100 1.05
31.4
19
804
750
P
1.09 100 1.05
31.4
19
804
1000
P
1.07 100 0.90
31.4
19
605
375
P
1.06 100 1.01
78.5
19
804
375
P
1.06 100 1.01
78.5
19
804
600
P
1.08 100 0.97
78.5
19
804
750
P
1.09 100 1.05
78.5
19
804
750
P
1.09 100 1.05
78.5
19
804
1000
P
1.07 100 0.90
78.5
19
605
2700
P
2.93 152 0.76
64.1
10
460
900
P
2.73 10 2.16
61.3
12
483
900
P
2.95 10 3.89
61.9
12
483
3353
P
2.91 230 0.74
31.8
19
478
1295
P
2.96 152 0.92
37.7
10
465
1295
P
2.94 152 0.90
38.5
10
465
1295
P
2.94 152 0.91
39.0
10
465
1295
P
2.96 152 0.91
37.9
10
465
1295
P
2.94 152 0.91
40.6
10
465
1039
P
3.38 152 0.93
37.5
10
448
1039
P
3.41 152 0.93
37.1
10
448
1039
P
3.41 152 0.93
37.8
10
448
1039
P
3.38 152 0.93
37.1
10
448
248
P
2.95 10 1.63
33.0
10
494
248
P
2.95 10 1.62
33.0
10
494
248
P
2.95 10 1.63
33.0
10
494
495
P
2.95 10 1.60
30.0
10
494
495
P
2.95 10 1.62
30.0
10
494
495
P
2.98 10 1.62
30.0
10
494
990
P
2.97 10 1.55
34.0
10
490
990
P
2.97 10 1.61
34.0
10
490
990
P
2.97 10 1.61
34.0
10
490

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 40


225 lbs.

M
Vd
241.6
241.6
214.4
214.4
165.0
165.0
89.7
89.7
89.7
89.7
26.1
29.6
28.3
27.9
27.9
27.9
26.1
29.7
27.9
27.9
26.1
29.7
55.7
55.7
55.7
52.3
52.3
59.3
52.3
52.3
55.7
52.3
52.3
59.3
254.6
80.0
50.1
259.3
214.6
215.0
213.8
215.5
214.0
256.0
259.0
259.0
256.0
119.2
120.4
119.2
121.5
120.4
122.3
127.1
122.3
122.3

Rep.
Mode
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

MMAX
Mn
0.89
0.95
0.82
0.77
0.73
0.74
0.43
0.45
0.41
0.48
0.52
0.39
0.36
0.64
0.49
0.44
0.42
0.42
0.95
0.68
0.64
0.70
0.55
0.90
0.69
0.38
0.47
0.79
1.22
0.94
0.95
0.43
0.46
1.05
0.60
0.55
0.53
0.53
0.79
0.77
0.80
0.76
0.80
0.97
1.06
1.04
1.00
0.71
0.90
0.73
0.71
0.76
0.75
0.54
0.53
0.56

Vu
(kN)
58.9
63.3
66.7
62.2
69.8
70.5
99.7
108.1
99.9
117.9
214.2
285.3
424.5
447.0
535.0
479.0
597.0
582.0
733.0
823.0
1010.0
1029.0
192.1
311.6
375.3
271.5
330.3
543.9
498.8
385.1
573.3
338.1
360.6
769.3
1272.1
124.9
169.9
243.8
115.8
113.3
476.0
444.8
1295.3
239.3
260.2
254.8
250.2
14.5
18.5
15.0
28.8
30.5
29.7
42.2
40.6
42.9

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
2.10
S
1.16
S
1.03
2.25
S
1.25
S
1.10
2.21
S
1.16
S
1.08
2.06
S
1.09
S
1.01
2.77
S
1.26
S
1.31
2.80
S
1.27
S
1.32
2.37
S
1.02
S
1.06
2.33
S
1.04
S
1.06
2.02
S
1.03
S
0.93
2.38
S
1.24
S
1.11
13.87 C
1.05
C
1.02
9.61
C
1.00
C
1.10
8.89
C
1.00
C
1.13
16.91 C
1.12
C
1.54
12.95 C
1.17
C
1.82
11.59 C
1.05
C
1.63
11.71 C
1.11
C
1.77
8.36
C
1.04
C
1.72
18.71 C
0.95
C
1.08
13.44 C
0.90
C
1.20
13.36 C
0.93
C
1.28
9.97
C
0.89
C
1.30
7.27
C
0.99
C
0.90
11.79 C
1.61
C
1.45
9.08
C
1.59
C
1.67
5.32
C
0.93
C
0.99
6.48
C
1.14
C
1.20
7.81
C
1.72
C
1.94
12.73 C
F
9.83
C
0.95
F
0.74
9.36
C
1.24
C
1.09
4.47
C
0.59
C
0.53
4.77
C
0.63
C
0.56
7.46
C
1.23
C
1.18
1.03
S
0.92
F
0.52
2.91
S
1.27
S
1.30
4.26
S
1.59
S
1.76
1.27
S
0.93
S
0.62
2.08
S
1.21
S
1.01
2.00
S
1.17
S
0.97
2.09
S
1.22
S
1.01
1.99
S
1.16
S
0.97
1.85
S
1.09
S
0.90
2.20
S
1.24
S
1.08
2.39
S
1.35
S
1.18
2.34
S
1.32
S
1.15
2.28
S
1.29
S
1.12
3.47
S
1.30
S
1.57
4.40
S
1.66
S
2.00
3.59
S
1.35
S
1.63
3.55
S
1.40
S
1.60
3.80
S
1.50
S
1.71
3.71
S
1.47
S
1.68
2.49
S
1.13
S
1.14
2.49
S
1.12
S
1.14
2.63
S
1.18
S
1.20

Author
Ref Year
and Notes
#
1793 El-Sayed, A., El-Sa 107 2005
1794
2005
1795
2005
1796
2005
1797 Lubell Phd
108 2006
1798
2006
1799
2006
1800
2006
1801
2006
1802
2006
1803
2006
1804 Guadagnini, M., Pil 109 2006
1805
2006
1806
2006
1807 Brown & Bayrak
110 2006
1808
2006
1809 shear d from end
2006
1810
2006
1811 Uzel. Stanik
111 2007
1812 Bentz and Collins
2007
1813
2007
1814
2007
1815
2007
1816 Results differ
2007
1817 from paper as
2007
1818 we're ignoring
2007
1819 the plate here
2007
1820 (conservative)
2007
1821
2007
1822
2007
1823
2007
1824
2007
1825 Sherwood
112 2007
1826 Bentz &
2007
1827 Collins
2007
1828
2007
1829
2007
1830
2007
1831
2007
1832
2007
1833
2007
1834
2007
1835
2007
1836
2007
1837
2007
1838
2007
1839
2007
1840
2007
1841
2007
1842
2007
1843
2007

Beam
Name
SN-0.8
SN-1.2
SN-1.7
SH-1.7
AW1
AW4
AW8
AX6
AX7
AX8
AY1
SB40
SB41
SB42
1
2
4
U
AP1
AP2
AP3
AP4
UN100
AF3
AF5
AF6
AF7
AF11
AF11-r
AF13
AF8
AF11-r2
L-10N1
L-10N2
L-10H
L-20N1
L-20N2
L-40N1
L-40N2
L-50N1
L-50N2
L-50N2R
S-10N1
S-10N2
S-10H
S-20N1
S-20N2
S-40N1
S-40N2
S-50N1
S-50N2

bw
(mm)
250
250
250
250
1170
1168
1169
703
704
705
249
150
150
150
203
203
203
203
113
113
113
113
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
122
122
122
122
122
122
122
122
122

b
(mm)
250
250
250
250
1170
1168
1169
703
704
705
249
150
150
150
203
203
203
203
113
113
113
113
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
122
122
122
122
122
122
122
122
122

h
(mm)
400
400
400
400
590
590
591
338
335
339
467
250
250
250
457
457
457
457
250
250
250
250
1000
670
670
670
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1510
1510
1510
1510
1510
1510
1510
1510
1510
1510
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330
330

d
(mm)
326
326
326
326
538
506
507
288
287
289
434
223
223
223
406
406
406
406
230
230
230
230
925
617
617
617
925
925
925
866
925
925
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
1400
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
280
280

a:M/V
(mm)
1000
1000
1000
1000
1850
1850
1850
1040
1040
1040
1300
750
500
250
1219
610
914
610
250
375
250
375
1350
1500
1500
946
1500
750
1000
1500
1994
1000
4050
4050
4050
4050
4050
4050
4050
4050
4050
4050
810
810
810
810
810
810
810
810
810

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
1000
P
3.07 300 0.86
50.0
19
453 240.4
S
1.00 98.5
1000
P
3.07 300 1.23
44.6
18
460 168.5
S
0.84 116.5
1000
P
3.07 300 1.72
43.6
19
460 120.4
S
0.77 144.5
1000
P
3.07 300 1.72
62.0
19
460 120.4
S
0.82 160.0
1850
P
3.44 305 0.79
36.9
10
467 307.0
S
0.92 585.0
1850
P
3.66 305 1.69
39.9
10
467 157.0
S
0.63 716.0
1850
P
3.65 152 1.69
39.4
10
467 157.0
S
0.70 789.0
1040
P
3.61 152 1.73
41.0
10
467 151.0
S
0.70 281.0
1040
P
3.62 152 1.04
41.0
10
413 252.4
S
1.11 249.0
1040
P
3.60 152 1.72
41.0
10
467 151.3
S
0.68 272.0
1300
P
3.00 152 0.33
40.7
10
900 608.4
S
0.83 85.0
750
P
3.36 50 1.35
43.4
20
500 174.9
S
0.74 45.3
500
P
2.24 50 1.35
43.0
20
500
91.9
S
0.74 68.0
250
P
1.12 50 1.35
42.2
20
500
41.5
S
0.74 135.5
1219
P
3.00 203 3.07
26.7
10
469
65.1
S
0.34 90.7
610
P
1.50 203 3.07
26.8
10
469
24.4
S
0.53 285.1
914
P
2.25 203 3.07
26.9
10
469
40.7
S
0.42 151.7
610
U2 1.50 203 3.07
26.9
10
469
40.7
S
0.62 224.6
250
U2 1.09 152 1.15
35.8
6
505 123.5
S
1.13 76.9
375
U2 1.63 152 1.15
35.8
6
505 105.8
S
0.77 44.7
250
U1 1.09 152 1.15
35.8
6
505
50.9
S
0.99 57.3
375
U1 1.63 152 1.15
35.8
6
505
97.9
S
0.76 42.0
1350 U1 1.46 152 0.76
43.0
10
550 126.8
S
0.86 394.3
1500 U1 2.43 152 0.76
27.3
19
475 255.3
S
1.04 208.1
1500 U2 2.43 152 0.76
31.3
19
475 149.3
S
0.99 201.3
946
U1 1.53 152 0.76
32.2
19
562 136.6
S
0.83 259.1
1500 U1 1.62 152 0.76
33.8
10
562 148.2
S
0.69 356.3
750
U1 0.81 300 0.76
36.2
10
562
41.1
S
1.20 611.5
1000 U1 1.08 152 0.76
33.8
10
562
76.8
S
1.00 636.3
1500 U1 1.73 152 2.16
35.7
10
475
57.2
S
0.71 638.4
1994
P
2.16 152 0.76
33.8
10
562 152.7
S
0.49 249.2
1000
P
1.08 152 0.76
33.8
10
562
71.4
S
0.60 602.8
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
38.4
10
452 227.1
S
0.51 265.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
40.3
10
452 227.1
S
0.47 242.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
73.6
10
452 227.1
S
0.45 240.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
31.4
20
452 227.1
S
0.52 265.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
33.2
20
452 227.1
S
0.52 266.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
28.1
40
452 227.1
S
0.48 242.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
28.5
40
452 227.1
S
0.57 288.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
41.0
50
452 227.1
S
0.53 272.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
40.1
50
452 227.1
S
0.58 298.0
4050
P
2.89 152 0.83
40.1
50
452 227.1
S
0.63 323.0
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
41.9
10
494 226.7
S
0.80 36.6
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
41.9
10
494 226.7
S
0.83 38.3
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
77.3
10
494 226.7
S
0.80 37.7
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
39.2
20
494 226.7
S
0.86 39.1
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
38.1
20
494 226.7
S
0.84 38.2
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
29.1
40
494 226.7
S
0.94 41.8
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
29.1
40
494 226.7
S
0.78 34.9
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
43.5
50
494 226.7
S
0.84 38.5
810
P
2.89 30 0.83
43.5
50
494 226.7
S
0.88 40.6

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.


41

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
2.06
C
1.00
S
1.02
2.58
C
1.16
S
1.24
3.23
C
1.35
S
1.50
3.00
C
1.14
S
1.42
1.84
S
1.25
S
0.92
2.31
S
1.23
S
1.09
2.55
S
1.36
S
1.21
2.61
S
1.22
S
1.23
2.32
S
S
2.51
S
1.18
S
1.19
1.48
S
1.30
F
0.76
2.47
S
1.15
S
1.19
3.73
S
1.50
S
1.66
7.51
C
0.95
C
0.90
2.56
S
0.98
S
1.02
8.04
C
1.21
C
1.07
4.27
C
1.43
S
1.48
6.32
C
1.42
C
1.26
5.96
F
F
3.46
C
0.95
F
0.62
4.44
C
1.04
F
0.56
3.25
C
1.12
S
1.44
2.61
C
0.90
S
1.21
2.59
S
1.53
S
1.26
2.34
S
1.27
S
1.09
2.97
C
1.03
S
1.37
2.66
C
0.99
S
1.24
4.41
F
S
4.75
C
1.11
S
2.01
4.95
C
1.22
S
1.97
1.86
C
1.11
S
0.87
4.50
C
0.85
C
0.83
1.23
S
1.07
S
0.60
1.09
S
0.96
S
0.53
0.83
C
0.77
F
0.41
1.36
S
1.00
S
0.66
1.32
S
0.99
S
0.64
1.31
S
0.91
S
0.63
1.55
S
1.07
S
0.75
1.22
S
0.90
S
0.60
1.35
S
0.99
S
0.66
1.46
S
1.07
S
0.72
1.99
S
1.11
S
0.98
2.09
S
1.16
S
1.02
1.60
C
0.90
F
0.80
2.20
S
1.16
S
1.08
2.18
S
1.14
S
1.07
2.73
S
1.34
S
1.32
2.28
S
1.12
S
1.10
2.06
S
1.09
S
1.01
2.17
S
1.14
S
1.06

Author
and Notes
1844 NCSU MMFX
1845 tests
1846
1847
1848
1849

Ref Year Beam


#
Name
113 2007 G-1.9-51
2007 M-1.9-51
2007 G-1.9-38
2007 M-1.9-38
2007 G-2.7-32
2007 M-2.7-32

bw
(mm)
460
460
460
460
460
460

b
(mm)
460
460
460
460
460
460

h
(mm)
915
915
915
915
915
915

d
(mm)
850
850
850
850
850
850

a:M/V
(mm)
1640
1640
1640
1640
2325
2325

f c'
ag
fy
Vu
a:STM Load a/d Bear w A
M
Rep. MMAX
(mm) Type ratio (mm) (%) * (MPa) (mm) (MPa) Vd Mode Mn
(kN)
1640
P
1.93 230 0.72
51.0
19
468 134.0
S
0.68 444.1
1640
P
1.93 230 0.44
51.0
19
865 219.3
S
1.07 788.6
1640
P
1.93 230 0.72
38.0
19
468 134.0
S
0.59 385.1
1640
P
1.93 230 0.44
38.0
19
865 219.3
S
0.95 690.6
2325
P
2.74 230 0.72
32.0
19
468 241.0
S
0.63 284.6
2325
P
2.74 230 0.44
32.0
19
865 394.4
S
0.65 327.6

Conversion Factors: 25.4 mm = 1 inch; 1 MPa = 145 psi, 1 kN = 225 lbs.

42

CSA CSA
ACI
ACI
(psi) Mode Exp/Pred Mode Exp/Pred
1.92
C
0.76
F
0.39
3.40
C
1.57
F
0.70
1.92
C
0.81
F
0.46
3.45
C
1.68
F
0.82
1.55
S
1.02
S
0.75
1.78
S
1.40
S
0.89

References:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.
15.
16.

Richart, F.E., Reinforced Concrete Wall and Column Footings, Journal of the
American Concrete Institute Proceedings, Vol. 45, Part 1, No. 10, Oct. 1948, pp. 97127, Part 2, No. 11, Nov. 1948, pp. 237-260.
Laupa, A., Siess, C.P., and Newmark, N.M., The Shear Strength of Simple-Span
Reinforced Concrete Beams without Web Reinforcement, Engineering Experimental
Station Bulletin No. 428, University of Illinois, 1953.
Ferguson, P.M., Thompson, N.J., Diagonal Tension in T-Beams Without Stirrups,
ACI Journal, Proceedings, V. 49, No. 3, March 1953, pp. 665-675.
Moody, K.G., Viest, I.M., Elstner, R.C., and Hognestad, E., Shear Strength of
Reinforced Concrete Beams Part 1 -Tests of Simple Beams, ACI Journal, Proceedings,
V. 51, No. 12, Dec. 1954, pp. 317-332.
Ferguson, P.M., Some Implications of Recent Diagonal Tension Tests, ACI Journal,
Proceedings, V. 53, No. 8, Aug. 1956, pp. 157-172.
Moody, K.G., Viest, I.M., Elstner, R.C., and Hognestad, E., Shear Strength of
Reinforced Concrete Beams Part 2-Tests of Restrained Beams Without Web
Reinforcement, ACI Journal, Proceedings, V. 51, No. 1, Jan. 1955, pp. 417-434.
Morrow, J., and Viest, I.M., Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Frame Members
Without Web Reinforcement, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 53, No. 3, March 1957, pp.
833-869.
Al-Alusi, A.F., Diagonal Tension Strength of Reinforced Concrete T-Beams with
Varying Shear Span, ACI Journal, Proceedings, V. 53. No. 5, May 1957, pp. 10671077.
Chang, T.S., and Kesler, C.E., Static and Fatigue Strength in Shear of Beams with
Tensile Reinforcement, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 54, No. 6, June 1958, pp. 10331057.
Watstein, D., and Mathey, R.C., Strains in Beams Having Diagonal Crack, ACI
Journal Proceedings, V. 55, No. 12, Dec. 1958, pp. 717-728.
Rodriguez, J.J., Bianchini, A.C., Viest, I.M., Kesler, C.E., Shear Strength of TwoSpan Continous Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI Journal Proceedings, V.55, No. 4,
April 1959, pp. 1089-1130
Baldwin, J.W., and Viest, I.M., Effect of Axial Compression on the Shear Strength of
Reinforced Concrete Frame Members, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 55, No. 11, Nov.
1958, pp. 635-654.
Sozen, M.A., Zwoyer, E.M., Siess, C.P., Investigation of Prestressed Reinforced
Concrete for Highway Bridges. Part 1: Strength in Shear of Beams without Web
Reinforcement, Engineering Experimental Station Bulletin No. 452, University of
Illinois, 1959.
de Cossio, R.D., Seiss, C.P., Behavior and Strength in Shear of Beams and Frames
Without Web Reinforcement, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 56, No. 2, Feb 1960, pp.
695-736.
Bower, and Viest, I.M. Shear Strength of Restrained Concrete Beams Without Web
Reinforcement, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 57. No. 7, Aug. 1960, pp. 73-98.
Guralnick, S.A., "High strength deformed steel bars for concrete reinforcement," ACI
Journal, Proceedings, V. 57 No. 3, Sept 1960, pp. 242-282.

43

17. Hanson, J.W., Tensile Strength and Diagonal Tension Resistance of Structural
Lightweight Concrete, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 58, No. 7, July 1961, pp. 1-40.
18. Leonhardt, F., and Walther, R., The Stuttgart Shear Tests 1961, A translation of the
articles that appeared in Beton und Stahlbetonbau, V.56, No. 12, 1961 and V.57, No.
2,3,6,7 and 8, 1962, Cement and Concrete Association Library Translation No. 111,
Wexham Springs, United Kingdom, Dec. 1964, 134 pp.
19. de Cossio, R.D., Discussion to 326 Report, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 59 No. 11,
Oct 1962, pp. 1323-1349.
20. Ruesch, M., Haugli, O., and Mayer, M., Schubversuche an Stahlbeton-Rechteckbalken
mit gleichmkig verteilter Belastung, (in German) Deutcher Ausschuss fur Stahlbeton,
Berlin, 1962, pp. 4-30
21. Bresler B., and Scordelis, A.C., Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI
Journal, Proceedings, V. 60, No. 1, Jan. 1963, pp. 51-74.
22. Mathey, R.G., Watstein, D., Shear Strength of Beams Without Web Reinforcement
Containing Deformed Bars of Different Yield Strengths, ACI Journal Proceedings, V.
60, No. 2, Feb. 1963, pp. 183-208.
23. de Pavia, H.A.R., and Siess, C.P., Strength and Behavior of Deep Beams, ASCE
Structural Journal, V. 91, No. ST5, 1965, pp. 19-41.
24. Krefeld, W.J., and Thurston, C.W., Studies of the Shear and Diagonal Tension
Strength of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI Journal, Proceedings,
V. 63, No. 4, April 1966, pp. 451-476.
25. Baron, M.J., Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams at Points of Bar Cutoff,
ACI Journal, Proceedings, V. 63, No. 1, January 1966, pp. 127-134.
26. Kani, M.W., Huggins, M.W. and Wittkopp, R.R. Kani on Shear in Reinforced
Concrete, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, 1979, 225pp.
27. Rajagopalan, K.S., and Ferguson, P.M., Exploratory Shear Tests Emphasizing
Percentage of Lightweight Steel, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 65, No. 8, August 1968,
pp. 634-638.
28. Bhal, N.S., ber den Einfluss der Balkenhhe auf die Schubtragfhigkeit von
einfeldrigen Stahlbetonbalken mit und ohne Schubbewehrung, (in German) Ph.D.
Thesis, Stuttgart University, 1967, 125 pp.
29. Taylor, H.P.J., Shear Stresses in Reinforced Concrete Beams without Shear
Reinforcement, Cement and Concrete Association, Technical Report TRA 407,
Wexham Springs, United Kingdom, 1968
30. Mattock, A.H., Diagonal Tension cracking in Concrete Beams with Axial Forces,
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, V. 95, No. ST9, Sept. 1969, pp. 1887-1900.
31. Swamy, R.N., Andriopoulos, A., Adepegba, D., "Arch action and bond in concrete
shear failures," ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 96, No. ST6, June 1970,
pp. 1069-1091
32. Placas A., and Regan, P.E., Shear Failure of Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI
Journal Proceedings, V. 68, No. 10, Oct. 1971, pp. 763-773.
33. Manuel, R.F., Slight, B.W., and Suter, G.T. Deep Beam Behavior Affected by Length
and Shear Span variations, ACI Journal, Proceedings, V.68, No. 12, Dec. 1971, pp.
954-958.
34. Batson, G., Jenkins, E., and Spatney, R. Steel Fibers as Shear Reinforcement in
Beams, ACI Journal, Proceedings, V. 69, No. 10, Oct. 1972, pp. 640-644.

44

35. Haddadin, M.J., Hong, S.T., Mattock, A.H., Stirrup Effectiveness in Reinforced
Concrete Beams with Axial Force, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, V. 97,
No. ST9, Sept. 1971, pp. 2277-2297.
36. Smith, R.B.L., "Shear reinforcement of reinforced concrete beams subject to distributed
loading," Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 22, No. 70, March 1970, pp. 17-24
37. Taylor, H.P.J, Shear Strength of Large Beams, Journal of the Structural Division,
ASCE, Vol98. No. ST11, Nov 1972, pp. 2473-2489.
38. Aster, H., and Koch, R., Schubtrgfahigkeit dicker Stahlbetonplatte, (in German)
Bewton und Stahlbetonbau, Nov. 1974, pp
39. Manuel, R.F., "Failure of Deep Beams," ACI Special publication 42: 1974, pp. 425-440
40. Cederwall, K., Hedman, O., and Loeberg, A., Shear Strength of Partially Prestressed
Beams with Pretensioned Reinforcement of High Grade Deformed Bars, ACI Special
Publication SP-42. Jan 1974, pp. 215-230.
41. Hamadi, Y.D., and Regan, P.E., Behavior in shear of beams with flexural cracks,
Magazine of Concrete Research, V. 32, No. 1, 1980, pp. 67-77.
42. Marti, P., Pralong, J., Thurlimann, B., Schubversuche an Stahlbeton-Platten (in
German) Institut fr Baustatik und Konstruktion, ETH Zrich, Bericht No. 7305-2,
Sept. 1977, 123 pp.
43. Reineck, K.-H., Koch, R., Schlaich, J., Shear Tests on Reinforced concrete beams with
axial compression for offshore structures, Institut fr Massivbau, Universitt Stuttgart
1978
44. Taylor, M. A., El-Hammasi, S., "Web cracking behaviour of beams using welded wire
fabric as shear reinforcement," ACI Journal, Proceedings, Jan-Feb 1980, pp. 12-17
45. Palaskas, M.N., Attiogbe, E.K., Darwin, D., Shear Strength of Lightly Reinforced TBeams, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 78, No. 6, Nov. 1981, pp. 447-455.
46. Nakazawa, T., "The behavior of reinforced concrete beams subjected to bending and
shear," Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 2, 1980, pp. 211-216.
47. Fukuhara, M., Kokusho, S., "Ultimate shear strength of reinforced concrete beams with
high tension shear reinforcement," Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 2,
1980, pp. 255-262.
48. Chana, P.S., Some aspects of modelling the behaviour of reinforced concrete under
shear loading, Cement and Concrete Association Technical Report No. 543. C&CA,
Wexham Springs, United Kingdom, July 1981, 22 pp.
49. Niwa, J., Maekawa, K, and Okamura, H., "Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Deep
Beams," in Advanced Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete, IABSE Colloqium Delft
Netherlands, 1981, pp. 625-638
50. Batchelor, B. d., Kwun, M., "Shear in RC Beams without web reinforcement," ASCE
Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 107, No. ST5, May 1981, pp 907-921.
51. Smith, K.N., and Vantsiotis, A.S., Shear Strength of Deep Beams, ACI Journal
Proceedings, V. 79, No. 3, May 1982, pp. 201-213.
52. Heger, F.J., and McGrath, T.J., "Design Method for Reinforced Concrete Pipe and Box
Sections," Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger Inc, 1982, 251 pp.
53. Mphonde, A.G., and Frantz, G.C., Shear Tests of High- and Low-Strength Concrete
Beams with Stirrups, ACI Special Publication, SP-87, Sept. 1985, pp. 179-196.

45

54. Elzanaty, A.H., Nilson, A.H., and Slate, F.O., Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete
Beams Using High-Strength Concrete, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 83, No. 2, March
1986, pp. 290-296.
55. Kung, R., Ein Beitrag zur Schubsicherung im Stahlbetonbau. (in German) 1985.
56. Rogowsky, D.M., and MacGregor, J.G., Tests of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams,
ACI Journal, Proceedings, V. 83, No. 4, July 1986, pp. 614-623.
57. Muruyama, Y., Iwabuchi, A., "Flexural and shear strength of reinforced high-strength
lightweight concrete beams," Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 8, 1986,
pp. 267-274
58. Mansur, M.A., Ong, K.C.G., Paramasivam, P., "Shear strength of firbrous concrete
beams without stirrups," ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 112, No. 9, Sept
1986, pp. 2066-2079.
59. Ahmad, A.H., and Lue, D.M., Flexure-Shear Interaction of Reinforced High Strength
Concrete Beams, ACI Journal, Proceedings, V. 84, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 330-341.
60. Niwa, J., Yamada, K., Kokozawa, K., and Okamura, M., Revaluation of the Equation
for Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete-Beams without Web Reinforcement,
Translation JSCE 372/V-5, 1987.
61. Rodriguez, C.P., and Darwin, D., Shear Strength of Lightly Reinforced T-Beams in
Negative Bending, ACI Journal Proceedings, V. 84, No. 1, Jan. 1987, pp. 77-85.
62. Lehwalter, N., Die Tragfahigkeit von Betondruckstreben in Fachwerkmodellen am
Beispiel von dedrungenen Balken, (in German), Dr.-Ing. Dissertation, Darmstadt
1988.
63. Regan P.E., Rezai-Jorabi, H., Shear Resistance of One-Way Slabs Under Concentrated
Loads, ACI Structural Journal, V. 85, No. 2, March 1987, pp. 150-157.
64. Johnson, M.K., and Ramirez, J.A., Minimum Shear Reinforcement in Beams With
Higher Strength Concrete, ACI Structural Journal, V. 86, No. 4, July 1989, pp. 376382.
65. Shioya, T. Shear Properties of Large Reinforced Concrete Member, Special Report
of Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation, No. 25, 1989, 198 pp. (in Japanese)
66. Shioya, T., Iguro, M., Nojiri, Y., Akiyama, H., and Okada, T., Shear Strength of Large
Reinforced Concrete Beams. Fracture Mechanics: Application to Concrete, SP 118,
American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1989, 309 pp.
67. Adebar P.E., and Collins, M.P., Shear strength of members without transverse
reinforcement, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, V. 23, No. 1, Feb. 1996, pp.
30-41.
68. Thorenfeldt, E., Drangshold, G., Shear Capacity of Reinforced High-Strength
Concrete Beams, ACI Special Publication, SP-121, Nov. 1990, pp. 129-154.
69. Bazant, Z.P., and Kazemi, M. T., Size Effect on Diagonal Shear Failure of Beams
Without Stirrups, ACI Structural Journal, V. 88, No. 3, May 1991, pp. 268-276.
70. Remmel, G., Influence of the tensile behavior on the shear strength of longitudinally
reinforced concrete members, Darmstadt Concrete Annual, 7, 1991.
71. Tan, K.H., Murugappan, K., and Paramasivam, P., "Shear behaviour of steel fibre
reinforced beams," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 90, No. 1, Jan-Feb. 1993, pp. 3-11.
72. Tan, K.H., and Mansur, M.A., "Partial Prestressing in Corbels and deep beams," ACI
Structural Journal, Vol. 89, No. 3, May-June 1992, pp. 251-262.

46

73. Xie, Y., Ahmad, S.H., Yu, T., Hino, S., and Chung, W., Shear Ductility of Reinforced
Concrete Beams of Normal and High-Strength Concrete, ACI Structural Journal, V.
91, No. 2, March 1994, pp. 140-149.
74. Walraven, J., Lehwalter, N., Size Effects in Short Beams Loaded in Shear, ACI
Structural Journal, V. 91, No. 5, Sept. 1994, pp. 585-593.
75. Hallgren, M., Flexural and Shear Capacity of Reinforced High-strength Concrete
Beams without Stirrups, Licentiate degree, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm,
Sweden, 1994.
76. Scholtz, H., Ein Querkrafttragmodell frBauteile onhe Schubbewehrung im
Bruchzustand aus normalfestem und hochfestem Beton, (in German), 1994.
77. Kim, J.-K., and Park. Y.D., "Shear strength of reinforced high strength concrete beams
without web reinforcement," Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 46, No. 166, Mar
1994, pp. 7-16.
78. Matsui, Y., Kurihara, N., Uchida, Y., Rokugo, K., Koyangi, W., "Shear capacity of
rienforced high strength concrete beams without shear reinforcement," Transactions of
the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 17, 1995, pp. 319-326.
79. Yoon, Y.-S., Cook, W.D., Mitchell, D., Minimum Shear Reinforcement in Normal,
Medium, and High-Strength Concrete Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 93, No. 5,
Oct 1996, pp. 576-584.
80. Hallgren, M., Punching shear capacity of reinforced high strength concrete slabs,
Doctoral Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden, 1996.
81. Tan, K.H., Kong, F., Teng, S., and Weng, L., Effect of Web Reinforcement on HighStrength Concrete Deep Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 94, No. 5, Sept. 1997, pp.
572-582.
82. Konig, G., Grimm, R., and Remmel, G., Shear Behaviour of Longitudinally
Reinforced Concrete Members of HSC, Darmstadt Concrete, Vol 8, 1993, pp. 27-42.
83. Kawano, H., Watanabe, H., Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Columns Effect
of Specimen Size and Load Reversal. Proceedings of the Second Italy-Japan
Workshop on Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges, Feb 1997, Rome, Italy.
84. Collins, M.P., Kuchma, D., How Safe Are Our Large, Lightly Reinforced Concrete
Beams, Slabs, and Footings? ACI Structural Journal, V.96, No. 4, July 1999, pp. 482490.
85. Yoshida, Y., Shear reinforcement for large lightly reinforced concrete members,
Masters Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 1998, 160 pp.
86. Ghannoum, W.M., Size effect on Shear Strength of Reinforced Concree Beams,
M.Eng. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill
University, 1998, 115 pp.
87. Islam, M.S., Pam, H.J., Kwan, A.K.H., Shear Capacity of High-Strength Concrete
Beams with Their Point of Inflection within The Shear Span, Proc of Inst of Civil
Engr-Struct & Bldgs, V.128, Feb. 1998, pp. 91-99.
88. Kulkarni, S.M. and Shah, S.P., Response of Reinforced Concrete Beams at High
Strain Rates, ACI Structural Journal, V. 95, No. 6, Nov. 1998, pp. 705-715.
89. Shin, S.-W., Lee, K.-S., Moon, J.-I., Ghosh, S.K., Shear Strength of Reinforced HighStrength Concrete Beams with Shear Span-to-Depth Ratios between 1.5 and 2.5, ACI
Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 4, July 1999, pp. 549-556.

47

90. Tan, K.H., and Lu, H.Y., Shear Behavior of Large Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams
and Code Comparisons, ACI Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1999, pp.
836-945.
91. Kim, D., Kim, W., and White, R.N. Arch Action in Reinforced Concrete BeamsA
Rational Prediction of Shear Strength, ACI Structural Journal, V. 96, No. 4, July 1999,
pp. 586-593.
92. Pendyala, R.S., and Mendis, P., Experimental Study on Shear Strength of HighStrength Concrete Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 97, No. 4, July 2000, pp. 564571.
93. Adebar, P., One way shear strength of large footings, Canadian Journal of Civil
Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 3, June 2000, pp. 553-562.
94. Angelakos, D., Bentz, E.C., and Collins, M.P., Effect of Concrete Strength and
Minimum Stirrups on Shear Strength of Large Members, ACI Structural Journal, V.
98, No. 3, May-June 2001, pp. 290-300.
95. Cao, S., Size effect and the influence of longitudinal reinforcement on the shear
response of large reinforced concrete members, Masters thesis, Department of Civil
Engineering, University of Toronto, 2001.
96. Oh, J.-K. and Shin, S.-W., Shear Strength of Reinforced High-Strength Concrete Deep
Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 98, No. 2, March 2001, pp. 164-173.
97. Yost, J. R., Gross, S. P., and Dinehart, D. W. (2001). "Shear Strength of Normal
Strength Concrete Beams Reinforced with Deformed GFRP Bars." J. Compos. Constr.,
5(4), 268-275.
98. Tariq, M., and Newhook, J.P. (2003). "Shear testing of FRP reinforced concrete
without transverse reinforcement." Annual Conference of the Canadian Society for
Civil Engineering, Moncton, Canada, GCF-340-1-GCF340-10.
99. Cladera, A., Mari., A.R., Experimental study on high-strength concrete beams failing
in shear, Engineering Structures, V. 27, No. 10, Aug. 2005, pp. 1519-1527.
100. Lertsrisakulrat, T., Yanagawa, A., Matsuo, M., Niwa, J., "Concept of concrete
compressive fracture energy in RC deep beams without transverse reinforcement,"
Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 23, 2002, pp. 119-124.
101. Yang, K.-H., Chung, H.-S., Lee, E.-T., Eun, H.-C., Shear characteristics of highstrength concrete deep beams without shear reinforcements, Engineering Structures,
V. 25, No. 10, Aug. 2003, pp. 1343-1352.
102. Lubell, A., Sherwood, T., Bentz, E. C., and Collins, M. P., Safe Shear Design of
Large, Wide Beams, Concrete International, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan. 2004, pp. 66-78.
103. Rahal, K.N., Al-Shaleh, K.S., Minimum Transverse Reinforcement in 65 MPa
Concrete Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 101, No. 6, Nov. 2004, pp. 872-878.
104. Higgins, C., Miller, T.H., Rosowsky, D.V., Yim, S.C., Potisuk,T., Daniels,T.K.,
Nicholas, B.S., Robelo, M.J., Lee, A.Y. and Forrest, R.W., Assessment Methodology
for Diagonally Cracked Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders, Final Report for Oregon
Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration, Final Report
SPR 350, SR 500-091, October 2004, 340 pages plus appendices
105. Sherwood, E.G., Lubell, A.S., Bentz, E.C., Collins, M.P., One-Way Shear Strength of
Thick Slabs and Wide Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 6, Nov. 2006, pp.
794-802.

48

106. Bentz, E.C, Buckley, S., Repeating a Classic Set of Experiments on Size Effect in
Shear of Members without Stirrups, ACI Structural Journal, V. 102, No. 6, Nov. 2005,
pp. 832-838.
107. El-Sayed, A., El-Salakawy, E. and Benmokrane, B. (2005). "Analytical Modeling of
FRP-Reinforced Concrete Beams Failed in Shear." 1st CSCE Specialyt Conference on
Infrastructure Technologies, Manament and Policy, Toronto, Canada, FR-127-1-FR127-10.
108. Lubell, A.S., Shear in wide reinforced concrete members, PhD thesis, Department of
Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 2006, 455 pp.
109. Guadagnini, M., Pilakoutas, K., and Waldron, P., "Shear resistance of FRP RC Beams:
Experimental study," Journal of composites for construction, Nov-Dec 2006, pp. 464473.
110. Brown, M.D., Bayrak, O., and Jirsa, J.O., Design for shear based on loading
conditions, ACI Structural Journal, V. 103, No. 4, July-Aug. 2006, pp. 541-550.
111. Uzel, A., Stanik, B., Bentz, E.C., and Collins, M.P., Design of Large Footings for
One-Way Shear, Submitted to ACI Structural Journal, November 2006.
112. Sherwood, E.G., Bentz, E.C., and Collins, M.P., Effect of Aggregate Size on BeamShear Strength of Thick Slabs, ACI Structural Journal, V. 104, No. 2, Mar. 2007, pp.
180-190.
113. Seliem, H., Hosny, A., Dwairi, H., Rizkalla, S., Shear behavior of concrete beams
reinforced with MMFX steel without web reinforcement, NC State University Final
Report, Project No. IS-06-08, April 2006, 21 pp.
114. Tureyen, A.K., and Frosch, R.J. Shear tests of FRP-reinforced concrete beams without
stirrups, ACI Structural Journal, V.99, No. 4, July 2002, pp. 427-434.

49