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THE EGYPTIAN

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY,
BY THE LATE

Sir p.

LE PAGE RENOUF,
CONTINUED AND COMPLETED BY

Knt.

Prof.

E.

NAVILLE,

D.C.L.,

cfc,

&c.,

Professor of Egyptology at the University of Geneva.

WITH VIGNETTES AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS.

PRIVATELY PRIMTED EOR

THE SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY,
37,

CiREAT Russell Street, Bloomsburv,

LONDON,

1904.

LONDON

:

HARRISON AND SONS, PRINTERS IN ORI>INARY TO HIb MAJESTY,

'5>\DH'^

TflE

LIBRAKY

TO

LADY RENOUF
THIS
IN

WORK

IS

DEDICATED

ACCORDANCE WITH THE EXPRESSED WISH OF

HER LATE HUSBAND
SIR

PETER LE PAGE RENOUF.

INDEX
TO THR

C

A

P

T E R

S

AND REFERENCES
TO THE

VIGNETTES.
CHAPTERS.
I.

VIGNETTES.
The Beginning of the Chapters of Coming forth by Day, of the Words which britig about Resurrection afiit Glory, and of Coming out of and ottering into Amenta. Said upon the Day of Burial of N. the Victorious, who entereth after coniiftg forth. Here is N tJie victorious. He saith
pages
I,

2

Plates

I,

II.

II.

Chapter for Coming forth by day and Living after
death.

n

IT, 12

"I

III.

Afzother Chapter like

it.

I

2

IV.

Another Chapter, for travelling on
is

the

road which

13

above the earth.
\tipoti

V.

Chapter 7vhereby work may nut be imposed a person] in the JVetherworld.

13

VI.

Chapter whereby the funereal Statuettes 7nay be made to do tvork for a person /« the Netherworld.
Chapter of passifig through the chine of Apepi
7C'hich
IS void.

15,16
).

No

Vignettes.

VII.

16

VIII.
IX.

Chapter of opening the Tuat by day.

Chapter for opening the Tuat.

18
,>

X.

Chapter for coming forth

victoriously.

19 19

XI.

Chapter for coming out against the adversary in
the Netlierworld.

»

^

—— —
VI

CHAPTERS.
XII.

VIGNETTES.
Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of
the Netherui07-ld.

page

20

XIII.

Chapter for entering after coining
Chapter for removing

o^it

from Amenta.

20
21

)>

No

Vignettes.

XIV.

of

the

god

displeasure from the heart against the deceased person.
to

XV.

Hymn

I.

[Litany].

—Adored

A Hymn

be

Ra Ra

at his rising. as

J

22-25
25, 26

Plates HI, X,

XV

he

setteth

in

the

>>

Land of

Life.

Hymn Hymn
XVI.

II.

III.

A Hymn to Ra at A Hymn to Tmu

his setting.

,5

26, 27

at his setting.

))

27,28
34

>J

IV,

V

XVII.

Chapter ivherehy one cometh forth by day out of Let the words be said : the Netherivorld.

)J

35-40

VI, VII.

XVIII.

A

Litany

to

Thoth.

5J

50-53

VIII,
IX.

IX

XIX.

Chapter of the Croiun of Triumph.

>,

57,58
59>

XX.
XXI.

Another Chapter of the Crozvn of Triutnph.
Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person
is

)l

No

Vigfiettes.

given to

>J

60

him

ifi

the Netlierworld.
is

XXII.

Another Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person given to him in the Netheriuorld.
Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person for him in the Netherti'orld.
is

»J

61

Plates X, XI.

XXIII.

opened

62

»

X, XI.

XXIV.

Chapter ivhereby the Words of Foicer are brought to a person ifi the Netherzvorld.
Chapter whereby a person remembereth his 7iame in
the Netheriuorld.

63,

64

X.

XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIIl.

66

No

Vignettes.

Chapter whereby the Heart is given the Netherworld.
Chapter
'whereby
the

to

a persoti in

66

Plate XII.

Heart of a

persoJi

is

not

69

,)

XL
XII.

taken

from him
the

in the Nethierworld.

Chapter

ivhereby

Heart

of a person

is

not

n

70, 71

jj

takefi

from him

in the Netherworld.

XXIX.
XXIXb.

Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may not be taken from him in the Netherworld.
Atiother Chapter of the Heart; upon

72

)>

XII.

Carnelian.

73

lYo Vignettes

1

VI

CHAPTERS.
XXXa.
XXXb. XXXI.
Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come to carry off the IVords of Power from a person in the JVetherivorld. Chapter 7i<hereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come to carry off the Words of Power from the
glorified in the JSetherworld.

VIGNETTES.
Chapter whereby the Heart of a person
is not kept back fro7n him in the IVetherworld.

page

74

Plate XII.

75 77

No

Vignettes.

XU.

XXXI I.

78 .79

No

Vignettes.

XXXIII.

Chapter whereby all Serpents are kept back.
Chapter whei-eby a person
is

81
"

Plate XII.

XXXIV.

not devoured by the

82
A^o Vignettes.

diveller in the shrine.

XXXV.
XXXVI.
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.

Chapter whereby the person is not devoured by a Serpent in the Nethenvorld.

83

Chapter whereby the Apshait

is

kept back.

85
85

Plates XII,

XIII

Chapter tvhereby the Merta Goddesses are kept back.
Chapter ivhereby one liveth by the breath of air in the Nethenvorld, and keepeth back Alerta.
Chapter whereby the Serpent Rekrek the Netherworld.
is

„ „

XIIL

86

XIIL
XIII,

XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.

repulsed in

87--89

XIV

Chapter ivhereby the Eater of the Ass

is

kept back.

91. 92

XIV.

Chapter whereby one avoideth the Slaughter which is carried out in the Netherworld.

94

XV.

XLII.

Chapter whereby one hindereth the Slaughter which is wrought at Sutenhenen.
Chapter ivhereby the head of a person is not severed from him in the Nethenvorld. Chapter zvhereby one dieth not a second time. Chapter

95--98

XVI.

XLII I.
XLIV.

lor

lOI
in
the

XLV.
XLVI.
XLVII.

whereby

one escapeth corruption Netherwo7-ld.

102

>

A^o

Vignettes.

Chapter whereby he that is living is not destroyed in the Netherworld. Chapter whereby
the seat

102

of a person

is

not taken

102, 103

Plates

XV, XVII.

from him

in the Nethenvorld.

XLVIII (same

as X).

XLIX

(same as XI).
b 2

Vlll

CHAPTERS.
L,

VIGNETTES.
Chapter wlicrcby one cometh not of Execution.
Chapter whereby one
to

the divine Block

page

103

Plate

XVII.

LI.

goeth not Netherivorld.

headlong in

the

104

LII.

Chapter

whereby

one

eateth

not

dirt

in

the

105

Nether'ivorld.

LIIIa.

Chapter zvhereby one

is

not

made
lye.

to cat dirt,

or to

107

drink
LIIIb.

No

107, 108

Vignettes.

Whereby one eateth not
Chapter whereby air
is

dirt.

LIV.

given

i?i

the Netherworld.

108

LV.
LVI.
LVII.

Another Chapter whereby air

is

given.

109

Another Chapter of breathing.
Chapter for breathing
ift


ivater,

no
no,

air,

and command of

HI
112 XI3
1

Plate

XVII.

the Nethertvorld.

LVIII.

Chapter for breathing air and cojnmand of water.
Chapter for breathing air and command of water.

XVII.

LIX.

5J

f

No

Vignettes.

LX.
LXI.
LXII.
LXIIIa.

Another Chapter.
Another Chapter.
Chapter whereby water Chapter whereby one
is

»)

113, 114

.

»

114
114, 115
115, 116
"

Plate

XVII.

drunk

in the Nethenvorld.

')

is not burnt luith fire, drinketh water, in the Netherworld.

but

>)

No

Vignettes.

LXIIIb.

Chapter whereby one

is

not boiled in 7vater.
the

»

116
117 -121
Plate

LXIA^

Chapter whereby one cometJi forth by day from
Netherivorld.

))

XVII.

LXV,
LXVI.

Chapter whereby one

cometh forth by day prevaileth over the adversaries.

and

127

XIX.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day. Chapter whereby the doors of the Tuat are opened afid one cometh forth by day.
Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day.
Otherivise said.

LXVIL
LXVIII.

No

Vignettes.

„ 129, 130
130, 131

Plates

XVIII, XIX.

LXIX.

LXX.

No
Another Chapter.
„ 131. 132

Vignettes.

IX

CHAPTERS.
LXXI.
LXXII.
Chapter ivhereby one cometh forth by day.
Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and passes through the Aniniehit.
as

VIGNETTES.
pages 132-134

Plate
Plates

XIX.

136,137

XIX, XX.
XIX, XX.

LXXIII (same

IX)
legs


are set in motion upon earth.
to Heliopolis

LXXIV.

Chapter ivhereby the

138

XIX, XX.

LXXV.
LXXVI.
LXXVII.
LXX\^III.

Chapter whereby one cometh ceiveth a seat

and

rc-

I39»i40

there.

XXI, „ numbered LXXVI 1 1
error.

in

Chapter ivhereby all forms are one pleaseth.

assumed

ivhich

140

Plate XX. same as LXXIII.
Plate

Chipter whereby one assumeth the form Golden Hawk.

of the

141

XXI.

Chapter ivhereby

otie assumeth the form Sacred Hawk.

of the

,.,

142-146

XXL
XXI.

LXXIX.

Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Chief god of the Divine Cycle.
Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the god tvho giveth Light to the Darkness.

„ 147, 148

LXXX.
LXXXI.
LXXXII.

149

No
Plates

Vignettes.

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Lotus. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of Ftah,
eateth

150

150, 151

XXI, XXII. XXII.

drinketh beer, midst of the great gods.
bread,

and

sitteth

in

the

LXXXIII.

Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of the Bennu
bird.

151; 152

XXII.

LXXXIV.

Cha[>ter

whereby

otte

assumeth

the

form of

the

>,

152, 153

XXII.

Hernshaw.

LXXXV.

Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of a Soul, that one may not come to the dungeon. Lmperishable is he who knoweth it.
Chapter whereby one assumeth Swallow.
the

»

153- 154

XXII.

LXXXVI.
LXXXVII.
LXXXVIII.

form of

the

>)

^55

XXII.

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of

Se-ta.

157
157

XXII, XXIII.
XXIII.

Chapter whereby one assumeth
C?-ocodile

the

form

of the

j>

god
is

\^Sebak\

LXXXIX.
XC.

Chapter whereby the Soul

united

to the

dead Body.


,>

157, 158

XXIII.

Chapter whereby

Memory

is

restored to a person.

159

XXIII.

CHAPTERS.

VIGNETTES.
Chapter whereby the Soiit
is

XCL
XCII.

secured fro/n iviprison-

page

1

60

N'o Vignettes.

ment

in the JVetherwortd.

Chapter whereby the Tomb is opened to the Sou/ and to the Shade of the person, that he may come forth by day and may have mastery of his feet. Chapter whereby one avoideth being conveyed East in the Nethenvorld.
to the

160,161

Plates

XXIII, XXIV.

XCIIL
XCIV.

162

XXIV. XXIV. XXIV.

Chapter whereby one prayeth for a Palette and an
Inkstand.

163

XCV.
XCVI,
XCVII.
XCVIII.

Chapter whereby

is

opened the place wherein Thoth
resteth.

163, 164

Chapter whereby

is

opened [the place] tvhere IVioth
\_resteth\

,,

164

No
Plate

Vignettes.

165

XXV. XXV.

Chapter ivhereby one saileth a ship in the Netherworld.

165, 166

XCIX.

Chapter ivhereby one saileth a ship in the N^ethcrworld.

167-169

XXV, XXVI.
XXVII.

c.

The Book ivhereby the glorified one is made strong, and is made to embark in the boat of Rd, together
with those ivho are ivith the god.

171

CI.
CII.

Chapter of the safeguards of the

Bark

of Rd.

172, 173

No
Plate

Vignettes.

Chapter whereby one entereth into the

Bark of Rd.
Hathor

173

XXVII.

cm.
CIV.

Chapte7- whereby one openeth the place where
abideth.

174

XXV.

Chapter whereby one

sitteth in the

midst of the great

174

XXV.

sods.

CV.
CVI.

Chapter whereby one propitiateth the Ka,
Chapter ivhereby a largess is presented at Hat-kaPtah.

175
176, 177

XXV.

A^o Vignettes.

CVII.

178
Chapter
ivhereby one

CVIII.

knoweth
West.

the

Powers of

the

,,•

178, 179

Plates

XXV, XXVII.
XXVII.

CIX.

Chapter whereby one hioweth the Powers of the East.

181, 1S2

——
XI

CHAPTERS.
ex.
The Begi?ining of
Chapters of the Garden of Hotepit, and of the Chapters of coming forth by day ; and of entering afid costing forth in the Netherworld, and of arriving at the Garden of Aarnt, at the Rise in Hotepit and at the Grand Z)omain, blest with the breezes : that I may take possession there and be in Glory there : that there I mav plough and motu : that there I may eat and drink and love: doing whatsoever things are done upofi earth.
the

VIGNETTES.
pages 193-195
Plates

XXVIII,

XXIX.

CXI
CXI I.
CXIII.

(same as CVIII).
Chapter whereby one knoweth
the

Powers of Fu.


184, 185 186, 187 188, 189

„ „

XXIX, XXX.

Chapter whereby one k?ioweth the Powers of Nechen. Chapter ivhereby one knoiveth the Powers of Hermopolis.

XXX.
XXXI.

CXIV.

CXV.

Chapter whereby
opeiieth the

cometh forth into Heaven, and 7V hereby the Poivers of Heliopolis are knoivn.
otie

190, 191

No

Vignettes.

Ammehit : a fid

CXVI.
CXVII.

Chapter whereby one knoweth the Poiver of Hermopolis.

19^

Plate

XXXI.

Chapter whereby one taketh the
Restau.

blissful

path at

203

XXXI (one Vignette is
in error).

numbered CVII

CXVIII.

Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau.
Chapter
zvhereby one

j>

206

No
Plate

Vignettes.

CXIX.

entereth

or goeth forth

from

j>

206

XXXI.

Restau.

cxx
CXXI
CXXII
CXXIII.

(same as XII).

(same as XIII).
(same as LVIII).
Chapter whereby one entereth into the Great House.
j>

208
210, 211

))

XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXII, XXXIII,

CXXIV.

Chapter whereby one cometh
Osiris.

to the

Divine Circle of

)j

))

cxxv.

Part

I.

Said on arriving at

the

Hall of Righteotis-

212--214

"

)5

which he hath committed and that he may look upon the
ness, that

N

may

be loosed from all the sins

XXXIV,
>•

divine countenances.

Part Part

II.

— The Negative

Confession.
to the

J)

214--216 216--220

XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII,
XXXVIII,

III.

Said upon approaching
are in the Teat.

gods

who

XXXIX.

Xll

CHAPTERS.
CXXVI.
CXXVII.
The Book for invoking the gods of the Bounds, which
the person reciteth luhen he appj-oachcth them, that

VIGNETTES,
pages 244, 245
Plate

XL.

249

he

may

etiter

and

see the

Strong one in the Great
\

No

Vig/uttes.

Abode of

the Tiiat.

CXXVI 11.

Invocation of Osiris

251, 252

J

CXXIX
CXXX.

(same as C).

Plate
is

XL.
XL.

A

Book

ivhereby the Soul

made
the

the day of enteri72g info pass the Sheniu of the Birthday of Osiris.

for ever, 07i Bark of Rd, and to
to live

256-259

Tiiat.

Made

on

the

CXXXI.
CXXXII.
CXXXIII.

Chapter whereby one proceedeth into Heaven by the side of Rd.
Chapter whereby a person
enabled to go round, visit his divelling in the Netherivorld.
is

261

XLL XLL
XLI, XLII.

to

263

Book

ivherebv the deceased acquireth jnight
cycle

in

the

264, 265

Plates

Netherworld, in presence of the great
gods.

of tlu

CXXXIV.

Chapter whereby the deceased acguireth might.
A?iother chapter recited


itself

267, 268

Plate

XLL

CXXXV.
CXXXVIa.
CXXXVIb.
CXXXVIIa.

when

the

Moon

renews

269, 270

Ao

Vignettes.

on the first day of the

7no7ith.

Chapter whereby

07ie is co/iveyed

in the

Bark of Rd.


270
271, 272"

Plate

XLII.

Chapter of

7u/ie7'eby 07ie is co7iveyed i7i

Rd

to

tlu Great Ba7-k pass th7-ough the orbit of fla77ie.
Is

No
»
275_

Vig/uttes.

Chapter whereby a Light Chapter whereby a Light

kindled for a person.
ki7idled for

CXXX VI I B.
CXXXVIII.

is

a person.
i7tto

275
277

Plate XLII.

Chapter ivhereby

07ie is e7iabled to

enter

Abydos.

j>

XLIII.

CXXXIX
CXL.

(same as CXXIII).

The book read on

t/ie

last

Eye

is

full

07t

the last

day of Mechir, 7vhen the day of Mechir.
i7i

,,280,281

Plates XLIII,

XLIV.

CXLI.
to

The Book said by a

77ia7i

or his father or his son

282-2S5

CXLIII.

the festival of the A//ie7ita, and whe7-eivith )ie acquires 7night with Rd, and ivith the gods when

XLIV, XLV, XLVI.

he

Said 07i the day of tlu 7iew is with the77i. Moon, when offerings are made of bread, beer, oxen, geese, and burnt ince7is^ to

XIU

CHAPTERS.
CXLH".
The Chapter of
the Arrival.

VIGNETTES.
pages 287-289
Plates

XLVI, XLVII, XLIX, L.

CXLV

and

The hioivhig of

the fylons

of the house of

Osiris,

iii

„ 292-294

XLIV.XLVIII,
LIII.

CXL\T.
CXLVII.
C'XLVIII.

the

Garden of Aarrii.
,,

296-298

XLIX,

L.

Giving sustenance

to t/ie deceased in the

Netherworld^

„ 300-301

XLVI, XLVII,
LI.

and

delivering

him from

all evil things.

CXLIX.
CL.
CLI.
CLIa.
bis

302-307
309

LIL
LIII.

309
i-^z-

LIV, LVI.

No
Plate

Vignettes.

CLIa.

ter

Chapter of the mysterious head.

LIV.
LIV.

CLII.

Chapter of building a house on earth.
Chapter of coming out of the
net.

314

CLIIIa.
CLIIIb.

315. 316

LV.
LVI.
LVI.

Chapter of escaping from the catchers offish.
Chapter of not
letti?ig the

» 320, 321

CUV.
CLV.
CLVI.

body decay in the Nether-

>,

322, 323

zvorld.

Chapter of the Tat of gold.
Chapter of the buckle of carnelian, which the fleck of the deceased. Chapter of the
vultjire
is

325

LVI, LVII. LVI, LVII.

put on

326

CLVII.

of gold, put on the neck

op

326, 327

LVII.

the deceased.

CLVIII.

Chapter of the collar of gold, put on the neck of
the deceased.
'

327

LVIL

CLIX.

Chapter of the column of green Felspar, put on the neck of the deceased.

» 327, 328

LVIL
LVIL
LV.

CLX.
CLXI.

Giving the colutnn of green Felspar.
Chapter of unfastening the opening in the sky. Thoth does it so that it may be finished when lie
opens {the sky) zvith Aten.

328
„ 329, 330

CLXII.

Chapter of causing a flame to arise under the head of the deceased.

no, 321

LVII I.

XIV

CHAPTERS.
CLXIII.
Chapters brought from another book, in addition to coming forth by day." Chapter of not letting the the body of a man decay in the Nctherxoorld, of rescuing him frotn the devourers of souls who imprison jnen in the Tuat, and of tiot raising his sins on earth against him, but of saving his flesh
^'^

VIGNETTES.
page 333, 334
Plate LVIII.

and

his bones

from

the

worms and from

every

evil-doing

god in

the Netherworld, so that he

may

go in and out as he likes, and do everything he desires without restraint.

CLXIV.
CLX\^.

Another Chapter.
Chapter of landing and 710 1 being obscured, so that the body may prosper in drinking water.
Chapter of the Pillow.

J)

336, 337


LVIII. LVIII.

>)

338, 339

CLXM.
CLXVII.
CLXVIII.

5>

340
341 341

LVIII.

Chapter of brifigitig an Eye.

>5

LVIIL

>>

CLXIX.

Chapter of raising the funereal Bed.

)5

342-344
345-347

CLXX.

Chapter of arrangi?tg the funereal Bed.
Chapter of wrapping up {the deceased) in a pure garment.
Begin?iing of the Chapter of reciting the ceremonies made in the Netherworld.

))

CLXXL

No
547

Vignettes

CLXX 11.
CLXXIIL

» 348-351

The addresses of Horus

father wheti he goes in to see his father, and when he comes out of his great sanctuary to see him Rd Unneferu, the master of Ta-tser, and then the\ embrace o?ie a?iotlier ; therefore lie is glorious in the Netherto his

'>

- 9

-^

-*

Plate

LIX.

tvorld.

CLXXIV.

Chapter of causing the Chu to co??ie out of door i7i the sky.

tJie

great

»

354,355

n

LX.

CLXXV.

Chapter of not dying a second death in the N^etherworld.

5>

J3 6, 35:

LX.

CLXXVL
CLXXVII.
CTXXVIII.

Chapter of not dying a second
world.

titne in

the Nether-

03 8

1

Chapter of raisifig the Chu, of vivifying his soul
in the Netherivorld.

359

No

Vignettes.

Chapter of raising the body, of giving it eyes, 0/ making it possess ears, affixing its head, ofputting it on its base.

360-36:

XV

CHAPTERS.
CLXXIX.
Chapter of coining forth when goittg out of yesterday and coming in the {present) day, l>eing equipped
by one's o^vn hands.

VIGNETTES.
page l(n^ 3^4

No

Vignettes.

CLXXX.

Chapter of coming forth by day, of giving praise to Ed in the Amenta, of faying homage to the inhabitants of the Tnat, of openifig the zvay to the mighty soul in the Ahthenvorld, of letti?ig him li'alk, lengthen his strides, and go in and out in the Netherworld ; and take the form of a living
soul.

V

365-367

Plate

LX.

CLXXXI.

Chapter
Osiris
before

of arriving before the Divine

circle

of
of

.,

368, 369

LXL

and
the

before the gods, the guides in the Tuat,

guards of their

halls,

the heralds

and the doorkeepers of their pylons in the Amenta, and of taking the form of a living soul and praising Osiris the lord of his circle of
their gates

gods.

CLXXXII.

Book of vivifying
heart

who

of giving air to him whose through the action of Thoth, repels the enemies of Osiris ivho comes there
Osiris,
is motionless,
.

',

370-372

LXL

in his form

.

.

as protector, saviour, defender in

the Netherivorld.

It is said by Thoth himself, so that the morning light may shine on him {Osiris) every day.

CLXXXIII.

Adoration

to

Osiris,

giving him praise,

boiving

372-374

LX.

down

before Unneferu, falling on one's face before the lord of Ta-tsert, and exalting him who is on

his sand.

CLXXXI V.

Chapter of being near Osiris.

375 375

„ „

LX. LX.

CLXXX V.

Giving praise the lord of
which
is

falling on the earth before eternity ; propitiatifig the god with what he loves, speaking the truth, the lord of
to Osiris,

not known.
to

CLXXXVL

Adoration

Hathor, the lady of the West, falling

376

LX, LXII.

down

before Mehurit,

c 2

INTRODUCTION.

When,
of the

in

the year 1892, Sir Peter

Le Page Renouf began
all

the pubh'cation of his translation

Book

of the Dead, his intention was that the work, once completed, should be preceded
the information concerning the form and
its

by an elaborate Introduction, giving, besides
history of the book, his views as to
its

tlie

sense and

religious value.

As with the unfinished
to resort to the fifth of the

part of the translation,^ so here,

we

are

left

without any notes or any

clue whatever as to the form which this introduction was to have taken, and we are obliged

Hibbert lectures, given by Renouf in 1879,

in order to

know

his

views about the book.^

Before speaking of

its

contents,

we have

to state briefly
it

under what form the book has come
at all in the ordinary sense

down

to us.

It is
It
is

hardly necessary to repeat that
neither a unity nor a whole,
it

is

no book

of the word.

is

a collection which has grown by degrees,
far as

at various epochs.

Undoubtedly

part of

it

goes back as

the Old

Empire

;

the texts of
to

the Middle Empire

show already
is

that there were various
later

editions,

and we are forced
civilization, as

admit that
see
that

its

origin

not

much

than the

beginning of Egyptian

we
In

some of the

rubrics

attribute certain chapters to a king of the 1st

dynasty.

the course of centuries the original text was modified and enlarged,
revisions were

new chapters were added,

made, without casting these detached fragments into a whole.
like the

The

various

parts of the

book were always independent,

Hebrew Psalms

;

the acceptance of a
it

chapter does not necessarily imply the acceptance of the next chapter, and
relatives of the
best,

seems as

if

the

deceased chose in the collection which was at their disposal what they liked
to the price they

and the number of chapters which corresponded

wished

to

pay

for a

papyrus.

This description applies chiefly to the texts of the Book of the Dead of the period prior
to the

XXVIth
;

dynasty.

Under

the Saite kings

it

seems that a complete revision of the

text

was made

a definite order was adopted, which was not rigidly binding on the writers, but to
last

which they generally adhered; various chapters were added, especially the

ones,

162-165,

which are never found
call

in the older copies.
;

It

seems also that something
this
to

like

what we should
the

an authorized version was adopted
'

and

was done by
Chapter CXL,.

men

to

whom

book was

See Introductory Note

2

The Hibbert

Lectures, 1879, p. 172,

: :

xviii

INTRODUCTION.

hardly intelligible.
all

A

great

many

glosses were introduced,

which were copied afterwards
find the strict accuracy of

in

the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts.

Although we do not

Hebrew

manuscripts, the

number of

variants in the Saite, Ptolemaic or

Roman

texts

is

considerably

smaller than in the manuscripts of the

Theban

period,

and

a collation

of the hundreds of

papyri of late epoch which

fill

our

museums would
of the

lead to no great result.
as
Saitic,
first

However,

it

is

from a

text generally considered

but which

I

believe to be of

the Ptolemaic epoch, that the

Book

Dead has been

In 1842 Lepsius published the long papyrus in the

made known in all its extent. Turin Museum, a document which he
repetitions

called " the largest piece of Egyptian literature which has been preserved."

Before him Champollion had seen

it,

and had noticed that a great number of

of the same text existed in various museums. here and there a sentence taken from
it,

He made

use of

it

in his

grammar, quoted

but he did not

make

a special study of the document.

Lepsius understood

at

once the importance of the book, which was the vade-inecutn of the
extensive the Turin Papyrus was than the short copies
it

deceased, and seeing

how much more

which had been published before, he traced the whole document and published
afterwards.

two years

Lepsius gave to
the

this

work the name of

Todteiibuch, "
is

Book of

the Dead," in opposition to
It is

name

of " Ritual " adopted by Champollion, which
ritualistic

certainly incorrect.
it
:

no Ritual

;

a

few chapters with a

character have been introduced into

for instance, the chapter
is

connected with the ceremony of " opening the mouth of the deceased," which

occasionally

met

with, or

Chapter 171, "chapter of wrapping up (the deceased)

in a

pure garment;" but
widely from a Ritual.

these are rare exceptions.
It is

On

the whole the

Book

of the

Dead

differs

not the priest
;

who
to

speaks, there are no minute prescriptions as to

how

a ceremony
it

is

to

be performed
speech
is

all

the prayers and

hymns

are put in the deceased's

mouth,

is

he whose

supposed

be heard
of the

in the other world.

Todtefibuch,

Book
rQ

Dead,
pert

is

not a translation of the Egyptian

title,

which

is

book of <rr>

^^
"

Y^

m

hru.

As Renouf

says, "

Three simple words,

perfectly

unambiguous when taken
without a context
three words.
;

singly,

but by no means easy of explanation when taken together

and

in fact at the present
*•

day no

final translation

has been given of these
in

Renouf

translates,
in this

coming
;

forth

by day," as

will

be seen

the

numerous

examples which occur
interpretation, to

volume

but several objections
"

may be

raised

against this

which we should
its

prefer,
its

coming out of the day," the day being the period
^'^p*

of a man's hfe, having

morning and

evening.
,

The book
his

is

divided into fragments called

to each of

which Lepsius has given a
calls chapters.

number, following the order of the great Turin Papyrus, and which he

Although

numbering

is

not quite correct,

it

has been adhered to in
insists

all

the subsequent editions.
difificulty
;

In his lecture- on the Book of the Dead, Renouf

on the

of translating

it

" Nothing can exceed the simplicity and the brevity of the sentences

and yet the
is

difficulties

which a translator has to overcome are very
-

great.

In the
of the

first

place, the text

extremely Book

See also Life Work,

t.

Ill, p. 51,

"The

title

of the

Book

Dead," and

p. 59,

"The

Eg)-ptian

of the Dead."

INTRODUCTION.
corrupt.

Xix
to different causes.
for

The
for

unsatisfactory condition of the text

is

owing

The

reasons

which

writers

on Hebrew, Greek or Latin palaeography have enumerated
mistakes in manuscripts, apply with
;

the purpose of

accounting

much

greater force to the funereal

manu-

scripts of the Egyptians

for as these

were not intended to be seen by any mortal eye, but to

remain

for ever

undisturbed in the tomb, the unconscientious scribe had no such check upon
if

his carelessness as
living.

his

work were

liable to

be subjected to the constant inspection of the
easily

But the most conscientious scribe might

commit numerous

errors.

Many

ot

them
or as

are to be traced to a confusion between signs which resemble each other in the cursive,
it

is

called, the hieratic character, but not in hieroglyphic writing.
is

" Besides the errors of copyists, there are different readings, the origin of which
traced to the period during which the chapters were

to

be

handed down by word
choice has been

of

mouth

only.

There are copies which bear evidence that a
different readings of a passage, but the

critical

made between

the

common

practice was to admit the inconsistent readings

into the text itself

.

.

.

"

Some

of the variants have unquestionably arisen
I

from the

difificulty

of understanding

the ancient texts.

have no doubt whatever that some of the chapters of the Book of the
Egyptians living under the eleventh dynasty as they are to ourwill

Dead were
selves

as obscure to

.... The

most accurate knowledge of the Egyptian vocabulary and grammar
to

however not

suffice

pierce the obscurity arising from what

or allegories, which are in fact simple mythological allusions.
translating the text, but in understanding the

M. de Rouge called symbols The difficulty is not in literally
concealed beneath familiar

meaning which

lies

words."

These words of Renouf have

still

a very great force, although in the last twenty years
better understanding of the text.

some progress has been made towards a

When Renouf

gave

the above description of the difficulties of the translation, the main source from which he

could derive his information was what he called " the corrupt Turin text."
critical edition

Since then a
dynasties,
as

has been made.-^

It

is

based on

texts of the

XVIIIth and XlXth
to the

written at a time

when the

intelligence of the

book was not

lost

same extent

under

the Saites or the Ptolemies, as

may be

ascertained from the considerable

number

of glosses

introduced into the Turin text which are absent from the older versions.

This edition has
later

been compiled from various papyri, as the older ones are much shorter than the
it is

ones

;

not a single document like Lepsius's Todtenbuch

;

most of the chapters have been found
list

in their 'old

form; a few are missing, but a good number have been added to the
Generally
it

which

have

fallen out of the late versions.

is

from

this critical text that

Renouf made
or perhaps a

his translation.

Occasionally he

may choose an

older version

from a tomb,

papyrus of the British Museum, but he hardly ever reverts to the Turin Todtenbuch unless he
has no other resonrce at his disposal.
Nevertheless the difficulties which
still

Renouf enumerates

are only partly removed.

We
I

are

very far from being able to give a final translation of the

Book

of the Dead,

and

have

*

Das Aegyptische Todtenbuch

der

XVIII bis XX Dynast je,z\xsa.n\m&ngtsie\h

and herausgegeben von Edouard

Naville, ]5erlin, 1886.

^

;

XX
no doubt
"
that

INTRODUCTION.
Renouf would repeat about
it,

his

own work what he
must

says of Dr. Birch's translation,
in

Many

parts of

where most

faithful to the original,

consequence of that very

fidelity

be utterly unintelligible

to

an English reader."
is

No
still

doubt Renouf's translation

a great step towards

making the book more
it

intelligible

the reader

may

often stumble over sentences out of which

is

hardly possible to
first

make
seem

a reasonable sense, in spite of their grammatical correctness, and which at
childish,

sight will

not to say, with Renouf,

"

outrageous nonsense."

But we may say with certainty
or even
ridiculous

that they

were not so to the old Egyptians.

Under

this extraordinary

garment may be hidden some very simple, or even elementary

truths.

Let us remember that

we have not

yet unravelled
in the

all

the intricacies of the Egyptian mythology, which plays such an

important part

book.

Moreover, we only begin now to understand

how
apt

the Egyptians

expressed abstract ideas.

When we

speak of passion, shame, remorse, hope, we have so
that

thoroughly lost sight of the concrete element in these words,
originally they

we

are

to forget that

must have been metaphors, and that they must have expressed something

striking the senses,

and connected with the material world.

An

instance will illustrate the

difficulty in this translation.

Chapter 112
Sutu,

relates

how, owing to an imprudent request,
his eye,

Horus was the victim of
suffering,

who

inflicted a

wound on

which caused him great

and the

text

adds:

Y
11

/vv^/y^

_fl^

^

1

-B-

c—ji

So^ ^ ^ —

^ ^^^
I

,

lo! he ate his heart.

Renouf

translates,

"and wrath devoured
I believe to eat one's
is

his heart."

I

should prefer,

"he

regretted sorely (his foolish request)."

heart to mean, " to feel regret, repentance, or remorse."
difficult to

There the abstract meaning

not

find out

;

but

in other cases,

as long as

we have not discovered the key
the
literal

to the

metaphor, we

may go

far astray, or if
is

we do not go beyond

explanation,

we miss

the abstract sense, which

the true one.
will

However, because the work
will

not bear the character of

finality,
is

because some obscurities

not be removed, and

some

difficulties

remain unsolved, there

no reason why a scholar

Renouf should have shrunk from attempting the translation of the Book of the Dead, a work which he had before his eyes for years, and which he considered as the crown of his
like

Egyptological labours.

The
the book
:

lecture quoted
it is

above gives us Renouf's ideas as

to the

purpose and the sense of
:

the beatification of the dead considered in three aspects existence

The renewed

"as upon
;

earth."

The deceased
life.

enjoys an existence similar to that
satisfies

which he has led upon earth

he has the use of his limbs, he eats and drinks and

every one of his physical wants exactly as in his former
to

him

occasionally,

and contribute

to

his

welfare

and

to

The gods themselves minister The bliss of the his pleasures.

future state consists chiefly in the pleasures of agricultural

life.

Transformation.

The deceased

has the range of the entire universe in every shape and
likes.

form he

desires.

He
;

can assume any appearance he

But these transformations are
;

not forced upon him
pleasure.

he has no definite

series to

go through

they depend simply on his

INTRODUCTION.
Identification with Osiris

XXI
which
already
of
for

and other gods.
is

The

identification with Osiris,

is

mentioned

in

the earhest parts of the book,
is

taken for granted later on, since the

name
gods;

the deceased
instance, in

always preceded by

"Osiris."
is

He may

be assimilated

to other

the

42nd chapter every limb

assimilated to a different deity.

This Osirian he has to

nature gives the deceased the power to triumph over the numerous enemies
face.

whom

To
viz.,

these three benefits which the

book confers on the deceased we should add a fourth
There
is

:

complete preservation from dismemberment and decay.

evidently in

some of
;

the

prayers a remembrance of a time
this

when

the deceased were

dismembered

at their burial

and

way of

treating the corpse

is

for the

deceased an object of horror.
it

The

frequent mention
all this

of reconstituting the body, the promises that no part of
of what supreme importance
well preserved
it

shall

be taken away,

shows

was

for

him
life

that his
in

body should remain
;

intact.

Without a
the
is

body there could be no

the other world
is

its

destruction implies

destruction of the whole individual.

This belief

the origin of mummification, for decay

the strongest agent of

dismemberment and the

certain ruin of the body.

These are the

outlines of the principal tenets of the
is

Book

of the Dead.

If

we

inquire
It

where they originated, there
is

no doubt that the bulk of the book came from Heliopolis.
its priests.
;

the doctrine of that ancient city and of

Some
but
it

of the chapters

may be

attributed
for a

to the priests at

Abydos, as M. Maspero suggests

seems certain

that, except

small part, the birthplace of the

Book

of the

Dead

with the oldest religious traditions of the country,
capital of Egypt.

Ra Tmu, the place connected and which may rightly be called the religious
is

the city of

January, 1904.

Edguard Naville.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
CHAPTER
(
I

I.

)

the (2)

The Beginning of the Chapters of Co7ning forth by Day, of Words which bring about Resurrection and Glory, and of
into
(3)

Coming out of and entering
Burial of N, (4) Here is N
the the Victorious.

Amenta.

Said upon

the

Day

of

Victorious,

who
saith

He

entereth after

coming forth.

(5) Bull of

Amenta,

It is

Thoth, the everlasting King,

who

is

here.
1

I

am the great god in the Bark, who have fought for thee. am one of those gods, the (6) Powers who effect the triumph
:

of Osiris over his adversaries on the day of the Weighing of the

Words
I

I

am

thy kinsman, Osiris.
to

am

one of those gods

whom Nut

hath given birth,

who

slay

the adversaries of Osiris and imprison the (7) Sebau, on his behalf:
I

am
I
I

thy kinsman, Horus.

have fought

for thee,

and have prevailed

for thy

name.

am Thoth who

effect the

triumph of Osiris over his adversaries
in the

on that day of Weighing of the Words Prince, which is in Heliopolis.
I

(8)

House of

the

am
;

(9) Tatti, the
is

son of Tatti, conceived in Tattu and born in

Tattu
I

and Tattu

my

name.

am

with the mourners and weepers

who

wail over Osiris in

(10) Rechit,
saries.

and who

effect the

triumph of Osiris over his adverThoth, that he should
effect
is

Ra

issued the

mandate

to

the

triumph of Osiris against his adversaries, and the mandate

what

Thoth hath executed. I am with Horus on the day of covering
opening the fountains
heart
is

for

and of the refreshment of (12) the god whose
(11) Teshtesh
to the

motionless,

and closing the entrance

hidden things

in (13) Restau.

B

;

2

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

am

with Horus, as the avenger of that

left

arm of

Osiris

which

is

in (14)
I

Sechem.
in,

from the (15) Tank of Flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem.
enter

and

I

come

forth

I

am

with Horus on the day when the festivals of Osiris are

celebrated,

and when

offerings are

made

[to Ra],

on the Feast of

the Sixth day of the Month, and on the Feast of Tenait {16) in
Heliopolis.
I

am

the Priest (17) in Tattu and exalt

him who

is

on the

Height. (18)
I

am

the Prophet in

Abydos on the day when the
shut up at Restau. (19)

earth

is

raised.
I
I

am he who am he who

seeth what

is

reciteth the liturgies of the (20) Soul

who

is

Lord

of Tattu.
I

I

am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day
is

to his office.
in

which the Ship of

Sokaru
I

laid

upon

its

stocks. (21)

am
ye

he who seizeth the mattock, on the day of the Feast of

Hoeing

in Suten-henen. (22)

O
let

who

bring beneficent souls into the house of Osiris, do

ye bring the soul of

N together with
as

you into the house of Osiris
as your hear, let

him
you

see as you see, let

him hear
sit

him stand

as

stand,

and

sit

you

[in the

house of

Osiris].

ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the
soul of

O

iVwho is with you. O ye who unclose the ways and open

the roads to beneficent

souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the

roads to the soul of

N who
;

is

with you,

let

ways and open the him enter boldly and

come
will,

forth in

peace

at the house of Osiris, without hindrance

and

without repulse.

Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth

at his

triumphantly with you

and

let

that be

executed which he

shall order in the

house of

Osiris.

No
is

lightness of his in the scale has

been found and the Balance

(23) relieved of his case.

PLATE

I.

Papyrus

in the British

Museum.

No. 9901,

Set Navili.e, "

Rook of the Dead,"

I,

PL

I

and

II.

/

PLATE

II.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

The
is
1.

text taken for the basis of the translation of

Chapter

i

that of the papyrus of

Huneferu

;

Ag

of

M.

Naville's edition.
in
all

The

title

here translated

is

that

usual
It

the

papyri

representing the third period of the text.
the
at

occurs however in
the days of Seti
I,

papyrus

Ag

of Huneferu,

the beginning of

the papyrus of Ani. older manuscripts

who lived the XlXth dynasty. The most common

in

It
title

is

also

found
i

in

of Chapter

in the

isXra^11^<=>i2i1Tj|'

"Chapter of coming to the divine Powers attached to Osiris." These divine Powers are Amsta, Hapi, Tuamautef and Qebehsenuf, the children of Horus, who stand upon the lotus which springs from the water beneath the throne of Osiris, in pictures of the
Psychostasia.

Chapter

124 bears

the

same
it.

title

in

the

older

manuscripts, which sometimes begin with
2.

s=»

T|

^

I

'Iv^

^ V^ QA
is

I

.

These are two very

difficult

words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them.

But when the entire evidence

examined the

result

is

plain enough.
,

Each of
of

the words has for determinative the sign g7\
utterance.
It
is

expressive

some kind of
its

a \0709 of
»
.

some

kind.

Each

has for
is,

first

letter the

causative — —

The

question therefore
~|, ^es,

what are the meanings of the simpler forms

and

The most common, indeed
'rising,'

the only true, meaning of

Tl

is

and even
g
>

'raising.'

This
rise.'

is

too

well-known to require
text of

proof,
(1.

T|

is

'causing to

The Pyramid

Teta says

270), "

Horus hath given
I

his children that they

may
1.

raise thee

up
Tl

n ^^
is

www
from

TV

."

In the same religious

text,

248,
,

the rising

the funereal couch after the c^ot

the recita-

jj

^j

tions

made over the dead. The 'raising up' or 'resurrection' here spoken

of

is

said not

only of the soul but of the body of the deceased person.

The

papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M. Naville
has assigned the numbers 177 and 178.

B 2

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

"•Z^-l^^PfT.^kl
Chapter of raising up the Chu, and giving
Netherworld.
life to

the

Soul in the

Chapter of raising

2ip the body,

of giving

it eyes

a fid the possession

of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on
'S/'
hat,
is

its props.

not simply the body

;

it

is

the dead body, that
v-wfia,

which has

fallen,

hke the Latin cadaver, the Greek
(See
Tratisactions
Soc.

the

Hebrew n7S^.
p.

Bib.

Arch.,

Vol. VIII,

221, note

2.)

The

true

meaning of

'Sn^

® m ^«

is
'

not

'

luminous

'

but

'

clear,

distinct, glittering, coruscans,'

glorious,'

and the
It
is

like.

and hence bright, splendid, illustrious, Like the Greek Xa^-n-po^, the Latin clarus,
French
eclat,
it

the

Hebrew

^pf!^, or the

is

applied to sound as well

as to light.
tablet of the
glorified

said of

Thoth
fi

(in the

XlXth dynasty)

'^ ® ^

^ 1^
As

wretched orthography * of a

'^ S ^^ ^''' ^e
'

them with the

clear utterances of his

mouth."

'Iv^

corresponds to the Greek
clareo,

Xafiirpocptviu'a.

a verb

^^^

is

and

I

'^
pi. 97-

is clarifico, glorifico.

* Sharpe, E./.,

The papyrus Da which

is

of the

same period reads '^^^
17, instead of '^n.

® v\ .^
'

|

^|\

}^V
The
'^N^

in the title of

Chapter

glorj-,'

'

eclat.'

JT'

® y\
Jl

/K

1

correspond by their

name

very closely with the devas of

fill

Indian mytholog>', and the dead
of their having obtained
It is particularly
'
'

-^ ® are called

^^

"^

^H^

'

I

on the pious hj-pothesis
to

glor)'.'

The word has nothing

do with

'

intelligence.'

applicable to the heavenly bodies, the sun,
at sunrise

moon and

stars
'fire'

the glittering ones,'

derive their

and the horizon names from their ec/at.

^^^

^

^?//,

and

^^^

)jl

BOOK OF THE DEAD,
There
the form
are,
it

5

is

true, variants in the title of
'

Chapter

17, giving

HT

^^ v

8i()

'

^" ^V^^Q of the excellent authority of

these variants, they must
reading.

be considered as giving an erroneous

The words

IT

^v vQD

'remember,' and

H'^
'confer

are different in origin
glory,'

and meaning.

The

latter

signifies

and the

'

'^ ®

v STl

'

^^^

religious formularies recited

by

priests,

identifying the deceased person with Osiris

divinities.

There are numerous pictures

in the

and other tombs representing

priests
3.

performing this office.*

M. Deveria has produced
Jiiadt-heru

excellent evidence showing that
'

ci

has the sense of
is

victorious, triumphant.'
1

But the
'

sense of veridiqiie
'speech.'

untenable.

v\

Q[\

heru
p.

is

'

voice
I

not

In Proceedings S.B.A., Vol. VI,

192,

note,
in

have

quoted a passage from a chapter (now numbered 181
edition) in

M.

Naville's
failure.'

which

S^
fiiailt

I

V

signifies

'want of success,

S^
Law."
in no

I

V\ QA

heru really signifies "one whose voice
divine
title

is

It is essentially a

(see "Altar at Turin," Tra?isto Mr.

actions. III, pi. II, li?ie 10,

appended

Bonomi's

article),

and

Egyptian text

is

it

used of mortals supposed to be

living.

The

translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to
its

one of

secondary acceptations.

act, that of

M\
\

semaat heru
;

is

also,

and

necessarily so, a divine
his utterances.

Thoth

and

it is

done through

4.

an

in this place as in very

many others

is

not a preposition,

still less is it

a

verb.

It

is

a demonstrative particle, like the Latin

en, ecce, or the

Hebrew ^n.

Nothing

is

more common than
on the funereal
used
like the
I

this

particle followed only

by a proper name,
saith.'

e.g.,

figures.
is

There

is

not the slightest reason for supposing that there
the verb
'

an

ellipse of

The

particle

is

corres-

ponding Latin one under the Scottish picture of Edward

'En
*

rex

Edwardus debacchans
72
a, b, loi b ; cf.

ut leopardus.'

See Denkin,

II, 71 b,

98

//,

116

c,

and

III,

260

c.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
When
here," I
I

translate

(

L/

^^

.

.

.

(

^^^,
is

" It

is

Thoth— who
be,

is

do not wish

to imply that

(J

W^

the verb to

any more
" It

than
is

I

should in the frequent expression

\

^^

K.<=^

1

-Y- ^-^^^^

his

son who revives his name."
else.

H

is

a demonstrative particle

and nothing

Instead of looking out for

moods and

tenses

and paradigms,
verb.

Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians

never rose to the conception of what we
5,

mean by a
Bull, like

The

Bull of
figurative

Amenta

is

Osiris.

Lion or Hawk, was
Osiris
is

one of the

names of gods

or kings,

and

sometimes

represented with a Bull's head.
6.

11

I

J)

T'afat.
I

This word

is

often wrongly translated

'judges.'
is

The

divine judges are called t'afat, but the proposition

not simply convertible.

There were the

A

(i

J)

"^ot
I

only

of Osiris, but {Todt., 22, 2) also of every god and every goddess.

And
is

all

the ancient towns of Egypt had their divine
{cf.

ll

I

jl

1

It

a term used

p.

55) as exactly synonymous with

^

I^i
| |

a

I-

mythological system like the Egyptian no god stood alone

;

every

god involved others

in close

connection with himself, and every act

of his necessitated corresponding acts on their part.
7.

The

sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as

Ra

or Osiris.

I

believe that under this mythological

name

the dark clouds are

personified.
8.

Jlet Sant,

'

House

of the Prince,'
It

is

the

name

of the great

Sanctuary at Heliopolis.

must be remembered however that many of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have
their counterparts in the

Egyptian heaven.

^"

M mM^

'

°''

n H

V'
^""^^

^^^

'firni,

stable,

unalterable, abiding,

eternal one,'

whose

origin

and progress
^

are in eternity.

The

city

nv^^^TfU^'-^
the
root
'

name

like the Palestinian

H-II^j

Gazah,

strong
ffjr.

'

city,

and many other Hebrew names connected with the

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
10.
Rec/iii, a locality in

J

the north of Egypt.
Isis

The mourners and

weepers alluded to are chiefly
11.

and Nephthys.

one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image.
Teshtesh
is

12.

The god "whose

heart

is

motionless"

is

Osiris.

\x.

~^
I

Re-stau. one of the gates of the Netherworld.

Its situation is specified in
14.

Chapter

17, line 19.

Sechem.

posited,

arm of Osiris had been dewhen the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout
Letopolis, where the

the cities of Egypt.
15.

The Tank of Flame,
is

as

may be

inferred from the vignettes
Cf.,

of the papyri,
16.
17.

where the sun

rises or sets.

Unas, 393, 506.

Tenait.

Feast of the seventh day of the month.
the persons of various priests in
|

The speaker now assumes

succession, the

f

\

/wwvv db, the

y

n+^ hen tiutar (prophet), the

I

^^\

M+^ sem, and the ^fe=s

(7

y

^

ura herp hern

;

* and he deIt

scribes himself as performing certain religious ceremonies.

must

never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests

had divine

titles,

and

that

their

ceremonies were dramatic, and

symbolical of the acts performed by the gods.
18.

The

text here

is

hopelessly corrupt.

The

translation given

follows Ag.

Instead of

I

^

T

exalt, several

MSS. have

1

j

"i^^

^

(i)

)

,

which has been rendered anoint with oil. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos,
exalting

him who

is

in the heights (in excelsls)," for this text

com-

bines different readings.

But n
1

as

it

is

written,

may

have another meaning.

a(^
its

beq, signifies 'clear, bright, shining,'
this,

and the

olive tree derives

name from

The

determinative

*

priestly

The evidence produced by W. Max name is quite convincing.

Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe

'

?

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
and the causative
'

T
(=

1

furnish the sense, 'I
or
glorify.'
'

make
is

bright, illustrious,

glorious,'

I
is,

celebrate

He

who on

the

height

p''7i^)
19.

according to Chapter 17, the Sun.
is

This

perhaps supposed to be said by the priest called

'^=f
20.

y

,

the 'Arch-seer,' at Heliopolis.

One

of the designations of Osiris.

Perhaps the word

Ba
was

should be translated

Ram,

for in the

Mendesian
js,

Nome

Osiris

worshipped under
'

this form,
face.'

and was called
fact
is

^ — ^
'

heru

sefit,

god of the strong

The
is

that

whether applied to the
power,
force.'

soul or to a ram, the

word ba
J

expressive of

The

same word under the form
2

("^^

^^ ^

_^

is

used in Chapter 120,
this is clearly the

— Egyptian concept of the soul
within
us,' to evep'-fouv.

(=

12, 2) in the sense of 'splitting up.'
*

And

the internal force, that which works

The word

is

ideographically written

^^^

or

<*^^)* both the
cleverly

Ram

and the cranelike bird being

called ba.

Some have

inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul

was of a birdlike

form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of
the cry of the ram.

The odd
is

thing

is

that only the

ram has

this

name, not the

s/trep

or the lamb,

who

nevertheless indulge in the

same
the

cry.

The
is

truth

that in spite of appearances the

word ba

is

not onomatopoeic here.

word

ram or to the heron, expressive of human action and signifies 'digging

Whether applied
splitting.'

to the

through, cleaving, piercing,
very expressive
:

The

hieroglyphic variants are

J ^>^> J "^"^^ Wl' J*^"^^'
'^^^"'^^^
(f^he

J

([

^='5>^,

^^uO^^^n'
is

last

is

already found

in

Denkm.

II, 51).

The Ram
of
'

called in Egyptian ba

he makes with

his

on account of the digs which head, and a force which has occasioned the name

ram

'

to

be given to powerful engines.

*

The human head

(with a beard) sometimes given

to

the bird,

merely

indicates the aivine nature of the soul.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The Heron
fishes
is

9
its

also called ba because with

bill

it

cleaves the

which

it

attacks.

And
because
divides.'
It
is

the word which
it is

we

translate

Soul or Spirit

is

called Im,

conceived as something which 'pierces, penetrates and

right

to

point out

(to

those

who may wonder
know'
is

at

this

Egyptian etymology) that the Latin
akin to seco
cleave.'
'

scio 'I

etymologically

cut,' securis

'

an

axe,'

and the Greek

kqUc^

Ked^w

'

split,

21.

The

1

^^^^

M^

sem,

and the

"^^
latter,

9

urd herp hem, were
the

priests in

the service of Ptah.

The

who held perhaps

highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at
is

Memphis,

repeatedly found combining with his

own

special office that of the

seftt.

The ceremony which
a sledge the bark
rest.

is

here referred to consisted in a grand

procession round the walls of the great sanctuary of Ptah, conveying

upon

'^^

vA

in

which the
'

coffin of the

god was supis

posed to

Sokaru

signifies

the coffined,' and Ptah Sokaru

only a form of Osiris.
in the plates of

Abundant details

of the ceremony will be found
I, pi.

M.

Mariette's Abydos,

t,6

and

following.

The

king Seti
2 2.

I is

represented as a
2j)
"''^•'^

Sem

priest presiding at the festival.

1

Suten-henen

viiLS

cdWed by the Greeks Hera-

cleopolis.
23.

Or

'rid of his business.'

The word
is

^^

sej>,

'turn,' has

the different significations of the Latin 'vices.'

In the
petitions.

later recensions this

chapter

lengthened out by other
other
things,

The deceased

asks,

among

to

appear

Madt, may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which Let my steps be lifted up in is in heaven, let me be as one of you. Let me see the ship* of the holy Sahu [Orion], Cher-abaut.
to attain the region of

" before thee,

O

Lord of the gods,

traversing the sky

;

let

me

not be prevented from seeing the lords

of the Tuat

[the Netherworld], smelling the fragrance of the sacrificial

* This

is
'

one of the meanings of
going round in a ship.'

1

\

,'~v:2*c;

,

but in this place

it

may

simply mean

C

lO
offerings

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
made
to the divine host,
priestly ministrant]

and

sitting with

them.

Let the

Cher-heb [the
Let

make

invocation over

my

coffin.

me

hear the

prayers of propitiation.
for

Let the divine ship

Neshemet advance
repulse."

me,

let

not

my

soul

and

its

possessor suffer

An

invocation to Osiris follows.
;

Amenta, Osiris, lord of Nifura grant that I may advance in peace towards Amenta, and that the Lords of Tasert may receive me and say to me, Salutation Salutation in let them make for me a seat by the Prince of the divine Peace Powers, let the two Chenemta goddesses [Isis and NephthysJ receive me, in presence of Unneferu, the Victorious. Let me be a follower Let me assume all of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu. forms for the satisfaction of my heart in every place that my Genius
'
!
!

" Hail to thee, Prince of

!

'

{Ka\ wisheth."

The

following rubric

is

found as early as the XlXth dynasty
but
it

in

connection with

this chapter,

seems

to

have originally been
written

attached to Chapter

72.
is

" If this discourse
coffin,

learnt

upon

earth, or

is

upon the

he (the deceased) may come forth upon every day that he pleaseth and again enter his house without impediment. And there

meat upon the table of Aarru [the he shall of Ra Elysian fields of Egyptian mythology], and there shall be given to him there wheat and barley, for he shall be flourishing as when he
shall
flesh
:

be given to him bread and beer and
receive

allotment in the

Fields

was upon earth."
Chapter
copies that
i

is

followed in
i

M.

Naville's edition
is

by another, which
in so

the learned editor calls
the

B.

This chapter
as yet

found

very few

text cannot

M. Naville differ however down to the Roman period, though not of the Book of the Dead.
published by
It is called

The two texts widely from each other. It was known
be restored.
inserted into copies

Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on The 124th chapter bears a similar title. The the day of burial. word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of
the visible

mummy,

but of

tiie living

personality which

it

enclosed.
art in

The

chapter opens with an invocation, " Hail to thee,

who

the sacred region of

Amenta, the Osiris, [the deceased] knows thee and thy name, defend him from those Worms which are in Restau,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
who
live

I

I

upon the

flesh

of

men and

swallow their blood."

The

names of the Worms were
in the text they cannot

given, but in

consequence of the gaps

now be

recovered.

The

chapter finished

with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus,

who
;

has taken possession of the throne which his father has given

him he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, His mother suckles him and offers him her the eldest of the gods. breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn.

VIGNETTE TO CHAPTER

IX.

CHAPTER

n.

Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death.

Oh
come

thou Only One, (i) who shinest from the Moon,

let

me
be

forth

amid

that train (2) of thine, at large,(3)

and

let

me

revealed (4) as one of those in glory. (5)

And when
to

the Tuat

is

opened

to the gods, let

N come

forth

do

his pleasure

upon earth amid the
Notes.

Living.

This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. collated by
Naville
I.
.^

:

Ae and
I

Pf.

It is

also found in the papyrus of Ani.

'unicus,' the Sole
a

and Only One,
is

is

one of the many
/;/

appellatives of the Sun.

He

here represented as shining

or

from

the

Moon.

Cf.

note on Chapter 132.

C 2

;

12

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
2-

*^^ Wi

r^

1

5

'

multitude, throng, train,' here put for the

'heavenly host,' the aKpno9 aarpwu ©xAos (Euripid., J^r 596), or the

Hebrew DiDlTn
Osiris
is
|

^^1!!.
' >

^ rTf <^4v ^

^^^ leader of the host,' Sharpe,

I,

105.

3-

^^^^^' ^^^'^'^'
p Ji o) explicare, 'disclose,

V""^^"^^'

^°^^^' 'forth,

out

of doors, at large,' in opposition to enclosure in the tomb.
4-

unfold, reveal,

make

clear.'

5.

Or among
'

the Glorious ones,'

(1

^^^^

^^ ® /U

'

CHAPTER
Another chapter

HI.
like
it.

Oh Tmu, who
are before thee

proceedest from Ur-henhenu, (i)

who

art resplen-

dent as the Lion-faced, (2) and

who

strewest thy words to those

who
the

Here cometh the
bidding of thy words.
ye seamen of
death, like

faithful

N, from the band

of those

who do

Ra

at the

gloaming of the day,

let

iVlive after

Ra

daily.
is

Here the /ielms??tan : As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall
exult even as they exult in
1
life.

N

am Thoth

as he goeth forth from the

House

of the Prince in

Heliopolis. (3)

Notes.

The only ancient copy of this chapter Amen-neb {Ae), and here it is imperfect.
I.

is

in

the papyrus of

A

personification of the Nile,
^iJ^^

^^

UUt

The

later

texts read -cz:=>

,

'the great goddess in the Water.'

3

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
2.

1

The

later texts

have

^^^"^
texts

rVl

Wl' "^""Plyiig the two hons
||

Shu

and Tefnut.

But the older

have -^^^

[

^

,

a single god,

with a lion's face or form.

The two
i.

notions, however, are found in
(1.

combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas
3.

558) and Teta

(1.

332).

See note 8 on Chapter

CHAPTER
Another Chapter, for travelling on
the earth.
It is I

IV.
the

road which

is

above

who

travel

on the Stream
let

(i)

which divideth the divine

Pair, (2) I

am come,

there be given to

me

the lands of Osiris.

Notes.
This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the
papyri of the best period.
^'

^^ ^
61,

AAAA^

,

literally

'weeping,' 'flood of tears,' hence
It is

'overflow, inundation, stream or canal.'

one of the names of
9.

the Nile on earth and in heaven and of his personification as a god.

See Chapter
^'

and F.S.B.A., XIII,
°''
'

p.

8 and

I

tion or

^^^ contrast, like
named

Set and

H

^^

"^

^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ Horus (Chapter
Merta
(37, i).

divinities in opposi17, 25) or the sister

goddesses

^

D-

T)^

Thoth

is

the umpire

between Set and Horus (Darkness and Light) and mediates between them, but he and Ra (the Moon and Sun) are (Teta, 1. 69) spoken
of as the two

Rehu gods

travelling over the sky.

Chapter
Chapter whereby work

V.

may

not be imposed \upon a person (1)] in

the Netherworld.

Here

is

motionless,

N. and

He
I

saith, I

am he who

raiseth the
I

hand which

is

come

forth at the hour. (2)

am

the living Soul.(3)

and there go before me the longings
tion.(5)

(4) of those

who

bring saluta-

14

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.
This chapter
is

found

in several of the best

MSS., but the

text is

extremely corrupt, and must have become

absolutely unintelligible.

The Turin

text differs greatly

from that of the older copies, and the

transposition of words clearly shows

how

little

the transcribers under-

stood what they were writing.

I

follow chiefly the text of

Aa, the

papyrus of Nebseni.
1.

These words only occur

in the later copies.

2.

^^ D
The

v\

®

is

the older reading, but

-^^

_ seems to be

the more correct.
3.

oldest text

must have had simply the ideographic

"^^

,

Ae
'

gives "^

^
'

Jj Ba, but

Fd

has

Q |\
is
'

"%^

J) Hnemu.

The

living Soul
4.
5.
'

is

that of the Sun, whether he

called

Ra

or Osiris.

Desires, wishes, loves,' literally,
[
'vw-.~>

hearts.'

qA

signifies 'salute,' as

in

Chapter

12,

i,

and
'

14,

i.

and
is

[

••-•

/Vv'v^'VN

;^^,

^i^^ (with various Other forms) the
is

saluter,'

the

name
the
1

of the
rising
22
;

Ape who
of

seen

in

the vignettes of the papyri
I,

saluting
plates 2

the

sun.

See M. Naville's Todienbuch,
;

and

the Papyrus of Ani, plate 2

the Todienbuch of

Lepsius, Chapters 16 and 126.
I

do not know how

far

it

is

correct to illustrate this

origin of the Egyptian

name

for the

Ape, as

'

undoubted the saluting one,' by

the following extract of a letter to Cuvier from

M. Duvaucelle, about

the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra.

numerous troops and thus united, they salute the rising and the setting sun with the most terrific cries, which may be heard at the distance of many miles and which, when near, stun, when they do not frighten. This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance."
in
;

"They assemble

In

this place of the

Book

of the

Dead

the sign

^^

is

a mere

determinative of the sound ad7i with the notion of salutation, just as
the sign
of thirst.

^o^

is

a determinative of the

sound ab with the notion

5

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The
' '

1

saluters of the rising sun are neither real apes nor men " Spirits of the East " who, as we are told in an inscription of but the

the
at
it

tomb of Ranieses VI,

" effect the rising of

Ra by opening

the door

each of the four portals of the eastern horizon of heaven.
is

They

who

him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali."*
light

The Egyptian words

in the later texts are

Ar
the

^.

'

I

nP<B

'

V\
being
itself

irQ

I

v\

A,

alternative

reading
felt

a proof that the difficulty of the text was already
scribe.

by

some Egyptian
But
if

the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his

day, he would probably have seen another
that of Nebseni,
reads,

way

out.

Our
fl

oldest MS.,

J
j

fl

"y^ ^^=^\

^ >?
a very

bes-kua aim aad{n)u, which signify literally, "antecedunt

me

corda
in

salutantium.'

The word

1

"^^

l><:s

is

common one
god

pictures representing the introduction of a king or a

into a
for

temple.

It is

the technical term used in the Tablet of

Canopus

the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices.

The

subject

of this verb

is

speaker

——
^^

OO 0" hearts; an independent word, instead of being ^ The object of the verb the J—
<.—
.

is

X)

v\

^

kua,

'

me,' as the papyrus

Pa

reads, like

Aa.

And

it is

easy to see

how

the later text, which
older.

is

already found in

Ax, has been corrupted out of the

CHAPTER
for a person
!

VI.
to

Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made
i?i

do ivork

the Nether^i'orld.
I

O Statuette (i) there Should any of the labours that are done
according to his
abilities,

be called and appointed to do
the Netherworld by a person

in

lo

!

all

obstacles have been beaten

down

* Champollion, Notices, torn. II, p. 640.

l6
for thee
;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
be thou counted for
watering the
I,

me

at

every moment, for planting the

fields, for

soil, for

conveying the sands of east and west.

Here am

whithersoever thou callest me.

Note.
This chapter
is

inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which
;

sometimes by hundreds in the enormous quantities are found Much information on the single mummy. neighbourhood of a subject, both archaeological and philological, will be found in Mariette's Catalogue General des Momunents d'Abydos, p. 25 and following, and in M. Loret's articles "Les Statuettes. funeraires du Musee de Boulaq," published in the Recueil de Travaux, tomes IV

and V.

IntheearliertextsiLI^J^^I,M^^J^JI.
word being read
from "vN i—TC-i
statuette
is

usebti,

has very naturally been considered as derived
i"

QA>

Coptic OTtJOCy^

'to

answer.'

For the
it

addressed at the beginning of the chapter, and
for

replies

at the end.

But there is no reason form had the same meaning.

supposing that the earlier

CHAPTER

VII.
is

Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which

void.

Oh, One violence, and

Wax, (i) who takest captive and livest upon those who are motionless
of
!

seizest

with

Let

me

not

become
let

motionless before thee,

let

me

not be paralysed before thee,

not thy venoms enter into

my

limbs, for

my

limbs are the limbs

of

Tmu.

And

if

thou wouldst not be paralysed,

let

me

not be paralysed.

Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine. I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the

powers of
I

all

the gods are

my

powers.

am

he,

whose names are hidden,
all eternity.

and whose abodes
safe

are

mysterious for
It is I

who proceed from Tmu, and

I

am

and sound.

(2)

7

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

1

Apepi
the

is

the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such,

is

enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished. As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like
Sutu, the Darkness of Night.

On

comparing

this

chapter with the 99th,
it

it

would appear

that

the occasion for reciting

is

on the journey of the heavenly boat
inanes, empty, void.

through ridges of cloud, which are pictured as the coils of a great
serpent,

and described

as

^

^[^

In the

papyrus of Nebket {Fe) the vignette shows the deceased person
transfixing

the

dragon.

The

chapter

itself

was said over a wax

figure of the
1.

demon.
figures of

These wax

not only for ritual but for

gods and other personages were used unlawful magical purposes. The Rollin

papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical
arts.

He

was charged with making
|

'""^^
|
|

X °

'

gods of wax,'

and some men "
&
a

for

the purpose of paralysing the limbs of
'-^'^^
.

men

S

"'^'^

AA

"^^^

VW^

r34."

See Chabas, Papyrus
p. 131.

Magique,
2.

p. 170,

and Deveria, Pap. judiciaire de Turin,

The more
I

recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I

know,

know."

Some MSS. have both

readings.

CHAPTER
.

Vni.

Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day.
discloseth what the
to the

The Hour (i) who giveth might

head of Thoth keepeth
(2)

close,

Eye of Horus.

And
I

I call

upon the Eye of Horus which gleams as an ornament
father of the gods.

upon the brow of Ra, the

am
and

that Osiris, the
that
it is

day,

in his

Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his lot that he should end his being, and be no

more. (3)
I

am

Sutu, the father of the gods, the imperishable one.

Stay, Horus, for

he

is

counted among the gods.

D

8

;

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
1.

Time.

Notes.
27.
It

must be sufficient here to that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great
2.

See note on Chapter 17,

say

deal of Egyptian mythology.
3.

This

is

one of the most

difficult
it

passages in the

Book of

the

Dead, but
otherwise.

I

do not see how

can be grammatically understood

It is

understood from the passage from Light to Darkness

and the converse.
'In his
'

lot,' literally

*in him.'
strictly,
*

End

his being
i
.

'

:

more
'

bring to an end his activity
in a

'

"^^ ^^ ^^
is

*

Being (though inevitable

modern language)

much

too abstract a word for these ancient
activity,'
'

texts.

^^ implies

'motion,
'

and '^^^

is

not a simple negation, but implies

completion, end

(reXea-, Te'Xo?),

though not
'

'

cessation.'
'

Our modern acceptation
applied to ytrir
f
.

of the word

perfect

is

often wrongly
'

We

should think rather of such phrases as

annum

perficere,'

'

sole perfecto.'

CHAPTER
Soul most mighty, (i) here

IX.

Chapter for opening the Tuat.

am
see

I

:

I

am come

to thee that I

may
1

see thee.

open the Tuat that

I

may
I

my

father Osiris

and may

drive

away the darkness.
I

am

he

whom

he loveth.

have come to see
to

my

father Osiris,

to pierce the heart of Sutu,
Osiris.
I

and

perform

all

duties to

my

father

open

all

the paths in heaven

and upon

earth.
I

I am the son who loveth his father, and mummied one, glorious and well equipt.

am come
for

as

a

Oh,

all

ye gods and goddesses, the path

is

made

me.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Note.
I.

IQ

"^i^

i

I

fl

,-^w-,

'Soul most mighty,'

is

one of the
in

principal

names of

Osiris.

The whole

chapter

is

spoken

the

person of Horus, the son of Osiris.

CHAPTER
Chapter for coming forth
I

X.
victoriously.

come

forth victoriously against the adversaries.

I cleave

the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the

earth on foot.

There come forward
I

to

me

the Glorious and the

Great ones, for
I eat with

am

furnished with numberless
I

Words of Might.
;

my
is

the god

who

chew with my jaw for, lo, I worship Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which
mouth, and

endureth amid overthrow.

CHAPTER

XI.

Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld.

Here

is

the Osiris

N.
:

Eater of his arm
1

away from

his path

!

am Ra coming
shall not

forth

from the horizon against

his adversary,

who
I

be delivered from me.

have stretched out

my
;

hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and

lifted
I

my

feet.

shall not

be given up

my

adversary shall

fall

before

me

;

he

hath been given up to
I

me and
:

shall not

be delivered from me.

up like Horus, I sit down as Ptah, I am victorious as Thoth, and powerful as Tmu I walk upon my feet, I speak with
rise

my

mouth, searching

for

him who hath been given up

to

me

;

he

shall not

be delivered from me.

D

2

20

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Note.
There
is

unfortunately no early text of this chapter, which
form, and

we

have

in a very corrupt

can only restore conjecturally.
is

The Eater
the Sun.

of his

arm

is

evidently Darkness, which

destroyed by

CHAPTER

XII.

Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of the Netherworld.
Salutation
to
thee,

O
:

Ra, who guardest the secrets of the

domain of Seb, and this Balance with which Ra up Maat(2) daily Here am I, who cleave open (3) the earth, grant that I may come and acquire advance in age. (4)
gates (i) over this
raiseth

Notes.
This chapter,
like the next, occurs only in

Pa among

the older
as

MSS.
1.

It

comes twice

in

the

Turin

copy,

being repeated

Chapter 120.

So Pa
In

;

the Turin copy has 'the Tuat.'
places
it

2.

many

is

important to treat

Maat

as a proper

name.
3-

j'^'^^^_/]
As the
sun,
at

°^

J^^"^'
p. 8.

^ ^^^^ "°' confined to

agricultural operations.
4.

See note 20,
is

who

represented as an infant at

dawn and

as

an aged man

sunset

CHAPTER

XIII.

Chapter for entering after coming out from Amenta.
I

enter as a

Let the

Hawk and come forth as a Bennu (i) at Dawn. way be made for me that I may adore Ra at the

fair

Amenta, and the locks (2) of Osiris. I urge on the hounds of Horus. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Osiris, the Lord
of Life.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.
This chapter, in the MSS. of which the Turin copy repeated as Chapter 121, with the following rubric
:

21

is

the type,

is

"Said over an ear-ring of the flower Anch-amu, put upon the
right ear of the deceased person, with another ear-ring, put in fine
linen,
1.

upon which

is is

written the

name

of

N, on the day of
kind.

burial."

The Bennu

a bird of the

Heron
was

He

is

very com-

monly
like

but, I think, erroneously identified with the Phoenix.

The
"very

bird described by Herodotus,

H,

73,

in outline

and

size

an eagle," which no one could say of the Bennu.
five

He

appeared

only once in
day.

hundred

years,

whereas the Bennu appeared every
is

The

fable as told

by the Greeks
us.

utterly

unsupported by any

Egyptian authority known to
2.

This passage

is,

unfortunately, both in the ancient

and the

recent forms, corrupt.

CHAPTER

XIV.

Chapterfor removing displeasure from the heart of the god
against the deceased person.

Hail to thee, oh god
presidest over
all

who

sendest forth (i) the

Moment, who

the Secret things (2), and protectest the utterance

of

my

words.
;

Here (3) is a god displeased against me whelmed and let it fall upon the hands of

Remove (4)
darkness

the impediments which are in

me

wrong be overthe Lord of Law, and the evil and the
let

(5), oh Lord of Law, and let that god be reconciled removing that which detaineth me from thee.

to

me,

Oh, lord of
be reconciled.

offerings

in

Kenu

(6),

let

me
let

offer

to

thee

the

propitiary offering by which thou livest,

and

me

live

by

it

and

Let

all

the displeasure which

is

in

thy heart against

me be

removed.

Notes.

There

is

a very great difference between the earlier

and the

later

texts of this chapter.

Former

translators,

having chiefly the Turin

.

,

22
text before

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
them, have understood the
title

of the chapter as in-

tended
even

" to

person."

The Turin

remove the impurities from the heart of the deceased text of the chapter is really unintelligible, and

in the earlier texts certain passages are so corrupt as to defy

translation.
1.
[~[]

^^,
J

J\ like the Latin 'mittere' has the sense of "let

go, give free course, set at liberty."
2.

c^D
The

n^\ _^

,

the

secrets,

here as elsewhere in the funereal
the world

III'

texts, are
3. 4.
'

those of the

tomb and of
(

beyond the

grave.

older texts have

'^^^^^

,

the later _ru.
singular,

The Lord
'

of

Law

is

in

the

but the imperative

remove
5.

is

in the plural.
V

The word

^v

w-as a puzzle to the oldest transcribers.

It

is

susceptible of different meanings.
'

The Turin
is

text

V

^^^

j

^

<cr>

the

god

is
is

joined with Law,' which
intelligible in itself,

supported by some

of the older papyri,
I

but not in this context.
it

have understood 1 "^^

y

'^^
>

coming as

does after ^^^

^ <^

in the sense of
6.

Y

^>. uO "^X^ ^^^P darkness.'
'

The MSS.

differ hopelessly

on

this

proper name.

CHAPTER
Hymn
Adored
he

XV.

I (i).

Ra, when he
;

riseth

up from the eastern Jiorhon of
extol him.

Heaven

they

who accompany him

Here

is

the Osiris

N, the Victorious, and he

saith

:

O
and

thou radiant Orb,

who

arisest

each day from the Horizon,

shine thou upon the face of the Osiris
propitiateth thee at the gloaming.

iVwho

adoreth thee at dawn,

Let the soul of
journey
till

N come

forth with thee into heaven, let

him

Maatit boat and finish his course in the Sektit boat (2) he reach in heaven unto the Stars which set (3).
in the

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

23
:

He

saith, as

he invoketh his Lord, the Eternal one

Hail to thee, Horus of the
Self-originating (5)
;

Two
is

Horizons

(4),

who

art

Chepera
in

Beautiful

thy rising up from the horizon,
All the

enlightening the two Earths with thy rays.
exultation

gods are

Unnut

when they see thee the King of Heaven, with the Nebt * established upon thy head (and the diadem of the South

and the diadem of the North upon thy brow) which niaketh her abode in front of thee. Thoth abideth
thine adversaries.
at the

prow of thy bark

that he

may

destroy

all

They who dwell

in

the Tuat are coming forth to meet thy

Majesty, and to gaze upon that beautiful semblance of thine.

And
Let
earth.

I
;

too
let

come

to thee that I

may be
let

with thee to see thine

Orb

each day

me

not be detained,

me

not be repulsed.

my

limbs be renewed by the contemplation of thy glories,

like all thy servants, for I

am one

of those

who honoured

thee

upon
of

Let
Eternity

me
;

reach the

Land of Ages,

let

me

gain the

Land

for thou,

my
he

Lord, hast destined them for me.
saith
:

The

Osiris

N;

Hail to thee
with Maat
;

up from the Horizon thou dost traverse heaven in peace and
risest

who

as
all

Ra in union men see thee

as thou goest forward.

And

after

being concealed from them thou

presentest thyself at the

dawn

of each day.

Brisk

is

the bark under thy Majesty.

Thy
be told
:

rays are

upon men's

faces

;

the golden glories they cannot

not to be described are thy beams.
(6) are seen in
is

that

The Lands of the gods, the colours of Punit men may form an estimate of that which
Alone
art

them

;

hidden from their

faces.

thou when thy form riseth up upon the Sky

;

let

me
Ra,

advance as thou advancest,

like thy Majesty, without a pause,

O

whom none

can outstrip.

A mighty
goest to
rest.

march

is

thine

thousands, in a small

Leagues by millions, and hundreds of moment thou hast travelled them, and thou
;

*

One

of the

names of

the Uroeus on the royal crown.

;

24

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Thou
completest the hours of the Night, according as thou hast
out.

measured them

And when

thou hast completed them accord-

ing to thy rule, day dawneth.

Thou presentest thyself at thy place as Ra, as thou risest from the Horizon. The
Osiris

He

saith to

N, he saith, as he adoreth thee when thou shinest thee when thou risest up at dawn, as he exalteth thine
forth,

appearance

;

Thou comest
heaven.

thy limbs, giving birth

most glorious one, fashioning and forming to them without any labour, as Ra rising in

and the abode of thy servants let me be united with the venerable and mighty * of the Netherworld let me come forth with them to see thy Chu glories, as thou shinest at the gloaming, when thy mother Nut (7)
I

Grant that

may

attain to the

Heaven of

eternity

;

;

enfoldeth thee.

thou turnest thy face to the West, mine hands are in adoration to thy setting as one who liveth ;t for it is thou who hast
created Eternity.
I

And when

have
all

set thee in

my

heart unceasingly,

who

art

more mighty

than

the gods. &^

The

Osiris

N, he

saith

:

Adoration to thee, who

arisest

out of the Golden, and givest light

to the earth on the day of thy birth.

Thy mother
light

bringeth thee forth
to

upon her hands,

that thou mayest give

the whole

cir-

cumference which the Solar Orb enlightenelh.

Mighty Enlightener, who risest up in the Sky and raisest up the of men by thy Stream, and givest holiday to all districts, towns and temples and raising food, nourishment and dainties.
tribes
;

Most Mighty one, master of masters, who defendest every abode of thine against wrong. Most Glorious one in thine Evening Bark, Most Illustrious in thy Morning Bark.
Glorify thou the Osiris

N

in the

Netherworld, grant that he
free

may
him

come into Amenta without defect and among the faithful and venerable ones.
*
'

from wrong, and

set

The Glorious ones
11.

'

;

see

Note

i

on Chapter

I.

t See note

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Let him be united with the souls in the Netherworld, about in the country of Aarru * after a joyful journey.
let

25

him

sail

Here

is

the Osiris JV.

Come
the Bark,

forth into

Heaven,

sail

across the firmament and enter

into brotherhood with the Stars, let salutation be
let

made

to thee in

invocation be

made

to

thee in the Morning Bark.
propitiate
his

Contemplate
daily.

Ra
fish

within his

Ark and do thou

Orb

See the Ant

fish in its birth
its

from the emerald stream, and

see the

Abtu
let

and

rotations. (8)
fall

And
for

the offender t

prostrate,

when he meditates

destruction

me, by blows upon

his back-bone.
;

Ra springs forth with a fair wind the Evening Bark speeds on and reaches the Haven the crew of Ra are in exultation when they look upon him the Mistress of Life, her heart is delighted at the
;

;

overthrow of the adversary of her Lord.

and at his sides Thoth and Maat. All the gods are in exultation when they behold Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and here is the Osiris iV along with them.
at the

See thou Horus

Look-out of the

ship, (9)

[Litany]. (10)

Adored
Hail to thee,

be

Ra^ as he
hast

seiteth in the

Land

of Life. (11)

who

come

as

Tmu, and

hast been the creator of

the cycle of the gods, (12)

Hail to thee, who hast

come

as the Soul of Souls,

August one

in

Amenta,
Hail to thee,

who

art

above the gods and who lightenest up the

Tuat with thy
Hail to thee,
Orb,

glories.

who comest

in splendour,

and goest round

in thine

Hail to thee,

who

art mightier in the Tuat,

than the gods,

who

art

crowned

in

Heaven and King
Hail to thee,
*

who openest
bliss (like

the Tuat and disposest of

all its

doors.

An

abode of

the

Elysian

fields)

frequently mentioned

and

described in the

Book of

the Dead.

t The dragon Apepi.

26

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
among
the gods, and Weigher of

Hail to thee, supreme
the Netherworld.

Words

in

Hail to thee,
glory.

who

art in thy Nest,

and

stirrest

the Tuat with thy

Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate
at their blocks,

Hail to thee,

who

slaughterest the
this

Sebau and annihilates! Apepi,
is

[Each invocation of

Litany

followed by]
to the Osiris

Give thou delicious breezes of the north wind

A\

Horus openeth
the great one

;

the Great, the Mighty,

who

divideth the earths,

who

resteth in the

up the Tuat with his glories by shining into their sepulchres.

Mountain of the West, and lighteneth and the Souls in their hidden abode,

By

hurling

harm

against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed

all

the adversaries of the Osiris JV.

HvMx
The
Osiris iV^; he saith

n. (13)
the

Two

Horizons,

when he adoreth Ra, when setting in the Land of Life.

Horus of the
thy coming

Adoration to thee,

O

Ra: Adoration

to thee,

O Tmu,

at

in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.

Thou

sailest

over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in
;

splendour thou reachest the zenith
in obeisance to thee,

the two divisions of
to thee.

Heaven

are

and yield adoration

Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth. (14)
All the gods of
thee, and they who are in and they say Adoration at the approach of thy Majesty, Come, Come, approach in peace. Oh to thee, Welcome, Lord of Heaven, King of Akerta.

They who

are

on the Horizon convey

the Evening Bark transport thee,

Thy mother
Life at night.

Isis (15)

embraceth thee, seeing

in thee her son, as

the Lord of Terror, the AU-Powerful, as he setteth in the

Land of
1

Tatunen (16) stretched out behind thee, and fast upon earth.
father

Thy

carritth

thee,

and

his

arms are
is

that which hath taken place

made

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Wake up from thy rest, Let me be entrusted to
Come,
thine

2/

abode

is

in

Manu.
is

the fidelity which

yielded to Osiris.

O

Ra,

Tmu, he thou

adored.

Do

thy will daily.

Grant

success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods.
Beautiful art thou,

O

Ra, in thine Horizon of the West

;

O

Lord
thy

of Law, in the midst of the Horizon.

Very

terrible art thou, rich art

thou in attributes, and great

is

love to those

who

dwell in the Tuat.
sets in the

To

be said,

when Rd

Land of

Life

;

with hands bent

do7vnward. (17)

HvMN
Adoration
to

in. (18)

Tmu

as he sefteth in the

Land of Life.

The

Osiris

N N

;

he saith

:


Land
of Life.
setting in the

Adoration to

Tmu
;

as he setteth in the
saith,

The

Osiris

he

adoring

Tmu, when
of Life,

Land

of Life and shedding his rays on the Tuat

Hail to thee setting in the

Land

O

Father of the gods,
receive thee

thou
daily.

art

united to thy mother in Manu.

Her two hands

Thy Majesty hath

part in the house of Sokaru.

Exult thou
in the

because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting Mountain of the West.

Thy

rays, they

Amenta. and cherish hope when they see thee

run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim,
daily.

Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the namely, who follow thee and come in thy train.

earth

;

to those,

O

august Soul,

who
;

begettest the gods,

and dost

invest

them

with thine attributes
in thy mystery.

the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty

Be thy

fair face

propitious to the Osiris

N, oh Chepera, Father

of the gods (19).

Freedom for ever from perdition and upon it I take my firm stand.

is

derived through this Book,

E 2

28

BOOK OF THE DEAD. He
hath written
it

who spake

it,

and

his heart resteth

on the

reward.

Let there be given

me

armfuls of bread and drink, and
after

let

me

be accompanied by

this

Book

my

life.

Notes.

The
fact

fifteenth chapter as

it

stands in the later recension (repreis

sented by the Turin Todtenbuch)
a collection of texts

of

ver}'

recent origin.

It

is

in
;

originally

independent of each other

(i) a

hymn

to

setting, (4) a

Ra at hymn

his rising, (2) a litany, (3) a

hymn

to

Ra

at his

to

Tmu

at his setting, followed

by a statement

respecting the spiritual importance of the document.

Of
as

the last

hymn

there are

no copies of ancient

date, but the
far

other three compositions are found more or less perfect as
the

back

XlXth

dynasty.

the ancient texts furnish so
the part of the scribes, that

The discrepancies, however, between much evidence of free composition on
it

is

impossible to suppose that they
as sacred

had before them documents recognised

and canonical.

M. Naville has found
the

it

necessar)' to publish four different forms of

hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun. The ideas and expressions throughout these hymns are current in the religious texts of the XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties.
In the translation here given

by the

later

have followed the form adopted recension, correcting the text when necessary by the
I

copies written in the better periods.

1.

The

text of the

Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis

of the translation of
gives the
2.

Hymn

I.

It

is

the only ancient text which

hymn

in the

form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.

l"he sun was represented from the earliest period, as

we may

see in the pyramid texts, as performing his celestial journey in a boat,

which during the morning was called the Alddtit

^^^

ch^^j ^"-^.

and

in the evening the Sektit ^^^^^

^,5

.

^=
I

'

^^^ <—=:a " <=>
d^miu
seku.

lY\

"^

I

^/f

a/jmiu uretu.

The

stars

which never
I

set,

but are always
1

above the horizon were called

[I

__

'^^ht ic

^

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The word ahmiu has
it

29
but

often been taken for a mere negative,

occurs by

itself

with
4

the

sign

of

stars

as a

determinative
is

'J^^ V
^-icic.

I

I

I

'

,

^^^(Denkm.
Ill,

^"^

^^^ ^'^o^e term
twice).

written

1

\

'^ir:^

271^
hem

As one

of the meanings of

/

is

vu'nuere,

and as the

ordinary meaning of the Demotic cl_ :b

Us

" small," like the Coptic

cyoAX

=

\emhs,

it

is

not improbable that the stars received this

appellation on account of their tiny size as

compared with the Sun

and Moon.
the "
4.

They were what Horace
as

called the "ignes mifwres."
i,

The Sun and Moon,

we

all

know, are called in Gen.

16,

Two

Great Lights."

Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction. Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. The Tn'o Earths imply simply the Earth as divided by the passage of the Sun above it. It is to M. Grebaut
that are indebted for the discovery of this important key to Eg}'ptian expressions.
heper, like the

we

many

German Werden,
It

has primarily the sense
creatin^r.

of turning, hence of becoming.

never has the sense of

w

-h!^

heper t'esef

is

the equivalent of the Greek

avro^fevij^,

and

word is sometimes used for spontaneous productions of the mineral kingdom, as salt or natron as contrasted with artificial products of the same nature. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves.
like that
6.

The Land of the Gods

a.n6.

Funit
'

dive

ihe countries lying east
Punit,'
it

of Egypt.

When

it is

said that gods

come from

is

not

meant by this that they are of Arabian origin, but simply that Sun " Ex oriente Lux." ISIoon, and Stars, and Daylight rise in the East.
In many places the divine name Nut has for determinative the sign t=-. Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is
7.

1

.

one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed below the horizon ? If so, I have never seen it misplaced.
it

in a sky

30
8.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The Ant and
It
'

the

Abtu

are sometimes represented by the side

of the solar bark.
Cat, the Sun.
is,

From
as

the egg of the Abtu there rises the great
I.oret has proved, the Tortoise of the Nile.
is

M.

As

\\
j]

iibtu,

'the month,'

phonetically

homonymous
the

with

4

c-=^

%^ '^^
by

abtu,

the

Tortoise,

and

that

latter

IS

©
,

v^haracterised

D ©,

'

its

rotation,
'

revolving or turning,'
'

the

word

abtu,

whether applied to

month

or

'

tortoise

'

clearly

signifies

'the revolving one.'

Our modern words

Tortoise, Tortue,
feet.

Tortuga, rather express the turning or twisting of the creature's

In some

texts, e.g.,

the inscriptions of Amenhotep, the son of Hapu,
pi. 36, line
is

Mariette, Karnak,

22,

and

at the

beginning of the Ani

Papyrus, the word
of the Ani Papyrus

written

T ^^^^

abtu.
J

In the
'V'

later

part

it is

written with the initial

j

.

9.

The Look-out
''^^'^^
nl,

of the ship, in Egyptian T

[In

,

or

more

fully I

c^ nefrit, is

written T
is

^ ^^
name
I

1

in

the Papyrus
It

of Ani.

This interesting variant

of extreme value.

not only

explains a word,
question, but
tells

the very existence of which has been called in
us the Egyptian
for that seat of

Horus

at

the prow of the Solar Bark about which Bib. Arch, of Nov.
3,

wrote a note in Proc. Soc.

1891.

See the plates attached to the note,
in Todtenbuch, PI.
is

and the corresponding vignettes
10.
It is

VI and

IX.

The

Litany here translated

that of the

Turin Todtenbuch.

found, but in a very mutilated condition, in the Papyrus of
at Berlin {Ba),

Nechtuamon

a manuscript of the

XlXth

dynasty.

Another Litany, preceding
Ani.
It is

Hymn

I, is

found

in the

Papyrus of

addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu,

Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes.
Ptah Sakru,
hath built up

Tmu

in Heliopolis,
its

Lord of the Unseen World, who

Memphis and

gods."

;

;

;

1 ;

BOOK OK THE DEAD.
" Hail to ihee,

3

and Unta

t

Chabasu * in Heliopolis, Hammeniit in Cher-abau, more potent than the unseen gods in Heliopolis.

Hail to thee,

An

in

An

.

.

.

Horus

in

the

Two
;

Horizons,

who

extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven

he

is

Horchuta

Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which
of

is

in Tattu,

Unneferu, Son

Nut

;

he

is

Lord of Acherta
is

Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown

fixed

upon thy brow.
attributes,

Thou

art the

Only One, the author of
;

his

own

thou restest in Tattu

Hail to thee. Lord of Heracleopolis, for
is

whom
its

the Bark of Sokru

placed upon

its

sledge

;

who
at

repellest the Sebau, the doers of

wrong; and who puttest the Ut'a/
Hail to thee.

into

place

;

Potent One,
Prince
art the

thine appointed

moment, Most
Lord,

Mighty
eternity.

One,

of

An-arr-ef,

Eternal
;

author of

Thou

Lord of Suten-henen

Hail to thee,

who

restest

upon Maat
to

Abydos, thy limbs
abominatest wrong
Hail to thee,
in the
;

reach

Thou art Ta-tsert Thou
;

the Lord of
art

;

he who

midst of thy Bark,

who

bringest the Nile from
light shineth
;

his fountain

One who

is

upon whose dead body the in Nechen
;

he

is

the

Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris,
the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his beneficent alternations
;

He

is

the Lord of the Universe
I

Grant

me

passage in peace.
I

am

righteous,

I

speak not falsehood

knowingly,

am

not guilty of duplicity."

* Boih Chabasu and Hamniernit have the sign of the plural, which

may

arise

from the omission oi -mIw art above before the

first

of these words.

Unfortunately

we have no
plurality
is

other copy to check the readings.
often affixed to

nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae)

But it is certain that the sign of words which though in plural form (like the Latin have a singular meaning. Chabasu means a lamp, and
Hamiiieinit
is

the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation.
the

name

given to those yet unborn.
'^'

Un-ta, signifies the god
signifies the

who assumes

the face or form of a
of a Cat,

^^(i^e

^^^,

just as Mau-tii
tlie

god with the
Ibis.

face or form

Tehuta, the god with

head or form of an

32
•¥

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
II.

'the

Land

of Life,' one of the
is

names given
I

to

the realm of Osiris after death,

not,

as far as

can discover,
of the Dead.

mentioned anywhere

in the earUer

MSS.

of the

Book

Instead of "resting in the
'in
r^^^^

Land

of Life," the older texts have
•¥•
1

Amenta'
one

or

^ .B^
\^
<=::=>
I

®

Ja^

V\

ci
ft
I'

o
r^-^^

'in life

in

Amenta,' or as
12

'

living, in

Amenta.'
/>ai

III

"^^^ word

implies going round like

a

wheel or

in a circle

;

^m O

^

<rz> y
'I

A^
as
'

I)

J] V
I

'

going round on
|-,"q,

high with the Sun.'
in the expressions

Hence

the use of
«
'

it

synonymous with
and

"W
time,

= ——
the

never

aK

A\

^=
vice.^

^,
sacrificial
its

'the

first
is

beginning of time, prima

A

cake

called

Ax'

^^

^:v (Z?^«/^;«., II,

28)onaccountof

shape, like the Latin rotimdula, also written

Ax' n

^1

.

And,
persons.

like the

Greek
is

atukXo?,

the word

comes

to signify a circle of

This

circle

not

necessarily of gods.
(14, line 8), says

The Bremner

Papyrus

in the British

Museum
and
that

an apage not only
but,

to Apepi,

who was no
children,

god, and to his soul and body, and ghost and
to his kith

shadow and

and

kin,

also

to

his

^^

\^

ASv

)

is all

associated with him, " ceux de son

entourage."

That

'•^'^ws

\^^^ should express the

'

feast of the

New Moon
difificulties

'

is

only natural, though Lepsius has pointed out serious
the subject.

on

But

^ also expresses the number
in

nine.

Whence

in this relation

arises the

Egyptian conception of the number nine?

Is
?

it

the round

(we should say the 'square') number, three times three
is

It certainly
is still

more circle of gods certain is that the same expression meaning and nine gods,' the circle was supposed to consist of nine gods, and
instances, but
'

merely a round number

many

what

'

'

was enlarged

to

companies of eighteen or twenty-seven.

It

is,

I

am

sure, perfectly idle

work

to look for

more profound reasons

for the

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
theory of the

33

'Ennead.'*

Every god of importance
that has ever

had

his

^
I

i,t

and the best theory

been given

is

that given at

the beginning of Chapter 17,
13.

The Turin

text

seems better adapted

for the basis of a trans-

lation of
for

Hymn

II than the older papyri.

These have been used

checking the later text whenever possible.
14.

A
?

difficult passage,

but the readings are unanimous.
it

What

is

°^^^

Brugsch translates
de
la terre."

" the Talisman of the Earth," and
objection can be raised against
itself.

Pierret "le salut

No

the truth of either of these meanings taken by
to look at the entire context.

But we have

back of the earth."

In Latin

The expression literally signifies " the we say sinus, gremiuin and viscera terrae.
back of Seb,
\~^

The Egyptians themselves

talk of the
in
'^

^^

,

out

of which the plants grow, and
{Zeitschrift,

a place quoted by
^« the Earth,
is

Duemichen

187 1,

p. 92,

note)
,

^

substituted for

Seb.

I believe

then that
Isis.

°8M8<^ is

best translated by Soil of the Earth.

15.
is

Thy mother

So Ba.

The Turin

text has Nut,

which

inconsistent with what follows.
t6.

La

gives

Tatunen
to the

;

Af,

Tunen;

the Turin recension Tanen,

names belonging
figures.

god

also called Ptah,
I,

Sokru and
16, 6,

Osiris.

See the inscriptions in Mariette's Abydos,

pi.

on the Tat

Horus, the son of Osiris and
17.

Isis,

seems to be here addressed.

This rubric does not occur

in the older

MSS.

* I

am

deeply grieved that in

my

conversation and correspondence
p. 15), I
it

with-

Goodvi'm {see ray Miscellaneous Notes on Egyptian Philology,
'

hit

upon

Ennead

'

as a translation of

productive of

much

mischief.

^. Goodwin took it The word in itself
its
'

up, and
(like

has since been
is

Triad),

perfectly

innocent and correct, yet every word has

cycle

'

of associations, and

some of

them lead

the

unwary

astray.

I

had

just

been lecturing on Plotinus when

Goodwin asked me
t The
yi;««;

for the

word.
I,

children of Horus are called {Teinpelins.,

41,

i)

^TnH

y

34
1 8.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
This

hymn

has

not

yet

been found

in the

older

MSS.

from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M. Lefebure's Traduction co/nparee des Hymnes au Soleil composant le XV^ chapitre du Ritual Funeraire Egyptien. Paris, 1868.
text

A

carefully corrected

19.

'Chepera, father of the gods.'

Expressions like this are

They are not be misunderstood by superficial readers. meant to imply that father of the gods was the special attribute of 'Father of the gods' is predicated in Chapter 8 of Chepera.
liable to
' '

Sutu, and

it is

predicated elsewhere of
in space

many

other divinities.

As

in

mathematics any point

may

be conceived as the origin of a

given line or surface, so in

Egyptian mythology any god

rightly called the father of the gods.

And
to

for the

may be same reason. The
Night precedes, or
at

Day precedes
Daybreak, or

the Night, but not

more

truly than

in mythological at

language gives birth

Day.

But we may begin
or the

Noon, or

at Sunset, or

with the Sun

or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural

Moon, phenomenon

which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.

Chapter

XVL

Note.
Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into 165 chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely
the Vignette of Chapter 15.

When

has been thought well to publish with this translation the Vignettes from the great Papyrus La of Leyden, representing a, the
It

Rising

;

and

^,

the Setting Sun.
is

(See plates.)

In a the Sun
six

represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the

Cynocephalous Apes. He is also saluted by two goddesses In the Papyrus of Hunefer these goddesses say, " I am kneeling.
thy sister Isis," " I

am

thy sister Nephthys."

The Tat u which

is

between them
is

is

a symbol both of Osiris and of the East, and in

Ba

replaced by the sign 4.

In the

later periods the

Dawn was

represented by the sign
East, between Isis

j|

I'Tj consisting of the

Sun

rising out of the

and Nephthys.

The

sign of Life •¥

dnh (which

I'LATE IV

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter XVI.

A.

— TiiG

RisiNx; .Sun,
II.

Papyrus, Leyden Museum,

See Navjij.e's

"Book

of the

])cn(l,''

I.

PL

21.

rLATE V

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
CflAPTER XVT.

B.— The

Setti.nc.

Sun.

Papyrus, Leyden Museum.

See Naville's "

Book

of

tlie

Dead,'"

I,

Tl.

22.

:

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
primarily

35

means
it

rise

up) rises out of the Tat, and with hands pro-

ceeding from

raises

up the Sun.
is

In b the central object
is

the

Sun

setting in the

West

w-

He
of
Isis

saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities,

the Spirits of

Pu and

of Nechen.

Below

this

scene the Sun

Yesterday and the Sun of To-day in lion forms are saluted by

and Nephthys.

CHAPTER XVn.
Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld.

Let the words be said
I
I I

am he who

closeth and he

who

openeth, and I

am

but One

(1).

am Ra at his first am the great god,

appearance.
self-produced
;

His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods. (2) I, who am Osiris, am Yesterday and the kinsman of the Morrow. (3) A scene of strife arose among the gods when I gave the

command.

(4)
is

Amenta
I

the scene of strife

among

the gods.

know

the

name

of the great god

who

is

here.

Herald * of
I

Kft is his

name.
is

am

the great

Heron who
is

in Heliopolis,

who

presideth over
(5)

the account of whatsoever

and of

that

which cometh into being.

"Who is that P It is Osiris who presideth over the account of all that is and all that cometh into being, that is Endless Time and Eternity. Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night.
I

the

am Amsu in his manifestations Two Feathers upon my head. (6)
is that,

;

there have been given to

me

"Who

his father,

and what are his Feathers ? It is Horus, the avenger of and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of
(7)

his father
I

Tmu.

have alighted upon

my

Land, and

I

come from my own

Place.

*

\

^

^ 1"

J

'

i

™ ^\^^

praeco7iiuvi, praeco.

F 2

36
"What
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
that
?

It is the

Horizon of
all

my

father

Tmu.
and
all

All defects are
that
I

done away,
is

deficiencies are removed,

was wrong

in

me

cast forth.

am
is

purified at the

two great and mighty Lakes
which
living

at

Sutenhunen,

which purify the

offerings

men

present to the great

god

who

there (8).
is

"Who
the

that?

It is

Ri

himself.

"Which are the two great and mighty Lakes ? The Lake of Natron and

Lake

of

Maat

(9).

I advance over the roads,

which I know, and

my face

is

on the Land

of Maat.

"What is that ? The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven.
I

come

forth through the

Teser

gate.

"WTiat is that ? This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven. (10)

ye who have gone before

!

Let

me

grasp your hands,

me

who become one

of you.

"WTio are they? Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day. (11)
1

make

full

the

Eye when

it

waxeth dim on the day of battle

between the two Opponents. (12)
"What is that? The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.
I
lift

up the hairy net from the Eye
right

at

the

period of

its

distress. (13)

What is that? The
he giveth
I
it

Eye

of Ka in the period of

its distress

when
it.

free course,

and
is

it is

Thoth who

lifteth

up the net from

see Ra,

when he

born from Yesterday,
is

at the

dugs of the

Mehurit cows? (14)

His course

my

course,

and conversely

mine

is his.

"What is that? Rfl. and his births from Yesterday at the dugs of the Mehurit cows ? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth. And Mehurit is the Eye.
I

am

one of those who are

in the train of

Horus.

!

;

BOOK OK THE DEAD.
"What
is

37
'

ference to

whom

that—' one of those in the train of Horus his Iiord loveth.

?

Said with re-

Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine

Powers attached to

Osiris,

who

deal destruction to falsehood, ye
chaus, grant

me

that I

who are may come to you.

in the train of

Hotepes-

Do

ye away the wrong

which

is

me, as ye have done to the Seven Glorious ones, who

follow after the Coffined one,

and whose places Anubis hath
'

fixed

on that day of

'

Come

thou hither

Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burning the souls of his adversaries. I know the names of the Seven Glorious ones who follow the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on the day of Come thou hither.' The leader of this divine company,
' '

An-ar-ef, the Great

'

is
;

his
4,

name

;

2,

Kat-kat

;

3,

the Burning
of
in

Bull,

who
;

liveth in his fire

the Red-eyed one in the
;

Gauze
its

5,
;

Fieryface which turneth backwards

6,

House Dark Face

hour
I

7,

Seer in the Night. (15)
in a pair of gods.

am

he whose Soul resideth

It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.

The pair of gods are Horus, the Avenger of his Father, and Horus, the Prince of the City of Blindness.
I polis,

am

the great Cat,

who

frequenteth the Persea tree in Heliois

on that

night of battle wherein
that day

effected

the

defeat of
Inviolate

the Sebau,

and

upon which the adversaries of the

god (16) are exterminated.
"Who is that great Cat? It is Ea himself. For Sau said. He is the likeness (Maau) of that which he hath created, and his name became that of Cat (Maau). (17)

The night of conflict is the defeat of the children of Failure at Elephantine. There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and upon the earth. He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children of Failure, and that which they do.

O

Ra, in thine Egg,

who
;

risest

up

in thine orb,

and shinest from

and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate
thine Horizon,

block of settlement.

38

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
are as the

The god whose eyebrows lifteth up his arm." *
Deliver

arms of the Balance

is

"he who

me

from those Wardens of the Passages with hurtful

fingers, attendant

upon

Osiris.

The "Wardens
adversaries of

of Osiris are the

Powers who keep

off the forces of the

Bd..

May
and

your knives not get hold of
I

me may
;

I

not

fall

into your

shambles, for

know your names
is

;

my
!

course upon earth

is

with

Ra

my

fair

goal

with Osiris.

Let not your offerings be in
I

my disfollow

favour,

oh ye gods upon your
a

altars

am one

of those

who

the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera.
I fly like

Hawk,

I

cackle like the Smen-Goose, I

move

eternally

like

Nehebkau. (i8)
in the

god who liveth upon the damned whose at that angle face is that of a hound, but whose skin is that of a man devouring shades, digesting human hearts and of the pool of fire
that
;

Oh Tmu who art gods, deliver me from
;

Great Dwelling, Sovereign of

all

the

;

voiding ordure.

One

seeth

him

not.
is

This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint man: Eternal Devourer is his name. (19)

that of a

Oh

Fearful one,

who

art over the
;

orderest the block

of execution

to

Two Earths, Red god who whom is given the Double

Crown and Enjoyment
It is Osiris to

as Prince of Sutenhunen.

whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god. that day when The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris [whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity.
It is

Ka

himself.

Deliver

me
filth

from that god who seizeth upon

souls,

who

con:

sumeth
those

all

who

fear

and him are

corruption in the darkness or in the light
in powerless condition.

all

*

The god who
(J
V

lifteth

up

his

arm

A
is

Amsu.
first

\*v

^^\^

anevi 'skin,' according to Horhotep and the

coffin of

Mentuhotep
\

at Berlin.
'

But the second

coffin of

Mentuhotep has already
becomes the received

^^^^
reading.

\b>

^^:^

atihu

eyebrows,' which

afterwards

It is

that of

Queen Mentuhotep.

J

An

interpolation in the text of Horhotep.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
This god
is

39

Sut.

Oh

Chepera,

who

are in the midst of thy bark
;

and whose body

is

the cycle of the gods for ever

deliver

me

from those

inquisitorial

Wardens

to

whom

the Inviolate god, of

Glorious Attributes, hath

given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in
the place of annihilation, from whose guard there
I
is

no escape.

May

not
I

fall

under your knives, may

I not

sit

within your dungeons,

may
your

not
;

pits

come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into may there be done to me none of those things which the
;

gods abominate
in the

for I

have passed through the place of purification
for

middle of the Meskat,
in

which are given the Mesit and the

Tehenit cakes

Tanenit.
in

The Meskat is the place of scourging Eye of Horus .... Tanenit is the resting

Sutenhunen,

the Tehenit is the

place of Osiris. (20)

Tmu

buildeth thy dwelling, the Lion-faced god layeth the founda-

tion of thy house, as

he goeth

his round.

Horus

offereth purification

and Sut giveth might, and conversely.
I sion.

have come upon
I

this earth
I

and with

my

two

feet

taken posses-

am Tmu and

come from my own
might.

Place.

Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards,
retreating before
I

me and my

am

Isis

which
I

falleth

and thou loosely on

findest

me

as I drop

upon my

face the hair

my

brow.

was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys. Isis what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that destroyeth which is rebellious.

Dread cometh
less

in

my

train

and Might
fast to

is

in

my

hands.

Numberthe

are the hands who cling

me.

The dead ones and

living

come

to

me.

I defeat

the clients of mine adversaries, and

spoil those
I

whose hands are darkened.
alliance.
I

have made an agreeable

have created the

in-

habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis. (21)
is

And
I

every god

in fear before the Terrible, the
I

Almighty one.
his oppressor, at

avenge every god against

whom

shoot

my

arrows

when he

appeareth.

I live

according to

my

will.

!

40
I

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
am Uat'it, the Fiery one. (22) And woe to them who mount up
What
is

against

me

this? "

given "

is

the

which

is

Hfted

Of unknown attributes, which Hemen (23) hath name of the Funereal Chest. " The Witness of that " is the name of the Shrine.
mouth and
with head bent forwards
is

The Lion

with dazzhng

the

Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra].

who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her

And

I

hair over herself.

Uat'it the Fiery

is

the

Eye

of Ra.

They who mount up

against

me, woe to them, they are the

associates of Sut as they approach. (24)

Notes.
one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to The very earliest monuments which have the Xllth dynasty.

The seventeenth

chapter

is

preserved

down accompanied with scholia and Some of the monuother commentaries interpolated into the text. ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the
it

have handed

it

additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.

But

there

is

really only

one text where the additions are suppressed,
offers the

and which therefore

most ancient form, as far as we know This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of it, of the chapter. Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of The chapter must already at the the text along with the additions.
Besides these two time have been of the most venerable antiquity. copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and
Sit-Bastit (published, like those of

Horhotep, by M. Maspero*), two

from the sarcophagi of Mentuhotep, and one from that of Sebek-aa The (the three latter published by Lepsius in his Aelteste Texte). British Museum has Sir Gardner Wilkinson's copy of the texts
inscribed on the coffin of

Queen Mentuhotep

of the

Xlth dynasty,

and also a fragment (6636 a) of the coffin of a prince named Hornefru. Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree. The progress of corruption had no
* Mission archeologique Fran^aise au
Caire,
1 1.

PLATE

VI.

BOOK OF THE D

BAD.

Chapter

XVII.

Papyrus, Trinity C ollege, Dublin, IV.

PLATE

VII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter XVII.

a.

Berlin
British

Museum. Museum.

No. 1470.

/'.

No. 9901.

See

Naville, " Book

of the

Dead,"

I,

Plate.

1

BOOK OF

TIIF.

DEAD.

4

doubt begun long before, and the variants are not simply differences of orthography but positively different readings. The differences

however are
the text are

chiefly in the scholia.
identical,

Even when
differs.

the explanations of
latest

the

form

The
I

recensions

have retained the form D
the feminine
the

^
the

\

^
is

;

the ancient added

n \\
texts

\

1^.

ir/m/

thati

But some of

ancient

give

equivalent

words

j^

^4°

j^»

'i"tl

Horhotep does without them

altogether.

These words were evidently

additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.

The

text of the chapter

grew more and more obscure to readers,
as to call

and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory
for others.

The

texts of the

manuscripts of the new empire furnish

a good deal of fresh matter,

much

of which

is

extremely ancient,

though the proof of

this is

unfortunately lost through the disastrous

condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty.

The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its
succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the

stamp of a

common

traditional teaching.

The manuscripts
The
text

of a later

period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters,
to a recension

of an authoritative kind.

though perhaps not either more true and the notes and explanations have here reached
certain
It

becomes more or more intelligible,
their fullest extent.

would take an

entire

volume

to give the translations of all the

forms the chapter has assumed.
the earliest forms

It

must be

sufficient here to give
first

known
;

to us of the text and of the

commentaries.

These are printed in characters which show the difference between all of which, it must be remembered, are of text and later additions extreme antiquity some two thousand years before any probable

date of Moses.

Explanations or other interesting matter occurring
scripts of the later

in the

manu-

Empire

will

be referred to in the notes.
is

The
chapter.

title in

the early copies

the simple one here heading the

In those which begin

very like that given for the
that the

deceased person "

XVIIIth dynasty the title is The chief additions are first chapter. takes every form that he phases, plays
at the

draughts,

and

that

and sits in a hnver, conies /o^th as a what is done upon earth is glorified."

soul living after death,

G

42
I.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
It

would be

difficult for
is

us to imagine that the very remarkable

opening of the chapter
primitive recension

an addition.

Yet

it

is

unknown

to the

on the walls of Horhotep's tomb, though found everywhere else. The texts however which contain it do not agree. " I am He who closeth, and He who openeth, and I am but One."
'

He who closeth

'

is

v^^r

^
"

Tmu,

*

He who
is

openeth

'

^^

Unen.
'

one and the same, I am but One,' is a very natural ending of the sentence, and for its sense the whole may appeal to classical, and higher than classical, authority.

As the god who

closes

and who opens

Modo namque

Patulcius idem

Et modo
"
I

sacrifico Clusius ore vocor."*

am Alpha and

O, the beginning and the ending, saith the

Lord." t

The meaning
most probably
oldest style are
s

of the Egyptian

is

quite plain, but the readings

through

the

absence

of determinatives

in

the

somewhat
,

different.

Horhotep and other

texts

have

v\ -^^ vA

apparently as one word
signify the
'

(compounded of /w«

and U7ien\ which may
later texts

closer

and opener,' but Sebek-aa and

have
,

v

^^\

^ ^^v ^^ ^-

The papyrus of Nebseni
alter the

has

^^ ¥.^
is

in the third person,

which does not

meaning,

but this

quite an isolated reading.

The later recension,

as represented

by the Turin Todtenbuch and the Cadet papyrus, has
only prominently brings forward, what
texts, that
is

^^ Jj, which
all

implied in

the other

the

Opener
is

is

a god.|

The absence

of the determinative

after
0:^

^^

no objection

to the sense 'opener,' especially after

>pj—u

^.

It is absolutely

necessary

when

dealing with mythology

to look to physical rather than to metaphysical
sufficiently discussed the

meanings.
in

I

have

meanings of the word

^^
i,

my

essay on

the

Myth

of Osiris Unnefer.

*

Ovid, Fast,

I,

129, 130.

t Apocalypse

8.

X The last form of the chapter (as found in the hieratic papyrus T. 16 of Leyden, and others in the British Museum) changes the opening as follows " I

am Atmu, who made

the

Sky and created

all

that hath

come

into being."

PLATE

III.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter XV.

mm
Horus
at the

Look-out of the Ship.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The
later recensions

43

ferent readings) to

when Shu

raised
'

add an interpolation (not without very difthe effect that the Sun made his first appearance the Sky from the height of Chemennu, where he

destroyed the

Children of Failure

'(nil
is

j

1

1

(m\

I.

The
pictures.

raising of the

Seb (the

Sky by Shu Earth) and Nut

very frequently represented in

(the Sky) have been sleeping in
;

each other's arms during the night
them, and the sky
is

Shu (Daylight

at sunrise) parts

seen to be raised high above the earth.
is

j^ J], Shu, who
of this act called
|\

of course the son of Ra,
An-/ieru,

is

in

consequence

Jj

'The

Lifter

up of the Heaven.'

Chemennu

is

the geographical

name

of the town called by the

Greeks Hermopolis.
sees here a reference

referred to in this place.

The mystical Chemennu, however, is alone The word itself means Eight, and Lepsius to eight elementary deities. (We must rememitself is

ber that the passage

an interpolation, of which there

is

no

trace in the older texts.)

The

'

children of Failure

'

[

J ^^ (^ %^ J
,

^"^^

/^

,

de_^cere,

dissolvi,deliquium*) are the elements of darkness which melt

away and

vanish at the appearance of Day.

This mythological expression here
is

found

in

an interpolated passage
text.

met

later

on

in

a genuine portion

of the older
2.

It

would be impossible

to find a

the doctrine of before Christ.

Nomina Numina ;

more emphatic assertion of and that more than 3000 years

The Names
to

of Ra, the Sun-god, are said,
cycle of the
gods.'
]

when taken
!•
|

together,

compose 'the

Or

the

names

which he has created, to which he has given rise, that is the names of all the solar phenomena, recurring as they do, day after day, to the
eyes of
all

beholders,

called the limbs or

compose " the cycle of the gods," who members of Ra.

are also

The

scholia contained in the papyri of the
:

XVIIIth and

later

dynasties explain the text as follows

Jf
yv'ia \t\vi'Tu,

X

o oo

in

the historical inscriptions isjust like the
(plKov rjTop,

Greek

\vro yoinara KUi

G

2

44
" It
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD,
Ra
as he creates the

names of

his limbs

(

c^

)

which

become the gods

who accompany him."
rising
is

And

the present chapter later on says of Chepera, the
his body."
is

Sun, that the "cycle of the gods

The god who has
tradiction to the
is

hitherto

been spoken of

Ra.

In glaring con-

whole

text, a later note states that the resistless

god

"the Water, which

is

Nu";

that

is

Heaven.

wv^

^ Nu

not alluded to at all in the primitive text, but the papyrus of Nebseni already exhibits the corruption of the fine passage, " I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One." This is itself an addition, the true meaning of which was afterwards destroyed
is

by the interpolation of the words V\
ambiguous.
or
that
vg^

'vaaaaa

/H

.

These
'

are

They might mean
'

that the

god was alone

in heaven,'

he was alone

as Heaven.'

The papyrus
born from

of Ani

has

^^^ acumen

,

^'^'^ r^)

"I

^vas

Nu."

These

attempted improvements do not give a favourable impression of the
exegetical

of Egyptian theologians.

But the mention of 'Water' in the scholionhas nothing whatever to do with the doctrine of Thales, and to suppose that it has implies a confusion between two very different realms of human thought.
3.
'

The kinsman

of the Morrow,' literally

'

I

know

the Morrow.

The word

®

signifies can, ken,

and
all

kin.

The papyrus

of Nebseni and

the subsequent texts give the

explanation that Yesterday means Osiris, and the

And
to

the vignette in the papyrus of Ani gives the
to the other.

Morrow means Ra. name of Yesterday

one of the Lions and of Morrow
4.

The

earliest texts
is

have either
the

^°^

'

speak,' or

|

V^

'comarose

mand.'

The meaning

same

in

both readings.
that
is

Strife

among

the gods at the bidding

ofRa:

every force in nature

* It
'

is

certain that from the earliest times

Heaven

as ^C\
life

Q

1

"^i^^Z^

"^^^
But

the Great Weeper,' was considered as the source of
lie

to

gods and men.

myths must not
another.

mixed.

One must

not be considered as the explanation of

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
began
tact
first
its

45

appropriate career of activity, necessarily coming into conconflict with the other forces.
all activity

and

And

of all this collision the
is

cause, the origin of

and motion,

the Sun.

This

mythological

Heraclitos that " Strife

cosmology reminds one of the saying of is the father and the king of all things," and
as the product

the doctrine that

all

becoming must be conceived
TrduTU /car epiv -^iveaOai.

of warring Opposites

^^ hennu,
pictures of which enable us to identify
it

the

numerous

with the

Common Heron
J j^ ben is a ^^^^^^ benenu is J
is

or Heronshaw.

The

reason for connecting this bird with the Sun-

god has

to

be sought

m

the etymology of
'

its

name.

verb of motion, and particularly of
a ring, also a
called bennu,
^^''^^
'

going round.'
therefore

round

pill.'

The Sun

very naturally

an appellative
,

like KVKkoi\iKTo<s in the
is,

Orphic hymns.

^^

'

of that which

and of

that

which cometh into
which
is
is

being.'

Here, as in

many

other places,

^^,
So

a verb of

motion, and really signifies 'rise up, spring
tinguished
'

forth,'

pointedly dis-

from

^

^,

that

which

(is).

far

from signifying

being, that which

is,' it

very

much more

nearly corresponds to
is

^'^

in the frequent expression
is

^

\\'^^\, 'that which
so

and

that

which

not

divine
6.

The sense of 'good being' yet.' name Unnefer is utterly erroneous. The
reading of the

commonly

given to the

name

^^
(p.

is

proved by the numerous
II,

variants of this passage to be
pi. 41,

Amsu.

In M. Naville's edition,

the name, as written in Ce, would

seem

to

be

"li"

^

i|

dm.
this

But

I

already in Zeitschr., iStj
last

98) pointed out, that in
the

manuscript the

sign

^

is

at

top

of
is

a

column,

and

that at the foot of the preceding

column there

a space where

the signs

\\

,

following

"||"

^
Q

(as they still do in the next passage),

have been obliterated.

No one
is

from merely looking

at

M.

Naville's
S\

copy would guess that there was any interval between

^ and
1

The
114
i.

god's

name
the

written
is

^

i]

on a

tablet,

Denkm.
1

Ill,

And

name
ri

also written

~rr

or

,

which are

ligatures of -j|-

and

"

46
7.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Note
that in this scholion Horus,
'

the avenger of his father,'

calls his father

not Osiris but

Tmu.

In the more recent texts there

are

many

interpretations of the two Feathers.

One

is

" his two Eyes

are the Feathers."

But the favourite one
N\

is

" Isis

and Nephthys, who

have risen up as two kites

if^i^
whom
the oblation
is

8.

The

*^^^^
[|[j

^

^^ oi^

rehit,

by

made,

the present generation as contrasted with the
past,

Q

^

(j[|

pdit, the
|y|

and

^ ^^

^^'^'f^"^^""^^
(ft

the coming generations.

Mdaaait
salt,

is

supposed

to

be

nitre

or

or

some other substance used

in the process of

embalming.

The more
lakes.

recent recensions thus answer the question about the
is

''Eternity

the

name

of one, and the Great green one that

of the other, the lake of Natron and the lake of Maat."
ID.

See the picture of

this gate

on the Vignette, which shows the
is

Sun-god passing through.
this gate

One

of the later explanations

that from

Shu

raised

up Heaven.

Another

is

that

it

was the gate of
" behind

the Tuat.
Shrine."
Ti.

Haukar,

^JK ^^,

r^
his

,

means

the

Hu and

Sau, sons of

Tmu, and

companions

in the Solar

bark, are, like so

many

other gods, Solar appellatives.
^^^^^
,

Hu
god

is
is

the Nourisher,

^^ \J^ ^

|

^ <s= ^
The
i£).

'

the

Knowing

One.'

also called 'the Seer'

^^
4.

and 'He who heareth' i^
but, as

These names are not personifications of the senses
cases, appellatives expressing attributes.
12.

in all

See Note

2

on Chapter

13.

The Eye

("vN

|

"^ ^^)
i

^eing the Sun or Moon,
that

the

I

^$-rj)
iIl

is

of

obscuration or eclipse,

and the hairy net
which passes
for a

(

-^

V/vwvvA

000/

)

which

is

removed

is

the

shadow

time over the heavenly body.

48
17.
It is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
most probable that the Cat became the representative of

the

Sun because of the homonymy between the Egyptian name
v*
IkX"
'

A
'

^

^'^^" °^ ^^^ animal and the attributive

_^^ X^ m
V

»ia?<,

shining

said of the Sun.

But the Egyptian scribe gives a Sau said of Ra " he
is

different

etymological explanation.

/naau of what

he hath made."
were made

Q 1 "^^y' ^^^^ '^^ Latin exemplar,

be either the type
creatures of

or the prototype, the copy or the original.
after his likeness.

The

Ra

Sanskrit literature, from the ^atapatha
is full

Brahmana down

to the

Vishnu Purana,
first

of similar etymologies.

The Egyptians from
18.
is

the very

delighted in this play upon words.

Nehebu-kau,

^y^lJyiia^ or^JtjB^
The etymology
x
j

the son of Seb and Renenut.

of the
is

name

is

indi-

cated in the Pyramid texts.

7\
jM^

v\

fiehbu

to

'

carry, sustain,

support
iiehb

'

(whence TN.

nehbet a
is

neck,

and

^v\

Q

1

-o:-^
is

a yoke), and the rest of the word

the plural of ka, which

susceptible of

more than one meaning.
is is

It

might signify the divine or
Todt., 125, 32) written

human

/^a,

but the word

sometimes

{e.g.,

\^\
and

'victuals.'

The god
his

one of the forty-two judges of the dead,
of the

in

some copies of the Book
forth

Dead he

is

described as

coming

from

^ | r—
The

,,

a word most frequently used for the

serpent ^HH^, which is a most frequent determinative of the name, is an additional reason for identifying

source of the Nile.

this

god with the Nile
texts,

:

a conclusion which seems fully justified
a/vwv\ AAAAAA
,

by the Pyramid
describe

which speak of him as Water
n TV

and

him
I,

as

\\

<^4.

a V\ J

j*

,

" of

many

windings."

(See Pepi
19.

341 and 487.)

This Devourer has the same functions as the strange animal
^^.
fl

called
Stasia.

V\

^^ ^ J^
Red

Amemit
add

in

the pictures of the Psycho-

The

later scholia

that the

Devourer comes from the
other names,

'basin of Punit,' the

sea.

They add

C^

Mates

'

Flint,'

"stationed at the gate of Amenta," and

j

<^^^

I

y

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The
XIV,
\^
\

4/

explanation which
of
-

M. Maspero has
\>
I

recently given (P.S.B.A.
,

xiA

the

word

V\

^^

as

connected with
the scholia
in

k\

'

health,'

receives confirmation

from

the papyri, according to which

Thoth not only delivered the Eye
it,

from the

veil

of darkness which oppressed

but carried

it

off

?I

n

'^^
]

O ^^ ^^
is

'

in

life,

health and strength, with-

out any damage.'
14.

Mehurit

explained in the ancient scholion as 'the Eye,'

but

it is

really the Sky,

from which the Sun
(if it

is

born

daily.

The

sign

of plurality after Mehurit

daily succession of the skies
15.
it
'

means anything) only whence Ra is born.
is

indicates the

The

'coffined

One' ^37^-^^—'^^

of course Osiris, as

is

plainly stated in the later scholia,

which further add that the
they read
'

Seven glorious ones' who follow the
is

coffin, or, as

it,

" their

Lord," are to be sought in the constellation of
northern sky,' that
in the
set,

the Thigh in the

seven stars of the Great Bear.

These
Pole.
It

stars
is

never

but are perpetually revolving round the

therefore evidently with the Polar Star that

we must

identify the coffin of Osiris.

The names
;

of the Seven Glorious ones

vary according to the different authorites.
selves receive other mythical forms
their Bull
is

And

these Stars them-

that of the Seven

Cows and
Redto

recorded in the 148th chapter.
or the
'

Names

like 'the

eyed

'

I—^^—

f^^
stars.

Red-haired
'

'

cow rT\— Ul seem
to abide
in

imply double
[j/vwvAA
1 1

The

'

Red-eyed
'

is

said

1

'

house of gauze

(perhaps a cobweb).

The
hither "
!

papyri add the important note that the " day of
represents the
!

moment
read, "

"

when

Osiris says to

Come thou Ra, Come
speaker

thou hither"

or, as

some

Come

thou to me."
in

The

adds that he sees the meeting of the two gods
16.
'

Amenta.

B?

^

possessor of completeness, integrity, hence
is

inviolate.'

This name

given to Osiris

when

restored to his

first

condition after having been dismembered and cut into pieces.

The
3.

god

is

called

Ra-Tmu-Neberi' er

in

the great Harris papyrus, 15,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

49
2, is

J '^^ '^^
first

or

.

Q^ Baba,

who, in ch. 63,

described as the
the deceased

born of

Osiris.

He

is

a terrible god from

whom

prays in ch. 125, 36, to be dehvered.

His name impHes 'one who

searches or probes thoroughly,' as a digger or miner.
are his functions at the

And

such

judgment of the dead.
tesem^ a
*

Instead of
sau, a sheep.
20.

—»— 'V^
p

hound,'

La

reads

1

(1

^ '^?^

The \

..£. iLa is known as signifying violent treatment by beating, and has been illustrated by Chabas and Goodwin. See
'^^^ ^o''^
Zeitschr., 1874, p. 62.

^ ™
hide.'

Mesqat

is

a

^^n
A
hcp^ia
'

'

a place of scourging.'

In the 72nd chapter the deceased prays that

he

may
'

not perish at the Mesqat.
'

kindred word
(]]

P zl

'^ Mesqa
ourselves

signifies

a

We

can understand the connection between
'

hipw

flay,

cudgel, thrash

and
'

a hide.'

And we
But

have the familiar phrase of
well
as

giving a hiding.^
at

purification as
It
is

punishment was found

the

heavenly mesqat.
(6, 3)

mentioned in the Harris Magical papyrus
thing.

simply as a heavenly
is

In the more recent scholia the purifier

said to be Anubis,
Osiris.

who

is

behind the chest containing the remains of

After the scholion which has just been translated the early texts pass on to the i8th chapter.

For the

rest of the chapter

we

are compelled to follow the texts

of the papyri.

The

character of this portion differs considerably

from the former

part,

and

is

clearly

an addition.
" I
is

The
Isis,"

speakers
" I was
finally

rapidly succeed each other.

conceived by
"I

Isis,"

" Isis

am Tmu," destroyeth what in me
" I

am

wrong," and

am

Uat'it."

21. Cher-abat

and Heliopolis

like all the localities

here mentioned

are in heaven not

upon

earth.

22. Uat'it is literally 'the pale one,' a

name

of the

Dawn.

But

here the fiery
23.

dawn
1

is

spoken

of,

^ws

(piXo^epa, 7rvpc'l3po/io^.

Hemen

"^i^

t\^

is

a divinity seldom,

if

ever,

mentioned

after the "

Middle Empire."

In the Pyramid texts he has a Snake

(the River) in his hand.

H

50
24.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The
last line

of the chapter has sufifered in

all

the best papyri.
is

See M. Naville's
unfinished.

collation.
later papyri

In the papyrus of Ani the chapter

The

end the chapter by saying
in

that "

it

has

been granted to the speaker by those who are
fire

Tattu to destroy by
is

the souls of his adversaries."
in

This consummation

already

found

La.

'

CHAPTER
The An-mdut
I

XVIII.

\_Iniroductory?^

(i) saith:


Heaven, upon
of offence
!

come

to you, ye Great Circles of gods (2) in
I

Earth and in the World below

bring to you

N void

towards any of the gods, grant that he

may be

with you daily.

Glory to
in the

Osiris,

Lord of Restau, and

to the great
:

gods who are

World below.

Here

is

N who

saith

— Hail
am
;

to thee, Prince
to thee with

of Amenta, Unneferu

who

presides! in Abydos, I
I

come

Righteousness

;

without sin upon me.
;

not knowingly a
grant

speaker of wrong

I

am

not given to duplicity

me

Bread,

the right of appearance at the tables of the Lords of Maat, entering
in

and going out of the Netherworld, and

that

my

soul

may

not

suffer repulse in its

devotion to the orb of the Sun and the vision of

the

Moon-god

for ever.

PLATE

VIII,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

O

Papyrus of Ani. Introduction to Chapter XVIII.

Leyden Papyrus.

Chapter XVIII.

Papyrus Busca. Naville, " Book of the Dead."

PLATE

IX.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter XVIII.

Bkugsch, "Thesaurus,"

Vol. V, p. iioo.

Chapter XIX.
E.

Papyrus du Louvre, 440.

DE RouGK, "

I^tudes sur le Rituel Funtiairc," p. 14.

Chapter XIX.
E.

Papyrus du Louvre,

3079.

DE Rouge, "Etudes

sur Ic Rituel Funeraire," p. 13

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The Se-meri-f saiih
I
:

5


and
I

come

to you,

O

Circle of gods in Restau,

bring to you A'
in

Grant to him Bread, Water, Air and an allotment hotepu like Horus.
Glory to
Restau.
will,

the Sechit-

Osiris, the
is

Here

Lord of Eternity and to the Circle of gods in A'' and he saith I come to thee, I know thy
:

and I am furnished with thine attributes of the Tuat. Grant me an abiding place in the Netherworld by the Lords of Maat, my permanent allotment in the Sechit-hotepu, and the receiving of
cakes before thee.

[Litany.]
1.

let

N

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest
before the Circle of gods

Oh

Osiris triumphant over his adversaries,

and the Great Circle of gods in Heliopolis, on that Night of the Eve's Provender {^ and the Night of Battle when there befel the Defeat of the Sebau, and the Day of the
about
Osiris

Ra and about

extinction of the adversaries of the Inviolate god.

The Great

Circle of gods in Heliopolis

is

of

Tmu, Shu and

Tefnut, and the Sebau
associates of Sut
2.

who were

defeated and extinguished were the
his assault. his adversaries,

on the renewal of

Oh Thoth who

makest Osiris triumphant over
over
his

let

A''

be made triumphant

adversaries, even

as

thou

makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Tattu, on the Night wherein the Tat is set up in Tattu. (4)

Nephthys and Horus the Avenger of his Father and they who set up the Tat They are behind are the two arms of Horus, Prince of Sechem.
is

The Great

Circle of gods in Tattu
;

of Osiris,

Isis,

Osiris as bindings of his raiment.

makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let A^be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of o^ods in Sechem on that Night of the Eve's Provender in Sechem.
3.

Oh Thoth who

The Great Circle of gods in Sechem is of Horus and Thoth, who is of the Great Circle of An-arer-ef. The
Eve's Provender
is

in the

Dark, (5)

the

dawn upon

the Cofifin of Osiris.

H

2

52
4.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Oh

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let iVbe made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of

gods in Pu and Tepu,

on that Night of erecting the flag-staffs him as heir of his Father's property. of Horus, and The Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu is of Horus, Isis, Emsta, Hapi and the pillars of Horus are erected when Horus saith to those who follow him "let the flag-staffs be erected there."
(6)

of establishing

;

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let TV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of
5.

Oh

gods of the
watching

Two

P>.egions* of Rechit,

on that Night when

Isis lay

in tears over

her brother Osiris.

The Great
Isis,

Circle of gods

on the

Two

Regions of Rechit

is

of

Nephthys, Emsta and Hapi.

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Abydos on the night of Hakra, (7) when the evil dead are
6.

Oh

N

parted
its

off,

when

the glorious ones are rightly judged,

and joy goeth

round

in Thinis.

The Great
7.

Circle of gods in

Abydos

is

of Osiris, Isis and Apuat.

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest let Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods on the Highway of the Damned, (8) upon the Night when

Oh

N

judgment

is

passed upon those

who

are

no more.

The
Thoth,

Great Circle of gods on the Highway of the
Osiris,

Damned

are

Anubis and Astes.

And judgment
is

is

passed on the

Highway

of the

Damned when

the suit

closed! against the souls

of the Children of Failure.
8.

Oh

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries.

The
of

later recensions read

.

The

first

Ccff.n

Mentuhotep

{Aelteste Texte, 4, 61) has the phonetic

Ij

c=^:3

J

.

t Literally, " when the things

,

w
Ill

,

are shut up."

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
let

53
even as thou makest

iVbe made triumphant over
at the

his adversaries,

Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of

gods

Great Hoeing in Tattu, on the Night of Hoeing in their
Circle of gods at the Great

blood and effecting the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries.

The Great

Hoeing

in Tattu, (9)

the associates of Sut arrive, and take the forms of goats, slay before the gods there, while their blood runneth
is
;

when them

done according
9.

to the

judgment of those

down and this gods who are in Tattu.
his adversaries,

Oh

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over
his adversaries,

let

TV be made triumphant over
in An-arer-ef

even as thou makest

Osiris

triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of

gods

on the Night of Hiding him who
is is

is

Supreme

in

Attributes.*

The Great
Osiris,
is

Circle of gods in An-arer-ef

of Shu, Babai,

Ra and

and the Night of Hiding him who
there are at the Coffin,

the

when Leg
10.

Supreme of Attributes the Thigh, the Head, the Heel and

of Unneferu.

Oh

let

JV be

Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou

makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Restau on the Night when Anubis lieth (10) with
his

hands upon the objects behind

Osiris,

when

Osiris

is

made

to

triumph over his adversaries.

The Great Circle of gods in Restau is of Osiris, Horus, and Isis. The heart of Horus rejoiceth, the heart of Osiris is glad and the two Parts | of Heaven are satisfied when Thoth effecteth the triumph of IV before these ten Great Circles about Ra and about
Osiris

and the Circles of gods attached
that

to every

god and every

goddess before the Inviolate god.

All his adversaries are destroyed

and

all

was wrong

in

him

is

also destroyed.

Zei the person say
will,

this chapter^ he will be ptirified

and come forth

by day, after his death,

and

take all fori7is for the satisfaction of his

and

if this chapter be recited over

him, he will be prosperous upon

earth, he tvill come forth safe from every fire,

and

tio

evil thing will

approach hijn

:

with undeviating regularity for times

i^ifinite.

(11)

1

\\ JT
J


I I
I

'

54

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

The
'

eighteenth chapter

is

one of those found

in the earhest
'

copies of the Book of the Dead, on the wooden coffins of the Old and Middle' Empires the most complete ancient copy being on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the eleventh dynasty.
;

It consists of

a Litany addressed to Thoth,

who
Each

is

invoked for
petition

securing the triumph of the departed against

his adversaries in

presence

of

the gods

of certain

localities.

has

reference to

some mythological

event,

and

is

supplemented by the

enumeration of the gods constituting the divine company presiding at the locality named, and sometimes by a short comment on the

myth
sions,

referred to.

The

order of petitions

is

somewhat

different in the later recen-

and the

text has suffered other alterations.
this

Copies of

chapter are extremely numerous, particularly in

the later periods.

The
Ani.

chapter really begins with the petitions to Thoth.
is,

The

preceding portion

as far as I

know, found only
text

in the

Papyrus of

But

as the vignette which belongs to this portion has a place

in the great

Leyden Papyrus of Kenna, the
It
is

cannot have been
valuable
as

confined to a single manuscript.

particularly

illustrative of the ritual use of portions of the
I.

Book

of the Dead.
to the

The deceased person

is

supposed to be presented
fn
|

gods
,

by two

priests in succession,

one called An-maut-ef
Se-vieri-f.

^ A\ k^^
titles

and the other
Horus, and
titles
;

^\

<:==>

Both names are

of

it is

the usual thing for Egyptian priests to bear divine

their

ritual

observances
of

being

dramatic

and

symbolical
literally

representations of the actions of the gods.
signifies
'

An-matit-ef

column
A/wvsA

(support)

his
'

mother.'

Horus
of
in

is

called

"^TV

^
^,

^^"^^

\^

the

An-maut-ef
I, p.

the

Great

Company
III,

of the gods' (Mariette, Abydos,

34),

and

Denkmiihr,

206

he

is

called the
*

An-maut-ef of

Osiris (cf Abyd. II, 54).
this

Se-me7-if signifies

the

Beloved Son,' and the priest of

name
to
his

in the funereal rites personified

Horus

in his dutiful offices
is

father Osiris.
'

I

do not know why ^:v^<=:=r>
loves him,' instead of
'

always

translated

the son

who

the son he loves,'

BOOK OF THE DEAD,
which
loves
'
'

55

is

the right meaning.
'

j

<::ii>

is

'

the place which he
<r:=>
is

not

the place which loves him.'

And

similarly

the wife
2,

whom
is

he

loves,' not

'

wh

)

Icves him.'
i,

There
1

a short note (6) on chapter

upon the word

i!i1
The
that

,

but the present seems to be the suitable place for a
of this feminine word, which
in
A A

more extended notice noun, and never found
ancient form
is

is

a collective

any other sense.

O^^ Jj

i

renders

it

more than probable
\

not phonetic in the later form, but that as in
\

Aa/,

originally
vessel, to
is

(whence the Coptic KOT", KCJOTG, a
it

circle, a

round

go round),

is

ideographic of roundness.

This concept

certainly to

be found

in the

word

H ^,
The

ihe Coptic

XUJX

,

a

head

(or rather top

of the

head), as in
vertere.

the Latin vertex, akin to
sign \
its
,

vortex,

from the same root as

which

in later

texts often appears as the determinative, has

origin in the cursive

form of + carelessly

written.

Instead of

"-h

i

we

also

find |J,

which

is

certainly not phonetic but ideographic of enclosure, as in
()

the word
in the

<ci

1^

y

a wall, paries, epKOf.

This word occurs already

Pyramid Texts under the form |,|,q. See Pepi I, 571, which M. Maspero renders la Grande E?iceinie d'On.' The evident
'

etymological relationship to the Coptic

XCDX

has led some scholars
chiefs, princes.

word as though the lexicons give dux and
to translate the Egyptian

signifying
priticeps

But

as

meanings of the

Coptic word, these are but secondary applications of head.

We
And

have to

enquire why X(A3X means
is

head, or top of the head.

the reason

its

roundness, as indicated by the ideographic signs

OorO.
The
old Egyptian word
\ \

O^
in
It is

i

invariably

implies an
its

as-

sociation of persons,
I translate
it

and

this is

why

consequence of

etymology

as

'

Circle of gods.'

synonymous

{cf.

chapter 41,

note 8) with
3.

©^1.
,

The Eve's Provender. Later authorities read
Provender of the
altars,'

w'^

,

T

\\

^

/i

'

the

'

but this

is

a corruption of the ancient

56

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
T *^^ V^"""^'
^^'h'ch

had probably ceased

to

be

intelligible.

I

I

I

According to
way.

this pantheistic

system the deceased through his identi-

fication with the

And
r\

this is

gods disaj^pear
iii
,

Sun absorbed and consumed all that came in his expressed in somewhat brutal style. Men and before Unas, he makes his breakfast at dawn
great gods, his dinner

— upon
and

upon gods of middling

quality

^\,
,

'hi5 supper at

even'
I

('^®JQ^%T^
is

upon the
variant of

mmor

deities,

<crr>o.

the ancient dialectic

^ ^, which however is really the older form. This III word which means things has, like the Latin res, a wide applica'
'

tion.
4.

It frequently

means J'ro/>erfj,

estate,

and sometimes

suit.

On

the last day of the

month of Choiak

the great solemnity of

setting

up the Tat

W

as the

symbol of Osiris was observed down to Ptah

the latest periods.
at

The

tablets of Pasherenptah, high priest of

Memphis, speak of
'

this great dignitarj' as the king's

second or

deputy in

Raising the Tat.'
1190), copied

But Brugsch has published a picture

{Thesaurus, V,

by Dr. Erman from a tomb of the
III himself helps to raise
princesses take part in the

Amenophis XVIIIth the Tat, and the queen Ti and the royal
dynasty, in which

ceremony.

The

procession

is

described as marching four times

round the sanctuary of Ptah-Seker-Osiris.
5.

See Plate IX.
,

my

in the Dark, or Blindness, or Invisibility .<2>-<s>note, Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., June, 1886.

On Horus

see

6.

Pu and Tepu
which
is

are

named

together in the earliest texts as one

locality,

recognised by Brugsch as the metropolis of the

northern
7.

nome

called by the Greeks ^Oevon]^.
'

The
great
'

feast of

^

derives

its

name, as Goodwin supposes

with

probability,

from

the

words

[^

V\

^

«

<rr>

W

ha-k-er-a,

Come
at

thou to me,' said of a legendary incident like
the end of note 15 on chapter 17.

that

mentioned
j~[]

The

early

papyri read

V\

QA

but this

is

no objection, the

sign g7\
its

being here the determinative of the entire group which gives

name

to the feast.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
8.
'

57
those

\^^
The

<=i

Vik

=^
is

I

literally

the dead, that

is

who have died

the second death.'
9.

vignette

given by

M.

Naville from the tracing taken by
It

Lepsius of the

now

lost

Papyrus Busca.
text at

represents

'

the Great

Dendera (Mariette, torn. IV, pi. 39) contains directions to be observed on the festival commemorative of the ancient myth. Two black cows are put under a

Hoeing

in Tattu.'

The long

yoke of

[1
I

Q

cun

wood, the plough

is

of tamarisk

wood and
head

the

share of black bronze.

The plougher goes

behind, with a cow led
its
is

by a

halter.

A

little

child with the lock

^

attached to

to

scatter the seed in the field of Osiris, a piece of land of

which the
is

dimensions were given in the text (now imperfect).
at

Barley

sown

one end, spelt at the other, and Cher-heb in chief recites the Office
10.

flax

for the

between the two. And the Sowing of the Field.
the later ones

The

older texts have

n.

«^j^

lie,

^

lay.

11.

In the formula

^

^^-^ ''q^j 5
ses

^^^ '^

"the measuring

line

used by builders, and em
Schnur,'

signifies

'ad amussim,' 'nach der
the
line,'

'au

cordeau,'

'according

to

hence 'with the
'

strictest accuracy.'

the line of

Maat

'

Hibbert Lectures, 1879, p. 121. According to means 'with undeviating regularity.'

CHAPTER
Tmu

XIX.

Chapter of the Crown of Triumph.

Thy

Father

hath prepared for thee

this beautiful

Crown of

diadem which the gods love, that thou mayest Triumph, live for ever. Osiris, Prince of Amenta, maketh thee to triumj^h over thine adversaries. Thy Father Seb hath decreed that thou should be his heir, and be heralded as Triumphant, Horus son of Isis and son of Osiris, upon the throne of thy Father Ra, through
the living the defeat of thine adversaries.
Earths, absolutely

He

hath decreed for thee the
(i).

and without condition
the son of Isis

And

so hath

Two Atmu

decreed, and the Cycle of the gods hath repeated the glorious act of
the triumph of

Horus

and the son of

Osiris foi ever

and

ever.
I

58

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Osiris, the Prince of

Amenta, the

Two

all

gods and
effecting

all

goddesses who are in

Heaven united, heaven and upon earth join
Parts of
Isis

in

the

Triumph

of

Horus the son of
the

and son of
in

Osiris

over his adversaries

before

Great Circle of gods

Heliopolis,

on the

Nig/it, etc.

Horus repeateth the proclamation four
fall

times.

All the adversaries

and are overthrown and slaughtered.

N repeateth the proclamation four times, and
fall

all his

adversaries

and are overthrown and slaughtered.

Horus son of
of festivals, and
slaughtered.

Isis
all

and son of Horus repeateth an

infinite

number

his adversaries fall
is

down, are overthrown and

Their abode

transferred to the slaughtering block

of the East, their heads are cut away, their necks are crushed, their
thighs are lopped
off,

they are given to the great Annihilator

who

resideth in the Valley (2) that they

may

not ever escape from under

the custody of Seb. (3)

This chapter

is

said over a consecrated croum placed

z/poti

the face

of the person, and thou shalt put incense upon the flame, for deceased), effecting his triufnph over ail his adversaries, whether
or Living, that he

N

{the

Dead

may
at

become one of the followers of Osiris.

And
god
ivith

there shall be given to

him drink and food

in presence of this
is it:

Thou

shall say

it

dawn

twice

;

A

great protection

undeviating regularity for times

ififnite.

Notes.

The

nineteenth

chapter

is

a

very
it,

recent

recension

of

the

eighteenth.

The MSS.
garlands
or
I,

containing
It

as far as
its

we know,

are not

older than the Greek period. of placing
floral
first

derives

origin from the piactice

crowns upon the mummies.
writes, "

1 he

mummy

of

Aahmes

the

king of the eighteenth dynasty, whtn

found "portait au cou," M. Maspero
fleurs roses

une guirlande de

jolies

de Delphinium

orientate."

Remains of such crowns
details I

are

to be found in our

Museums.

For farther

must

refer to

an

excellent
]*ieyte of

paper entitled

La Couronne
volume
in

de la Justification, by Dr.
of the Transactions of the

Leyden,

in

the second

Oriental Congress held at

Lc\den

1884; and see Plate VHI.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
^j^.

59
is

This adverbial expression
.

apparently conit

nected with
f'lTTOTo^itv^,

Xj]-jj.

^'^^^

and

I therefore

understand

in the

sense of

praecisi, absolutely,

without condition.
of

'A
(148,
3.
2).

^

the

Valley

Darkness (Todt., 130,

6)

and

Death, " whose secrets are absolutely

unknown

"

'^
'

X
''

-JI-.
.

'

^

D\\\

%

^

%2

That

is

they shall remain interred for ever.

CHAPTER
The
twentieth chapter
it

XX.

Triut}iph, but

is

Another Chapter of Cro7on of simply a tabulated form of chapter 18, with
is

entitled

the Rubric.

Let

water of natron,

forms according

andpurify himself with he 7vill come forth by day after death, and take all to his wish, afid escape from the fire. With unthe person say this Chapter,

deviating regularity for times infinite.

The

earliest

example of

this

tabulated form of the chapter

is

found on the Berlin Sarcophagus

of Mentuhotep.

DiJMicHEN

;

Tempelinschriften, LXXV,

I

2

6o

COOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby
the

XXI.
is

month of a person
Netherivorld.

given to him in the

Hail to thee, Lord of Light,
is

who

art

Prince of the
I

House which
to thee glori-

encircled by Darkness

and Obscurity.

am come

fied

and

purified.
is

My

hands are behind thee; thy portion
thee, (i)

that of those

who have

gone before
Give
heart at

me my mouth
its

that I

may speak whh

it

\

and guide

(2)

my

hour of Darkness and Night.

Notes.

The

oldest papyrus containing this chapter
is

is

that of Ani,

and
from

the translation

based upon

it.

But the

text differs both

those written on the very ancient coffins of Pleru and Set-Bastit,

copied by M. Maspero,* and from the later

texts.
first

The second paragraph seems
and
third being

to

be spoken by the god, the

from the deceased.
" is
is

"

My

hands are behind thee

a formula implying protection.

On
"

the coffins the invocation

addressed not to " Osiris, Lord
,

of Light " or " Radiant

One " ^^37 ^m-.

but to the <=s='

\r

^

,

one whose head

is

clothed with radiant white, of the

House of

Darkness and Obscurity."
Instead of

l^fCj^
but

"obscurity" the
I

coffin

has

[t]

"^

without

a

determinative,

JTj

(1

[

^'

shows what the word

means.

This ancient text continues
purified
;

— " Come thou
Give

to

me,

glorified

and

let

thy hands [here the text
ft

is obliterated],

shine thou with
that

thine

head

^^,^

^1, „^::=^)-

me my mouth
and
223.

* Mission Archeologique Fraiifaise,
unfortunately incomplete on both coffins.

II,

p.

216

The

text

is

PLATE

X.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter XXVIII. Chapter XV.
Papyrus of Ani.
Papyrus, Leyden, T.
i6.

^i

^

Chapter XXVIII. Nicholson, " Egyptiaca."
Chapter XXII.

Tomb

of Bekenrenef.
Ill, Bl. 267.

Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Abth.

Chapter XXIII.

Tomb

of Bekenrenef.
Bl. 260.

Chapter XXII.

Papyrus of Ani.

Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Al>th. Ill,

ff^^^^P^

Chapter XXIII. Papyrus, British Museum,

Chapter XXIV.
9900.

Papyrus of Ani.

PLATE

XI.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter XXII. Chapter XXIII,

Lepsius, " Todtenbuch,"

^^s^
k"^:^

17, Vignette.

Chapter XXVII.

^^j^
Sarcophagus of Seti
I.

Papyrus,

Mus^e du

Louvre, III, 36.

Chapter XXVII.

Chapter XXVII.

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre,

III, 89.

Papyrus of Ani.

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

6
glorious roads which

may speak
The Turin

with

it,

and guide me on the

are in heaven,"
text
is

very corrupt, and parts of

it

are incapable of

translation.

2.

" Let

me

guide," according to the Ani Papyrus,

But the

later (hieratic) texts

have the second person n '=^^.

V^

A

which

is

more

correct.

CHAPTER
Another Chapter whereby him in
I

XXII.
is

the

Mouth of a person

givsn

to

the Netherworld.

Egg which is in the unseen world, (i) Let there be given my mouth that I may speak with it in presence Let not my hand be repulsed of the great god, Lord of the Tuat.
shine forth out of the

by the Divine Circle of the great god.
I

am

Osiris, the

Lord of Restau, the same who
do the
will
I

is

at the

head of

the Staircase. (2)
I

am come
I

to

of

my

heart,

out of the

Tank

of

Flame, which

extinguish

when

come

forth. (3)

Notes,
This
is

one of the chapters of which the text certainly belongs

to the earliest epoch.

the coffin (2)

one of those copied by Wilkinson from of Queen Mentuhotep. In the Papyrus of Ani it is
It is
its

followed by chapter 21 as

conclusion, and both chapters are

appended
I.

to chapter

i,

before the rubric belonging to that chapter.

The Egg

in the

unseen world
It
is

is

the globe of the

Sun while
has

yet

below the horizon.

only through a mistranslation of
'

chapter 54, 2 that the Indian notion of a been ascribed to the Egyptians.

Mundane Egg
who

'

The

17th chapter addresses

"Ra

in

thine Egg,

risest

up

in thine orb,

and shinest from thine Horizon."

Gz
2.

BOOK OF
See the picture of Osiris

TIIK DEAD.
at

the head of the Staircase, which
I

is

here given (see Plate XI) from the alabaster sarcophagus of Seti
the

in

Soane

Museum.

Similar

pictures
c^

are
i,

given

on

other

sarcophagi.

The gods on

the stairs are called

-

h

^\
A

^,
Abydos,

'the Divine Circle about Osiris.'

The

'Staircase oi the great god'

c£L1

at

is

frequently mentioned on the funeral stelae.
3.

The Tank of

Flame.

See chapter
after the

i,

note 15.

The

red

glow of the Sky disappears
said to " extinguish the

notion
off the

is

expressed in

Sun has risen, he is therefore Flame he has come forth. The same the myth according to which Horus strikes
" after

head of

his mother.

CHAPTER

XXIII.
is

Chapter 'whereby the Mouth of a fersoti
Netherworld.

opened for him in the

He

saith

:

Let

muzzles which are

my mouth be opened by upon my mouth be loosed
full

Ptah,

and

let

the

by the god of

my

domain,

(i)

Then
and and
let let

and equipped with Words of Power,* him loose the muzzles of Sutu which are upon my mouth, Tmu lend a hand to fling them at the assailants.
let

Thoth come,

Let

my mouth

be given to me.

Let

my mouth

be opened by

Ptah with that instrument of

steel (2)

wherewith he openeth the

mouths of the gods.
I

am

I

am

Sechit (3) Uat'it who sitteth on the right side of Sahit encircled by the Spirits of Heliopolis.t
all

Heaven

:

And

the

Words

of Power, and

all

the accusations which are
:

uttered against

me — the

gods stand firm against them

the cycles of

the gods unitedly.
*

^

U ^ ^ ^1

[.

+

Tmu, Shu and

Tefnut.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.
1.

63

Osiris.

On

the sense of

j

-/|

,

literally

'the

god of t>e

domain,' see the articles of M. Naville and Professor Piehl, Zeitschr..
1880, 146
;

1881, 24 and 64.

I

hold with Dr. Piehl that the domain
is

meant
2.

in this

formula

is

Abydos, and that the god
*

Osiris.

The word

here translated

steel
et

'is

1

(

"^

,

upon which
the Melanges

see

M.

Deveria's dissertation, "

Le Fer

I'Aimant

" in

(T Archeologie

Egyptienne

et

Assyrienne, tome

I, p. 2.

A

description of the Ceremonies of the

Opening of the Mouth

as performed at the
translation.
3.

tomb

will

be found

in the Introduction to this

The name
Pyramid
texts

of this goddess

is

phonetically written

1

Siit

in the

texts of

Unas

(1.

390), where the
.

Murray Papyrus
Sechemet

and other
is

have the ordinary y

The
XII,

reading
p.

indefensible.

Cf. Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch.,

365.

CHAPTER

XXIV.
to

Chapter ichereby the Words of Forcer ate brought
Netiieriooild.
I

a Person in the

am

The

Chepera, the self-produced, on his Mother's thigh. (1) speed of bloodhounds is given to those who are
to those

in

Heaven,* and the mettle of hyaenas(2)
Divine Circle.
Lo,
I

who belong

to the

bring this

my Word
in

of Power, and

I

collect this

Word

of

Power from every quarter hounds of chase and more

which

it

is,

more

j^ersistently (3)

than

swiltly than the Light.
is

O
free

thou

who

guidest the Bark of Ra, sound

thy rigging and

from disaster as thou passest on to the Tank of Flame.
Lo,
I
it

collect t this
is,

my Word

of Power from every quarter

in

which

in behalf

of every person

whom

it

concerneth,

more

Nil.

T <--=>i

,

64
persistently than

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
hounds of chase and more
swiftly

than Light

;

the
to

same

(4)

who
;

create the gods out of Silence, or reduce

them

inactivity

the

same who impart warmth

to the gods.

Lo,
it is,

I collect this

my Word

of

in behalf of every person

whom

Power from every quarter in which it concerneth, more persistently

than hounds of chase and more swiftly than the Light.

Notes.
This
is

another of those chapters of which the antiquity

is

proved by the coffins of
even in the early

Horhotep and Queen Mentuhotep. And times to which these coffins belong it must have

In the translation here been extremely difficult to understand. given I have adhered as closely as possible to the oldest texts, but
these, as the variants show, are not entirely trustworthy.
1.

Thigh.

This

is

the usual translation, which accords with the

frequent pictures of the goddess Nut, as the Sky, with the divine

Scarab in the position described.*

But

V\ <^:>
;

^

signifies that

which

r/^« J,
is

from

^
Dead
it

^
M.

udr.^

ran, fugere

and the noun

{the

runner)

often applied to running water.

It is the

geographical

name
in the

of a river or canal.

Naville has already pointed out that

Book

of the
is

has for variants

\

^ /wwv^

and

f

1

c^ A^^/w^

of which bath
2.

a

fair translation.

The names

of these two animals (especially of the second)

vary greatly in the texts.

sense of the chapter,

we wish rightly to understand the we must bear in mind that it is not the animals
But
if

themselves that are meant, but the characteristics implied by the

names of the animals.

And

as the Sanskrit vrias, the

Greek

XvKoy-,

the old Slavonic vlnhu, the Gothic v/d/s, and our
the robber, so does the Egyptian

own

wo//, signify

^^

\\\

/s, whether signifying

wolf, wolfho2ind, or bloodhound, indicate sj>efd.

The names

of the second animaZ in the earlier texts, whethtr
j
ft

they stand for hyaenas
chase
I

^^

v'^ttK'

°^

^'^^

other animals of the

C
]

\j\\, imply either sj)ecd or ferocity.

And what must
all

* See also in Plate
later papyri.

XI

the Vignette frcm chr.ptcr 17 in the Turin and

the

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
we understand under
It is

65
to the context.

the latter term

?

We

must look

of a god speaking of himself and of his attributes.

He

is

proud

of them, and certainly does not wish

Nor is it necessary that remember what we learnt at school.
sense.

them to be taken in a bad we should do so. We have only to
juvenum,' the

Cicero {de Sen.,

10, ^t,) contrasts the 'ferocitas

high pluck of the young, with the 'infirmitas puerorum,' and the
'

gravitas'

and

'

matuntas

'

of later periods of

life.

Livy uses the term ferox, in the same sense as Cicero.

What we have
'

to understand

of the Egyptian expression

is,

mettlesome, of high, unbridled

spirit.'

In the later texts the Bennu bird has been substituted
beasts of the chase.
'•^^^^j

for the

but

all

the earlier ones give
often used in a

another word
sense,

^.^w^

or

/^^^

.

This
but
of
it

is

bad

when spoken of
obstinacy,

the

enemy
are,

;

merely implies tenacity,
very

pertinacity,

which

course,

bad things

in

opposition, but in themselves virtues of a high order.*

JD V
I

The word

is

used as a
'

name

for

the

divine

Cynocephali
of Fla?ne.

^^

^^° appear

at sunrise over the Tafik

S ^^

m\

I

;

^he

same who bringeth
to inactivity.

into being the gods out

of

Silence,

or i-educeth them

In addition to

this interesting utterance of
I

Egyptian theology,

we have

to note the idea of Silence

^

^h

as the origin of the

gods, or powers of nature.

The
ro'i's

notion was also current in the
22) speaks
this

Greek world.
of
1]

The

writer of the Philosophiimena (VI,
Trapa

vf.ivovfiivr]

eKelvi^

"EWijffi 2(7?y.

It

was from

source that the early Gnostic Valentinus borrowed this item of his
system.
St.

Irenaeus {Haeres,

II,

14) charges

him with having

taken

it

from the theogony of the comic poet Antiphanes.
* Columella speaks of the "contumacia pervicax boum."

K

66

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER XXV.
Chapter ivhereby a person remetfibereth his name in the Netherworld.

my name be remember my name
Let

given to

me

in the

Great House.
(i)

Let

me

in the House of Flame wherein the Years are counted and the Months

on the Night are reckoned, one

by one.
I

am He who

dwelleth
:

in
if

Eastern side of Heaven
in

and

Heaven, and who sitteth on the there be any god who cometh not

my

train, I utter his

name

at once.

Notes.
I.

Every Egj'ptian Temple being symbolical of Heaven, had
its

its

Great House in^^^lTT] and
as

House

of Flame

€72^"^

'iq'-^'

most sacred adyta

at

the extremity opposite to the entrance.

The

former occupied the central position, like the Ladye Chapel in
latter

our cathedrals, and the

stood by the side of

it.

CHAPTER XXVL
Chapter whereby the Heart
(i) is given to

a person in the Netherworld. Hearts
!

He
Heart
t

saith

:

Heart * mine

to

me,

in the place of

Whole

mine

to me, in the place of

Whole Hearts
rest within

!

but (2) I shall feed upon the food of Osiris, on the eastern side of the mead of

Let

me

have

my

Heart that

it

may

me

;

amaranthine flowers.

(3)

Be mine
ascending.
I

a bark for descending the

stream and another for

go down into the bark wherein thou
there given to

art.

Be
feet for

walking

;

me my mouth wherewith to speak, and my and let me have my arms wherewith to overthrow

my

adversaries.

'

\J

db, 'heart.'

t

2v\

'^''^">

'

whole

heart.'

POOK OF THE DEAD.
:

6/

Let two hands from the Earth open my mouth Let Seb, the Erpa of the gods, part my two jaws (4) let him open my two eyes which are closed, and give motion to my two hands which are powerless and let Anubis give vigour to my legs, that I may raise myself up upon them.
;
:

And may
Heaven and
I

Sechit the divine one
issue

lift

me am

up, so that

I

may

arise in

my

behest in Memphis.

am
I

in possession of

Heart,

am

possession

my Heart, of my arms

I

possession of
I

and

have possession of

my Whole my

legs. (5)
[I

to

my

do whatsoever my Genius willeth, and body at the gates of Amenta.]
Notes.

my

Soul

is

not bound

•0'
I.

The

Egj'ptian texts have two
=0"
I

names
w

for the Heart,

phoneti"^

cally

WTitten
^^.

[
-ill

ab,

and

-^^ O"
Ci

also

written

AW O"
R

and

f

t^ katu*

The two words

are

commonly used synony-

mously, but they are sometimes pointedly distinguished one from
the other.

Etymologically

[I

j

m"

^'^

is

connected with the sense
Kuphla, Kpattrj (8ia to

of lively motion

[1

J

^

ab, like the

Greek

avavarw^ aaXeveaOai) with

Kpacdio

and

Kpatatvw,

Other Indo-

European names, our own heart, the Latin cor {cord-is), the Sanskrit hrd, and the corresponding Slavonic and Lithuanian names have the same origin.

From
in

the orthography of
its

=^ ^
o
W
all

it

seems

to

have been connected

popular opinion with

position in the anterior part of the body.
it

And

from various uses of the word

appears to denote not merely
is

the heart, but the heart with

that

attached to

it,

especially the that air
is is

lungs which embrace

it.

It is for

instance to the

-^^ ^ oW
And
it

conducted according to the medical Papyri.
probable that
0^

not im-

^
I

and

[

«

^T

(^

>

organs of respiration, are

closely connected words.
* This variant already occurs

on the

coffin of

Amamu.

K

2

,

63

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

But perhaps the best argument may be found in the Vignettes of chapter 28, where the two lungs are actually drawn as in the hieratic In others (as papyrus (PL 2) published by Sir Charles Nicholson.
Leyden, T. 16) even the larynx
is visible.

(See Plate X.)
its

The
in a

Italian

word corata
in

is

immortalised through
{Inf.,

occurrence
for

want of a better English term than the butcher's technical \\or6. pluck* I use the expression whole heart.

memorable passage

Dante

XXVIII), but

2.

Btit,
AAAAAA

[
I

I.

This

is

the most frequent reading both in the
«

earhest and in the latest papyri.

But some, texts have simply ^^^^^^^ and others omit the conjunction before which is certainly a mistake, The sense is not much affected by this omission. the verb.
[1
1

signifies if not, unless, until, but, but surely.

Cf. the Semitic

X.

The 7nead of attiaranihine flowers.

©

v\

I

[

\\ vl kaiu
the medical

is

the

name

of a plant which frequently occurs in
It
is

prescriptions.

also mentioned among the aromatic plants

(

X

^\ °°°

W

required in the sacred laboratory of Dendera.
I

One

of the kinds

is

named

kaiu of the Oasis

VN
Jl

C3
I

I

.

It is

rv-^'^

identified with the Coptic

KIOUOT, amara^ithus.
is

In several copies

of this chapter the

name
,

of the plant
is

followed by the geographical

determinative

'j'T'

which

really implied in the context.

Was
and

this mythological
its

'mead

of amaranth' suggested by the Oasis

vegetation
4.

?
is

This sentence

a repetition (in other words) of the preceding

one.

On
[—1

the

title

My
and

chief difficulty
„,

Erpd, see Tratis. Sac. Bibl. Arch., XII, 359. about understanding it as compounded of <=::=>
is

D

,

and

signifying keeper of the Pat, that

of the deceased

(human beings), is that Seb is essentially the Erpd of the gods. Erpd is one of those titles which cannot be translated without
perverting the sense of the original.

* In late Latin coralhivt,
corce, cctaaille.

In Carin

h

whence the Romanic forms corajhe, corata, LcJicrcns we find "la coraille del cuers."

coraiella,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
5.

69

This passage

is

a very frequent formula not only in the
it,

Book

of the Dead, as the papyri give

but in other texts of the same

nature; see,
in
[ ]

e.g.,

Aelteste Texte, 34, 14.
to the

The

next passage included
It

is

an addition

original text.

occurs however in

some

excellent

MSS.

CHAPTER

XXVII.

Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the Netherworld.

upon Hearts, and who pluck out the Whole Heart and whose hands fashion anew the Heart of a person according to what he hath done lo now, let that be forgiven to him by
ye gods
;

O

who

seize

;

you. (i)

Hail to you,

O

ye Lords of Everlasting

Time and

Eternity

!

Let not

Heart be fashioned anew according things said against me.
Let not

my my

Heart be torn from

me

by your

fingers.

to all the evil

Heartof mine is the Heartof the god of mighty names (2), of the great god whose words are in his members, and who giveth free course to his Heart which is within him.
For
this

And most keen of insight {3) is his Heart among Ho to me Heart of mine I am in possession of thee, fall not away from me master, and thou art by me dictator to whom thou shalt obey in the Netherworld.
!

the gods.
I

;

;

;

I

am am

thy
the

Notes.

There is a great difference here as in so many other places between the MSS. of different periods. I long ago translated the
I.

wywv of the Todtenbuch by non ignoretur a
III
vobis,

M. de Rouge,

after

me, by non renuatiir a

vobis.

But

M.

Naville pointed out the fact that in

some of

the oldest

MSS.
is
it

the particle

^

did not occur.

It

now appears
I

that the particle

not found in any of the older MSS., and

have also found

omitted in hieratic papyri.
lated differently,

and

this is

must be possible through a slight change
therefore

The passage

transin the

!

70
interpretation of
vobis.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
® f^
I

from ignorare to ignoscere ; ignoscatur

illi

a

The pronoun
'

^

which
'

in the older texts follows

A/\AAAA

refers to
2.

what he hath done

of the last clause.
is

The god of mighty names
this is the

Thoth, and the
is

later texts

read

"

For
%

Heart of the great god who
'=
'

in

Hermopolis."

° °jp

v\

,

^

R.

.

According to another reading

new, fresh, young, vigorous.

CHAPTER XXVni.
Chapter whereby the Heart of a person
is

not taken

from him

in the

Nethenvorld.

Lion-god
1

am Unbu(i), and what
this

I

abominate

is

the block of execution.

Let not

Whole Heart
!

of

mine be torn from me by the divine
and hast seen Sutu

Champions

(2) in Heliopolis

O

thou

who

clothest (3) Osiris

:

thou who turnest back after having smitten him, and hast accomplished the overthrow
:

This Whole Heart of mine remaineth weeping over
presence of Osiris.
Its strength

itself

in

proceedeth from him,

it

hath obtained

it

by prayer

from him.
1
tlie

and awarded to it the glow of heart at hour of the god of the Broad Face, and have offered the
have had granted to
it

sacrificial

cakes in Hermopolis.
this

Let not
I

Whole Heart
its

of mine be torn from me. (4)

It is

who
it

entrust to you
it

Hearts towards
that

in

and vehemently stir your Whole Sechit-hotepit and the years of triumph over all
place,
all

abhors and taking
after thee.

provisions at thine appointed time from

thine

hand


BOOK OF THE DEAD.
J
\

And this Whole Heart of mine is laid upon the tablets (5) of Tmu, who guideth me to the caverns of Sutu and who giveih me back my Whole Heart which hath accomplished its desire in presence
of the divine Circle which
is

in the Netherworld,
let

The

sacrificial joint

and the funereal raiment,

those

who

find

them bury them.

(6)

Notes.
1.

Unbu,

^^

Jiv'^

^^

^"^^ °^ ^^^

names of the

solar god,

the offspring {Todt.^ 42, 19) of the word unbu means the

Nu and
or

Nut.

As

a

common noun
of flowering

Hawthorn

some other kind

bush.
in the

This god

is

called

4" 1^1^^^^%
39).

'the golden

Unbu'

Pyramid Texts (Teta

the exact sense of this

have no means of determining word, which as an appellative expresses an

We

attribute possessed both

by the Sun and by the

fruit,

foliage,

or

other parts of the tree.
2.

Divine
[I

Champions.
^^^zz:^

Q/^

^^
;

[

[

^3
as
t

\

in

the

earlier

papyri,

^^^

^
\>

I

in the later

and sometimes both readings
certainly

occur in the same MS.

Such determinatives
in the divine

do not

denote very pugnacious qualities
3.

Champions.
the context

Clothest.

1

is

a word of
is

many meanings, and

generally determines which

the right one.

In the present instance
1
1

we have no such

help.

Some

of the

more recent MSS. give

,

the determinative of
4.

clothitig.

M.
:

Pierret here breaks off his translation of the chapter, with

the note

"

La

fin

de ce chapitre

est

absolument

inintelligible

;

les

variantes des manuscrits hieratiques ne I'eclaircissent pas."

Like many other portions of the book
corrupt,

this

chapter

is

hopelessly

and the

scribes did not understand

it

better than

we

do.

They have probably mixed up
grammatical sense.

different recensions without regard to

The deceased

but immediately afterwards we

addresses gods in the plural ,.^^^ III have the singular suffix a.
'^
^

,

.

72

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
5.

Tablets ox records.

^

o'vNc.i

.

See

Z?//.r<r/^r.,

1867,

50.

The word

already occurs in the Pyramid Texts, Pepi

I,

364, in
'

the sense of memory^ ^vwv^ ^
'his

s==5

v\

memory

for
is

man and

his love for the gods.'

But there
which
6.

another word,

^

Y\ilU

{Benkm., Ill, 65

a),

signifies a

stand upon which objects are placed.

The
older

last

words of the Chapter were extremely puzzling to the

scribes of the later periods,

who

altered

them

in ever so

many

ways.

The

MSS. read

-^

^

\ J[

"tT

'^ ms^TVt ° _^
text,

<—^

H^ t::^,

And

this is

borrowed from an ancient

which

may be found on
variants ^/^wv j,

the sarcophagus of Horhotep, line 338.
^^AAAA

The
of the

"^^
it is

of the papyri,

and
is

ZTl

sarcophagus show that

the sacrificial joint which

meant, and

not a verb as the scribes of a later period thought.
they had to discover an object and accordingly

For

^

this

verb
AAAAAA

we
n
1

find -w,^^ j\

XJriTTDIIJ.
manner co nner converted
chapter 29.

9

V\

'
1

I

trod
a

tAei'r caverns.^
.

^

M .X«J. S

was

in like

into

verb.

See

the

introductory

note to

CHAPTER

XXIX.
fiot

Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may in the Netherworld.

be taken

from

hi?n

off
I

Back thou Messenger (i) of thy god! Art thou come to carry by violence (2) this Whole Heart of mine, of the Living. (3) But
Heart of the Living.
fall

shall not surrender to thee this

The gods

have regards to

my

offerings

and

upon

their faces, all together,

upon

their

own

earth.

Notes.

The two most
coffins of

ancient copies of this chapter are found

upon the

AniamUj Plate

XXX, and

of Horhotep, Mission Arch.

.

'

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Franfaise au Caire,
is
t.

'ji

i, p.

157, lines 335-337.
it

the only one of the early period in which
is

The papyrus of Ani occurs. None of these
has been destroyed,

texts

perfect.

A

part of the text of

Amamu

but there remains enough to show that Horhotep has omissions.

And

in the text of

Ani the word
is

^?\ has slipped in

from

the 28th chapter, and

entirely out of place

where

it

now

stands.

The

scribes of a later period

had

to exercise their ingenuity

on

the subject.
hena,

They changed
being
or
(I

V^

hentu into

[]

T

r
it

and

this

itself a

disagreeable word, they prefixed to

a negative

^-''-^

^

1.

Messenger,

\

\J

\t

Vir?

^
as

word used here and elsewhere

in

religious texts in the

same sense
have
|

Tji^"^ an angel, ambassador of
'

God.
of

The

later texts

^
yCA

^^3:7

every god,' by the change

v_^
2.

into \

y
'

By

violence,

^A _M^ nn
z'erso.

<ci

^1
|

.

Cf.
-^

\

A

xl

1

v/
I

v^
1

n ^ L=Z1

Harris Papyrus, 500,
3.

The Living
\

^

Ix

\>

^^

I

^"d saved,
is

in

opposition
sign of a

to the

Dead and damned.
noun.

This plural form

a

mere

common

CHAPTER XXIX B.
Another Chapter of
I

the

Heart ; upon Carnelian.

am

the Heron, the Soul of Ra,

who conduct

the Glorious ones

to the Tuat.
It
is

granted to their Souls to

come

forth

upon the Earth

to

do

whatsoever their Genius willeth.
It is

granted to the soul of the Osiris

N

to

come

forth

upon the

Earth to do whatsoever his Genius

willeih.

L

74

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Note.
Certain chapters having reference to the Heart were written

upon gems* and served as amulets, the 26th upon Lapis-lazuH, the 27th upon green Felspar, the 30th upon Serpentine, and the foregoing chapter upon Carnelian.

M. Naville has called this chapter 29B, as marking its natural Book of the Dead. It is not often found in the Papyri. M. Naville found one copy in the Berlin Papyrus of Nechtuamen, and another traced by Lepsius in Rome from a papyrus now lost. A third copy will be found in the papyrus of Anif in the British Museum. It differs from the two others in " conducting the gods to the Tuat," and by omitting some words for which there was no room
place in the
in the space provided.

CHAPTER XXX A.
CJiapter whereby the

Heart of a person
in the

is

not kept back f?-om him

Netherworld.

Heart mine which

is

that of

my

Mother,

Whole Heart mine which was
hindrance be
a
fall

that of

my coming upon

Earth,
;

Let there be no estoppel against

me

through evidence
;

let

not

made

to

me

by the Divine Circle

(1) let there not

be

of the scale (2) against

me
;

in

presence of the great god, Lord

of Amenta.

Hail to thee. Heart mine
Hail to thee. Liver (3) mine
Hail to you, ye gods
!

Hail to thee, Whole Heart mine,

who

are

on the
glory

side lock, conspicuous
to

by
to

your sceptres,
Nehablcau.

(4)

announce

my

Ra and convey

it

[And lo, though he be buried in the deep deep Grave, and bowed down to the region of annihilation, he is glorified there (5).]
* See a charming article by Professcr Ebers in the Zeitschrifl of 1S80, entitled

" Einige
t

inedita."

PI. 33-

t

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

75

CHAPTER XXX B.
Heart mine which
is

that of
is

my

Mother,

Whole Heart mine which
hindrance be made to

that of

Let there be no estoppel against

my birth, me throu<j;h
fall

evidence,

let

no

me by
who
is

the divine Circle;
at the Balance.
art

thou not against

me

in

presence of him
art

Thou

soundness to

my Genius, who my limbs.

by me, the

Artist (6)

wno

gives

Come

forth (7) to the bliss

* towards which we are bound
(8)

;

Let not those Ministrants
the course of his
life (9)

who

deal with a

man

according to

give a bad odour to
for

my

name.
is

Pleasant for us, pleasant

the listener,

the joy of the

Weighing of the Words.
Let not
lies

be uttered in presence of the great god. Lord of the

Amenta.

Lo

!

how

great art thou [as the

Triumphant one.

(10)]

Notes.
This chapter
scarabs.
is

found not only on papyri but upon innumerable
as represented by
after the

The

differences of text are very great, but the principal

ones

may be considered
off

M.

Naville's

30A and 300.

They branch

from each other

mention of the Balance.

The oldest copy known on a scarab is that of King Sebak-em-saf It is in the British Museum (No. 7876) and of the Xnith dynasty.
has been described by Dr. Birch in his studyt of the " Formulas
relating
to

the heart."

"This amulet," he
insect
is

says,

"is of unusual

shape

;

the

body of the

made

of a remarkably fine green

jasper carved in shape of the

body and head of the insect. This is inserted into a base of gold in shape of a tablet .... The legs of the insect are .... of gold and carved in relief .... The hieroglyphs are incised in outline, are coarse, and not very legible."
I.

The Divine
is

Circle,
||

|

^ J^

1.

This word on the scarab of
1

Sebak-em-saf

written

^

1

,

which shows that h-i—

(a wall

J^J

t Zeilschr., 1870,

p. 32.

L

2

^6
of enclosure)
hieratic,
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
ideographic of the whole word.
4-,

And
to

this sign in
I

when placed upright
place in the later texts.
scale,
-rod

has given

rise

the

,

which

takes
2.

its

Fall of the

*^, .-r-^
^vyoi'.

= the Coptic

piKI

ItO'Jf JUL^.cyi

or the
3.

Greek

/ioTT)}

Liver ; This seems to be the real meaning of

M
"

j=l

4.

These gods are mentioned

in the

Pyramid Texts

in a

passage

closely resembling this
to

one of the Book of the Dead.

They bring

of
are

Unas (line 479) the four Glorious ones who are on the side lock Horus who stand upon the Eastern side of Heaven, and who
;

conspicuous through their sceptres
to

1)

^N

111(
1

They
^;s^ y)'
is

announce
cf.

Ra

the glorious

name
to

of Unas,

and proclaim

OTO), epOYCo) Unas

Neheb-kau."

The

text

of Teta

very imperfect in this place.

The word
designare.

f]

]
is

appears

to

have the sense of

insignire,

This sense

a key to every passage in which the

word

occurs.
5.

The few

early copies of this paragraph are too fragmentary
to furnish a restoration
like

and too contradictory

of the text, which

must have meant something
6.

what
'

is

expressed in this translation.
is

The

Artist,

Q 1\

y c^
that

which

here a

common noun

rather than a proper name.
7.

The deceased
person plural,

addresses his heart, and thereupon speaks in

the

first

we ;

is

you and
I (

I.

8.

The

Mifiistrants.

The

^

[h

'

^^'^^^

^'S^

ofificials

in the

Egyptian court, but here they minister to Osiris in the Netherworld.

They

are

apparently the

same gods who

are

addressed

in

the

27th Chapter as fashionirg the heart of a person according to his

deeds when
9.

living.

The

determinative

O

shows that .1

.1

is

here to be taken

in

the sense of the duration of

human

life,

and the pronominal

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
suffixes
suffix

"jj

M+i

or

is,^^

show whose
g
>

life

is

spoken
is

of.

The

latter

has reference to
in

Mf^JVi- which

^or
The

accordinglv to be

translated

the

singular.

plural

sign

merely indicates a

common
ID.

or collective noun.
the

As

Triumphant

one.

So Aa^ the papyrus of Nebseni.
0^=1
/
I

Another authority (B.M. 7865) quoted by Dr. Birch has like Ra, the Triumphant One.

/

The formula
texts
;

"How

great art thou"! occurs in other primitive
5,

cf.

Aelteste Texte, PI.

lines

7

and

8.

In line 8

it

occurs

twice.

CHAPTER

XXXI.
who come
to

Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed

carry off tlu

Words of Power from a person
Back, in retreat
!

in the Netherworld.

Back, Crocodile Sui
(i)

!

Come
who

not against me,

who
his

live

by the Words of Power,

I utter (2) that

Name
is

of the great god,
;

granteth that two of
is

Messengers* should come
of the other

the

name

of one

Batta

(3),

and the

name
all

Thine Aspect
(5) its
it
;

is
;

Fixed Lata.

(4)

Heaven determineth
that

hour

which concerneth
I
eat,

and

of Power.

and my

teeth

my Word of Power determineth my mouth determineth my Word are like flint, and my grinders are
a watchful eye against this
it off,

like the Cliff of Tuf. (6)

O
Word
thine

thou

who
;

art sitting (7) with

my
by

of Power

do not thou carry
of Power.

O

Crocodile

who

livest

own Word

Notes
This chapter
It
is

but rarely found in the more ancient collections.

was on the

readings of

Queen Mentuhotep, but M. Naville gives the only two early papyri. The later recensions add a text
coffin of

which we

shall find later

on

in

chapter

69,

and which has no

connection whatever with the present chapter.
* See chapter 29, note
i.

^
BOOK OF THE DEAD.
1.

^8

The Words

of

Power are supplied

to the

deceased by Thoth

in

chapter 23.
2.

The Turin
if
l\

text

and those which agree with

it

read "

Do
(j

not

thou utter," as
I

the Crocodile were about to use the

Word

of Power.

read

\ "^ e^^.

The
[\

\ was

first

corrupted into |^, and

|^

was farther improved into

^ —o^
L,

,

which

in its turn necessitated

the addition of a suffix of the second person.
3.

This

one of the
4.

name was changed in the Beni'f. divine Ape J

later texts to the

more

familiar

^^

Fixed Law,

'—^

or

^yT\

'

^^^

central idea of theology

in

Book of the Dead is that of Regularity, whether in permanence or change. Those things alone are divine -which abide
the

unceasingly or which recur
5.

in

accordance with undeviating

rule.

Determineth.

The word

^

(^
r-

^

here, as in other places,
-^

has the sense of circumscribing, as in a circuit
the limits, fixing and determining.
6.

Q,

prescribing

The

Cliff of Tiif

^_ ©,

literally 'his

cliff,'

namely of Anubis,

in allusion to his frequent title "q
7.

^^
to

.

Sitting.

Here

I

follow

Pc and

the papyri generally in reading

/5A

.

The

scribe of

Ca seems

have been thinking of

——
«

vX

Jzl

1 \^ XZ>C

of a well-known magic text (Unas, 320).

CHAPTER XXXn.
Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come
to

carry off the

Words of Power from
Osiris standeth

the glorified in the Nethern'orld.

up upon

his feet; (i)

his

company of gods
this

raise

him

up.

O
live

Son who conversest with thy

father,

do thou protect

Great

one from these four

(2) crocodiles here

who devour

the dead and

by the Words of Power.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
know them by their names and their way who protect his own father from them.
I

79
of living,

and

it

is

I

Back, thou Crocodile of the
Stars. (3)

\\'est,
is

who

livest

on the Setting
hast devoured

What thou

execratest
I

upon me.

Thou
livest

the head of Osiris, but

am

Ra. (4)

Back, thou Crocodile of the East,

who

ujDon those
is

who
I

devour their own foulness.
have come, and
I

AVhat thou execratest

upon me.

am

Osiris.

Back, thou Crocodile of the South,

who

livest

upon

impurities.

What
thee.

thou execratest

is

upon me.

Let not the red flame be upon

For

I

am

Septu. (5)

Back, thou Crocodile of the North,
lieth

who

livest

upon
is

that

which

between the hours
fiery

(6).

What thou

execratest

upon me.
(7)]

Let not thy

water be inflicted upon me.

[For

I

am Tmu.

All things which exist are in

my

grasp,

and those depend upon

me

which are not
I

yet.

am

arrayed and equipped with thy
is

Words
is

of Power,

O

Ra;

with that which
I

above and with that which

below me.

have received increase of length and depth, and fulness of

breathing within the domain of

my
its

father, the

Great one.
in

He
daily.

hath given to

me

that beautiful
is

Amenta

which the

living
it

are destroyed.

But strong

possessor though he faint in

My
The
I

face

is

unveiled,
is

and

my

heart

is

in its place.

Urseus

upon me

daily.
evil things

am

Ra, who protecteth himself, and no

can over-

throw me.

Notes.
This chapter
precedes
it.

is

in

even worse condition than the one which
it

There

are a few scraps of

on a

coffin at St. Peters-

burg which M. Golenischeff assigns to the
only early

earliest

period.

The

MS. which is of any use, Ba^ the Berlin papyrus of Nechtuamon, is here in a very mutilated condition, as may be seen on referring to M. Naville's edition.
I.

Osiris sia7ideth up vpo)i his feet.
its

So

Ba ;

but the coffin

at

St.

Petersburg lends

support to the text of Bekenrenef (of the

!

8o

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
name
of a crocodile
fall

26th Dynasty), which opens the chapter with the

"^^
belly "
2.

"^=5

y

o

-ss=>.

''

Let the Great one

upon

his

The
;

ancient text had only four crocodiles, and only four are
in the

mentioned
eight

text

of Bekenrenef.

The Turin

text speaks of
Saitic text

two

for

each of the cardinal points.

But the

already has two invocations instead of one for each crocodile.
3.

The

sense of this

myth

is

obvious.

Every

star

which

sefs is
It

supposed

to

be swallowed by the Crocodile of the West.
t,

was

stated in note

to chapter

1:5

that the

/

are stars*

Besides the
the
r-

[1

®
1

"^^^

^^
I

'=^^

AA Jr

'

the stars which set and

[


CUOK
is

v,L^

-7f

the circumpolar stars, whose navigation

I

8

s,

is

continuous, there are the

I

®

^

fi

1

whose name

very significant. 8 n

^

and

9

have the sense of
is

turning back,\ and the only stars whose apparent motion
retrograde are iht planets.

ever

All these stars are supposed as divinities to aid in the navigation

of the Bark of Ra.

planetary theory

The Egyptians could not have had a correct (which only became possible through Kepler), but
Eudoxus
his
is

they understood at least that the motions of the planets were regular,

and

that they

depended upon the Sun.
for his theory

reported to

have derived the data
4.

from

Egyptian instructors.
in the later texts.

Instead of
I

Ra
L
ii

the

name

of Sut

is

found

Bekenrenef has

T

*

1

®

"^'^
MV-

^s

a

feminine noun

and proper nan.e

occurb

in

tl.e

Pyramid Texts (Unas, 644).
t Bnigsch has produced excellent evidence for the supposition that
1

if

TT

or

Q'

^

signifies Ihe

nuo (timings of the Sun, that

is

at the solstices,

TT

being the southern solstice and

w

Q

the northern.

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Septu,

8

PA ° %^ J,
7,

A

^,

the 'armed,' one of the Solar
texts

appellations, already found in the

Pyramid

{Unas, 281).

He

appears in chapter 130,
6.

in

connection with the block of execution.

The text

is

here hopelessly corrupt.

M.

Pierret has

'

offrande,'

which he most probably derives from
reading found in

qJI
(jf]
.

or

a

J C^3)

>

^

some

papyri.

But Ba, our oldest authority, has
j-^

-g"^

Mn-.'^ind

Bekenrenef has

D

^

The Turin copy has

]

;

and the context does not help us. Of these four readings (and there are probably others which I do not know) that of Bekenrenef seems
to

me
7.

the best

;

but - - " has so

many

possible applications that

I

will

not venture to suggest one.
[I

am Tmu.]
is

These words are not
fault.

in

Ba, but they occur

m

all

other copies, and the omission of the divine

name which
for

stops

the crocodile

an evident
here,

The chapter ends
our

and what follows

is

an addition But even

which
is

earliest authority is that of

Bekenrenef.

this text

already corrupt, and requires to be corrected by

more recent ones.

CHAPTER XXXni.
Chapter whereby all Serpents are kept back.

Oh
Shu!

serpent Rerek, advance not

!

Here

are the gods

Seb and

Stop

!

or thou shalt eat the rat which

Ra

execrateth,

and gnaw

the bones of a putrid she-cat.

NOTK.
This chapter
resembling
it

is

often found in coffins.

There
tells

is

a chapter

much

in the

tomb of Horhotep
It

(line 364), at least as regards

the opening words.

addresses Rerek and

him
is

that

Shu and

another deity are coming,
allusion, however,
is

and
to the

that the speaker

Horus.

No
typify

made

dead

rat

and

cat.

These

the impurities and abominations to which the
the world to come.

damned

are liable in

M

82

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER XXXIV.
Chapter whereby a person
is

not devoured by the dweller in the

shi'ine. (i)

O
out

Urgeus

!

I

am

eternity, (2)

Flame which shineth, and which openeth the column of Tenpua (3) [otherwise said the
the

column on which

are blossoming plants.]
!

Away from me

I

am

the

Lynx goddess.
Notes.

(4)

I.

It

is

not possible to say what
^•"^^'

is

here

actually

meant by
was a

H/

^^

Every word almost

in this tiny chapter

puzzle to the Egyptian scribes,

who

altered the text in a

hundred

ways.
the

The Turin

text provides against the persons being bitten by
,

Eater of
\r2

the head, as

instead of -

h

f. ^
2.

even Bekenrenef has

it.

Open out Eternity "XJ^

D X

^^ ^1

\.

This

is

the
in

oldest

and

most approved reading even in later times. shineth on the brow of the Glorified ones.'
'

But

Ee the flame

3.

A

quite

unknown
contains

deity
it,

and most probably a mere blunder.

The MS. which

Ca, suggests another reading Tenpua with

'^

,

the determinative of plants.
(j[

This not proving

satisfactory,

-wvAAA

^

-I

vl renpit was

substituted.

But

all

this

was mere con-

jectural emendation.

4.

The Lyjix

goddess,

^^ c-^^
is

)Ny

\)^

Maftit.
it

The name
cat.

of

this deity is generally translated l,ynx,

and

is

certainly applied to

an animal of the

feline species closely

resembling the

But the

notion expressed by the

name

that of swift speed
is

^^
in

\ -A.

(See Diimichen, Rec. lY, 100, where this verb
others of the

parallel with

same
is

sense.)

This deity

again mentioned in the 39th chapter as taking part

in the conflict with the

dragon of darkness, and

it

is

named

in the

strange magic formulae already found in the Pyramid texts.

She

is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
called

8^

-^

c:^:^^
(td.,

L-f
1.

,

(Teta 310), and she apparently

defends the deceased
of

303) against two serpent divinities, one

whom

at least,

rj|

^''^^^

^

T'eser-tepu (praedaro capite),

is

known

to us as

one of the forty-two assessors of Osiris {Todtenbuch,

125-33)-

CHAPTER XXXV.
Chapter whereby the person
is

not devoured by a Serpent in the

Nethenvorld.

Oh
Hathor.

Shu,

here

is

Tattu,

and
to

conversely^

under the wig

(i) of

They
is

scent (2) Osiris.

Here

the one

who

is

devour me.

They

wait apart. (3)

The

serpent Seksek passeth over me.
are
is

Here
Osiris

wormwood

bruised (4) and reeds.

he who prayeth that he may be buried.

The

eyes of the Great

One

are bent down,
is

and he doth

for thee

the work of cleansing; (5) marking out what and balancing the issues. (6)

conformable to law

Notes.

The

translator of this chapter cannot pretend to

do more than

give an accurate

meaning

to

each word.

The

true sense of the

chapter must have been lost

when

the earliest copies

known

to us

were written.
I.

Wig, ^^^7^

^^

.

The

head-dress of the gods

is

one of the

mythical forms of representing the light cloud at sunrise or sunset,
in

which the deity
2.

is pileatiis.

Scent,

^

/

V\

£S

The Egyptian word

is

also

used for

nursifig,

putting

to sleep,

probably through influencing the breathing
is

The
word.

tiose

as a determinative

used in the different senses of the

M

2

84
3.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
They wait apart.

The
is

early

single word,
less

and they defy ~~
H
-

translation.
to

MSS. do not agree here in a The later MSS. are scarcely
rest,

discordant.

®
—^

alight,
-Tl
I

and

this

must
^

also

AAAAAA

/VVWVA
1

be the meaning of

®

>^a^

.

r-pi

^^,

is

connected with

ID

.

ne^
4.

in the

sense of dispersitig, separatittg.

Bruised, or trodden.
fix

There being no

rational context
Si

it

is

impossible to

the sense of a

word

like

^^
The
is

.Jl.

which may

mean
5.
is

either

guard or

bruise by beating or treading dozcm.
o

Cleansing

^

or

~ ?"P
r
n.

result of the process

certainly deansittg, but the operation itself

generally supposed

to

be luashing.

This agrees with the Coptic
is

p^^T

a fuller, of has also

which the old Egyptian form

~1~^

r

n

.

But

pZ^^T

the sense of beating, and the operation
to

is

in

many

countries thought

be one of the most important duties of washerwomen.

With

this
Isis

sense of the word I would connect the names Rechit given to and Nephthys, as signifying 'mourners.' Compare the Greek TvirTcaOai Tiva, KOTrreaOai Tiva, to vioum a pcrsoti, and the Latin

plangere.
6.

Balancing the
is

issues

^\
-^
and
f\

|)

J-,

-

1

^

^
and

.

The

first

of

these words
ing,'

unambiguous.
or
o-/y/'o-(?,

^§\ J\ signifies
like

literally

'

stand-

like

status,

those words

also

signifies

position, situation, condition, circumstances,
issue, the

also the point at

question to be decided.

A
Graece

well

known passage
:

quoted here

in Cicero's Topics (93, c. 35) may be " Refutatio accusationis, in quae est depositio criminis,
dicitur,

<n('iat<i

Latine status appelletur

:

in

quo

insistit,

quasi

ad repugnandum congressa defensio."
Perhaps the passage
in

chapter 30 B,

in

which

" the
-

divine

ministrants are said to deal with a

man"

according to his
life.

1

T:

may have

reference to the circumstances of his
this,

Chapters like

however worthless

in

themselves, contain

small fragments highly illustrative of the ideas of the Egyptians at

an extremely remote period.

PLATE

XII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter XXVIII.
Papyrus, Brocklehurst,
II.

Chapter XXVIII.
Papyrus, Mus^e du Louvre, III, 93,

Chapters XXVI

—XXIX.

Papyrus, Berlin Museum, 22.

Chapter XXX.
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre,
III, 93.

Chapter XXXI.
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre,
III, 89.

Chapter XXXIII.
Papyrus, Leyden Museum, IV.

Chapter XXX\

1.

Papyrus, Leyden Museum, IV.

PLATE

XIII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter XXXVI. Papyrus, Berlin Museum,

Chapter XXXVII.
2.

Papyrus, Cairo, Bulaq, 21.

M
Chapter XXXVIII.
Papyrus, Mus^e du Louvre, Cat. des Medailles.

T7'kl

(S^
Chapter XXX\
111.

Papyrus, Leyden Museum, V.

Chapter XXXIX.

Saqara, Grab
Ill, Bl

24.

Lepsius, "Denkmaler," Abtb.

266.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

85

CHAPTER XXXVI.
Chapter whereby the Apshait
is

kepi ba ck.

of

Away from me, thou with parted lips Shennu, who am bringing the words of
to

!

I

am Chnemu,

the Lord

the gods to Ra.

And

I

announce the news

Nebes.

Note.

The
dpsdit
is

insect called
difficult

T}T}T

V\

[

[

O
is

dpsai or

~d

(J

V~l

of identification.

It is certainly

not a tortoise as
voracious Blatta
it

was formerly thought, but looks rather
orientalis.

like the

papyrus.
.•ecent

The form in Le is The last word of
'^^'-^

peculiar, but I

have met
doubtful.

in a later

the chapter
'their Lord,'

The most

papyri have

which gives a very good
'

sense, but even the

Turin copy has

—#—
|

her Lord

'

which agrees

with the oldest papyrus.
goddess.

Bekenrenef has

j) Nebes, a lion-headed

CHAPTER

XXXVII.

Chapter whereby the Merta goddesses are kept back.
Hail ye Pair of goddesses Merta, Sister Pair, Merta
!

(i) I

inform

you of

my Words
who
I

of Power.

It is I
Isis,

rise

up from the
to see

Sektit boat.
father, Osiris.

I

am Horus

the son of

and

am come

my

Note,

The Pair of goddesses consists of Isis and Nephthys
Rehetd, as the

'

§
,

-W

word
two

is

written at Denderah.

iCi

-<2>-

Merta

signifies

eyes.

86

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER

XXXVIII.

Chapter whereby 07U Uveth by the breath of air in the Netherworldf and keepeth back Merta.
I

am

the god in Lion form

;

the heir of

Ra and Tmu

in

Chem-

mis, (i) the Master in their halls.

accompany me as guides. I have made my way and gone round the heavenly Ocean on the path of the Bark of Ra, and standing on the girders* of the Bark of Ra.
Those who
are in their cells (2)
I utter his

words to the

men
is

of the present generation f and I

repeat his words to
I

him who
father

deprived of breath. (3)
at sunset,

spy out for

my

Ra

compressing

my

mouth,

(4)

and feeding upon

life.

I live in Tattu,
daily.

and

I

repeat

my

life

after

death like the Sun

Notes.

There are two recensions of
the papyrus Lb.
latter
is

this chapter,

They

are called

and both are found in by M. Naville, 38A and 38B. The
all

that
is

adopted as canonical by
the one here translated.

the manuscripts of a later

date,

and

The

other recension

is

longer,

and contains passages which which it accordingly furnishes important
be older than those chapters.
I.

are also found in other chapters, to
variants.
It

may

possibly

In Chemtnis.
is

The name

of the place where Isis gave birth to

Horus
and

in the

Pyramid

texts written
I,

^R\

'HTP

ISQ

®

(Pepi

I,

428),

)^ \\

w

(jMerenra

683), ah-hebit or hebit-ah; but simply

hebit in the texts of the

eighteenth dynasty, as in the annals
pi. 16, line

of

Thothmes III

(Mariette,

Karnak,

47),+ or in the divine

and

Jfl\P^
% Here the king

I

I

I

t T/ie men of the present generation
is

,

the Rehit.
AA/VAAA

compared

to the

god called

® ^

y

^
,

and in the next line

1

^

.

And Thothmes IV [Denkm. HI, 63) is compared

Q

n

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

s;

"^F.

It

is

certain therefore

that the sign "STP

is

here
.

only an

ideogram of

®

J

\I/

'

not of the ancient

^^

\[K

From

the

eighteenth dynasty at

least,

and

for a

time belonging to a period of

unknown

length between the sixth and the eighteenth dynasties, and

for ever afterwards, the

name

of the place was
says

®
J\

J^ ^ W*

-^^^'^^

where, as the Tablet of the
(Mariette,
2.

Dream

Mon.

div., pi

7).

In

their cells

•'

-

r

Y

i%'
mill

,wwvN

INI

I

Here ^ t8A
in

in their shrines, followed

some papyri by
and
Sut."
3.

11

11

v^

^^ 9^1^ V^
'

"'•'

fi^^ternize

with Horus

Deprived of breath, the dead.' In 38A, the privation of breath is mentioned but in a different connection. But the text of
the passage
[
<:::i

is

uncertain.

Here

as in chapter 41,
is

O

^^^

C^

Q ^^

(,

7

iJ]

'the Breathless one'

Osiris.

4.

Co7npressing
_

my mouth:
the

not

D

_

r\ c^

\

(/ V—

is
I

the ancient reading,

::^>, as in

more recent

texts.

The same

observation

applies to the

name

of the god in chapter 125, 15.

CHAPTER XXXIX.
Chapter whereby the Serpent Rekrek
world.
is

repulsed in the Nether-

Back! down with thee, stabber

(i)

from Apepi

!

Drown

in the

lake of Heaven, in the spot where.n thy father ordered that

thy

88

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
out.

murder should be carried the god encompassed by*
I

Away from
terrors.

this birth-place

of Pa,

his terrors.

am

Ra, encompassed by his

Back! the dark demon and the sword which he maketh to

flash

!

Ra
gods
flung
;

flingeth

down

thy words
is

;

thy face

is

twisted round by the
;

Lynx goddess chains are upon thee by the Scorpion goddess and slaughter is dealt
thy whole heart
torn out by the
;

upon thee by Maat.

The gods who are on the roads overthrow Apep falleth down, the enemy of Ra.
thou

thee.

who removest

the bolt from the East of

Heaven

at the

stormy voice of bellowings, and openest the gates of the Horizon before Ra he cometh forth fainting from the wounds.
:

1

am

a doer of thy

will, I

am

a doer of thy
;

will,

O

Ra.
satis-

I

have done

well, I

have done well

I

have done to the

faction of Ra.

And
Ra.

I raise
is

shouts of acclamation at thy success at fettering,

O

Apep
their

fallen

and

is

in bonds.

The gods
him
;

of the South, the North, the

West and the East bind

bonds are upon him.
overthroweth him, and the lord of the ruddy sky doth

Aker
bind him.

(2)

Ra

is

satisfied

;

Ra

is

satisfied

;

Ra maketh
enemy

his

progress

peacefully.

Apep

falleth

;

Apep goeth down

;

the

of Ra.

And more

grave for thee is the proof (3) than that sweet proof through the Scorpion goddess, which she practised for thee, in the pain which

she suffered ....

(4).

Be thou

emasculate,
;

O

Apep, enemy of
:

Ra

;

be thou repulsed
over thy head to

whom Ra
divide
it

hateth

look behind thee
parts,

a chopper

is

and those who are above thy head assail it. Thy bones are broken, thy limbs are severed under the direction of Aker, O Apep, enemy of Ra.
into

two

Thy boatmen [O
a journey, with

Ra], succeed in measuring out thy path, and
art satisfied
;

which thou

a progress,

a

progress

"'

~|r

^\ ci between, in the midst

of,

sui-roiinJcd

liy.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
towards

89

home
a
fair

;

and the progress which thou hast made towards

home
in

is

progress.

Let no evil hindrances come forth against what thou doest towards me.
I

me

from thy mouth

am

Sutu,

who

causeth the storms and tempests, and

who goeth
is

round

in the

Horizon of Heaven, hke to one whose heart
:

veiled.

Tmu

saith

Let your countenances be raised up, ye soldiers of

Ra, and drive back Nebtu in presence of the Divine Circle.

Seb saith establish those who are upon their thrones in the middle of the Bark of Chepera seize your shields and spears, and hold them in your hands.
:

;

Hathor

saith
:

:

Seize your daggers.
against
solitary

Nut saith Come and drive back Nebtu, who cometh him who dwelleth in his shrine, and maketh his voyage in
guise
:

the Inviolate god, the resistless one.

O
which
me.

ye gods in your Divine cycles,

who

Emerald, come and defend the Great one
all

who

the Divine cycle proceedeth.
let

round the lake of in the shrine from Let glory be ascribed to
travel
is

him, and

honour be given

to him.

Oh
:

then, proclaim

him with

Nut
his path,
in

saith, the

mother

of the

gods

He

cometh
;

forth

and findeth
first

and maketh captures of the gods the two houses of Nut.

he hath the

place

is

Seb standeth still, the great cycle of the gods under terror, and Ra is triumphant over Apep.
Notes.

is

in terror,

Hathor

The extreme
I.

uncertainty of the text

is

such that no translation

at

present can be other than conjectural.

Back^
;

down with

thee,

Stabler

.

The

first

word

is

clear

enough

not so the two next.
to read
1

Are we

J

^^^a^

I

,

J

"^p^

or

I

J t

^
The

?

for

each

of

M.

Naville's authorities gives a different word.

last

of these

readings has copies

some support
1

in a subsequent passage, but almost all

have
P

^^^—ir
J

There has evidently been a confusion

between

J and J

P

,

and

the

determinative

'^y^ of the

latter

N

go

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
to the
first.

word has been transferred
P

I believe that

the true word

is

J

-wwvA

which

is

used

in the ancient

forms of conjuration (see the
eU.).
1

texts of

Unas, 304, 311, 542, 545, 554,

It is

always used in

expressions of /yt'ng
(I

down
,

or falling dowfi
it

B? "y^
in

——
h
J

a^/w^^
,

*>

——
H
I

/v«,^^/sA

and

is

also

found

parallelism

with

/wvwx
(J

without a determinative
texts have

is
it

susceptible of different

mean-

ings,

and the very recent of motion jTii or A-, as

written with the determinative

significant of retreat.
^^
/I
,

But the oldest de-

terminative in this place

is

and

this inclines
it

me

to identify the
this is

word with
conjecture.
2.

[j/vww^

\\, and
5

translate

'stabber.'

But

mere

See note

on chapter 40.

Akar.

The

older

MSS.

differ hopelessly

from each other as

to the

name

of the god.

In order to understand the nature of the god

Akar, we have to imagine a tunnel starting from the spot where the sun sets, and extending through the earth as far as where the sun
rises.

Each end of

the tunnel has a sphinx-like form.

A

humanIt

headed
is

lion stands at the entrance

and also

at the terminus.

through the paws
enters

of this

double sphinx that the galley of the

Sungod
Eastern.

on the Western horizon and comes out on the

In the picture Plate XV, taken from the tomb of
^

A

AO
I

,

Fair Entrance,
at the other.

is

written at one

end of the

Ram eses I V, tunnel; <=> T
,

Fair Exit,

As

V\ the solar bark could not be represented

inside the dark tunnel,
3.

it is

placed above.
|

The proof
.

Lit. the taste,

tepit,

with the tongue as a
of an Egyptian

determinative, in the sense of a probe.

The hand

hero

is

said

to

taste

his

enemy.

In the Bremner Papyrus the
is

god tastes Apep four times. Homeric poems,
r^/evffofieO'

The same conception
aX\' 076, daaaov

found in the

aWi'jXiov xe^Kij/jeaii/ e^/x^crjffiv.*

though in Greek the
to the agent.

taste

comes generally
* Iliad, 20, 258.

to the patient rather than

PLATE

XIV.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter XXXIX. Saqara.

Grab
131.

24.

Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. Ill,

265.

Chapter XXXIX. Papyrus Musee du Louvre,

93.

Chapter XL.

Papyrus, Leyden Museum, No. IV.

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
4.

9
if

This passage, which would be most interesting
accurately,
is

we could only

get

it

wretchedly corrupt.

It is

impossible from the

variants to oi)tain a text grammatically intelligible.

The Scorpion

goddess

is Isis.

CHAPTER

XL.
is

Chapter whereby the Eater of the Ass
Back, serpent Haiu, (i)
cut off thy head, and

kept back.

whom

Osiris execrateth.

May Thoth

may

there accrue to

me

whatsoever property

proceedeth from thee [according to] what was decreed against thee

by the

Company

of the gods for the accomplishment of thy slaughter.
Osiris execrateth,

Back, thou

whom

from the Neshemet

galley,

which

saileth towards the south with favourable breeze.
ye, all ye

Pure are

gods who overthrow the enemy of

Osiris.

The gods upon

the larboard utter loud acclamation.

Back, thou Eater of the Ass,
the Tuat, execrateth.

whom

the god Chas, (2)

who

is

in

Know me " Who art
I

!

{Repeated four times).

am Down upon
I
'*

thou ? " *
thy face
!

(3)

thou who

art eating at

my

sanctuary.

am the Season, which cometh at its own will. Come not against me thou who comest without
;

being called,

and who
I

art

unknown."

am

the master of thine utterance, and the check

upon thy

pride. (4)

Ha-as, whose horns (5) Horus doth cut by my children, the cycle of gods in Pu and Tepit, thou art severed from thy fold and
:

O

thy fold

is

severed from thee.
oif

And
thou
art

he who cutteth thee

kept back and assailed,

cometh forth as the Eye of Horus and stopped (6) by the breath of my

;

speech.
*

There

is

a lacuna here in the only

MS.

containing the text.

The

dialogue

continues through the next line of the original.

N

2

92
thou god

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
who devourest
all

wrong, and

carriest

off with

violence; (7) there is no wrong in me, my tablets (8) are free from wrong. Let me not suffer violence before the Divine Circle ; let

not disaster be hurled upon me.
1

am
is

he who giveth or taketh according to thy behest.
let

Let not iVbe seized,

him not be devoured.

(9)

He

Possessor of Life, and Sovereign Lord (10) on the Horizon.

Notes.

The
papyrus

translation of this chapter

is

T5

of Leyden,

known

as Lb.

based upon the important This is the only MS. which

contains the whole chapter.
line.

All other copies begin after the sixth

The

usual chapter begins in

Lb

with a

[]

n

^°^, which

is

the ordinary

indicating a various reading. But the difference of reading applies rather to a mere paragraph than to the whole chapter. In this case we should expect or something equivalent.

way of

^^

The Eater
Here, as
in

of the Ass

is

a Serpent, but

who

is

the Ass

?

each case of mythological name, the animal is not meant, but something which is connoted by it. The name of the ass

consequence of one of its characteristics. It is But this is one of the seventy-five names of the f=iiiSun-god in the Solar Litany.* And he derives this appellation from
is

given to

it

in

^"^^

^

his fructifying power.

But if the Ass is the Sun, who is the Eater of the Ass must be Darkness or Eclipse of some kind.
1.

?

This

Haiu, the serpent who devours the sun,
as
nil
'j

is

undoubtedly the

same

_^

"^^^^i

Haiii^ the serpent

who

in the

Pyramid

texts

is

ordered to
2.

lie

down (Unas,

545, &c.),

and cease from

his attacks.

The god

Chas,

^^^*
The
later

3.

The

usual chapter begins here.
in

text of

Lb

has generally

been followed, but
preferred.
4.

some

places

authorities

have been

Pride or boastings, wwvx

^^.

O

dnta,

"glory,"

cf.

glorior.

The

speaker addresses his adversary as being a miles gloriosus.

* Naville,

La

Litanie du Soleil, p. 49 and 55, with the plates corresponding.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
/VSAAAA
[

93
Qj.
I

^ W
The horns
here spoken
of,

1

o
by a

<^
_M-lll

V^
I I

i^ ^ JT
t

.

as possessec

viper, are

lose of the

deadly Cerastes, which are spines projecting from the arched eyebrows of the creature. See picture in Long's Egyptiati Antiquities

of British Museum,

II, p.

316, copied from the great French work.
vS\

But the Sun-god

is

-

-

also called in his Litany* ^3:^
.

III
.

^--JTi
(J
|

And

a picture of the

godf under

the

name

exhibits

him

as characterized

by a pair of hooked weapons,

suggested apparently by the mandibles of a beetle.
6. Stopped.
r—r-l

There are three important variants here <=:>,
\
.

AAAAAA

f

\

<=:^, and
reading from

^

And
M;•

the

last

of these

is

possibly

a

corrupt
<:z:r>

C

The

first

two are synonymous.
it

may
a
in
is

in certain contexts

mean

destroy, but
tg/^

only signifies

'

bring to

limit, to

an end,

stop,' like the

in lep-fxa, ter-min-o.

It is

used

many

cases, such as the staunching of blood, where

no destruction

intended.
7.

^^ s=> ^
is

1

j]

r^^^

is

stop in thy place.

There

a picture in De7ikm., Ill, 279, of the god
\^^
a'

who

carrieth

off with

violence

m

"

'^"''

''^

^^

^

mummied

form

holding the Tdni sceptre.
8.

Tablets,

\\^ ifi

I

These are the

tablets

on which Thoth

has written

down

the evidence taken at the Weighing of the Words,

the examination at the Psychostasia.

They

are

mentioned again

at

the end of Chapter 41.
9.

Here

I follow the

general authority of the later texts.

I

o Sovereign

Lord

(,

K

This word
'

is

closely connected,

The best commentary and was so from the first, with S-^ seize.' upon it may be derived from the legal terms usucapio, saisine, seisin. The Sovereign Lord of Egypt is in our current legal phrase ''seized of the Two Earths," that is of the whole Universe, North and South.
*

In the 64th invocation.

t Lefebure

Tombeau de

Seti

I, pi.

XVII.

94

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER

XLI.
is

Chapter whereby one avoideth the Slaughter which ifi the Netherworld.

carried out

Tmu,
the great

let
;

me be
that

glorified in

presence of the god in Lion form,

god

he may open to

me

the gate of Seb.

1 prostrate mj'self to earth to

the great

god who

is in

the Nether-

world,

Let

me

be introduced into the presence of the company of

gods who preside over those who are in Amenta.

O
who

thou

art in

who art at the gate of Tebat god with the Red Crown, (i) Amenta let me feed, let me live by the breath of air and
; ;

accompany the
Let
enter in
raise

great Cleaver, (2)

and the Bark of Chepera.
at the gloaming, let
is

me

speak to the divine Boatman
;

me
may

and let me go out that I may see who him up and speak my words to him.
Breathless one
:

there

;

that I

O

(3)

Let

me

live

and be saved

after death.

thou Bearer ofpeace offerings,

who openest

thy

mouth

for the

presentation of the tablets, (4) for the acceptation (5) of the offerings and for the establishment of Maat upon her throne; let the tablets be

brought forward, and
1

let

the goddess be firmly established.

am

Osiris, the great god, the eternal king,

who numbereth
(6)

his

seasons and

who

lifted

up

his right arm,

who judgeth

the great ones

and giveth mission
Netherworld.

to the

gods of the great Circle

which

is

in the

Notes.

The most noteworthy
this chapter
latter

difference between the older recension of
later periods is that in the
is

and that of the Saitic and the god addressed at the opening

Osiris Unneferu,

identified with

Tmu.

In the older recensions the

who is identification may
in

be seen

in another way.
is Osiris,

Tmu

is

the

god invoked, and

answer he

says that he
I.

the great god.

God with

the

Red Crown

1^
34.

cj]

is

11

\l^\J^

,

one of

the

titles

of Osiris with the
7,

^ crown.
pi.

See Plate
This
It

XV

from Lefebure,

Tombeau de Seti
crown
"'^''^y ^

part IV,

litle,

derived from the

is

Net-td or Nait-td.

was borne by the high

PLATE XV.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

*^=^*r->^^A=c5

Tomb

of

(Musee Guimet, Vol. XV, Rameses IV. XV. Notes 3 and 9. Chapter

Flatea/.)

Tomb

of

Rameses IV.

(Musee Guimet, Vol. XV, Plate

40.)

?^

Tomb

of

Rameses IX.
Note
i.

(Musee Guimet, Vol. XVI, Plate

6.)

Chapter XLI.

Chapter XLVII.

Leyden Papyrus, No.

16.

Tombeau de Seti I. (Musee Guimet, Vol. IX, Plate

34.

PLATE

XVI.

^i

e

i,0u
X
w H

^WJI^
^Ov<
«
S)

U
Q < W Q W X H

'<^-

^

(

L-H

N

lii^i^
CQ
in

O
1^

3 u

>> a,

'^fecg:

0.

o o

nV^h

^
C^^^

|[IIM

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
priest at

95

Coptos (Brugsch, Diet. Geogr., pp. 1374, 1377), and the
his title

King of Egypt derived

Is^ from the Crown
Osiris, or rather

\J

of the

North which he wore as representing
Osiris,
2.

the heir of

Horus.

The great

Cleaver,

n«=^ "^^f

^

,

the

name

of the god

who

cleaves his path through the sky.
3.

Breathless one,

S "^

(](

Q|o

( (

^^

Osiris.
is

4.

Thoth

is

the person here addressed,

and the speaker

Osiris.

The

tablets are those containing the evidence at the trial at the

Balance.
5.

Acceptation

j-r

^^.

(

j

J>eka,

besides the physical sense of

comprehendere, 'to lay hold
in,

of

with the hands, has that of 'taking
'

embracing with the mind,' and perhaps
6.

setting forth in words.'
pi. 3.
A

On

the Sarcophagus of Seti (Bonomi,
is

D), and the other
\

copies of the same text, there
1 1 Vihli})-

a picture of these

^"^

^
text

'^^'^^

is

the
1

title

D D

written over them.

But the

speaks

of them as

^ o

-Ji

^

-J|.

CHAPTER XLIL
Chapter whereby one hindereth the slaughter which
Sutenhenen. (i)
is

wrought at

Land
I

of the Rod, of the White

Crown

of the Image, and the

Pedestal of the gods.

am

the Babe. (2)
!

{Said Four Tifues.)

Serpent Abur (3) Thou sayest this day, " The Block of Execution is furnished with what thou knowest," and thou art come
to soil (4) the

But
1

I

am he whose

am

Mighty One. honours are abiding. the Link, (5) the god within the

Tamarisk, (6) who

connecteth (7) the Solar orb with Yesterday. I am Ra, whose honours are abiding.
I

{Four Times.)

am

the Link, the

god within the Tamarisk.

g6

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

My
course.

course

is

the course of Ra,

and the course

of

Ra

is

my

My hair is that of Nu, (8) My two eyes are those of Hathor, My two ears those of Apuat, My nose that of Chenti-chas, My two hps those of Anubis, My teeth those of Selkit, My neck that of Isis, the Mighty, My two hands those of the Soul most Mighty, Lord My shoulders those of Neith, Mistress of Sais, My back is that of Sut, My phallus that of Osiris, My liver is that of the Lords of Cher-abat, My knees those of the most Mighty one, My belly and my back are those of Sechit, My hinder parts are those of the Eye of Horus, My legs and thighs those of Nut, My feet those of Ptah, My nails and bones those of the Living Uraei,
There
is is

of Tattu,

not a limb in

me which

is

without a god.

And Thoth
hands.

a protection to
I shall

my

flesh.

not be grasped by

my

arms or seized by

my

Not men
I

or gods, or the glorified ones or the
inflict

generations past, present, or future, shall

damned; not any injury upon me.
is

am am

he
to

who cometh
man.

forth

and proceedeth, and whose name
of Eternity "

unknown
I

Yesterday,

" Witness

is

my Name

:

the
I

persistent traveller

upon the heavenly highways which
as Chepera.
I

1 survey.

am

the Everlasting one.
I I

am am

felt

and thought of

am
Egg.

the

Crowned

one.

the Dweller in the

Eye and

in the

It is

an attribute of mine that
that

I live

within them.
its

I I
I I
sit

am am
am

the Dweller in the Eye, even in
it is

closing.

by which come forth and I
the Dweller in

supported.
:

rise

up the Eye

I
;

enter

and
is

I

have

life.

my

seat

upon my throne, and

I

conspicuously upon
I

it.

am

Horus, who steppeth onwards through Eternity.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

97

have instituted the throne of which I am the master. As regards my mouth whether in speech or in silence,
:

I

am

right

and
all

fair.

As
with

regards

my

attributes

:

I

hasten headlong,

I

the

god Unen,*

that pertaineth to me, hour proceeding from hour, the

One

proceeding from the One, in
I

my

course.
;

am
me.

the

Dweller in the Eye
of

no

evil

or calamitous things

befall

It is I

the

who open the gates throne, and who open the

Heaven

;

it is

I

who am master of
this day.

series of births

upon

I

I
I

who treadeth his path of Yesterday. am "This Day" to generation of men after generation. am he who giveth you stableness for eternity, whether ye be

am he

Babe,

in

heaven or upon earth in the South or in the North, in the West or and the fear of me is upon you. in the East
;

I

am

he who fashioneth with

his eye,

and who dieth not a second

time.

A moment

of mine belongeth to you, but

my

attributes belong to

my own domain. I am the Unknown
belong to me.
I

one, but the gods of

Ruddy Countenance

am

served to

Gladsome one, and no time hath been found, but create for me the Heaven and the increase of Earth, and
the
sever

the increase of their offspring.

They
It is
I

and
rise

join

not

— they

sever
I

my name

from

all

evil

things, according to the

words which

say unto you.
;

who

up and shine

forth

strength proceeding from

strength (9), the One There is not a day devoid of that which belongeth to

proceeding from the One.

it;

for ever

and
I

for ever (10).

am Unbu,t who
thou who hast

proceedeth from Nu, and

my mother

is

Nut.

motion (11)! for I was motionless, a mighty link within the close of Yesterday my present activity is a
set

me

in

;

link within the close of
1 I

my
I

hand.

am am

not known, but

am
!

one who knoweth
I

thee. thee.

not to be grasped, but
in the

[Oh Dweller

Egg

am one who graspeth Oh Dweller in the Egg
is

!]

* Another reading

Unneferu.

t See note

i

on chapter 28.

98
I

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
am
am
is

Horus, Prince of Eternity, a

fire

before your faces, which

inflameth your hearts towards me.
I

master of
things

my

throne and I pass onwards.
I

The
set

present

time

the path which
evil.

have opened, and

I

have

myself free

from
I

all

am

the golden Cynocephalus, three palms in height, without
in the

legs or

arms

Temple of Ptah(i2); and my course Temple of Ptah.

is

the

course of the golden Cynocephalus, three palms in height, without
legs or

arms

in the

Let these words be said

—Ababak

ter-ek (13).

Notes.
most interesting, and it is one of the most important as illustrative of Egyptian mythology. It is imposThis chapter
is

in itself

sible at present to explain every detail, but the general drift of the

chapter

is

not to be mistaken.

And

the

same

drift is to

nised in the whole course of Egyptian religious literature
beginning.

be recog from the

The

speaker throughout identifies himself with the divinity whose
is

manifestation

the Sun

;

he

is

not the Sun of this or that
all eternity,

moment

but of Yesterday, To-day and of

the "

One proceeding

from the One."
1.

Sutenhenen.

The
6j)

later texts say the

"Netherworld."
to the rising Sun.

2.

The Babe ® [ [

^

,

an appellative applied

See Brugsch, Rev.

II,'pl. 7 1, 3,

where

this
[

babe

is

compared
I

to the
^V
I

Lotus

AA/VvAA

coming

forth from the great stream y
signifies

The word

that

which

is

" hfted

up,"

"

un eleve,"

W
3.

Serpent Ab-ur

[

]

^^
is

"^^

o^

.

The two important

MSS. Ca and Pb seem
in

to

imply a female personage, but as the verb
masculine the
it is

connection with the
for a

name

final o^

cannot be

meant

feminine ending, and

peculiar to those two

MSS.

Ab-ur " the very

thirsty," as the appellative of a viper, recalls that

of the ct^ydv, whose bite caused intense thirst.

But

it

may have

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

99

originated in the fact that these reptiles are in the habit of lying in wait by the water side for the sake of the animals
drink.
4.

who come

there to

To

soil:

%

(

'

C3

^^

*^^ *yP^ °^ ^^^
(,

word
0:1

in the earlier

texts.

The

late

ones have the well known

=;*i-=^Q.
of the

5.

The Link

V

Iwl"

-^'^ot^^i" ^PP^lI^tive

Sun god,

applied to
is

Tmu

and Horus

in the oldest texts.

The

notion of

that of concatenation, connecting, combining, fastening, binding, setting
avv-ra^fia,

tn order together,
nectere coronam.

avvTa^i<i,

as in

—h—
'a

^^/

9

v\

Q^

Hence
row of

its

occurrence in words signifying 'the verchain of
hills,'

tebral column,' 'a
(^avvTa-ifia linrewv

teeth,' 'a

body of troops'

OX Trt^wv), or their 'captains,' literary 'composition'
11

v\
divine

-wvAA^

j <;;;^~>

(Pap. Prisse V, 6), and the seven
the
first

V

S()

'

"'

ffvpTaffffovje^,

authors of artistic

composition.

See note to chapter 71.

The rising sun under his The god within the Tamarisk. frequently represented as being in a tree or bush, various names is which partly conceals him. This is a mythological way of treating the light cloud or mist which so commonly accompanies the sun's Tamarisk is only a provisional translation of first appearance.
6
(1

\\.

The god Apuat, who

is

identical with Osiris,

is

said

in the

Pyramid Texts {Unas 107, Teta 66) to come

forth

from the

7.

Who

connecteth.
is

This
.

I believe to

be the sense of
is

T

v\

if

the next word T <=:=>

^AAAAA
(_

But the

text

quite uncertain.

^

is

a rope or cable (Bonomi, Sarc.

II,

c,

34),

and

like
tie,

the Latin copula or the Semitic '^^H?
bond, connection*

Jj^^ has the sense of

* " J.A~i- non moAo funem, sed
Gesenius, Thesaur in
voc.

et

in

Alcorano saepe /oedus

significat."

'^3,^.

O

2

,

100

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
the prince of

When
avec moi!

Tennu

{Berlin Pap.

i,

Una 31) proposed a
_ 9
VQi Ue-toi

family alHance to Senehat, he said to

him

T

And he

gave him his daughter to
[ [

wife.

In the expression T
connectedly,

<^^^i
is

nefrit

signifies

continuously,

and the sense of until
.

only completed by the addition

of the preposition <czr>

Instead of

[

^^^
t

'

the Solar orb,'
or

some MSS. read
5

[

O

[1

V^ Yr\

)

^AAA-v^

"^J^

5

[

wwvA

5

^^^d in

each of these cases
to the comparative

T

must be understood

as

an adjective raised
:

degree by the preposition
(colour, hair or veil)

More beautiful [my] splendour than Yesterday." None of these readings seem

<r>

"

very attractive.
8.

Here

follows the identification of the limbs of the deceased

person with those of various gods.

There are many
ib.

similar texts

belonging to
line 565, &c.

all

the periods of the Egyptian

religion.

For the

Pyramid Texts,

see e.g.

Unas, line 218 &c.,

line 570, &c., PeJ>i /,
pi.

Compare
Rd,

the Coffin of A?namu,

XXIV,

line 11, &c.,

Naville, Litanie de

p. 96,

and Golenischeff,

Metternichstele, lines

9-359.
J

Strength

\

fV\f\rw^ ^£LJ ,.22.

^

:

:

,

literally

a wall or tower, like the

J_-L

Ti^-biriri of Ps. XI, 4.
10.
^.^.^.^^

j^ ^

'

continuously, continuously.'

11.
is

The

interjection

^^

seems

to imply that a

second person

addressed.

The passage would

otherwise be translated, " I have

set

myself in motion," which would be more consistent with the

doctrine contained in this chapter.
12.

All the

more recent copies have

J

'

^^^ Sanctuary

of Ptah at Memphis.
13.

Ababa-k

ter-ek.

This

is

only one of the readings of a formula

which had soon become utterly unintelligible to the copyists. Hieratic copies like Louvre 3079, published by M. de Rouge, B.M. 10,257 (Rollin) and Leyden, T. 16, record several conjectural emendations, to

which modern scholars might add others, were they so

disposed.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

lOI

CHAPTER

XLIII.
is

Chapter whereby the head of a person the Netherworld.
I

not severed from him in

am

a Prince,

the son of a Prince
is

;

a Flame, the Son of a
it

Flame, whose head

restored to
is

him

after

hath been cut

off.

The head
I raise I

of Osiris

not taken from him, and

my head

shall

not be taken from me.

myself up, I renew myself, and I grow young again.

am

Osiris.

Note.

An

early recension

of

this

chapter

is

found

in the

tomb

of

Horhotep {Miss. Arch.
the Coffin of Amamu.

II, p. 159),

and an apparent reference on

CHAPTER

XLIV.

Chapter whereby one dieth not a second time.

Let the Cavern of Putrata
fall

(i)

into the darkness, but the

be opened for me, where the dead Eye of Horus supporteth me, and

Apuat reareth
set not.

me

up.
is
;

I

hide myself

among
is

you,

O

ye Stars that

My

front

that of Ra,
is

my

face

revealed, according to

the words of
I

my heart am Ra himself, I am
Thoth
father liveth for thee,

in its place,

not to be

my speech is intelligent. ignored, I am not to be
!

molested.

I

Son of Nut I am thy son Horus, see thy mysteries, and am crowned as King of the gods. I die

Thy

O

not a second time in the Netherworld.

I.

Putrata
in
/,

or

All

t=t

.

This name has
in the

disappeared

nearly

all

the

MSS.

It is

mentioned

Pyramid

Texts {Pepi
personage.

332, Merira 635) as a lake traversed by the glorified

I02

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER XLV.
Chapter whereby one escapeth corruption in the Netherworld.

Here
less his

is

the Osiris

iV.,

motionless, motionless like Osiris; motionlet

limbs like Osiris

not corrupt.
Osiris.
I

them not remain motionless, let them They move not, they stir not be it done for me as for
:

am

Osiris.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby he that
world.
is

XLVI.
is

living

not destroyed in the Nether-

Oh
forth*

ye recent offspring of Shu,

who dawn

after

dawn

is

possessor
springing

of his diadem at sunrise; ye future generations of men,
is

my

the springing forth of Osiris.

Note.
This chapter
is

addressed to the

m

¥^^V^^ v)
human

^^"^^^"^^^^
as the

who

are

known from

other quarters to be

beings,

But the reference is not to men who have yet lived upon the earth. They are spoken of as men of a Queen Halshepsu on her obelisk when speaking future generation.
younglings of the god Shu.
of them connects them with the period of 1 20 years, that is as if we Before their appearance upon the said "men of the next century."
earth they circle round the Sun,

and the
other

glorified

dead hold conheld
not the
like

verse with

them (chapter
like

124, 6).

The
doctrine

Egyptians,
of

many

ancient

nations,
it

the

preexistence

of souls.

They held

philosophers or poets, but as an article of their popular and traditional creed.

CHAPTER XLVn.
Chapter whereby the Seat of a person
Netherworld.
is

not taken from

him

in the

Chair and Throne of mine, which are coming to round to me ; divine ones
!

me and

circhng

The Day-spring.

PLATE

XVII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter XLVII.
Chapter
L.

Chapter

L.

Papyrus of Ani.

Nicholson Papyrus.
(.Egyptiaca, Plate 5.)

Papyrus of Ani.

Chapter LVII.

Chapter LVIII.

Papyrus of Ani.
Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9949

Chapter LXI.

Chapter LXIV.

'or'

Papyrus du Louvre,

iii, 93.

Papyrus du Louvre, in,

93.

PLATE

XVIII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter LXVIII.

Lanzone
Papyrus du Louvre,
iii, 93.
II

^Diz. Egiz.).

HVi
(
1

(l^r"=i#l L^v nr
1

la

\

IK
Lepsius (Denkin., Abth.

Sif
Ill, Bl. 264).

Saquara.

Lanzone

{Diz. Egiz.).

Leyden Sarcophagus.

Wilkinson

(Mat. Iliirog.,

Plate 23).

\M

A

1
1

#
23).

Lepsu's (Todt., Plate

21).

Lepsius (Todt., Plate

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

103
of those

am

a noble

Sahu

(i),

grant that I

may become one
what
I execrate.

who
I

follow the great god.

I

am am

the Son of Maat, and wrong the Victorious one.

is

Note.
I.

Sdhti

fi

^Q

1

is

not a

mummy,

as

it

is

sometimes

rendered, but a living personality in

mummied

form.

CHAPTERS XLVIII and XLIX are identical with X and XI respectively.

CHAPTER
Chapter
zvliereby one

L.

cometh not

to the divine

Block of Execution,
of

The
fastened.

four (i) fastenings of the hinder part

my head

are

He who
who was
was shorn.

is

in

heaven

it

fainting

upon

his

was who made firm the fastening for him two haunches on that day when the fleece

The
disaster.
I

fastenings of the hinder part of

my

Sutu and the company of gods in his
Preserve

first

head were fastened by triumph. Let there be no

me

safe

from him who slew
Earths.'

my

father.

am

seized of the

'Two

were fastened by Nu, on the first time of my beholding the Law in virtue of which the gods and their symbols (2) come into existence.
I

The

fastenings of the hinder part of

my head

am

the Heedful one, and
(3).

become

the executioner for you, ye

great gods

Notes.

The
second
sources.

antiquity of the chapter

is

proved by
its

its

occurrence on the
is
it

coffin of

Mentuhotep
it

;

but

condition there

no one can read
It

who

is

not already familiar with

such that from other
till

begins, Aelteste Texte, p. 22, line 34,

and goes on
its

the red letters at hne 50.

The

text, in

spite of

importance,

is

very inaccurate.

I04
1.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The four fastenings.

The number

/?z^r

is

only found in the
It
is

oldest copies.

The

later

copies have a different text.
is

im-

possible to say

what kind of fastening

meant.

—*—

might be a

ligament or a vertebra

— though more
is

probably the
^{jT

latter.

But
is

it

might be a combination of several pieces.
occiput,

^^^
these

^

the

and

this suggests the hypothesis of cervical vertebrae.

But

the

number
;

of these

not four but seven.

Of

three are

peculiar

the Atlas which supports the head, the Axis
its

upon which
long spinal

the head turns, and the Vertebra prominens with
process.

But see the Vignette of chapter 42 from

Pd
1

where four

vertebrae are figured.
2.

Symbols^

or

symbolical representations,

1

^v\

^^

1

or

^\\\
3.

The Heedful one
I,

^^^^,

perhaps

^^_^^.

^

Unas

584,

Pepi

199 and 667.

CHAPTER
do not

LI.

Chapter whereby one goeih not headlong in the Netherworld.
I execrate, I execrate, I

eat

it.

That which

I execrate is dirt.

I eat

it

not, that I

may appease

my
let

Genius.

Let

me

not

fall

into
it

it ;

let

me

not approach

it

with

my

hands,

me

not tread upon

with

my

sandals.

Note.

The Chapters numbered

51 and 52 are not found in the most

them and their formulas are met with on the ancient coffins* and in the Pyramid texts. See, for instance, Unas 189, Teta 68, with M. Maspero's note on the latter I do not, however, believe, as M. Maspero does, that these text.
ancient papyri, but the substance of
texts

convey the idea " so frequent

[!]

among

half-civilised peoples,

* There

is

a chapter in Lepsius, Alteste Texte, p. 34, with the

same

title

as

chapter 51, but the contents are different.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
of another
life

105

in

which the deceased

will
ft

have nothing to eat and
1
'

drink but excremental matter."
'

That the

^

which

I translate

/\

000
quite certain, but they

dirt

'

and

^

'~s~'

'

lye

'

are of this nature

is

are objects of abhorrence to the Sun-god, like the dead rat

and the

putrid cat in chapter

^;^,

because he

is

a consuming
it,"

fire,

and " what-

soever he findeth upon his path he devoureth

A^

1

1

f\ ^"^

JL>
deceased who

1 \^ Unas
is

515.

It

is

only natural then that the
in these texts

identified with the

Sun-god

should

express his execration of such offensive matter.

He

is

not afraid

of being limited to this food, his fear springs from the opposite

extreme.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby
o?ie

LII.

eateth not dirt in the Netherworld.

I execrate, I execrate, I

do not

eat
I

it.

my
let

That which Genius (i).
Let
it

I

execrate

is dirt.

eat

it

not, that I

may appease

upon me let me not approach me not tread upon it with my sandals.
not
fall
;

it

with

my

hands,

Henceforth

let

me

live

upon corn

(2) in

your presence, ye gods,
that I

and

let

there

come one who

bringeth to

me

may

feed from

those seven loaves which he hath brought for Horus and upon the loaves for Thoth.

"What
Let
let

willst

thou eat?" say the gods to him.

me

eat under the

Sycamore of Hathor the Sovereign, and
in Helio-

my turn be given to me among those who rest there. And let me manage the fields in Tattu and prosper
And
let

polis.

me

feed

upon the bread of the white corn and upon the

beer of the red barley.

to

And let me the
;

the forms (3) of my father and of gate-keepers of the stream.
let

my

mother be granted

Let room be thrown open for me,

the path be made,

and

let

me

sit

in

any place that

I desire.

P

I06

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

(i)

Here, as in the corresponding passage in

the preceding
'
'

chapter and in several other places, the later texts often read

,

which
(2)

is

a serious error.
unintelligible
(I

The
H

^

QA

of the later texts should

be

cor-

rected to
error

——

6
° ° °

{Alieste Texte 42, lines 50,

54 and 67).

The
r\
(_
.

may be

traced to a form of the

word with the prothetic

There are several words varying traced to the same origin.
H

in their applications

which may be

seser

'

spica
'

'

a point,

hence an ear of corn, and

6
''^~~^
,

*^~~^
-H

— ^=^^ —

H

<

spiculum,' an arrow, a javelin, are very clearly
is,

m.

connected, and the notion in both

as in the

Hebrew l^lb^,

that

of 'shooting iorih,' proferre, protendere.

— — "^t?^
M

,

a term applied to horned animals, has surely nothing
xv, 19.
It refers to

do with the Coptic cyptX? of Leviticus pointed weapons presented by the beasts.
to
H

the

^
*^^~^
Q.

is

'put forward' in the

way of speech, and may be

command

or prayer, or simple statement.

—.—
And
may

IS

the builder's line

is

something

'

stretched out

'

pro/a

tu7n, protensuin.

with reference to walls, buildings, and the

like,

^
H
I

^

I

always be translated by proferre, protendere.

(3)

The forms,

f J^||

"^t

f J^|>
13).

^s

in

the Turin

Todtenbuch. There is a most interesting imperfect on the Leyden Coffin M.3 (M. PI.
told that

text but unfortunately

The deceased

is

on

arriving at the mysterious gate he will find his father

and

his mother,

''^^ U

^^

-^

.

This

is

followed by
is

"1

H and

then apparently by
effaced.

^^^

but the middle sign
'

almost entirely

This would mean

at the resurrection of thy body.'

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

107

CHAPTER
Chapter 7vhereby one
I
is

LIIIa.
to eat dirt

not

made

or to drink

lye.

am
;

the sharp-horned Bull,
;

who

regulateth the sky, the

Lord of

the risings in heaven

the great Giver of Light,

who
;

issueth from

Flame

the

Bond
I

of Time, richly supplied with years
is

the god in

Lion form, to
I

whom

given a march of Glory.
I

execrate,

execrate,

do not

eat

that

which

my

Genius

execrateth.

Let
hands,

it

not enter into

my

stomach,

let it

not approach to

my
the

let

Let

me not tread upon it with my me not drink lye, let me not

sandals.

advance headlong

in

Netherworld.
I

am

the possessor of bread in Heliopolis,

who hath bread

in

Heaven with Ra, and bread upon
It is

earth with Seb.
it

the Sektit boat which hath brought
in Heliopolis.

from the house of the

great
I

god

am
eat,

gladdened

in

my

very entrails, and

am

associated with the

divine mariners,

they

and

I

round to the East of Heaven. I eat as feed upon what they feed. I eat bread from the
circle
offerings.

who

house of the Lord of

CHAPTER
Whereby one
I execrate, I

LHlB.

eateth not dirt.

execrate

!

I
;

do not
I

eat

it.

s

Dirt
I

is

what

I execrate

do not
it.

eat

it.

execrate lye, I do not drink

Let
with

me

not approach

it

with

my

fingers, let

me
I

not tread upon

it

my

sandals.

Seb, the father of Osiris, hath ordained that or drink
lye,

should not eat

dirt

but

my

father hath four times said that I should eat of

the red corn.

There are seven loaves in Heaven at Heliopolis with Ra, and there are seven loaves upon earth with Seb, and there are seven
loaves with Osiris.

P 2

I08
It is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
the god of the Sektit galley, and of the Maatit galley,

who
I

hath brought them to
I

me

at Heliopolis.

shout with joy, and

my

Genius shouteth with

joy,

because

am

in Heliopolis,
is

and

I live in

excellent condition before Ra,

on the

day when bread

presented in Heliopolis.

Note.
Chapter 53A
is

is

taken from the papyri of the older period, 53B

a

still

older text from the Coffin of Horhotep.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby air
I
is

LIV.

given in the Netherworld.
(i),

am

the god in Lion-form

the

Egg

in the Great Cackler,

and

I

watch over that great Egg which Seb hath parted from the

earth (2);

my

Life

is

the Life thereof, and the

same

is

true of

my

advance
I

in life

and of

my

breathing of the

air.

am

circleth

god who keepeth opposition in equipoise (3) as his Egg For me dawneth(4) the moment of the most round.
the

mighty one, Sut.

who are pleasant through the alternate successions of the Earth, who preside over sustenance and who live in the Blue (5), do ye keep watch over him who abideth in his Nest the Infant god who cometh forth towards you.
ye gods
;

O

Notes.

The
and
tion.

text here followed

is

that of

Pa which
text, that

is

much

preferable to

that of Ani.
sqq.,

There
it is

but

of Horhotep, line 344 too inaccurate to serve as the basis of a translais

a far older

It is

however very valuable
in

for other purposes.

Lion form. These words are not in Horhotep, the chapter beginning as in later texts " Oh Tmu let there come to
(i)

The god

me

the air which
i

is

in thy nostrils."

The word

for air

is

written

^— ^ ^T^
(2) It

(lines

344 and 346) as

in other places.

is

a mistake to speak of a

mundane

egg, of

which there

is

no trace

in

Egyptian mythology.

Seb, the great cackling goose,

BOOK OF THE DEAD,
lays the golden egg,
'

109
does not
earth,'

which
but
'

is

the

Sun

;

but

\J

mean

lay

upon the

earth,'

divide, separate

from the

The egg

springs from the back of Seb.
(3)

Who

keepeth

opposition
is

in

equipoise.

This sense
^

may be
ll\,

inferred from Pa, but

made

very clear by the JI,
is

of Horhotep.

The

equilibrium of forces

maintained by the revo-

lution of the Sun,
(4)

Dawneth,

J

t_J

/j(

.

Horhotep

;

whose

text

breaks

off

without a word on Sutu.
(5)

The Blue,

^
H

^

11^^^^ 'lapis
O O O

lazuli.'

The French Vazur
is

exactly corresponds to the Egyptian, for the

word azure

derived

from lazulum.
Ancients and modern
differ greatly, as is well

other as to the impressions derived from colour.

known, from each It seems strange to
'

read in the tale of the Destruction of

was of
lel

real chesbet,' that

is

'

Mankind that the dark blue.' But we have an
is

hair of

Ra

exact paral-

to this in Greek.

Kvavof
artificial

lapis lazuli in Theophrastus,

who
the

even mentions the

lapis

made
(//.,

in

Egypt.

But

in

Homeric poems the

hair of

Hector

22, 401),

beard of Odysseus {Od., 16, 176), as well as (//., I, 528; 17, 209) are described as Kvaveai.

and the eyebrows of Zeus
hair

and the

CHAPTER
am am

LV.
is

Another chapter whereby air
I

given.

the Jackal of jackals,

I

Shu,

who convey
(2).

breezes, in

presence of the Glorious one

(i), to

the ends of the sky, to the ends

of the earth, to the ends of the filaments of Cloud
I

give air to those Younglings as I open

my mouth and

gaze

with

my

two eyes.

Notes.
1, 2,

The Glorious

one.

This

is

the most usual reading.
is

Fa

has Ra,

Filaments of Cloud.

Cloud

the sense, not the translation of

:

no
i I

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

v"^'
of

°^' ^^

^* ^^

^^^° written,

("^iJirf^

8 S

Ml,

which

is

the

name

some
[)

tree or

shrub which has not been identified.
,

The

filaments

^

or

j

^^

which are among

its

characteristics, point

in this context to the long fibrous forms presented

by the

cirrus

cloud.

CHAPTER

LVI.

Another chapter of breathing.

Oh Tmu
nostrils.
It
is

!

give

me

that delicious air

which

is

in thine

own

I

who hold

that great station

which

is

in the heart of

Heracleopolis.
I

watch over that egg of the Great Cackler,

strength thereof,

my

life is

the

life

thereof,

my strength and my breath

is
is

the
the

breath thereof.

CHAPTER LVn.
Chapter for breathing air and command of water in the Nether
world.

be opened to Osiris; doors of Kabhu (2) be thrown wide to Ra.
Let the Great
(i)

One

let

the two folding

thou great Coverer (3) of Heaven, in thy name of Stretcher (4) [of Heaven], grant that I may have the command of water, even as
Sut hath
grant

O

command of force (5) on the night of the that I may prevail over those who preside at

Great Disaster
the Inundation,

even as that venerable god prevaileth over them, whose name they know not. May I prevail over them.

My
my

nostril is

opened

in Tattu,

and

I

go to

rest in Heliopolis,

dwelling, which the goddess Seshait (6) built,
its

and which

Chnum

raised on

foundation.

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
If the

Ill
if

Sky

is

at the

North
;

I sit at

the South
at the

;

the Sky
sit

is

at the

South

I sit at

the North
is at the

if

the Sky
I sit at

is

West

I

at the East

and

if

the Sky

East

the West.
I pierce

And

drawing up

my

eyebrows (7)

through into every

place that I desire.

Notes.
This chapter and the following are recensions and combinations
of extremely ancient texts.

The

first

portion of the present chapter follows the ancient text

of Horhotep.
existence,

Even

at

that early period two recensions were in
after the other.

and are copied one

The

translation here

given

is

the nearest possible approach to the original text.

The second portion (beginning with My nostril) dates from the papyri of the Theban period, though we must depend upon later
authorities for the entire Section.

1.

The Great One <c:r> J4 urit

— Heaven.
the Cc(?/ (water)
is

2.

KabJm

Zl

)

X

\^
is

v'^'wvva,

literally

another

name
3.

for the Sky,*

and
/.

here in parallelism with the Great One.
,

Coverer Q

r^

a

name

applied both to the Nile, as

covering the land during the inundation, and to the Sky as the
covering above
us.

Cf.

my

paper on Nile Mythology, P.S.B.A.,

November, 1890.
4.

Stretcher

|

"^ which
,

I

consider as a nasalised (perstretch.
])

haps the original) form of
^

D

The

papyri

read
at.

at

pet

'

Cleaver of the Sky,' but
^'=:=>-,

the word

without the determinative
expression

may

also

mean

stretch,

as in the

>oC g'

)

-^

)

5.

Force

^

_^'"'

f(

|^ ^,

like the Latin

z;zV,

may,

but need not, be of a criminal nature.

The name

of the goddess

The name
i-^-^^-^

occurs repeatedly in the Pyramid Texts, and even the very
I I IV

expression

^?* Unas, 375, and the Litany at Pepi

I,

631.

112

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
in this

^ ® J)
scribes.
6.

place

is

a manifest blunder of the

more recent

The goddess

Seshait

^f^

^

commonly but erroneously

called

through an error against which Lepsius {Aelt. Texte, p. 3) and Brugsch {Zeiischr., 1872, p. 9) have both spoken. The real name of the goddess, as I have elsewhere* shown by actual variants, "^^^ (Louvre, Seshait (Teta, 1. 268) or fl is fl czsa "^N, ^ ^i^
Safcli,

^

^

A. 97).

She

is

so called from the root r-3-1

,

^^

Ti[o]

,

writing, that

being one of her occupations.
7.

Drawing up my

eyebrows

I

<=^\^

rn

i .V

^^^^

m

scornful pride, superciliously, like the

Greek

ras ocppv'i avaavav.

CHAPTER

LVIII.

Chapter for breathing air and command of water.
Let the door be opened to me Who art thou ? What is thy name
1

?

I

am One
is

of

You

!

Who

with thee

?

It is the

Merta.
(i) front to front,

Turn away then

on entering the Meskat.
of those

(2)

He

grants that I

may
is

sail to

the

Abode

who have found
is

their faces. Collector

of Souls

the

name
is

of

my Bark,
name
of

Bristler of Hair
its

the

name

of the Oars,

Point\

the

Hatch, Right and
glorious journey

Straight the

name

of the Rudder.
it

The
Give

picture of

is

the representation of

my

upon the Canal.

me

jars of

milk and cakes and flesh meat at the House

of Anubis.

If this chapter
*

is

known

he entereth after having gone out.
in

some Religious Texts of the Early Egyptian Period Bibl. Arch., Vol. IX, p. 303.

On

Trans, Soc

+ All

this part is corrupt.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

113

The
text,
1.

58th and 122nd chapters are reproductions of the same the earliest copy known being that of Ani.

Turn away

then.

Merta as we have seen

is

the

name given

to

the goddess pair Isis and Nephthys.

It is therefore

not possible to

account for the masculine pronoun
Merta.
therefore.
2.

^^

as having reference to
ideo,
idcirco,

^^ must

be taken in the sense of

then,

Meskat, or according to another reading Meschenit.

CHAPTER
Oh
It

LIX.

Chapter for breathing air and command of water.
thou Sycomore of Nut, give
thee.
is

me of

the water and of the wind

which are within
is

I

over that
thereof,

who hold that abode which Egg of the Great Cackler.
life

in Heracleopolis, I

watch

My

strength

is

the strength

my

the

life

thereof,

and

my

breath the breath thereof.

Notes.

On
and

the mythological tree in heaven which produces both
that
is

wind

tvater,

the

rain-cloud,

see

my

Egyptian Mythology,
in

particularly with reference to

Mist and Cloud,
is
still

Trans. Soc. Bibl.
i-

Arch., Vol. VIII.

The same kind
called
'

of imagery
'

current in Europe.
in

German
places
is

authorities tell us about the

Wetterbaum,' which
'

some

Abraham's Tree,' in others, Adam's Tree.' The Yggdrasill myth is supposed to have the same origin. The Rainbow is the heavenly Mountain Ash of a well known Swedish and Esthonian The water from heaven w-as supposed in Egypt to be riddle.
especially refreshing for the dead-.

CHAPTER

LX.

Another Chapter.
Let the doors of Heaven be open to me,
let

the doors of

Kabhu

be thrown wide to

me

;

by Thoth and by Hapi, the great Coverer of

Heaven,

at

daybreak.

Q

.

114
Grant ye that
to the Earth.
I

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
may have command
I

the

command

of water even as the

mighty Sut had the

of his enemies on the

Day

of Disaster

Long-armed ones in their corners, * even as that glorious and ready god prevaileth over them, whose name they know not. May I prevail over the Long-armed
prevail over the

May

ones.

CHAPTER LXL
V
I,

Another Chapter.
even
I,

am
is

whose Hapu.

attribute

he who proceedeth from the Weeper (i), and Overflowing. (2) I (3) have the command of it as

Notes.
I.

place.

The great Weeper is primarily Heaven, and it is The Nile god who proceeds from it also bears

so in this

the

same

name.

Jn '^^ AW^. ^^
AAAAAA

3.

/.

The

original

is

in the third person

;

in reference to

"

he

who proceedeth," &c.

Chapter LXH.
Chapter whereby water
Let the Great
is

drank

in the JVetherworld.

One be opened

to Osiris

wide to Thoth, the Coverer, Lord of the
Divider of the Earth.

Kabhu be thrown Horizon in his name of the
;

let

the

May
had over

I

have

command
traverse the

of the w-ater even as the might of Sutu

his enemies.

It is I

I I

who am Ra
:

Heaven
:

:

I

am am

the god in Lion form

the Steer; (i)
the haunch, and pierce through the joint.!
four cardinal points; the Eastern
1=^

I eat
*

The

and the Western

'^ ^—R

>

^"d

the Southern-and the Northern

a^

t

The

sacrificial offerings

C^V

and "^^3

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
go round the Sechit-Aarru. There hath been assigned to
I

II5

me

Eternity, without end.

And
Eternity.

lo

!

I

am

the Heir of Endless Time,

and my

attribute

is

Note.
I.

The Steer

^

4?

^V^*^^^^^

5^

smau, a solar
is

title

frequent in

the Pyramid texts.
<::i=>,

His mother. Heaven,
is

called

1

j^

7r%

or (as the
called the

name

written Teta 359)

I

She

is

Spouse on the Mountain

U

,

and by a play

upon words

The
or the

usual meaning of

I

Vv ]U jJi

like that of the

Greek x^o7

Hebrew

fc^tLH

,

is

the light green shoot of plants in spring,

and this is the key to the sense of the proper name. Demeter had a temple at Athens under the name of
in allusion to this that

The goddess
Chloe,

and

it is

Sophocles

calls

her ei-xKoos {Oed. Col. 1600).

This Egyptian goddess was
Enchebit, she had the White

^"^^^

J©,

a principal deity at

Crown and
Unas

the wig with two plumes.

She
Cf.

is

described as having drooping dugs, and as suckling her son.
the whole chap'-er beginning

with this information from
I.

with line 283 of Pepi

CHAPTER LXniA.
Chapter whereby one
the Netherworld.
is

not burnt with fire, but drinketh water in

1

Amenta let me be borne to thee am that Rudder of Ra, wherewith he conveyeth
Bull of
! !

the Ancient (i)

ones.
I I

am not burnt, I am not consumed. am Babai, the eldest son of Osiris, who

striketh the eye of

every god (2) in Heliopolis. 1 am the Heir, the primary power of motion and of rest

(3).

Q

2

ii6
I

EOOK OF
have made firm
it.

thf: dead.
it

my

name, and have preserved

that I

may

have Hfe through

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby
I
otie is

LXIIlB.
twt boiled in water.

am
and

that ready
I raise
;

Rudder wherewith Ra conveyeth the Ancient

ones,

impassable

the effluxes (4) of Osiris to the Tank from flames a wrecked one, (5) but not to be consumed.

I lie helpless as

a dead person, (6) and

I

arrive at the lair of the

Lion who defieth slaughter, ...
set out.

(7) following the road

by which

I

Notes.

The Chapters 63A and 63B
reading.
text of
T.

are united into one in the later

MSS.

without any other division than

^^^,

indicative

of a

different

None
is

of the early papyri contains both chapters.

The

63B

extremely corrupt, and without rational interpretation.
that

/ am

ones.

Rudder of Ra, 7vherewith he conveyeth the Ancient This passage is twice found in Horhotep (311 and 329),

the word for

Rudder being
[

written

^\

Tk

C ^^-t^

.

2.

Who

striketh the eye,

-^-^

\

.

The

peaceful determina-

tive

may

perhaps be intended to diminish the force of the very

expressive

\

in

the verb

of striking.

But

I

believe that this

passage

may

fairly
:

be

illustrated

by the words of Lucretius IV,

324 and following

Splendida porro oculi fugitant vitantque
Sol etiam caecat, contra
si

tueri,

tendere pergas.

Praeterea splendor quicumque est acer adurit

Saepe oculos ideo quod semina possidet ignis Multa, dolorem oculis quae gignunt insinuando.
3.

The primary power of fjiotion and of rest.

These words have

a

modern sound, but they express

the sense of the original,

^^

>^

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
4
.

117

Effluxes^
Osiris,

\\
which

rt3
is

,

the /x^Vs t^^ vital sap, as

it

were, of the

body of

the source of Hfe both to

men and

to

gods,* and in default of which his
cease to beat.
It is

own

heart

(Unas 12) would

celebrated in

all

the mythological texts extant
to the latest inscriptions of

from the time of the Pyramids down

Denderah and Edfu, and even
moisture was supposed to
naturally identified with
it.

in

Demotic documents.
from
it,

|

All

proceed

and the Nile was

In the
\\

Pyramid

texts

(Pepi 66)

X

\>'v\'\\

^^
translator

is

put in parallelism with

^
sense.
P

^

|.

5.

A

wrecked one.

So

I

understand ^^^^ from Chapter 125, 38,
is

but the whole context here
respects himself
6.

so doubtful that

no

who

would warrant the

/

lie

helpless like

a dead person.
its

AA

,

heft is

the

condition of an infant on the knees of
li\

nurse.

And

I

understand

V^
7.

^"^ ^'^

^^^^

known euphemistic
-^
^^

application to the dead.

-»^

Yf^

^-

"^^

X!&o%\.

probable reading here, but
it.

it is

a

hapax legomenon with nothing

in the context to explain

CHAPTER
am
;

LXIV.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day from the Netherworld.
I

Yesterday, To-day, and To-morrow, for
is

I

am

born again and

again

mine

the unseen Force, (i) which createth the gods

and
the

giveth food to those in the Tuat (2) at the

West of Heaven

;

I

am

Eastern Rudder, (3) the Lord of

Two

Faces,

who

seeth by his

own

* In one of the ancient chapters preserved in the tomb of Horhotep, the deceased, speaking in the person of Horus, talks (319) of quenching his thirst

with the

^^

_^ [^

of his father Osiris.
in

t See a very interesting passage
translation.

Pap.

Rhind

4,

4,

with

I'rugsch's

;

Il8
light; the

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Lord of Resurrections, who cometh
birth
is

forth

from the dusk
are giving

and whose
attentive

from the House of Death.

Ye two

divine

Hawks

(4)
;

bier to the heed to the matter tomb, and who conduct the ship of Ra, advancing onwards from the highest place of the Ark in heaven— the Lord of the Shrine (5)

upon your gables, who ye who accompany the

which standeth

in the centre of the
I

Earth

He

is I, is

and

am

He.

(6)

Mine

the radiance in which Ptah

fioateth

over his

firma-

ment. (7) Oh Ra,

who
in

smileth cheerfully, and whose heart

is

delighted

with the perfect order of this

day

as

thou enterest into Heaven and

comest forth

the East

:

the Ancients and those

who

are gone

before acclaim thee.

Let thy paths be

made

pleasant for

me

;

let

thy ways be

made

wide

for

me

to traverse the earth

and the expanse of Heaven.

Shine thou upon me, oh gracious Power; (8) as I draw nigh to the divine words which my ears shall hear in the Tuat ; let no pollution of

my mother

be upon

me

;

deliver me, protect
to

me
:

from him

who
I
its

closeth his eyes at twilight

and bringeth
(9)
is

an end

in darkness.
I

am

the Overflower,

and Kam-ura
is

my name

bring to

fulness (10) the Force which

hidden within me.

Oh

thou Great One,

who

the Powers of the South, at
forth, saying
:

and callest upon the moment when the god is carried
art Shoreless, (11)

"Behold the Lord of his Flood; see, the Shoulder is fastened (12) upon his neck and the Haunch upon the head of the West" offerings which the two goddesses of the West (13) present to me when the weeping bursteth forth from me at what I witness, as I am borne round on the Tenait in Abydos, (14) and the bolts made fast on the gateways above your images are in the reach of thine hand and from within thee. Thy face is as that of a hound whose nostril sniffeth at the covert
to

which

my

feet

convey me.
for

Anubis is my bearer, god in Lion form.
!

he who luUeth

me

to rest (16)

is

the

Do thou save me I am He who cometh
door
;

forth as

one who breaketh through the

and everlasting

is

the Daylight which his will hath created.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
" I

II9

know

the deep waters "

is

my
am

name.

I satisfy

the desires of the Glorified,
.
. .

who

are by millions

and

hundreds of thousands
actively

.*

I

the guardian of their interests,

working

at the

hours of the day and adjusting the arms of

Sahu

;

twelve in circling round, uniting hands, each of them with

them in the Tuat is the Hour of the which cometh here in triumph the same overthrow of the Sebau,' the same which is yoked with which maketh way into the Tuat
another.

But the

sixth of

'

;

;

Shu.
I

shine forth as the Lord of Life and the glorious order of this
the blood which purifieth
is

day

:

and the vigorous sword-strokes by

which the Earth
I sever the

made

one.
;

horns (17) from those who unite in resistance to me the hidden ones who rise up in opposition against me those who go
;

upon
I

their bellies.

come

as the ambassador of the

cause of Osiris in this place.
I

Lord of lords to avenge the Let not t the Eye consume its tears.

am

the Guide

of the house of

Him who

dwelleth in his

treasures.
I

am come

from Sechem to Heliopolis

to inform the

Bennu

of

the matters of the Tuat.

Oh
raisest

goddess Aucherit, who concealest that

is

within thee, but
forth

up forms,

like

Chepera, grant that

I

may come

and see

the orb of the sun, and walk forth in the presence of the great god,

who
I

is

Shu and abideth
on high,
I

for eternity.

upon the firmament, I with the daylight which mine eye hath made, and
travel

tread

raise a flame
I
fly

forward
daily,

towards the splendours of the Glorified in presence of
giving
life

Ra

to every
earth.

man who

treadeth on the lands (18) which are

upon the

Oh

thou who leapest

forth,

conductor
the
fair

of

the

Shades and
are in faint

Glorified ones from the Earth, let

path to the Tuat be

granted to me, which

is

made

in behalf of those

who

condition and for the restoration of those

Who
I

art thou,

who devourest

in

who Amenta ?

are in pain.

am He who
*

presideth in Restau.

"He who

entereth in his

The

text is too corrupt here for
is

any plausible translation,

t Aoi

omilted in

many

copies.

120

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
forth in quest
;

own name, and cometh
the Earth
" is

the Lord of the Eternity of

my

name.
;

7ohich She who hath conceived hath set down her burden turneth round before descending ; the door is shut at t/ie wall which
is

reversed

.

.

.*

His Eye hath been given the dawning of the day.
I

to

Horus and

his face brighteneth at

am am

not exhausted

:

I

become

the Lion

god and the palm

flowers of
I

Shu are upon me.

who drowneth. Blessed are they who see (19) the Bourne (20) beautiful is the god of the motionless heart who causeth the stay of the Overflowing.
not one
:

Behold

!

there

cometh

forth the

Lord of

Life, Osiris thy support,

who abideth day
I

after day.

I

embrace the Sycomore, (21) I am united to the Sycomore. part the two deities of morning that I may come to hold the
it

Eye, (22) and cause
I

to rest in its place.
I

am come
coming

to see
:

at his

forth

Ra at his setting, and my two hands are pure
!

unite with the breeze

for
!

adoring him.

ISIay I
I
fly

be restored

INLay I

be restored

up to heaven and I alight upon the earth and mine eye turneth back there towards the traces of my footsteps.
;

I

am

the offspring of Yesterday; the tunnels

{2;^)

of the earth

have given

me

birth,

and

I

am

revealed at

my

appointed time.

be under shelter from the warlike handed god who cometh behind me, may my flesh be sound and may my glories be a protection to the limbs of one who waiteth for the purpose of

May

I

taking counsel.

May

the Cycle of the gods listen to what I say.

To

be said on corning forth by

on the path of the
'

day ; that one may not be kept back Tuat, whether on efitering or on coming forth ; for
;

taking all the forms which one desireth
die not a second time.

and that
is

the soul of the person

If then

this chapter be

known

the

person

made triutnphant upon

earth [and in the Netherworld]

and

he performeth all things which

are done by the living.

This chapter
*

was

discovered on a plinth of the

god of

the

Hermu

The

copies of this paragraph are as discordant as they are unintelligible.

It is idle to

guess at the meaning until a better text can be discovered.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Bark
(23) by a master builder of the wall in the time of

121

King

Septa,

the Victorious. (24)

This composition

is

a secret

;

not to be seen or looked

at.

Recite the chapter

when

sanctified

and pure ;

not approaching

women, not eating goat^s flesh or fish.

Notes.
This
chapters.
is

one of the most important as

it is

one of the most ancient
at the

The

text of
It

it

was aheady doubtful

time of the

Xlth dynasty.

had been handed down in two recensions, both of which were inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, the

discovery of one of these being attributed to the time of King Septa

of the 1st dynasty, and that of the second to the time of Menkaura,
the king of the third pyramid.
in the

These two recensions are
slightest value.

also

found

papyrus of Nebseni.

The MSS.

present innumerable various

collected, as far as they could

These have been French and some other Museums in 1876, in a very admirable work upon the chapter, by M. Paul Guieysse,* who has translated and commented upon it and and all the variations of it known to him at the time. Since then the papyrus of Nebseni has been published, and M. Naville has given all the variants found in the few existing papyri of
be discovered,
in the
I

readings, few of which are of the

the best period.

have notes of the readings of the papyri in the British Museum, and also those of a cast (now in the British
a block
in

Museum) taken from

serpentine,

belonging

to

the

Museum

of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg.
light as
I

With such

gent authorities

could be derived from these extremely diverhave done my best (taking as the basis of my

translation the texts in the papyrus of

Nebseni and the rubric in which

the discovery

is

ascribed to the time of king Septa) towards ex-

hibiting the chapter in as intelligible a form as seems to

me

possible.

Some

passages as yet defy translation in consequence of the cor-

ruption of the text.

Some much
to

years before his untimely death

translation of this

M. de Rouge read his chapter before the Academic des Sciences. It is
this

be lamented that
to
*

has never been published.
a

I

have,

in addition

the versions of other scholars,
Eludes Egyptologiques

copy of one by

;

sixieme livraison.

R

,

122
Mr. Goodwin, with
thirty years ago.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
whom
this
I

read this and other chapters nearly
is

But

kind of literature

not one of those in

which

his marvellous sagacity

showed

to advantage.

In reading this and almost every other chapter of the Book of the Dead, it is absolutely necessary to bear in mind that different
divine

names do

not

necessarily

imply

different

personalities.

A

name

expresses but one attribute of a person or thing, and one

person having several attributes
but that the

may have
is

several names.

It is

not

implied in this chapter that the Sun

the Nile or the Inundation,
is

same
is

invisible force

which

manifested in the solar
;

phenomena
Inundator.

that

which produces the inundation
titles.

He

is

the

But he has many other names and
it,

In

this chapter, as in others before

the speaker at one time

him with some a simple mortal petitioning some favour.
talks in terms identifying

divinit)-,

and

at

another as

'=^'^
1.

c>

U

c=s=i

(*^-

X
is

1

-9

1

<^^^

or, at

a later period

,

.

,

-f_ ^^ ^

«

Vs\

,

signifies

ofie

whose force
all

concealed or unseen.

It is a theological

term, frequent at
that the deity
is

periods of the Egyptian religion, and implies
its

not to be confounded with
see hides as truly as
it

external manifestation.
;

The Sun

that

we

reveals the Sun-god

who,

as this chapter shows, has other manifestations.
2.

Those in

the

Tuat
)

^ ^^
Ij

^—^

^

i

called

in

the

Pyramid

Texts

IK
1

^ V\
I,

Pepi

1815.

The more

recent texts read

^

"^

^
3.

" the gods of the West."

Cf Pepi

174.

4.

Tjc'O divine

Hawks

upon yotir gables.

They

are

mentioned
Teta, 183.

in the

Pyramid Texts*

as

J

J

mmO
p.

O^,
many

They

represent the two divisions. North and South, of the
Cf.

kingdom

of Horus.

Rochemonteix, £:dfu, passages as that found there.

55 and

other such

The Shrine which standeth Shrine is also mentioned in the
5.

in the centre
'

of the Earth.

This

Book

of Hades.'

Cf Bonomi,

Sarc. 4c.
*

Here
last.

as in the

name

of i^"

''•

Tmu,

the long sign

is

written

first

though

read

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
6.

1

23

He is
is

/,

atid

T am

He.

Cf. the
.
. . . ,

Pyramid Text—"
thou

Oh Ra
and Teta

Teta

thou,

and thou

art

Teta

risest as Teta,

riseth in thee, etc.," Teta, 337.
7.

Ptah fioateth over
in early texts

his fir7nament.

The meaning

of the verb

is

shown

by the determinative, as

in the parallel

passage

of the 17th chapter.
8.

Oh

gracious Potver,
._A-^.

^^^

The

adjective

is

also

written

#¥\

The

usual determinative

"i^iC^

has

its

origin

in the hieratic
9.

form of ^, see Prisse Papyrus.
1

Kam-urii ^

^^^^

-^^/www, 'The

great Extender," a

name

applied to Osiris, as the Nile.

"Thy two
to thee

sisters, Isis

and Nephthys,

come
in thy

to thee,

and they convey

Kamit

urit [the great Extent]

name

oi

Kam-urd
to
its

[the great Extender]."
etc.

Teta, 274.
is

10.

/

bring

fulness,

The

yearly inundation
;

the

mature
of his

result of the innate force
ei'epyei'a..

belonging to the god

the

evep^/ij^ia.

This translation remains the same whether the
[q1.

reading be ^>^ or
1 1.

Shoreless,

'-^

"^^^

|^^

.

^^ or

1

t

,

implies an enclosed

space, a basin or channel with fixed limits.

The inundation has no

determinate banks.

Its

course

is

from south to north, hence the

reference to the deities of the South.
12.

Shoulder and Haunch.

The

usual sacrificial joints.

This

passage was at an early date added to the paragraph which opens
the chapter.
1 3.

The two goddesses of the West, ci— n

V
.

It is said of

Ra
The

at

Edfu

\.

"

He

setteth

m

the West."

deities in question are Isis

and Nephthys, who are
(

also the deities of the East or Sunrise

under the name of

-

•^^^-11^;
/VWVNA /W\^/\A

Unas, 461.
it is

In the passage of the Pyramid Texts just referred to
that these " divinities in

stated as he

Ununait open

their

arms

to the

god

stands

up erect on the eastern side of the firmament." Ununait is the place of rising, springing up.
The Tenait in Abydos.
This feast has already been men-

14.

R

2

124
tioned in Chapter
I.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
It

was one of those commemorative and representative of the death of Osiris, of his mutilation, mummificaPrescriptions for carrying it out are found in the tion and burial.
great text at Uenderah, published by Diimichen
translated by Brugsch,

and Mariette, and

and Loret, and

(in part)

by Diimichen.

Tenait

is

also the

name

of certain days of the month, and (Teta,

229) of the
15.

fifth

hour of the day.

The

bolts

made fast on

the gatezcays.

The Pyramid Texts on
^=^^

behalf of the deceased invoke the

^^\

(,

^v ^s. '^W
compare

<=i^

V

[F"'

nnn'

'^^^
it

^^°'^

which closes the gateway of
to

Heaven,' with a prayer that
line 200).
16.

may open

him

(Teta, 235,

He who

lidleth

me,

/

vk
to

^f*-

The word
lion.

is

here in the

dual,

as

corresponding

the

double

Cf.

important variant "Q
17. 18.

|X g^ is found
Cf.

at

Edfu (Rochemonteix,

p. 78).

I sever
The

the horns.

Psalm

Ixxv, 11.

la?ids.

The Egyptian word
1

varies in the texts.
in different senses
:

The
one of

most authorized reading

^

is

used

which (and perhaps the original one) is put, put on ; ponere, locare, Here it would seem from the context to induere, figere, addere.

mean
I

locality, post, spot of earth.

And

I

am
or

inclined to identify

m
\>
111

this place

with the well-known

\>, \>

sss

,

as

an equiva-

lent

if

not as a phonetic variant.

19. Blessed are they

who

see T

^^W"^^^^

written T
42,
.

%^1\ _^ %\ "^
Pepi
1,

in the
it is

Pyramid Texts (Unas, 584, Teta.
in parallelism with

181 and 199), where

v\ \\
[ \

20.
cf.

The Bourne,
I,

[

M.

On

the goddess

q, Menait,

Teta 2S8, Pepi
21.

70, 154, 163.

The Sycamore of Dawn repeatedly mentioned in the Book of The Pyramid Texts also (Pepi I, 174) speak of the tall the Dead.

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

1

25

Sycomore of Sut in the Eastern Sky on which the gods congregate and sit, in expectation of the arrival of the Glorified one.
21.
like the
I

To hold

the Eye,

m \\\>\
k

^^^^"The two

Later

texts,

Turin copy, have

fl^^-

verbs here (like
in the

J

®11

which

is

also found as a variant) are

synonymous

sense of embracing,

holding,''' enclosing, fastening, staying, proppiiig.

According to the ancient myth Sut deprived Horus of his Eye, which was recovered by Thoth, and by him restored to its owner.

The
p.

following passage from an inscription at
is

Edfu (Rochemonteix,
texts.

25)

in strict

accordance with the oldest mythological

ii "J u

s^
=^=i
its

^ -^ ^^.^ sp
c.

=1
Eye of Horus
suffering harm,
to

I

Wv
fast

/

c^

"Asten, who restored the

Lord,

who made
his

pacified

Horus with

who preserved the Eye {ut'at) from the Eye {ttutrit) in its place, and who Eye." The different synonyms designating
word ^v^
i

the

Eye

are important as showing that the

^^.

^^

is

here used in the sense of the daily light of the sun.

The

other part of the

same
1

text as

Edfu gives additional
"

variants.

®

I

I

Ol

£-

/VV\A/vA

H—

^ S\vF

JJ

AAAAAA

(f—

'

''

i

^|\ "^^^^and^^^<:^ ij^^n.
Eye
is

Here the
in

called

•¥
1

'^

-^^

,

'Hr
ci

-^^

,

and

^
.

But

other

<rrr> -C2>-

places the Ut'at stands for a less frequent
gress.

moment

of the solar pro-

In the Pyramid Texts for instance

®

O

V^

L

\^

^

" holder of the Southern

Summer
The
titles,

Solstice.

Eye of Horus" might perhaps designate the And a later text connects the Eye with the

opening of the year.
priestly title

that of the

|;^|, 'holder of the Eye,' is like all such divinity whom the priest personates. The god

*

C/".

the expressions

O
yv./v^/v\

J
POv LU
1

^s,
1— _!

Teta, 258, 262, and

®
yvwvNA

n
.
1

n ^^
I

zr2

-^)

olZl

S

6M!i

is

not a mere gate, but a hold, or keep.

;

126

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
is

himself

hieroglyphically represented by the sign

^^u

of an ape

holding the Eye.

"• ^^^ ^--^^'

^ <^
F

f!T'

^ ^ S'
See

^'''' ^91

y\<>^3

Rjj]

,

Horhotep, 213.

my

note Froc.

Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1873, p. 385.

The Coptic AKOpi, which
is

is

generally supposed to be a serpent,
like

more probably an earth-worm,

S^^
I

The Pyramid Texts have another word which
the tunnels through which the Sun,

understand of
pass from
,

Moon, and
to

Stars

West

to East,

n ^^1

*^=°^

>

^s

opposed
is

X

]

T^

the paths

of the upper world.
80),

Anubis
(1

called

11

><f^

b=^^=^

(Pepi
^^'^''

I,

and these passages are

- -

o V^

® ^, 'v Y
*s'=°=fe'

Y

^^^'

" between the two divine forms " (a lion at each end).

C/. Teta, 319,
'

where
r e e

it is

said of the Stars
f

^v

f

1v

|

^^^^

^^^

\\

^,

o .c^::^

'

,

that at their triumphant course

through the tunnels the bones of the Akeru gods quake
23.

The god of

the

Hennu Bark,


"1

ffl

^

\

"^

^'^'
I.

he

who

resides in the \

vl

^A£, ship referred

to in chapter

The god

of this ship
also

one of

commonly named Sekaru in the texts, but Hennu is On the connection between the the names of Horus.
is

two names see Teta,
24.

line 270.
(

King Septa

"""hr^

)

of the 1st dynasty,

who has been

identified with the

Usaphais of Manetho.
is

The

other account of the discovery of the chapter

thus de-

scribed in the rubric of the second recension.

This chapter was discovered at Hermopolis upon a slab of alabaster,
inscribed in blue, under the feet of this

god

[Osiris], at the time

of King

Menkard,

the victorious, by the royal prince

Hortataf when he was

journeying for the purpose of inspecting the temples .... * and he
*

There

is

no certainly about the

text of the next

few words.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
carried off the slab in the royal chariot^

12/

when he saw what was

on

it.

The
circled

rubric farther prescribes that a scarab of hard stone en-

and purified with gold * should be placed upon the place of the heart of the deceased, and that the words of power contained in the 30th chapter, " Heart mine of my mother," etc., should be repeated. The gold leaf or plate has been found on some scarabs,
' '

but has disappeared from nearly

all.

The
be put

'Ritual of Parma,' which speaks of two metals, 1
latter for the rim), directs that the

^^"^^

smu, and silver (the

scarab should

According to this authority it was the 30th chapter, not the 64th, which was discovered by Prince
at the throat of the

deceased.

Hortataf

in his inspectorial tour.

CHAPTER

LXV.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and prevaileth over the
adversaries.

Oh

thou

from the

who shinest forth from the Moon, thou who givest light Moon, let me come forth at large amid thy train, let me be
Let the Tuat be opened
this day, for

revealed as one of those in glory.

me.

Here am

I

:

let

me come
in

forth

upon

the glorified ones grant to

me

that I live

and be glorified. Let and that mine adversaries
;

be brought
of

to

me

bonds before the divine Circle
I rise

may

the Genius

my mother

be propitiated thereby, as

up upon

a sceptre of gold in

my

hand, and lop off the limbs.
Sothis,

my feet with May I rise up,
close

a

Babe [from between] the knees of
.

when they

togethe

(i)

Notes.

The

first

part of this chapter

is

nearly identical with Chapter
older period.

2.

No
of

copy of

it is

found

in the papyri of the

In place

same title, and These texts however are extremely discordant and corrupt, and in the more difificult, and to us more interesting, passages must have been quite unintelligible to
it

M.

Naville has published a chapter bearing the

which

is

found

in five

ancient papyri.

* I understand

by

this that the

gold

is

intended to keep the scarab free from

defilement.

128
the copyists.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The second word,
is
. .

for instance, of line 8
rati in

is

ri in

Ca,
////

the corresponding word

htu in Za, tai in Pb^
is

la and

in

Aa.

A

discrepancy not less violent

encountered after the next
is

three words.

The

oldest extant form of the chapter
;

that of

Aa,

the papyrus of Nebseni

it is

also the shortest,

appear to
the texts.

me

to exhibit signs of interpolation.

and the other forms But M. Naville was

quite right in taking the text of

Ca

as his basis for the collation of

This whole passage, as it stands, in the MSS. is extremely obscure, and I can only make sense of it by conjecturing that a
I.

preposition has been omitted by the copyists.

The knees

of a goddess are frequently mentioned in connection

with the birth of a divinity.

Here the Babe
'

is

mentioned

{cf.

opening
'live,'

of Chapter 42), and the closing of the knees.

The word
it

dnh,

has

for. its

primitive
here.

meaning

rise

up,'

and

is

in this sense that

I translate it

•CHAPTER LXVI.
Chapter whereby
I
o?te

cometh forth by day.

know

that I .have been conceived

by Sechit and that
I

I

am

born

of Neith.
I

am
I

Horus, who proceedeth from the Eye of Horus
forth like the

;

am

Uat'it,

and

come

Hawk which
his

soareth aloft
in

and

resteth

upon

the brow of

Ra

at the

prow of

Bark

Heaven.

CHAPTER LXVH.
Chapter whereby the doors of the Tuat are opened and forth by day.
otie

cometh

Let the doors be opened of the caverns of Nu, and

let

the feet

be loosened of those who are in glory. Let the caverns of Shu be opened, that he may come forth at large, and that I may issue from my funereal pit to my seat which is let me issue without disaster to my at the prow of the Bark of Ra
;

seat which

is at the

prow of the Bark of Ra, the
lair.

all-radiant one, as

he

riseth

up from

his

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

129

CHAPTER
Let the two doors of

LXVIII.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day.

Heaven be opened

to

me

:

let

the two

doors of Earth be opened to

me
:

:

let

the bolts of Seb open to me,

Mansion be opened to me, that he may behold me who hath kept guard over me and let him unloose me who hath wound his arms around me and hath fastened his arms upon me

and

let

the First

into the earth.

Let the Re-hunit (i) be opened

to

me,

let

me

pass into the
forth

Re-hunit

;

let

the Re-hunit be given to me, that I

may come

by day whithersoever
Let

my
me

heart desireth.

me

have possession of
heart
;

my

heart, let

my Whole

let

have possession of

me my

have possession of mouth, let me have

possession of

my

legs, let

me

have possession of
let

my
air,

arms,

let

me

have possession of

my

limbs absolutely;

me have

possession of
let

my

funereal

meals, let
let

possession of water,

me me

have possession of

me

have

have possession of the stream,

let

me

have possession of the
Let

river, let

me

me

have possession of

all

have possession of the banks. things soever which were ritually
Let
earth

offered for

me

in the

Netherworld.
for

me

table which

was made

me upon
may
it

— the

have possession of the
solicitations (2)

which

were uttered for

me

" that he

feed
not.

That which

I execrate, I eat

upon the bread of Seb." Let me feed upon the bread
let
sit

of the red corn of the Nile in a pure place,

me

sip beer of the

red corn of the Nile in a pure place

;

let

me

under the branches

of the palm trees [in Heliopolisj in the train of Hathor,
solar orb broadeneth

when

the

(3), as she proceedeth to Heliopolis with the

writings of the divine words of the

Book

of Thoth.

me have possession of my Whole heart let me have possession of my arms, let me have possession of my legs, let me have possession of my funereal meals, let me have possession of air, let me have possession of water, let me have possession of the stream, let me have possession of the river, let me have possession of the barks. Let me have possession of all things soever which were ritually Let me have possession of the offered for me in the Netherworld. table which was made for me upon earth. Let me be raised up on the left and on the right let me be
Let

me

have possession of
;

my

heart, let

;

raised

up on the

right

and on the

left.

S

.

130
Let
[with]

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
me sit down and let me stand up, and strain my tongue and mouth like a skilled pilot. (4)
scripture is
for the breeze

If this

known, he will come forth by day and he will

travel over the earth in the midst of the living, ujiinjurcd for ever.

Notes.
Copies of
this

chapter are found on the coffins of Mentuhotep

and have been published by Lepsius in his They are unfortunately in Aelteste Texte, pi. 8, 21, 22^ and 34. very mutilated condition, and my translation follows the text of the and Sebak-aa
at Berlin,

Theban papyri. 1. The Re-hunit

in this place is clearly

not an Egyptian

locality,

but a passage between the Netherworld and heaven or earth.
2.

Solicitations,

[I

^o m

I

Q(\

ambire, ambitio,

and

in

a bad

sense ambages.
3.

This passage explains what

is

meant

in

Chapter 28 by the god

of the Broad Face.
of the setting sun
It is

One

of the papyri {la) adds the well
'old.

known

epithet

Hathor who proceeds
used
in

to Heliopolis, as the feminine suffix

which
4.

is

the oldest texts, proves..
p. 3,

M'.

Lefebure (Papyrus de Soutimes,
''

note 8) understands

the passage as

avoid

it."

meaning I seek the direction of the wind m order to But I am inclined to recognize a superstition still current
different
in the
>

among sailors, the "whistling for a breeze." The oldest copies and the more recent ones have
readings,

and though the words uha hemu occur repeatedly
is

Pyramid Texts, the second word
as in the

not written
^^^"^^

® ^^^^

^

y

^

,

Theban

papyri, but

® ^^^

^

CHAPTER
Otherwise said :
I

LXIX.

I

am am

a

Flaming One, and brother

to a

Flaming One.
avengeth

Osiris, brother to Isis.

He who
Avicked

me

is

my
;

son

Horus, in company with his mother, upon mine adversaries
saries

adver-

who have done

to

me

all

and

evil things.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chains have been put upon their arms and hands and evil things which they have done to me.

131
feet in

consequence of the
I

am

Osiris, the eldest of the great cycle

of the gods (i) and heir

of his father Seb.
I

am
;

Osiris, the

Lord of the heads of

life

;

powerful before and

behind
I

his phallus extendeth to the limits of the

human

race.*

am

Sahu,

who

assigneth the bounds as he saileth round the

starry throng of

me

Heaven, the body of my mother Nut, who conceived at her will and brought me forth at her desire. I am Anubis on the day of the Rending asunder.

I

am

the Bull in the Field
his

father
place.
I

and

My

shut up his mother on the day when the great slaughter took father is Seb and my mother is Nut.
;

I,

even

I,

Osiris,

who

I

am Horus, the eldest of Ra as he riseth. am Anubis on the day of Rending asunder
great One,

:

I

am

Osiris.

O

who

enterest an'd speakest to

him who presenteth

and guardeth the door of Osiris^ (2) grant that I may come in and be glorified, let me be appraised, and let me be made vigorous, that I may come and avenge myself. Let me sit at the cradle (3) of Osiris, and put an end to nly let me be made strong and vigorous at the suffering and pain cradle of Osiris, so that I may be born with him and renewed. Said twice. Let me seize that Thigh (4) which is under the place of Osiris^ with which I may open the mouth of the gods and sit by him, like Thoth the Scribe, sound of heart, (5) with thousands of loaves, beer, beef, and fowl upon the table of my father, and the flesh of oxen and birds of various kinds, (6) which I offer to Horus, which I present to Thoth, and which I sacrifice to the Lord of Heaven.
the tablets
;

CHAPTER
I

LXX.

Another Chapter.
have come to an end (7)
as
for the

Lord of Heaven.
of

I

am
I

written

down
the

sound of

heart,

and
its

I

rest at the table
is

my

father Osiris,

King of Tattu, and
eastern

my

heart

stirred
;

by his country.

breathe
its

breeze by

hair (8)

I

grasp the north wind by

* Cf. note on the Ass of Chapter 40.

S 2

132
side lock
;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

grasp the south wind by the skin as I
;

make

the circuit

I seize the east wind by the skin, and I of heaven on its four sides give the breezes to the faithful dead amid those who eat bread. Jf this scripture is knoivn upon earth he will come forth by day,

he will walk upon earth

amid

the livi?ig

:

his

name

will be uninjured

for

ever.

Notes to Chapters LXIX and LXX.
These appended
1.

last

to

two chapters are always found together, and always This is the case not only in the ancient Chapter 68.

the papyri, but in

tombs

like that of

Bakenrenef.

The

later texts say " the eldest of the five gods."

2.

Who

presenteth the tablets

and guardeth

the door of Osiris.

See picture of Thoth in the Psychostasia. 3. Where Osiris renews his birth.

The Thigh. The iron instrument so called used ceremony of Opening the mouth of the deceased.
4.
' '

in

the

5.

Sound of heart

implies that the conscience of the deceased

has been recognized as blameless.

Oxen and birds of various kinds. These kinds are named the text, but we have no corresponding European names.
6.
7.

in

I have

come

to

an

end.

The

first

two words of
last,

this

chapter

are evidently copied from the end of the
'

but instead of menhu,
'

sacrificial

slaughter,' the

notion of mend or meni
Later texts read " I

coming

to to

an
an

end,' has

been substituted.
hair.

do not come

end."
8.

Jts

All

this

paragraph

sounds very strangely, and

translators are tempted to understand that the hair, side-lock,

and

skin

of the

deceased are acted upon by the winds.*

But the

feminine

suffix

shows that the converse
it,

is

the case.

The speaker

catches the air and distributes
faithful departed.

as

we

are afterwards told, to the

CHAPTER
O
Divine

LXXI.

Chapter zvhereby one cometh forth by day. (i)

Hawk, who

comest

forth

in

Heaven,

Lord

of

Mehurit. {2)
*

But we " catch Time by the forelock," and so did the Greeks.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Make
who
thou

133

me

sound, (3) even as thou hast

made

thyself sound,

revealest thyself, (4)

who

disrobest thyself,

and presentest thyself

to the Earth.

May his will towards me I am the Hawk in the
which
is

be done by the Lord of the

One

Face.

Tabernacle and
Isis

I

pierce through [that

upon] the Vail.
is

(6)
:

Here

Horus, the Son of

Horus the Son of

Isis.

Make
who
the Earth.

thou

me

sound, even as thou hast

made

thyself sound,
to

revealest thyself,

who

disrobest thyself,

and presentest thyself
Face.
in

I

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One am the Hawk in the Southern Heaven, and Thoth
Law
is

the

Northern Heaven, who appease the Flame when raging and who

convey

to the

god who loveth
:

it.

Here

Thoth

Thoth.

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to
the Earth.

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. I am Unbu of En-areref, the Flower of the Abode of Occultation.
Here
is

Osiris

:

Osiris.

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to
the Earth.

May

his will towards

me

be done by the Lord of the
[<?/•

One

Face.

upon thy O two legs], at thine own hour, owner of the Two Twin Souls, and who livest in Two Twin Souls.
thou who art upon thy two legs

who

art terrible

Make thou me sound, even as thou hast made thyself sound, who revealest thyself, who disrobest thyself, and presentest thyself to
the Earth.

May
Face.

his will

towards

me be done

by the Lord of the One

O

thou who thou

circlest

round, within thine Egg, Lord of Mehurit.

Make who revealest
the Earth.

me

sound, even as thou hast

made

thyself sound,
thyself to

thyself,

who

disrobest thyself,

and presentest

May

his will

towards
erect,

me be done

by the Lord of the
his high

One

Face.

Sebak standeth

surrounded by

places,

and Neith

standeth erect in the

midst of her alluvial grounds, in order to reveal

134

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

themselves, to disrobe themselves and to present themselves to the
Earth.

May his will towards me be done by the Lord of the One Face. Oh ye Seven Divine Masters, (7) who are the arms of the Balance
on the Night wherein the Eye
is

fixed

;

ye

who

strike off the

heads

and cleave the necks, who seize the hearts and drag forth the whole ye hearts, and accomplish the slaughter in the Tank of Flame whom I know and whose names I know, know you me as I know
:

your names.
I in

advance to you, advance ye to

me

:

live in

me
is

and
in

let

me

live

you.

Convey
to

to

me

the

Symbol of

Life which

your hands,

and the Sceptre which ye

grasp. (8)

Award
life in

me

the

life

of yearly speech through countless years of
life
;

addition to

my
;

years of

countless months in addition to

my months of my life life and countless nights in addition to the nights of my life, that I may come forth and beam upon my own images, with breath for my nostrils, and eyes which see, amid those who are at the Horizon, on
the

countless days in addition to the days of

;

day when brute Force {9) is brought to a reckoning. If this Chapter is known there is icell-being on earth with Rd and a fair abode with Osiris, and the person is glorified in the
that

Netherworld.

There are grant-ed

to

him

the sacred cakes
i)f

and

the

coming forth into the presence * in the course

each day, undeviatingly,

for

titties infinite.

Notes.
1.

The

title

as here translated

is

taken from the oldest
is

known
same and for

MS., that of Nebseni.

But the Papyrus Pc, which

of the

period, has " Chapter for entering after going forth by day,

and this title or a very similar one is found on other papyri. The most recent form is that in the Chapter for coming forth by day and repelling brttte Turin copy making
transfortnations in all forms,"
Force, so that the person

may

tiot
iti

be seized in the Nethenuorld, but
the Ta-t'eserit.

that his soul
2.

may

be ttiade

sound

Lord of Me hurit =^1.0x6. of Heaven,
is

that

is

the Sun-god.

The
owner

invocation

repeated a

little

farther on,

"O

thou

who

circlest within

The god is also said to be the thine Egg, Lord of Mehurit." " the Two Twin Souls," namely Ra and Osiris. of
*

Namely, "of the great god."

This ellipse

is

very frequent.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
3.
is

135
first.

The

verb

is

here in the second person, not in the
texts

This

shown by those
4.

which give the name of the person, instead
the ol)ject of the verb.
in all

of the pronominal

suffix, as

Thyself

= Here,

but the later copies, the pronoun of the

third person

is

used, in accordance with a well

known

P^gyptian

idiom.
5.

Lord of the One Face =^ /xovo-n-poawTi-o'i
which
is

in opposition to
its

TroXy-

TrpdaieTTo^,

an epithet of the Sky, on account of

many

changes of aspect.
the

The Moon

too has a variety of phases, whereas

Sun

is

eminently the "Lord of

One

Face."

of view the god, at the beginning cf chapter 64,

From another point is called the "Lord

of

Two

Faces," the bright and the dark.

The Pyramid Texts have

the parallel conception of the

Two

Eyes of Horus, one white and
37).

one black, j^s^ j^5^ ^^, Y
6.

(Unas
illustration

This passage receives

from the great inscription of
to

Pianchi,
I

who
[—

at

Heliopolis paid a
j-j^g

visit

the

great

Tabernacle

^^^
I

]


I

Sun-god, the doors of which he opened and
seal.

afterwards sealed up with the royal
to
it

Before going up the steps,
5, ]
<^r

he had to
it,

lift

the

Vail

(

1

1

crS=i

)

Curtains which con-

cealed

and perform sprinklings and
first

offer incense

and

flowers.

Two

important words (of which the

has the interesting variant
\\

q|
thus

and

tire

second

is

written
J

in the oldest texts) are

made clear. The god is said, according
" or It will

" through, the Vail

to the different readings, to pierce " through zvhat is upon the Vail."

be remembered that the Hebrew Holy of Holies was

separated from the Sanctuary by a curtain upon which the figures of

Cherubim were woven, that before the curtain of the Holy of Holies stood the altar upon which incense was offered each morn and evening, and that in sin-offerings the priest sprinkled blood seven
times before the Vail of the Sanctuary..
7.

The Seven Divine Masters,

X^

^

I

or

\

\\

\

\

^

I,*

were the offspring of Mehurit, and assumed the form of Hawks, f
* In the Prisse Papyrus this

word

is

to

be understood of a scholar or sage,

whose word

is

of authority.
7-

t They have human heads on the Louvre Sarcophagus D.

136

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
the inventors and patrons of
all

They were
and they
the earth.

the arts and sciences,
in the

assisted

Thoth

in

composition and

measurement of
1872, p.
6.

See references in Brugsch's
are, I believe, to

article, Zeiis.,

They
this

be

identified, like the

Seven Rishis of the
In

later Sanskrit literature, with the

seven stars of the Great Bear.
represented by Thoth.
Sceptre, the -r-

conception the Polar star

is

8.

The Symbel of Life and the
Brute Force
r\

and

.

9.

^\

,

see chapter 57, note

5.

CHAPTER

LXXII.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and passeth through the Ammchit. (i)
Hail to you, ye Lords of Rule, (2) devoid of Wrong, who are living for ever, and whose secular period is Eternity. (3) I make my

way towards you.

Let

me

prevail through

me be glorified through my attributes let my AVords of Power, and let me be rated
;

according to
Deliver

my merit. me from the

Let

me
:

Crocodile (4) of this Land of Rule. have a mouth wherewith I may speak, and
;

let
I

my

oblations be placed before you

because

I

know

you,

and

know
whose

your names

and

I

know

the
:

name

of that great god to
is

nostrils ye present delicacies

Tekmu

his

name.
let

And whether
Heaven, or departure be

he maketh his way from the Eastern
alighteth at the

Horizon of
his

Western Horizon of Heaven,
his progress

my

departure,

and

be

my

progress.
;

Let

me

not be stopped

at the

Meskat
for I

let

not the Sebau have
let

mastery over
beer in Tepu.

me

;

let

me
let

not be repulsed at your gates,

not

your doors be closed against

me;

have bread

(5) in

Pu and

And

divine dwelling which
established for

me join my two hands together (6) in the my father Tmu hath given me, who hath
is

me

an abode above the earth wherein

wheat and
offereth

barley of untold quantity, which the son of
to

my

OAvn

body

me

there as oblations

upon my
gifts,

festivals.

Grant

me

the funereal

beef,

fowl, bindings,

incense,

oil,

and and

all

things

good and pure upon which a deity

subsists, regularly

eternally, in all the forms I please.

PLATE

XIX.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter LXVIII.
Chapter LXV.
Papyrus du Louvre,
III, 93.

Chapter LXVIII.
Papyrus du Louvre,
III, 89.

Lepsius, *'Todt.,"
Plate

XXV.

Chapter LXXI.
Lepsius, "Todt.," Plate
iiiiniii
|i

Chapter LXXI.
XXVI.
Papyrus of Nebseni, British Museum, 9900.

i'iiiiiiiiiiii

Chapter LXXII. Papyrus du Louvre, III,

Chapter LXXil.
93.

Papyrus, Berlin Museum,

II.

pi)iiuyyiumiiiIiiiii||ii||iiiMii!ii|ii|||jra

Chapter LXXIII. Papyrus of Ani, British Museum.

Chapter LXXIV.
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum.

PLATE XX.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter LXXII.
Lepsius, "Todt.," Plate XXVII.

Lepsius,

Chap. LXXIV. Chap. LXXIII. "Todt.," Plate XXVII.

n

imrc

IV

^
10
s.

IZ
i\

7

Chapters of the Transformations or Changes. Cedar Coffin, in the Gizeh Museum,
Published by Brugsch-Pasha, " Zeitschr.
fiir

Aeg. Spr.," 1867.

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Let

1

37
in

me come down

or go

up

to

Sechit-aarru

and

arrive

Sechit-hotep.
I

am

the god in Lion form.

If
coffin,

this book is learnt

upon earth, or executed in 7vriting upon the

he will come forth by day in all the forms he pleaseth, with

entrance into his house without repulse.

And

there shall be given to

him bread and beer and flesh-meat upon the come forth to Sechit-aarru, and there shall
barley
ivill

table

of Osiris.

He

will

him wheat and there, for he will flourish as though he were upon earth, and he
be given to

do all that pleaseth him, like those gods

who

are there: un-

deviatingly,

for times

infinite.

Notes.
This chapter
in
is

often found not only in papyri but
at the end.

upon

coffins,
is

accordance with the rubric

The

earhest copy
is

on

the coffin of

Queen Mentuhotep.
I,

A

very fine copy

on the

ala-

baster sarcophagus of Seti

and our museums are

rich in funereal
is

monuments
found
1.

inscribed with this ancient text.

A

very similar text

at the

end of chapter
is

99.

Ammehit

the

name

given in chapter 149 to the sixth abode
other places
it

in

Amenta, but here and

in

is

simply one of the

names of the Netherworld. In the inscriptions, for instance, of the tomb of Queen Tita,* " passing through the two folding doors of the Ammehit" is in parallelism with "going in and out of the divine
Netherworld."
tl^e reading in most documents, but Lords of Rule. Tb-^ there are others which L..ve an equal claim to authority. The in2.
'

vocation

is

sometimes made to the
I I
I

LJ
I 1

" those

who

are possessed

of a ka," that

is

the "spirits

made
trials,

perfect," those

passed through the requisite

besides the
all

who have already gods who have never
are possessed

passed through the stage of mortality,
of a ka.

of

whom

The

invocation, according to another reading, which
is

is

that of

chapter 99,

addressed to the

T

V:>

1

LJ "those who
add
lords of rule,

are

beautiful or perfect of ka."

Here

the papyri

and

* Brugsch,

Rec,

II, pi.

63.

The whole tomb has now been
Mission Archeologiqitc
ati

published by

M. Benedite

in the Mhitoires ae la

Caire,

tome

5.

T

138

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
may
be,
is

the invocation, whatever the reading

always addressed to

those
3.

who have

in their

power the laws which regulate the universe.
is

Whose secular period

Eternity.

9

vl

fc^

hentd

is

the

period of 120 years (see Proc. Sec. Bibl. Arch.,

XIV, 264) which

was their

alwv., aevtivi,

corresponding in idea, not in actual time, to
is

our century.
4.

The

secular period of the gods

eternity.

The

Crocodile.

Are we

to understand this of the crocodile-

headed monster pictured in the represensations of the Psychostasia ? These pictures are not known to us from as early a date as the
chapter
itself,

but they

may have

existed.

Perhaps, however, this

passage
5.

may have suggested them. Bread. The Egyptian word ^r^
somtihmg pierced ox perforated.
viii,

ta, like its

homonym
cake

«===,

\xn'^\\Q?,

The

sacrificial

H^H
is

in Leviticus

26 has the same meaning and, hke

^''^/D

a pipe,

connected with

^^H,

perforavit, cojifodit, aperuit, profanavit.

See

Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1893, p. 386.

„ I?
come under

ta,

a door or gate, and

some other homonyms
cf.

evidently

the

same conception

;

porta and

Treljiw.

CHAPTER
is

LXXIII
Chapter IX.

identical with

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby the

LXXIV.
motion upon earth.

legs are set in

Do
in his

what thou hast to do, O Sekaru {twice) ; as The god who is own house, and as The god who standeth on his legs in the

Netherworld.
I

shine above the

Leg

(i) as I

come
;

forth in

Heaven, but

I lie

helpless with corpselike face.

Oh

I faint, I faint, as I

advance

I faint, I faint

before the teeth

of those whose mouth raveneth

in the

Netherworld.

Note.
I.

The Leg.

In

this place, as in
is

chapter 98 and other

texts,

a

constellation in the northern sky
identified with Cassiopeia.

meant, which

many

years ago I

PLATE

XXI.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter LXXVII.
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum.

Chapter LXXVIII. Papyrus of Ani, British Museum.

Chapter LXXVIII.
Lepsius, "Todt."

Chapter LXXVIII.
Leiden Papyrus, T. i6.

Chapter LXXVIII.
Lepsius, *'Todt."

Chapter LXXIX.
Papyrus du Louvre,
III, 89.

Chapter LXXIX.
Papyrus of Sutimes,
Bibl. Nat.

Chapter LXXXI.
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum-

PLATE

XXII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chai'ter
British

LXXXUI.
Museum.

Chapter LXXXII.
Papyrus of Ani, British

Papyrus of Ani,

Museum.

Chapier LXXXIV.
Papyrus of Ani,
British

Chapter LXXXIII.
Papyrus, Berlin Museum,

Museum.
Chapter LXXXV.
Papyrus du Louvre,
III, 89.

No.

2.

Chapter LXXXVI. Papyrus, Leyden Museum, IL

Chapter LXXXVI.
Papyrus of Ani, British

Chapter LXXXVII.
Papyrus, Berlin

Museum.

Museum, No.

i.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
This constellation, according to chapter 98,
sky and in the Great Stream
the " Milky Way."
is

1

39

in the
I

Northern

\\
is

,

by which

understand

This position

also in accordance with the
pi.

ancient text on the Coffin of
is

Amamu,
in the

XXVI,

line 22.

The Zeg
Thigh
in

as close to the

Pole as the Great Bear (called the

Egyptian Astronomy) but

opposite direction, and in con-

sequence of

this position

it

never sets below the horizon.
I,

Hence
it

in

the Pyramid Texts (Pepi

411 and Merenra 589)

is

called

Y> <=> ^^9;

I

® ¥\
Book

V

P

.

And

here,

according

to these texts, as in the

of the

Dead

(see chapter 86), purifi-

cation was obtained.

The god

^

2

^.^

\^ V\

'

^^-^

(also

named among
is

the 42

said to be gate Cepheus) in the immediate 7 neighbourhood of the Polar Star which represented Osiris. On the

judges) whose face looks backwards, and

who

keeper of Osiris, must be a star

{e.g.

ancient coffins of

Amamu

and
r^^^

Sit-Bastit there

is

a chapter* for

AAA^AA

assuming the form of a Vulture
says

-^

,

V\

Z^

,

in

which the speaker
."

"I

am

the Vulture god

who

is

on the
I

^<==> ^

I

suspect that in the formula

^

S^

J

I

"^

"^ ^^|

^

1

said of Osiris
in

on the

stelae

of the twelfth dynasty, the constellation
at

heaven and not a place

Abydos was meant.

CHAPTER LXXV.
Chapter whereby one cometh
I to Heliopolis
I

and

receiveth

a seat

there.

have come out of the Tuat
I

:

am come

from the ends of the

Earth, lighting

up the Tank, whither the desires of
I

them who bring

salutation guide me.

pass through the noble dwellings of those

open the dwelling of Remrem, I reach the house of Achsesef. (i) I am led on to the noble mysteries, and I enter into the house of Kemkem.
are coffined.
* It was afterwards incorporated with chapter 149.

who

T

2

I40

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

[The Tet amulet (2) layeth its two hands upon me and assigneth me to its sister, and the custody of its mother, Kehkehit, who setteth me upon the Eastern path of Heaven upon which Ra ariseth

and mounteth on high each day. May I too arise, and be led on, and assume the mummied form as a god, and let them set me upon that noble path] whereon Thoth travelleth when he appeaseth the two Combatants (3) as he goeth
to

Pu and advanceth

to Tepu.

Notes.

These gods are not often mentioned. But we are told in the inscriptions of Rech-ma-ra {Mission Arch, du Caire, V, 127)
I.

that Achsesef

is

master of the

i
|

great hall of the Prince
I
I

of those in
2.

Amenta.

Cf. Todt., 142, 13

and

21.
its

The Tet amulet,

||,

has a chapter of

own, chapter 156.
religious

Divinity was supposed to reside in this and the other

symbols, which are often represented in pictures with hands and
feet.

The annexed

Vignette

is

from the Louvre papyrus

III, 93,

at ch. 93.

'

[

The
3.

part of this chapter

which

is

within brackets

is

ancient, but

is

omitted in late copies.

The two Combatants.

Sut and Horus.

CHAPTER
I

LXXVI.

Chapter whereby all/or?ns are assufned which one pleaseth.

have made

Bird-Fly (i)

my way into the who brought me hither.
who
fliest

Royal Palace, and

it

was the

up to Heaven, and protect the White Crown which falleth
Hail to thee,
Stable art thou,

to give light to the stars

to

me.

O

mighty god,
pursue

for ever,

Make

thou for

me

a

path upon which

I

may

my

course.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Note,
I.

141

The Bird-Fly,

(1

J

^^^^v^ ^^

'

^^

^^^'^

S^*^) see

Proc.

396 and following, and also 1893, p. 135 and following. In the papyrus of Nebseni the name has for determinative an insect, which M. Lefebure has identified with the mantis.
Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1892, p.

This

deity,

according to ancient

texts,

was the Tiller of the Rudder

of the Neahemit ship of Osiris

CHAPTER LXXVIL
Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Golden
I set

Hawk,

(i)

myself to view

:

I set

myself to view as the Golden Hawk,
;

which cometh out from
the South. (2)

its

Egg

and

I fly

and

I

hover as a

Hawk
gem
I

of of

four cubits across the back.

My

two wings are of the green

from the cabin of the Sektit Bark and myself up from the Eastern Hill.
I

come

forth

raise

I

stoop upon the Atit Bark, that

those
I

who

are in their circles,

I may come and raise and who bow down before me.

to

me

display myself

Hawk utterances Ra cometh
Golden
all

and gather myself together with the head of a Heron, to
every day, and
I
sit

as the beautiful
listen

to

whose

down
before
it

in th?

midst of
of

the great gods of Heaven.

The
I

fields lie before
it,

wax radiant upon
heart.

me I am

;

the produce

is

me

;

I eat

it,

saturated with

to the satisfaction of

my

Nepra hath given
that pertaineth to

to

me my

throat,

and

I

am

in possession of all

my

person. (3)

Notes.
I.

This

is

the

first

of a series of chapters relative to the "Transis

formations," the subject of which
is

treated in the Introduction.
'

It

sufficient here to repeat that the

Egyptian

Transformations

'

have

nothing in

common

with

Metempsychosis, as understood

in the

Greek or Indian religions. The change of form in the Egyptian it was not a penance idea depended upon the will of the person And all the forms assumed in sin, but a means of glorification. for
;

142
the

POOK OF THE DEAD.
Book
of the

Dead by

the deceased are well

known forms

of the

Sun-god.
2.

Green gem of the South

\

-^^^-^

.

This has generally been

understood as representing the green feldspar of which many ob But Dlimichen {Zeitschr., 1872) jects in our museums are made.
has shown that the I
'

of the East

'

is

a

synonym

of Mdfkait,
{Hist. Nat.,

emerald, and

M.

Naville has referred to Pliny,

who

XXXVII,

17) speaks of the Egyptian emeralds 'qui eruuntur circa

Copton oppidum Thebaidis in coUibus, ex cautibus.' The same author quotes Juba in reference to Eihiopic gems as being 'alacriter virides, sed non facile puri aut concolores.' 3. Nepra is one of the names of Osiris, considered as giver of By Throat is here meant the organ or power of corn, o Ylvpo(/)6()0's.
swallowing, deglutition.

CHAPTER
!

LXXVIII.

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Sacred

Hawk,

(i)

Oh Horus come thou to Tattu, make clear to me the paths, and help me to make the round of my dwelling places. Look thou upon me and exalt me, impart to me Terror, and rouse in me Might, so that the gods of the Tuat may fear me, that and that he may not assail their battlements war in my behalf there house of darkness, who enwrappeth the dead and slay me in the
;

;

the god

who

hideth his

name
;

;

or that the like be
;

done by them.

-

Oh

ye gods

who

give ear to the words

ye foremost ones, ye

who
!

are in the train of Osiris

speaketh with a god

who

is

hush ye up, gods, that which a god giving ear to a case of Divine Law
to

And

that
to

which

I

have said

him say

thou, Osiris.

Grant

me

that

change of existence which hath issued from thy

mouth on my
Grant that

behalf, that I

may

see thine

own

attributes

and survey

thy Powers. (2)

and have the mastery of my two feet, and that I may be there like the Inviolate One on high that the gods of the Tuat may fear me and their battlements war on my
I

may come

forth

;

behalf

Grant that
firm

I

may run

together with thy Punners, but remain

upon

my

pedestal like the

Lord of Life;

let

me

be united with

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Isis the

1

43

Mighty

;

may

they protect

me

against slaughter, from

him

who looked upon
Let

death.
to the goal (3) of

me

advance

Heaven.

I

claim words from

Seb, and I pray for sustenance from the Inviolate one on high, so
that the gods of the

Tuat may

fear

me, and that their battlements

may war on my
I

behalf,

when they

see thy supplies for me.
:

am one

of those Bright ones in Glory

may my

attributes
;

be

fashioned like the attributes of him
I

be invested

(4) with the

Soul of

who cometh forth to Tattu may him who telleth thee what con-

cerneth me.

me Terror and rouse in me Might that the gods of the Tuat may fear me and their battlements war on my behalf. I am the Bright one in Glory, whom Tmu himself hath called into being, and my origin is from the apple of his eye, (5) who

Oh

impart to

and honoured those who are to be with Unique in Heaven, whom they extol as he cometh forth from the Horizon, and the gods and glorified ones who are with him fear him. I am one of the worms which the eye of the Lord of Oneness
hath him.
glorified

made and
For he

is

the

hath brought into being.
Verily, before Isis was,

who gave

birth to Horus, I
in Glory,

waxed
me.

old,

and was honoured beyond those
arose as the Sacred

grew up and who were with
invested

And
with his
the Tuat.

I

Hawk, whom Horus had

own Soul
the

for the seizin of his inheritance

from Osiris at

at

Lion form, who presideth over those who are the House of the Nemmes (6) which is in its caverns, said to

And

god

in

me

:

"

Go

back to the confines of Heaven,
of

for

thou

art invested with
is

the attributes
utterance
is

Horus

:

for

thee the

Nemmes

not,

but free

thine,

even to the confines of Heaven."

took possession of the inheritance of Horus from Osiris at the Tuat, and Horus repeated to me that which his father Osiris
I

And

on the Burial Day of Osiris. me by the god in Lion form, that thou mayest advance and go upon the path of Heaven, so that those who are on the confines of the Horizon may see thee and that

had

said to

him

in the early time,

"

The Nemmes hath been

given to

the gods of the Tuat

may

fear thee,

and

that their battlements

may

war on thy behalf."

[Aahat. (7)]

144

BOOK OF THE DEAD,

At the divine words all they who are at the funereal shrine of the Lord of Oneness bend low. Oh thou who art raised above thy coffin and bereft of the Nemmes, the god in Lion form hath reached the Nemmes to me, and wings are given to me.

He
I
I,

hath given
his

me

strength through his back, through his back,
(8)

and through
even

most powerful might, that I fall not upon Shu. propitiate my fair brother, the Master of the two Uraei.
I,

am

he who knoweth the paths of Heaven
as I

;

its

breezes

are

upon me, the raging Bull stoppeth me not

advance whitherI

soever there lieth a wreck in the Field of Eternity, and

pilot

myself towards the darkness and
of Osiris.

the suffering of the deceased ones

house of the god in Lion form, and I pass forth from it to the house of Tsis the Mighty, that I may see glorious, mysterious and hidden matters, even as she hath caused
I

come

daily through the

me

to see the divine offspring of the Great
I

One.
is

am

invested with the soul of Horus, so that I see what

in

it,

and when I speak hard by the Doors of Shu they respond moment. (9)
It is I

to the

who have charge
at the

of the seisin of the inheritance of

Horus

from Osiris
It is I,

Tuat.

even

I,

who am Horus
on
his seat,

in Glory.
I

I

am

master of his

diadem,

I

am
is

master of his Light, and
is

advance to the Goal of

Heaven.

Horus
I

My
Hawk
I
:

face

that

Horus is upon his throne. of the Sacred Hawk, my back that of the Sacred
bis r^-^ster.
tL..t I

am

equipped as

come

forth to Tattu,

may
the

see Osiris.
:

I incline myself before him, I incline myself to

me, and the gods behold
which
is

me

;

in the

Two

Eyes.

Nut they behold Eye of Horus and the Flame I'hey stretch out their arms to me.
evil.
;

And
paths

I

stand erect and prevail in opposition to
to

They open
;

they see

me the bright paths they open to me my attributes, they listen to my words.
of

the bright

Hail to you, ye gods of the Tuat, ye
aggressive front,
bright

repellent face
set,

who tow along

the Stars which

and and make the

paths of the Hematit (10) for the Lord of the Soul
:

Most

Horus hath ordained look upon me.
Mighty

that ye should

lift

up your faces and
hath

And

I display

myself as the Sacred

Hawk whom Horus

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

I45

invested with his soul for taking the possession of his inheritance

from Osiris
I

at the

Tuat.

set aside the long-haired

gods and passed on through those
:

my sight I made my way and who presided over their caverns, and those who had charge of the House of Osiris and I speak to them, and make them recognize the god of Mighty Terrors, who is armed with horns against Sutu. I make them recognize who it is that hath
who had charge
of their dens in

passed on and reached those

;

seized for himself the divine provisions

and hath equipped himself

with the powers of Tmu.

A gracious
as there are

pass grant they to me, the gods of the Tuat, as
preside over their caverns

many

who

and have charge of the
off

House

of Osiris.
I

Behold me,
together
I

am come
.
.

to

you and have carried

and put

my

forms
bright

.

.(11)

make

the

paths which are in the Horizon and the

I make firm the battlements on behalf of Hematit in Heaven. Osiris, and I make the paths bright in his behalf. I have done according to the command that I should come forth to Tattu to see Osiris, and tell him of the fortunes of that great Son I of his whom he loveth, and who hath pierced the heart of Sutu.

have seen the death.
Yea,
I tell

them

the divine plans which
Osiris.

Horus carried out

in the

absence of his father

O Lord of the Soul Most Mighty, behold me I come, raise thou me up that I may see the Tuat. May all the paths which are in Heaven and upon earth be open to me, and let there be no repulse for me. Thou art exalted upon thy throne, Osiris; thine hearing is
;

good, Osiris
fastened,

;

thy back
throat

is

strong,

Osiris

;

thy head, Osiris,
is

is

firmly

thy

is

made

fast,

thine heart

glad,

thou art

confident in the strength and courage of those around thee.
art established in strength as the Bull of

Thou

Amenta.
all

Thy son Horus
is

is

seated upon thy throne, and
at his

that liveth

subject to him.

Endless generations are
;

service, endless
is

generations are in fear of him

the cycle of the gods

in fear of

him, the cycle of the gods

is

at his service.
is

Force of the gods

;

not to be altered

So saith Tmu, the Sole that which he hath spoken.
;

it

Horus is the offering hath reconstituted is Horus who

and the

altar of offering

twofold of aspect

his

father

and restored him.

U

146

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
is

Horus is the mother, Horus is the brother, Horus proceedeth from the essence of his is the kinsman. father and the corruption which befell him. He ruleth over Egypt, and the gods are in his service. He hath carried off endless generations, and given life to endless generations with his Eye the sole one of its Lord, the Inviolate one.

Horus Horus

the father,

;

Notes.
This chapter
in
is

seldom found

in the

complete shape which

it

has

the Turin

Todtenhich.

The

shortest

copy of
;

it

is

that in the
;

tomb of Horhotep

{Miss. Arch. Fr., p. 158)

it

has but a few lines

but they are very important, as giving the earliest form of the formula

Q:A
to

-vwwv

<:::2:>

czn

^

[1

MT^

[1

^\

,

which

is

an invocation

the battlements.
suffix
"'-'"^^

The common
both to

reading, which adds the proto
its

nominal

the verb and

subject,

is

III
ungrammatical.

The

papyri Ati, Fg,

and

Ij, rightly

omit the

suffix

after the verb, in the early part of the chapter.

The
I.

coffin of

Amamu

has a chapter of the same

title,

but with

quite a different text.

Sacred

Hawk.

Between

this

and the Golden

Hawk

of the

last

chapter the vignettes
is

make no

distinction but that of colour,

which

indicative of age rather than of kind.

The

typical

Egyptian
the

Hawk may
perfect

be identified wnth the Falco Lanarius, or with
tell

Peregrinus, but naturalists

us that " the Lanier of BufTon

is

the

state of the male Peregrinus,"
is

and

that

"the Lanner of

Pennant
2.

a young female Peregrine."
baiu.

Thy powers, '^^^
The goal
fi

3.

vj r^
(^e'd-

or

fi

/-^^^

\^

'

^ ^vord

we have already
later

met

in chapter 72

Note

3),

and which occurs

on

in the

present chapter.
\jI

It is

apparently connected with the verb of motion,
to correspond to the

j^

,

and seems here

Greek

^a\/3ec69, or the

Latin carceres, the two posts which were at once the starting point

and the

goal.

" signum

unde

reverti.

" Scirent, et longos ubi circumflectere cursus." *
* Aeneid, V, 130.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
4.

147

Invested

9

^Q
is

,

which

is

connected with

ft

1

1

.

The

determinative

Q

the symbol of investiture, which
.

is

also

expressed by the sign

x^
H

A mummied

person

is

called ^rt>^«,

in virtue of his investiture.
5.

Apple of

the eye, literally point, thorn ;
/^/^/SA

^^

1

A -C2>-

.

6.

The Nemmes

\

^
is

yp^.

is

the royal head-dress in the form

of a wig.

This chapter

the only one in the

Book of

the

Dead

in

which it is referred to, but other religious texts mention it. It rs one of the objects provided for the deceased in the pictures of
ancient coffins.
7.

(See Aelteste Texte,

p. 35.)

[Aahat.]

In this place different MSS. introduce one or more

words followed by the sign ^, determinative of divinity. But the whole text which follows is extremely unsatisfactory. The prudent scribe who copied Pg has the words " I am the great god," and with

them ends the
8.
9.

chapter.

Fall upon Shu, or before Shu,

who

represents Daylight.

The

passage
Tinnnr

is

obscure
^'""^^

through

the absence of the right

determinative

after

V\

The

portals

of Shu,

the
as

gates of Morning, answer the

summons

of the god
occurrere.

who comes

Horus.
10.

"

^x—

^^'^s
.

the sense of obviam

ire,

Hetnatit Q
in the

—^ C^
of the

,

a

place

near

the

Horizon,
It

not
has

mentioned

Book

Dead except

in this chapter.

disappeared in the later recensions.

Here follow one or two divine names unknown copyists, and by them written at random.
II.

to

the

CHAPTER LXXIX.
Chapter
iv hereby one

assumeth the forni of the Chief god of the Divine Cycle.

Hail to thee,
things

Tmu, Lord of Heaven, who givest motion to all which come into being; thou who comest forth from the
is

Earth and createst whatsoever

begotten

:

Lord of the things

U

2

:

;

148
which are
;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
who givest birth to Life, who givest vigour
the gods
to the
;

great god, self-produced
living

Lord

ot

men now
things,

Hail to you, ye Lords of pure

ye whose abodes are

hidden
cealed,

:

Hail to you, ye Lords of Eternity, ye whose attributes are con-

and the place where ye reside Hail to you, ye gods who are
;

is

unknown.
the divine circuit and the
ye,

in

Kabhu
is

ye gods
:

who

are in

Amenta and

O

Divine Cycle which

in

Let

Heaven me come

to you, let

me be
glory.
I

enriched and gifted

be purified and strengthened, let with power, let me have possession and
Stop ye
to put a

me

bring in offering to you perfume, incense and natron.
I

the outpourings of your hearts against me.
stop to
all

am come

the wrong things which are in your hearts, and to do

away with the false charges which have been made to you. But I bring in offering to you well-bemg.* I lift up in offering to you Maat. I know you and I know your names, and I know your attributes, though it be not known what by you may be brought to pass. I come before you and make my appearance as that god in the form of a man who liveth like a god, and I stand out before you in the form of that god who is raised high upon his pedestal, to whom
the gods
tion,
T

come with acclamation, and the female deities when they see him. come before you and make my appearance on the
sit

with jubila-

seat of Ra,

and

upon my seat which is on the Horizon, and receive the I drink the sacred liquor each evening, offerings upon their altars. in the form of the Lord of all creatures, and I am exalted like that venerable god the Lord of the Great House, whom the gods rejoice
I

at seeing at his beautiful

comings forth from the
birth.

womb

of Nut, to

whom Nut

each day giveth

* Perhaps laiher gIofj>, splendour, I

^^^

)> U which implies something to

be

seen.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

I49

CHAPTER LXXX.
Chapter whereby
o?ie

assumeth the form of the god Li^ht to the Darkness. '6'

who

giveth

It is I

who complete

the vesture of Nu, the Light which shineth
I

before him, Hghting up the darkness.

unite with the two brother-

gods who are upon
mouth.
I

me

through the mighty Words of Power of
fallen

my
fall

raise

up the

one who cometh
I

after

me.

I

along with him in the vale of Abydos when
I

go

to rest.
I

have seized upon
I

Hu

from the place in which
darkness through

found him.
I

And

have

lifted

off the

my

power.

have

rescued the Eye from

its eclipse against the coming of the Fifteenth and balanced Sutu in the mansions above, against the Great day, one who is with him. I have equipped Thoth [with light] in the house of the Moon. Maat is upon me, and the Emerald I seize upon the Crown.

and the Crystal of her months. This field of mine is of Azure lighten up the darkness I
monsters, (i)

in the festival thereof

and

overthrow

the

devouring

Those who
up
to

are in their

me,

covering their faces,

own darkness worship me, and they rise who mourn and are prostrate look
:

ye therefore upon me.
I

am

the Craftsman (2) of Nu, but
this.

I

come not up

in

order that

you should hear of
I

am

the Craftsman of Nu,

who

lighteneth the darkness,

and

I

have come

to dissipate the darkness, and that light should be.

Notes.

1.

Devouring

fnonsters,

^^^^ _P
have

' I I
I

2.

The

later recensions

^

or

^

^

^ M^
,

wife.

The

older

papyri omit the feminine ending, which

is

inconsistent with the rest

of the chapter.
craftsman.

I

understand 'C or c?

^

in the sense of artist,

150

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER LXXXI.
Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of the Lotus.
I

am

the pure Lotus which

cometh

forth

from the glory which
it

is

at the nostril of

Ra, and

I

make my journey and pursue
cometh

for

Horus,

the great god beloved.
I

am

the pure Lotus which

forth in the field.

Note.
This
read
little

chapter
(1(1

is

not without
a

its

special difficulty.

Are we

to
its

[T]

^^.

as

word implying motion, with

A

as

determinative, or as implying invocation, with

QAas

its

determinative?
into
this

The

copyists differed

and some of them changed the word no ambiguity.
;

ra

o'^

I

so that there should be

But
hence

does not clear up the words which immediately follow
trouble as to the sense of what they wrote.

Ba

has suppressed them, whilst other copyists have given themselves no

CHAPTER LXXXn.
Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of Ptah, eateth bread, drinketh beer, and sitteth in the midst of the great gods.
I fly like

the

Hawk,

I

cackle like the Smen-goose, I alight on the
feast of the
I

right side of the Aat,
I
I

on the
:

Great One.
I
it

execrate, I execrate
it

eat

eat

not.

That which

my

it not. Dirt is what Genius execrateth let

execrate

:

not enter

into me.

Let

me

therefore live

upon

that

which

is

put before them

;

the

gods and the glorified ones. Let me live and enjoy the bread * Let me then eat them in the presence of the gods and and
glorified ones.

date trees of

me enjoy and eat them under the foliage of the Let the oblations be made, of Hathor, my sovereign.
Let

bread and beer in Taltu, and bondings of the head in Annu.
*

Let
differ

The word seems

to

have been uninleUigible to the copyists, who
its

widely from each other as to

orthography.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
my
vesture be girt

151

upon me by

Tait.

Let

me

sit

whereever

it

pleaseth me.

My

head

is

that of

times the arm's length

Ra and I am summed up as Tmu Four of Ra four times the width of the world, (i)
:

:

I have come forth with the tongue of Ptah and the throat of Hathor that I may record the words of my father Tmu with my mouth, which draweth to itself the Spouse of Seb, and the proclamation of whose lips inspireth fear.

heir of the

my success on being declared the Lord of Earth, Seb, from whom I issue. Seb purifieth me, and giveth me his Theophanies. (2) The
I

repeat the acclamations at

dwellers in
their Bull.

Annu bow

their

heads to me.
I

I

am

their Master.

I

am
the

More powerful am

than the Lord of

Time

;

I

am

author and the master of endless years.

Notes.
I.

Not

in

length but in periphery.
figure,

The

I

i CZS3
.

]
I I I I I I

implies a quadrangular

quadrangle, North, South, East,
angles, but sides.
2.

and so do {f^^ ^ Of this ==== nil and West, are not cardinal points or

Theophanies,

v\

.

This

is

the true meaning of the

word, whether in reference to the Sun rising in the sky or to the

king upon his throne.

CHAPTER LXXXIIL
Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Bennu
Let
bird.

One,
I
I

me let me

wheel round

in whirls, let

me

turn like the Turning
like the

flourish like a flower

and keep myself hidden

Hider. (i)

am am
in

the Barley corn of every god.

the four Yesterdays of those seven Uraeus deities

born

Amenta; Horus who giveth light by means of his the god who is against Sutu when Thoth is between them, as in that dispute of the Prince of Sechem with the Spirits of Annu where
is

who are own body;

the river

between them.

(2)

)

152
I
I

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
come
forth

by day and disclose myself
all

at the

head of the gods.

am

the

god who chaseth

boastfulness. (3)

Notes.
1.

There

is

here a play on the words /«;, heper^ ru( and set
is

The

Turning One
derives
its

the god Chepera.

The

Tortoise
its

^^.

*^^

name

(the hider), from the habit of drawing

body within

its shell.

On

the flight of the

Bennu

see the

first

note of next

chapter.

between the opposite shores of the Nomes of Letopolis (Sechem) and Heliopolis (Annu). " I am Chonsu who ptitteth a stop 3. The later recensions have But in the early copies Chonsu is taken in its to all boastfulness."
2.

The

Nile

lies

primitive sense the chaser

and does not require the verb <zr>

to

govern 'boastfulness.'

CHAPTER LXXXIV.
Chapter whereby one assunieth the form of the Herns haw.
( i

Thou who
and locks and
with the fated

boldest the

bound

victims

;

ye knives over their heads

fleeces; (2) ye aged

and

bright ones

who

are

armed

moment.
;

and conversely. I come to heaven but I strike upon the earth It is my power which produceth victory and raiseth the height
of heaven, and I
to

make

the lustrations which yield the extent of earth

my
I

feet against the sinful cities as I

advance and cut

in pieces (3)

those

who

are involved in rebellion. (4)

leave the gods

upon
I

their paths but I strike the

Wakers who

are in their coffins.
I

know

not Nu,

know not Tatunen,

I

know not

the

Red ones

when they bring opposition to me. I know not a Word of Power to whose utterance I listen. I am the Red Calf upon the tablets. This is what the gods say when they raise their voice.
Let your countenances be without restraint towards him

who

Cometh

to

me,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The morning dawns
charge of them
;

1

53

are independent of you, ye have not the
alternations are in

but

my

my own

hands.

I

say

not the wrong instead of the right.

day unswervingly turneth back upon my eye-brow. And Evening is the beginning of my voyage to celebrate the solemnity of the Reclining and the Embrace of the Aged one who

Day

after

hath charge of the Earth.

Notes.
1.
'

Both the Betmu and the Shenshen (which
')

I

here

translate

Hernshaw

are Herons.

They

fly

to a great

height in spiral

whirls.
2.
'

The

true reading here

seems to be '^_^

Yr\

from

\\

shear.'
3.

Cut
.

in pieces.

The papyrus

of Ani gives the valuable reading

n

(g

4.

Rebellion.

So

I

understand

-^^ ^

j

,

a wrongful

and violent

rising, i7ravaaTaai<s.

CHAPTER LXXXV.
Chapter whereby one assumeth thefortn of a Soul,
not cotne
I
is

(i) that one
it.

may

to the

dungeon.
I

Imperishable

is

he ivho knoweth

am

a Soul.
I

am Ra who
it.

proceedeth from Nu, and

my

soul
is

divine.

am

he

who produceth

food, but I execrate what

wrong and look not upon
I
I

am possessor of Maat and subsist by means of it. am the Food which perisheth not in my name
;

of the Self-

originating Force, together with Nu, in the

name

of Chepera, from

whom
I

am born daily. am the Lord of Daylight and
I
is

I

execrate Death,

let

me

not

enter into the dungeons of the gods of the Tuat.
It I

who

give glory to Osiris

and

propitiate the hearts of

those

who are with him, my own friends. They inspire the fear of me, and put forward my might
.\

to those

within their domains.

154

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
me, how
I

And behold

am

raised

upon

my

pedestal and upon

my

throne.
I

I

am Nu. They am he whose
is

shall not

overthrow
;

orbits are of old

me who do wrong. my soul is divine, it
maketh
its

is

the

Eternal Force.
It
I

who

create the Darkness which

seat at the

confines of Heaven.

My
I I

Soul hath come, far advanced in age, and
at the confines of
I

I

create

the

Daikness

Heaven

at

my

pleasure.

reach the limits, and
take the lead and
I I

advance upon

my

feet.

traverse the steel firmament which

maketh
;

a curtain. (2)

put a stop to the Darkness and the worms

I

whose name is hidden. I drive away aggression from before the Lord of the two hands, who is my own Soul. The Uraeus divinities are my body. My image is Eternal, the Lord of years, the King of Everlasting. the Youth in I am exalted as Lord of the land of Rebu and my name is is my name Town, the Lad in the Country
'
:

'

;

imperishable.
I in

am

the Force which createth

Heaven and maketh

its

abode

the Netherworld.

not to be broken is my Egg. is my nest Lord on High. I have made my nest on the confines I am the Heaven, and I descend to the earth of Seb and put a stop to of I see my father, the Lord of the Gloaming, and I breathe. (3) evil.

Not

to

be seen

;

Notes.
1.

Soul.

The Egyptian word which

in

our modern languages

we
is

translate as

Soul has already been explained as meaning Force.

It is

so translated in this chapter in several passages where this sense

emphatically required.
2.

A
'

curtain,

^

set,

literally

a skin.

Cf.

Ps.

civ,

2,

"Who
render

stretchest out the heavens like a curtain,"
'

where the

LXX

curtain
3.

by

^epi'nv

and the Vulgate hy pellein.

in

Here the chapter ends in Fc. The few words which follow other MSS. were unintelligible to the copyists and are written

very variously.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

155

CHAPTER LXXXVI.
Chapter ivherehy one ass it meth the form 0/ the Swallow,
I
I

(i)

am am

the Swallow

;

I

am

the Swallow.

the Scorpion-bird, daughter of Ra.
is

Flame which proceedest from the Horizon O thou who art in the place whence I have brought the keeper of his fold -let me have thine arm that I may make my observation at the Tank of Flame, that I may advance as an envoy and come with the report of it. Be it opened to me, in order that I may tell what I have seen. Horus is in command of his bark. There hath been given to him the throne of his father, and Sutu that son of Nut is under the
delicious
:
:

ye gods, whose perfume

grappling hooks which he
1

made
is

for him.
I

have ascertained what

in Sechera.

have touched with

my
tell.

two hands the Heart of

Osiris. (2)

And that which I went in order to ascertain I am come to Come let me enter and report my mission. And I, entering and ascertaining who cometh forth through
gate of the Inviolate one,
I

that

purify myself at that great stream where

and that which is wrong in me is pardoned and the spots which were on my body upon earth are effaced. Keeper of the Portal, let the path be made for me, for I am Let me come forth by day, and walk upon my own as one of you.
ills

my

are

made

to cease,

legs.
1

Let

me

have the

feet of the Glorified.

know

the mysterious paths

and the gates

I

come.

adversaries

If this

Here am I, I come that I upon earth, though my dead body be buried. chapter be known he 7vill re-enter after coming forth by
and Note.

whence may overthrow mine
day.

of Aarru from

I.

The Swallow

/wwvN

•^^^.

The
;

objection to this meaning

is

that the bird in question
less

would be
eaten at

was eaten and that doves or pigeons meagre food than the Swallow, and therefore more
texts.

probably intended in the Egyptian

But Swallows are

still

Rome, where

like

Clive

Newcome we may be
''

regaled

not only with

"wild swans and ducks" but with

robins, owls,

and

And Willughby, the naturalist found a large quantity of swallows being sold for food at Valencia in
oiwvolai Te iraaL for dinner."

Spain.

X

2

.

156

BOOK OF THE DEAD;
flat

The
teristic
{e.g., pi.

head, the short legs, and the

tail

of the bird are charac-

not of the pigeon but of the swallow, and on
xxi, vignette from

many

pictures

Leyden papyrus) we
')(^E\ibu3v

are reminded of the

song
'^H\6'' ifKOe

....

eVt f^aarepa \evKa
ivri

vwra fieXaiva.
the

It is

not quite plain

why
fi

name

of Scorpion should be given
itself

to the bird,

but the name

c--^^

^
the

of the insect in

implies

nothing more than the characteristic whiteness of colour.
2.

Touched with

my two hands

Heart of

Osiris.

A

\^

s^

is

the origin of the Coptic

(To^
(1
\

'touch.'

The

word Heart has dropped out of the
but in the older papyri
it is

later texts {e.g., the

Turin copy),

found

in the

form of

or

^

Additional Note
In Chapter 86
taifting by

H

n

has unquestionably the sense of ascerin its

inspection.

The Abbot Papyrus

account of the
for reporting

enquiry respecting the spoliation of the royal coffins gives ample

evidence of this meaning.
the result of the inspection

And
is,

the
is

word there used
Ch. 86,
'

as

v

[,

(2

^h

semiiu,

in

Coptic T-<LJUt.e.

But

it is

well to

remember

D
that
I

[

has another use

;

which
In a

perhaps implies the existence of two
passage quoted in Note 21 to Ch. 64,

homonymous
it

roots.

certainly signifies restore.

And

this

may
of

possibly be

its

meaning

in the rubric of

Ch. 64.
to

The
the
it

journey

Prince

Hortataf

may have had
rv^ sapu.
i,

reference

restoration, not simply inspection, of the temples.
is

In

this sense

often written

111

WU:

3 P

or
1 1

1[

WU-O

The Coptic word
is

for

ii-zoKaQiaiavai in

Hosea

xi,

and Acts

6

Tc^O.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

1

57

CHAPTER LXXXVII.
Chapter 7ohereby
I
otie

assumcth the form of Se-ta.

am am

Seta

full

of years.
I

I lay
I

myself down [in death], and

am

born
I

daily. lay

Seta at the confines of the earth.

myself down

[in

death], I restore myself

and

I

renew myself

daily.

Note.
Se-ta

y^

lUSt'

li'^Grally

Filins terrae,
is

is

a

common noun

signiying an earth-worm.

It

applied to the

There are several pictures at the Sun-god Hor-sam-ta in the form of the worm rising out of the See pi. xxiii, from Mariette, Dend. I, 47 and 48. Lotus of Dawn.
of the earth.

Sun as rising out Denderah representing

CHAPTER

LXXXVIII.

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Crocodile god
{^Sebak{\')\

For
I

I

am

the Crocodile god in

all

his terrors.

the Crocodile god in the form of man. (2) I am he I am the almighty Fish in Kamurit. carrieth off with violence.
I

am

who

am

the Lord to

whom

one bendeth down
Notes.

(3) in

Sechem.

1.

Sebak

is

not always

the crocodile was in
2.

named in the papyri. some copies read emsuh and

The ideogram
in others sebak.
^^^'^

of

In

the form
is

of man

^^

^r m
literally
'

^^

^^''Y

different

readings this
3.

the most intelligible.

To whom one bendeth down,

master of bendings.'

CHAPTER LXXXIX.
Chapter whereby the Soul
is

united

to the

dead Body.
in thy

Oh
Keep,

thou who Bringest
(i)

;

Oh

thou Runner, who dwellest

thou great god; grant that
it

my

Soul

may come

to

me

from

whatsoever place wherein

abideth.

158

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
But
if

there be a delay in the bringing of

my

soul to me, thou

Horus who lie in Annu, undrowsy Watchers
shalt find the

Eye

of

standing firm against thee, like those
the land wherein are thousands

of reunions.

Let
ever
it

my

Soul be caught, and the

Chu which

is

with

it,

whereso-

abideth.
(2)

Track out
But
if

among
it

the things in heaven and
abideth.

upon earth

that

soul of mine, wherever

there be a delay in thy causing

me

to see

my

Soul and

my

Shade, thou shalt find the Eye of Horus standing firm against thee.

Bark of the Eternal one ye who lift up above the Tuat, and who raise up the Sky ye who enable the Souls to enter into the mummied forms; ye whose hands grasp the cordage, hold firm with your ropes and stop the adversaries

Oh

ye gods

who draw along

the

:

:

that the

Bark may rejoice and the god proceed
grant that

in peace.

And now

my

Soul

may come
and

forth in your train from
ever.

the Eastern horizon of

Heaven

for ever

Notes.

The
ones.

oldest papyri present a

much

shorter form than the later

That portion which
it first

is

here separated by a line from what
I

goes before

appears on the sarcophagus of Seti

and

in the

papyrus of Ani.

The

vignette

is

a

very favourite decoraticn of

mummies.
1.

Keep
I

|i

of which the regular variant in this chapter

is

not sah

but

®
out,

f

| sehen.

2.

Track

D

^

is

investigare, e^i-vpeiciv, to follow the
3,

traces like a dog.
title

where the word occurs in the of "master of the trackers," determined by a man holding a
See Denk.
II,

hound

in

leash.

It

is

from this notion that the sense of

sis'hi

or

looking appears in

^

V -^3^

,

Wist.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

1

59

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby

XC.

Memory
off

is

restored {\) to a person.

Oh

thou who choppest
in the
:

heads and cuttest throats, but restorest

memory

mouth of
thou seest
(2)

the dead through the

Words

of

Power which

they possess

me

not with thine eyes, thou perceivest not
face,

with thy feet

;

thou turnest back thy

thou seest not the

coming behind thee to chop off thine own head and to cut thy throat. Let not my mouth be closed, through the Words of Power which I possess even as thou hast done to the dead, through the Words of Power which they possess.
executioners of Shu,
are
;

who

Away
to fling
his

with the two sentences uttered by Isis
at the

when thou camest

remembrance
:

mouth

of Osiris (3) and the heart of Sutu,

enemy, saying

Notes.

Of this chapter we have unfortunately but one copy in Fa, of the Musee Borely. This is defective both at the beginning and at the The later copies are so inaccurate end, and the text is inaccurate.
that
it is

impossible to reconstitute the
is

text.

It is precisely

on those

points where grammatical accuracy

required for fixing a definite

sense that the manuscripts are hopelessly defective.
translation
intelligible.
is

The preceding
that
it

verbally correct, I trust, but I
It stops

do not pretend
stops.

is

where the papyrus Fa
reduplication in ^
^

1.

Restored.

The

here gives the verb this

sense.

not only in Egyptian that verbs of sight are applied to other perceptions. Aeschylus says ktvttov UhopKa in Sept c. Th. 104, and the Hebrew writers furnish similar examples.
2.

It is

of Sutu. To justify this translation the same preposition ought to govern mouth and heart. But I do not know any copy in which this occurs. The Turin reading
3.

At

the Jtiouth of Osiris

and

the heart

is

simply absurd.

l6o

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby the Soul
is

XCI.

secured frofn imprisonment in the

Netherworld.

Oh
one,

thou

who

art exalted

and worshipped,
the

all

powerful, almighty

who

grantest thy terrors to the gods,
let

thy throne of grandeur, (i)

who displayest thyself upon way be made for my Soul, my Chu
way be made
for

and my Shade.
I

Let

me be
;

thoroughly equipped.
let

am a powerful Soul where Ra is and Hathor.
If
this

the

me

to the place

Chapter

is

kfioicn, he taketh the

form of a

fully equipped

Chu

in the Netherworld^

and

does not suffer imprisonme7it at any door

in the Atfienta, either in coming in or going out.

Note.
I.

There

is

no

safe text here,

'

grandeur

'

is

only meant to indicate
to

the existence of <cr> in the original.
t^

But there certainly ought

be something different from what any of the MSS. supply.

CHAPTER XCH.
Chapter whereby the
the person, that

Tomb is ope?ied to the Soul and to the Shade of he may come forth by day atid ?nay have mastery

of his feet.

That standeth open which thou openest, and that is closed which thou closest, oh thou who art at rest; (i) thou openest and thou who closest to my Soul, at the bidding of the Eye of Horus [the delivereth me, who establisheth the glory upon the brow of Ra god] of stretched out steps and rapid paces, who maketh for me a
:

:

wide path and vigorous limbs. I am Horus, the avenger of

his father,

who

lifteth

up

his father

and who
that

lifteth

up

his

mother with

his staff.
feet,

Let the path be opened to him who hath mastery of his

he may look upon the great god within the Bark of Ra on the and my Soul is then at the front day of the Soul's Reckoning of the Years. during the Reckoning
;

PLATE

XXIII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter LXXXVIII.
Papyrus, Leyden,

Cuaptek LXXXMII.
Papyrus of Nebseni, British Museum, No. 9900.

No.

II.

Chapter LXXX\"II. Mariette, "Denderah."

Chapter LXXXVII.

Chapter LXXXVIII.

Papyrus of Ani, British Museum.

Chapter LXXXIX.
Papyrvs of Ani, British Museum.

Chapter XC.
Papyrus, Musee Bore'y, Marseilles.

Lepsius,

Chapter XC. Todtenbuch.

Chapter XCII, Papyrus du Louvre, III,

89.

PLATE XXIV.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

X

t^%\
jxy

!"i

ir
1


\

1

n\
'

1.

Chapter XCII.
Papyrus, British Museum, 9949.

Chapter XCII.
Papyrus, Boulaq,
21.

Chapter XCII.
Papyrus of Ani, British Museum.

Chapter XCIII.
Papyrus, Louvre
III, 93.

Chapter XCV.

Chapter XCIV.
Papyrus, Louvre
III, 9.

Papyrus, British Museum, 10,009.

BOOK OF THE DEAD,
May
faces

l6l

the

Eye of Horus

deliver for

splendour upon the brow of Ra, and

me my may my

Soul,

and

establish

my

radiance be upon your
;

who

are attached to the person of Osiris

imprison not

my
may

Soul, put not in custody

my

Shade.

Let the path be open to
see the great

my

Soul and to

my Shade

that

it

god within his sanctuary, on the day of the Soul's Reckoning, and may repeat the words of Osiris whose place is
unseen, and of those

who

are attached to the person of Osiris
Spirits,

and

and who shut up the Shades of the Dead who would do an injury to me. (2) Let the path be thrown open (3) to thy Genius* and to thy Sou!,
have the custody of Souls and
provided with those who conduct thee ; sit thou at the head of the Great ones in thy place ; thou shalt not be imprisoned by those who are attached to the person of Osiris and
Glorified one,
art

who

who have

the custody of Souls and Spirits and
It is

who

shut

up the

Shades of the Dead.

Heaven

that shall hold thee.

Notes.
I.

I

chapter.

cannot agree with those who have hitherto translated this The only grammatical interpretation which seems possible

for the first sentence

depends upon the sense given
as

to the suffix

w

ta.

I

take this
>

representing
is

the

second person singular.

^'^^

^^^ person ai rest (Osiris)

the one invoked,

and

is

here

translated by the vocative.
2.

The words which The

follow are evidently the words of Osiris

and
very

those attached to him, which are addressed to the deceased and are

repeated by him.
corrupt.
3.

text

here, as indeed

everywhere,

is

Thrown open,
**

*~
[1

J\

.

I

have explained the sense of the

verb

mes {Proc.
is

Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1882, p. 70) as stretching out,

of which notion J\

the determinative.

^
ka.

-«—

fl

.

IS

=

X
I

.

J/i?i'/ z^rt^ is

'pandatur

via.'

The Egyptian

1

62

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER
N^etherworld.

XCIir.
to

Chapter ^ahenby one avoideth being conveyed

the

East

in

the

Oh
ariseth

thou Phallus of Ra, who

fliest

from the storm, disablement

from Baba who useth against

me

might beyond the mighty

and power beyond the powerful. if all If I am conveyed away, if I am carried off to the East evil and injurious things of a feast day of fiends are perpetrated upon me through the waving of the Two Horns, then shall be devoured the Phallus of Ra and the Head of Osiris. And should I be led to the fields wherein the gods destroy him who answereth them, then shall the horns of Chepera be twisted back, then shall blindness (i) arise in the eyes of Tmu and destruc;

tion, (2)

through the seizure of me, and through

my

being carried

off to the East,
fiends,

through there being
all

made

over

me

a feast day of the

through

the murderous work perpetrated

upon me.

(3)

Notes.
This chapter contains one of those threats (of which there are The speaker is in fact so other instances) made to the gods.
identified with divinity that

any

evil

which happens
to the

to

him must he

conceived as involving the
universe.

same calamity

gods and to the

There

is

a very considerable difference between the earlier and

the later texts.

There is very great confusion in the text of the Turin Todtejibuch as compared with that of the Cadet papyrus.
(i) Blindness,
later texts.

/www

J

^
JlT

'^
I I I

in the earlier

and

^

'-'^"'^

in the

° °

The

latter

form, which has for determinative pearls

or globules of

some

kind, reminds one of the disease formerly called

gutta seven a.
(2)

Destruction

A

^^1=^ ^^\

"^^^^^^^^^

But

this

word

is

written

in different

ways

in

the papyri.
gives
J|j

With

M+i as a

sufifix it

would mean
creates a
to

'my
god
it is

destroyer.'

Ca

as a determinative,

and thus

Hetniii, or at least a

name punning upon

that of

Tnu,

which

united.

BOOK OK THE DEAD.
3.

163

The more

recent texts, like those of the Turin Todieiibuc/i,

mention of each disaster. They pray that the Phallus of Ra may not be devoured, that the blindness may not come upon Tmu, and so on.
insert a negative particle before the

CHAPTER

XCIV.

Chapter whereby one prayeth for a Palette and an Inkstand.

Oh
the

mighty one, who seest thy

father,

and who hast charge of

Book of Thoth. Here am I, I come and am glorified and filled with Soul and Power and provided with the writings of Thoth, which I bring in
is

order to purify the tunnel which

in Sutu. (i)

I

bring the Palette

and I bring the Inkstand as the instruments of Thoth, the secrets of which are divine. Here am I, as the Scribe I bring the remains of Osiris; (2) and the writing which I have made upon them is decreed by the great god to be good, daily, among the good. Thou hast decreed, Horus
;

of the
it

Two

Horizons, that

I shall

be the author of Maatandtend

(3)

daily to Ra.

Notes.
1.

In Sutu

;

that

is,

in

Darkness.

See chapter 96.

2.

The

remains, Q -L

{^.'^^-

This word, though commonly
is

applied to corruption and impurity of dead matter,
inoffensive sense
line

taken
e.g.,

in

an
I,

when applied

to the gods.

Compare,

Pepi

477 and
3.

following.

Tend,

\

|[[

J\ mesi (not

sebi)

stretch

out, pandere,

protendcre.

CHAPTER XCV.
Chapter whereby
I
is

opened the place wherein Thoth
(i) in

resteth.

am

the

Dread one

Storm,

who guard

the Great one (2)

against assault.
I

smite like the Flint-god

:

I

sprinkle like the Sprinkling-god. (3)
\

2

l64
I

BOOK OF
am

Tf!E DEAD.
I

the protection (4) of the Great one against assault and
is

give vigour to the sword which

in the

hand of Thoth

(5) in the

storm.

Notes.

The papyrus ^^

gives this chapter the

title

of "assuming the

form of the Smen-goose," and Dr. Birch published the text of this papyrus in the Zeitschrifi of 1869 (p. 25) as one of those additional
chapters which

"do

not occur in the Ritual of Turin."

This

is

of

course an error of oversight.
b/jch,

This chapter

is

in the

Turin lodtentitle,

and the papyrus Ad merely gives it under an erroneous which was evidently meant for another text.
I,

The Dread
J
,

one,
I

v\

^
its

.

Instead of this

Ad

has

^AAAAA

^.

\#/ -T|

which

cannot regard otherwise than as a simple

blunder of the

scribe.
is

\^

is

a well

known anaglyph

in

certain

scenes, but there of

no evidence of

being a variant of the

name

Chnemu.
2.

Two

of the ancient papyri

Ca and

Ad read

ITorus, the others

have the Great goddess, and so has

Ad

in the next line.
Jtrerit,

The more
This god

recent texts have (not urit, 'the great one,' but)
3.
is

'the crown.'

The Sprinkling god
in

"^^X
the

C3t=l

%
(I

Jj Aashu.

mentioned but once
interpreted

Book
in

of the Dead, and his
of as
'

name

is

here

conjecturally

consequence
^.=»p

the
spit.'

function

assigned to
4.
5.

him and of the not unlike word
I read

Protection.

y

|

instead of

<§>^|

in the early papyri.

Thoth.
is

The

recent texts have Chepera,

an evident

error.

The
the

allusion

to the storm or distress from

which Thoth rescues

Eye

of Horus.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby
is

XCVI.
[resteth]. I

opened

\_t

he place'] where Thoth

am he who come that I may
I

dwelleth in the middle of his
deliver

own Eye.

have

the libations for

Maat to Ra, and may propitiate Sutu with Akar and the red victims of the Faithful of Seb.

BOOK OF THE DEAD;

1

6

=

CHAPTER
Said at
Glorified
I

XCVII.
those four

Bark : Staff of Anubis, may I propitiate ones who follow after the Master of [all] things.
the

am

the Master of the champaign at their behest, and I

am

the
is

Father of the inundation,
athirst.

when he who hath charge
great
;

of the canals

Look
foremost
presence.

therefore

upon me, oh ye

and mighty gods, who
let

are

among
I

the Spirits of

Annu

me
Lo

be exalted
I

in
I

your

am

a well-doer towards you.

come, that
;

may

purify this

let not that Soul of mine in the most high degree impediment proceeding from your mouth be issued against me which giveth one over to ruin let me be purified in the lake of
:

propitiation

and of equipoise

:

let

me

plunge into the divine pool
as

beneath the two divine sycomores of Heaven and Earth.

Now
I

let

my

Fold be

fitted for

me

one victorious against
It is I

ail

adversaries

who would

not that right should be done to me.
;

am

the Only one

just

and true upon the Earth.

who

siy

it.

*
Notes.
Chapters 96 and 97 are really but one chapter, which M. Naville has found in only two MSS. of the early period. The end of what
chapter 97 is hopelessly corrupt. On comparing the three copies given by M. Naville (two of them being from the

Lepsius

calls

papyrus of Nebseni)

it

will

be seen how impossible

it

is

to restore a
difficulty
is

grammatical text out of such discordant materials.

The

not removed by having recourse to the papyri of a later period.

CHAPTER XCVHI.
Chapter whereby one saileth a ship in the Netherworld.

Oh
god,
I

thou Leg

in the

Northern Sky,
;

(i)

and

in

that

most con-

spicuous but inaccessible Stream

I rise

up and come

to light as a

am

conspicuous but inaccessible.

I rise

up and

live,

and bring myself

to light as a god.

1

66
I

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
cackle even as the Smen-goose, but I stoop (2) like the of the Great Fowler. the Sky, and Shu standeth erect and the the ladder which

Hawk

at the nets

I sail across

Achmiu
lifts

Stars (3) are instantly active in raising

the

Setting Stars

away from
of Ptah.

destruction. (4)
I

And
I

I

bear that which repelleth mischief as

make my voyage
Fire,

over the Leg

Lake of Flame, from the Lake of from the Field of Flame, and I live
the
I stand erect in the

come from

and

Bark which the god
Stars

is

piloting
to

at the

head of Aarru,

(5)

and the Achmiu

open

me

and

my

fellow citizens (6) present to

me

the sacred cakes with flesh.

Notes.

There

is

but one papyrus of the older period which contains any

portion of this chapter,

and

it

does so very imperfectly.
it

On
the

referring to

M.

Naville's edition

will
is

be seen that not only
destroyed.
it

title

but the greater part of the chapter

The
is

later

copies have texts so different from the original form, that
to attempt a restoration except within very strict limits.
It is

unsafe

absurd to attempt a translation from a mixture of divergent

and, at the same time, incorrect texts.
1.

See note to chapter
is

74.

The Stream which

is

so conspicuous
is

but cannot be reached

the Milky Way, and the Leg

the constel-

lation Cassiopeia in the
2.

Northern Sky.
This comparison occurs repeatedly in the
early periods.
V:^
:jIc

Stoop,

[

^^.

Pyramid Texts, and others of the
3.

Achmiu Stars
is

l^\®
to

^^^

so Ab, giving another
negative.

proof that the word
4.

be taken as a noun, and not as a

See chapter 30A, on
Stars."

"The

Crocodile of the West

who

lives

on the Setting
5.

So Ab, but perhaps wrongly.

I

dare not

fill

up the lacunae of

this text.
6.

Felloiv-citizens.

The

translation here

is

necessarily conjec-

tural.

But

I

understand by

fellozv-citizens {avfiiroXi-rai) the dwellers

of that city of which the deceased says, in chajjter 17,

"I

arrive at

PLATE XXV.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter
British

CIII.

Papyrus,

Museum,
9,900.

No.
Chapi'er XCVII.
Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9,90c.

£r

ia

11

Chapter XCVIII.
LeI'SIUS, Todtenbuch.

Chaptur civ. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9,900.

1

fl

^" 7Chapter CV.

Chapter XCIX. Papyrus, British Museum, No.

Papyrus of Sutimes,
9,900.
Bibl. Nat.

Chapter CVIII.
Papyrus,

Chapter CV. Papyrus, British Museutr, No.

British
9,900.

Museum,
9,900.

No.

PLATE XXVI.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter XCIX.

Papyrus Busca.

Chapter XCIX. Papyrus, Berlin Museum, No.

Chapter XCIX.
2.

Papyrus,

Brit.

Mus., No. 9905.

Chapter XCIX.
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, No.
Ill, 89.

Chapter XCIX.
Papyrus Brocklehurst,
II.

<^_C^^C
1 T T
( f

}

1

i

1
Hi

I

I

f

(

f

T

'^
f

1

L a
f

or
[\

L

111

7ti

i

«

I1
Chapter XCIX.

T^ttT

I

/^

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900.

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
my own
city,

1

6/

^•"*

-^"^ this

city is

explained by the ancient

scholion as being "the Horizon"
translates
it,
'

1^
of

[or, as

Lepsius more accurately

der Sonnenberg
of,

']

my

father

Tmu."

It is

no eaithly

city that is

thought

but an eternal one.

CHAPTER

XCIX.

Chapter whereby one Saileth a Ship in the Netherivorld.

Oh
in

thou

who

sailest the ship of

Nu

over that chine which

is

void, (i) let

me

sail

the ship; let
;

me

fasten

my

tackle (2) in peace
!

peace

!

Come, come

Fleet one, Fleet one

Let

me come

to

see

my Oh Oh

father Osiris.

thou who
thou

art veiled, let art clouded,
;

me

enjoy happiness.

who

but manful, and

who

sailest

round

over that chine of Apepi

thou of firm head and steadfast breast
fiery

when coming
ship, let

forth

from the

blows

:

Oh

thou who art at the

me

sail

the ship, let
is

me

fasten

my

tackle

and come
fall

forth.

This place

empty, into which the starry ones

down head-

long upon their faces, (3) and find not aught whereby they can raise themselves up.

Narrow

the path as the tongue of Ra. (4) \The Patrol who goeth rounds and who piloteth the Double
is
:

Earth

;

which revealeth the Solar Orb
ones. (5)]

Seb abideth stably by means of their rudders the divine Form and He who presideth over the Red
:

Let

me

be brought
is

in as a distressed mariner,

and

let

my

Soul

come

to

me, which

my

brother,

and go

to that place

which thou

knowest.

is

"Z^/ me be told my name" say, " Lord of the Double-Earth I. The Mooring post. thy name.
* I take this opportunity of correcting

in the Shrine

"

my

former translation, where the
is

preposition

^^, which

twice occurs in the passage,

both times rendered by the

same word, from. But the sense of a preposition really depends upon the verb The same English word will not suit the French de in which it follows. s'approcher de and s'eloigner de.'
'
'

'

I

68
2.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

The Blade of the Rudder. " Leg of Apis " is thy name. "The Side-Lock which Anubis fastens on to 3. The Hawser. " is thy name. the swathing work "The two columns of the Nether4. The Stern or Stem Posts. " is thy name. world " Akar " is thy name. 5. The Hold. Bearer of the Great one whilst she passeth " is 6. The Mast.
thy name.

The Keel. " Backbone of Apuat" is thy name. " Throat of Emsta " is thy name. 8. The Mast-head. " Nut " is thy name. 9. The Sail. Made of the hide of Mnevis, which Sutu 10. The Leathers. (6) hath scorched," is thy name. " Fingers of the elder" is your name. 11. The Oars. " Hand of Isis, stanching the blood of the 12. The Bracement. Eye of Horus," is thy name. " Emsta, Hapi, Tuamautef, Kebehsenuf, He who 13. The Rids.
7.

taketh captive,

He who

taketh by force.

He who

seeth his Father,

and

He who maketh
14.
.-

himself," are your names.

The Look-out : (7) " Master of the Grounds " (8) is thy name. 15. The Tiller (9) ''Merit'' (10) is thy name. 16. The Rudder : "The Umpire, beaming forth from the water," is thy name. 17. The Hull : "The Leg of Hathor, which Ra wounded, on his lifting her into the Sektit Boat," is thy name. 18. The Boatman : " Off" is thy name. "The Northern 19. The Breeze., since thou art conveyed by me Breeze proceeding from Tmu to the Nose of Ghent- Amenta " is thy
:

name.
20.

The Stream, since thou

sailest

upon me

:

"Their Mirror"

is

thy name.

The Shallow: (11) "Destroyer of the large-handed at the place of purification " is thy name. 22. The Lajtd, since thou walkest upon me: "The Tip of Heaven, the Coming forth from the swathings in the Garden of
21.

Aarru, and the

Coming

forth in Exultation,"

is

thy name.

To

be said before them.

Hail to you, Fair in Form, Lord of issues,
for ever,

who

are springing

up

and whose double goal

is

eternity

:

turn to

me

your hands.

BOOK OF THE DKAD.
give to

169
let

me

food and offerings for

my mouth
:

;

me

eat the Bat-

bread, the 6'//^«^«-cake and the Kefen-c^t
great hall in presence of the mighty god.
I

let

my

place be in the

know

Tekmu
tiirneth

god to whose nostrils ye present delicacies. name and whether he, whose name is Tekmu, is his from the East or advanceth to the West, let his course be
thnt mighty
:

my

course.

Let

me

not be stopped at the Meskat

;

let

not the Sebau have

mastery over
I

my

limbs.
in

have bread in Pu and beer
to

Tepu.

Let your largesses of

this

day be granted

me

;

offerings of

wheat and barley, offerings

of dfi/a and of vestments, offerings of oxen, and ducks, which are
offerings for
life,

health and strength, and also offerings for coming
in

forth
in

by day, in all the forms the Garden of Aarru.

which

it

pleaseth

me

to

come

forth

If

this chapter be

knotun he will come forth at the Garden of

; there will be given to him the Shensu-rrtf/^^, the measure of drink and the -^tr^tn-cake, and fields of wheat and barley of seven cubits {It is the followers of Horus who reap them), for he eateth of

Aarru

and that wheat and
that wheat
gods.

barley, barley,

and and
to

he

is

made whole

in his limbs through

his limbs spring

up even as with those

And

he cometh forth in the Garden of Aarru in all the forms

in ivhich it pleaseth

him

come forth.

Notes.

One
same
but

of the Paris papyri {Pb) contains a composition bearing the
as chapter 99,

title

and

]SL

Naville has published
It
is

it

as

an

intro-

duction to the usual chapter.
it

no doubt of very

great interest,

is

the imperfect

copy of a quite independent composition,

which really has no claim to be considered a part of our
Dead.
See chapter
7, title

Book

of the

and notes. Cf. the alO^p ipij/xo-i of Pmdar and the Latin expressions 'vacuum per inane,' 'per inania.'
1.

2.

Fasten

my

tackle,

^^^^

^f-

Unas, 508 and 639.
of

In the

latter place the
(?).

ropes are said to be

made

r^

^"^j

paltn leaf

3. Comp. chapter 44 on the cavern where the dead fall into the darkness, but the Eye of Horus supporteth me, and Apuat reareth
'

Z

I/O

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
up.'

There may be an allusion here, as there is elsewhere, to a group which ought, I It is worth noticing that shooting stars.

me

think, to

be read

1

®
[q]

U" '^
j[

^

{Ca and Ac) has
;jlc,

in

most papyri the

wrong determinative
that

instead of

which was misunderstood, and

Ab

has even

'>'<]•

4.
5.

A

corrupt passage, like the next.

The

corruption of the whole passage between
it

[ ]

will

be best

understood on comparing

with the names of "the Rudders of

Heaven"
being

as given in chapter 148; the earliest text of these

names

(I think)

the fine tablet in Detikm. Ill, 25 bis

a.

Three out

of four of these
italics.

names

are represented by the phrases here printed in

The

rest is incoherent
I

and was

certainly not understood
translation.

by

the copyists.
6.
'

have followed ,c^=^

Aa

in

my
or

The Leathers,

^^

^
:

\^'
Odyss.
4,

leathern

thongs, or straps, like the Greek

-rpoTrol for

fastening the oars,

*HpTVVavTO

B'

epeTfia TpoTToi's iv Sepfiari'voitri

782.

See note of Scholiast and
7.

cf.

Aesch. Fers., 376.
^, see chapter 15, note
9.

Look out
Grounds,

T

[1[.

8.

fi

I

is,

technically, the superficial land

measure

corresponding to the quarter of the Egyptian arura.
general

The more

sense of the

word

I

X

I

_^

T^
_

is
J

land enclosed and

parted out for cultivation.

The

Q
of
I

-fi

k

_m J P

very ancient magical text (Unas 302) speaks characterically " n ^== a p il the Hippopotamus who v\ '\K R
[
I

<=>

-^i^
at

^

—— m
n

A

maketh his appearance Psalm Ixxx, 13).

the garden (vineyard,

=

,

field,

&c.

Cf.

In the great inscription published

in Mariette's

Denderah, IV, 35,
KtjTrot,

EE
G

W^
9.

is

used, in a sense like that of the 'Acwvico^
ritual

for

a

Ml

Stone vessel in which seeds were sown for
Ti7/er.
.y^^

purposes
it

J
i.

ia/t,

or (as

is

also written)

dbait ;

chapter 76, note

i

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

I7I

o.

Merit.
;

<crz>

-^^

(sometimes written with
\i
see
I

,^--5^

and other

determinatives

Bekenranef adds

is

the

name

of each of the

two divine
called
Philae,

sisters, Isis
^^

and Nephthys,

chapter 37, note;

who

are

«cr>

fl

1 and <==>
synonym

Y

.

But, at Edfu,
Ut'at,

Denderah and

Merit

is

a

of the

and one of the names of

Hathor.
II.
^"i^a/Zi^ze/ ;

a conjectural meaning for
latid^

^^^
to

^
,

which has
^

not only the determinative of

but those of water,

and

^^. And
S2iiamp.

in

some

texts

it

would seem

mean

tnarsh, fen,

CHAPTER

C.
strong,
those

The Book whereby the glorified one is made embark in the boat of Rd, together with
god.

and is made to who are with the

Let Let

me convey

the divine

Heron

to the East, Osiris to Tattu.

the caverns of Hapu, (i) clear the path of the Solar and tow along Sekaru upon his sledge. Orb Let the Great one

me open
me

give

strength at her fixed hour.

and give worship to the Orb, and associate myself with those in adoration, I am one of them. Let me be a second to Isis ; and let her glorified ones give me
I hail

strength.

Let

me
Ra

fasten

my

tackle, let

me

stop the adversary, and force

him

to turn

back
lend

his steps.

Let

prevent me.
conversely.

me his two hands, let Let my strength be that me
in the

not his
of

divine

Boatmen

the divine Eye, and

[As to the sundering of

Bark of Ra,
is

let

the sundering

be as that of the Egg and the Tortoise. (2)] Said over the Figure in the Text, which
paper, with artist's ink, fresh
the

written upon clean
let

dead person have
;

it

and mixed with essence of Anta ; put upon his body without inserting it into

his

limbs

he will enter into the

Bark of Rd

at the round of each day,

Thoth will appreciate him, on his coming forth or entering, undeviatingly
for times
i7ifinite.

Z 2

1/2

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

This chapter appears a second thne in the Turin Todtenlmch as
chapter 129.

But

in the

papyrus of Nebseni

it

is

found no

less

than three times.
I.

Caverns of Hapu.

Two

of the copies of this chapter in the
x c^

pnpyrus of Nebseni give the interesting variant
is

v>

Q

p,

the well

known

equivalent of

,

and the fountains
.

of the

Nile are also indicated by the group
2.

Q Q

This passage does not occur
is

in

chapter 129, and

is

apparently

an interpolation, which however

already found in ancient copies.

CHAPTER

CI.

Chapter of the Safeguards of the Bark of Ra.

coming forth from the of thy Bark as thou prostream ceedest in the direction of Yesterday, and restest upon the deck of thy Bark, let me join thy boatmen. 1 am a powerful Chu.
thou
;

who art devoid of moisture and who restest upon the deck

in

:

O
me

Ra, in that thy name of Ra, since thou passest through an

Eye of seven
sound,
I

whose pupil is of three do thou then make am a powerful Chu, let thy soundness be my soundness.
cubits,
:

O
who
feet.

Ra, in that thy

name

of Ra, since thou passest through those
:

are perishing headlong
I

do thou then keep

am

a powerful Chu, let thy soundness be

me standing on my my soundness.
:

O

Ra, in that thy name of Ra, since thou openest the secrets of

the Ammehit, which gladdeneth the hearts of the Divine Circle

do

thou then give
ness be ness

me my

heart.

I

am

a powerful Chu, let thy sound-

my soundness, and of my limbs.

the soundness of thy limbs be the sound-

Secured by reason of the writing 7vith

gum mixed with

colours upon

a strip of royal papyrus, put at the throat of the deceased on the day of burial. If these phylacteries arc put at his throat, he will rise up as
one of the Divine Circle,
whilst his
followeth

and

be united to the followers

of Horns,

is made firm who resideth Horus

Lamp

by Isis
in

iti

heaven beside Sothis.

He

Sothis. (i)

His Shade

becofueth

.

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
divine as well as

173

human. Vegetation is made to grow out of his body through the goddess Menkit. (2) He become th a god for ever, and his limbs are made vigorous in the Nethenaorld through Thoth, who hath
done the like
to Osiris, in causifig the light to rise

out of his dead body

1/ndeviatingly

and for

times infinite.

Notes.
This chapter does not occur
to us.
1

in

the earlier collections

known

Horus
Mefikit

ivho

resideth

in

Sothis

vX

[

1

A

^
;

cf.

Teta, 277.
2.
is

one of the names of Hathor, but the place

is

corrupt and the true reading uncertain.

CHAPTER
me
Let

CII.

Chapter whereby one entereth into the Bark of Rd.
Great

One

in thy Bark, let

be

lifted

into thy Bark.

Let

me make head
never
set.

for thy staircase.

me

have charge of those who
are of the Stars which

convey thee, who are attached

to thee,

who
and

That which
is

I

abominate,
not eat of
I shall

I eat
it,

not

:

that

which

I

abominate

Dirt, let

me

but of peace offerings and of Art-

offerings,

by which

not be upset.
tread

Let
with

me not approach it with my hands, let me not my sandals, because my bread is of the white
is

upon it corn and my

beer of the red corn of the Nile.

and the Aatit which have brought me to the food and raiment which are upon the altar of the Spirits of Annu. Salutation to thee, Ur-ar-set, in that voyage of heaven and the disaster in Tennu, when those dogs were gathered together, not
It

the Sektit boat

without giving voice.

have come myself and delivered the god from that pain and suffering, that was in trunk, in shoulder and in leg,
1

I

have come and healed

(i) the trunk,

and fastened the shoulder

and made firm the leg. And I embark for the voyage of Ra.

.'

174

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Note.

I.

Healed.

Such

is

the

meaning of

o
jr

'^ ^^

,

as in chapter 147

and Unas 214, no less than in a passage which does not occur in the most ancient texts of chapter 1 7, but which is found in the Thoth healed the papyri and is derived from the early traditions.
17,

face of Horus.

CHAPTER cm.
Chapter whereby one openeth the place where Hathor abideth.
I

am

a pure follower.

O

Ahi

;

O

Ahi

;

(i)

let

me become one

of the followers of Hathor.

Note,
I.

Ahi

I

fi

[jl

^ r^

)

the Striker

is

one of the names of Horus,

who
"

in the inscriptions of Benihassan is called

>A^

\

K^

^^

o

Horus who

striketh

down men."

The notion

of striking was in
Priestly persons

later

days confined to the beating of the sistrum.

bore the tide of
of Hathor.

Ahi

as representatives of the youthful Horus, son
Soc. Bibl. Arch.,

See Proc.

XH,

p.

460, on "

The Sun-

stroke in Egyptian."

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby

CIV.
midst of the great gods.

o?ie sitteth in the

Let

me me

sit

in the midst of the great gods.
It is

Let

me

pass through

the place of the Sektit boat.

the Bird-fly deity (i) that shall
in the

convey
I shall

to see the great

gods who are

Netherworld, and

be triumphant

in their presence.

Note.
1.

The Bird-fly

deity.,

Abait

;

see

chapter 76, note.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

175

CHAPTER
Hail to thee,

CV.

Chapter ivhereby one propitiateth (i) the Ka.

my

Ka,

my

coeval. (2)
glorified

May
ensouled,

I

come
let

to thee

and be

and made manifest and
I

me

have strength and soundness.

Let

me

bring to thee grains of incense wherewith

may

purify

myself and

may

also purify thine

own
I

overflow.
uttered,

and the wrong I have offered let them not be imputed to me. For I am the green gem, fresh at the throat of Ra, given by those who are at the Horizon their freshness is my freshness
assertions
that
:

The wrong

have

resistance which

:

\said twice\, the freshness of

my Ka

is

like theirs,

and the

dainties

of

my Ka

are like theirs.
liftest

Thou who
the nose of

the hand at the Balance, and raisest

Law

to

Ra

in this

day [of

away from me. For I am heareth and am I not the Bull of the sacrificial herd, are not the mortuary gifts (3) upon me and the supernal powers {otherwise said: the powers above Nut]. Grant that I may pass by thee, and may purify myself and cause
;

do not thou put my head the Eye which seeth and the Ear which
:

my Ka]

the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries. (4)

Notes.

Propitiate, c=^='.
^rii

The

simple root
t~\

n

hetep signifies,

what

is

implied by the ideographic sign

1

1,

the taking hold, embracing,
p.

and

kindred notions {Proc. Soc. Bill. Arch., Vol. X,
notion of appeasing an angry personage
is

578).

The
M.

no more necessarily
is

involved in the Egyptian word than in the Latin propitiare.
Lefebure's translation, reunir, in the
correct as far as
it

title

of this chapter

perfectly

goes.
pi.

See in Denkm., HI,
greeted by his ka.

34, b, the picture of

Thothmes HI being
repre-

Rameses

II

and other kings are often

sented in the act of supplicating their
2.

own
as

ka.

My

coeval ,1/1
life.

v^

M^

or,

some might
Ill,

prefer,

my

duration of

The
are well

pictures in the temple of

Luxor {Denkm.,

74 and 75)
III.

known which

represent the birth of

Amenophis

The

^

1/6
infant

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
prince in

each of these pictures

ka, his exact image.

The ka

is

accompanied by his nursed and suckled by the same
is

goddesses.

be found in the picture recently published by the French Mission Archeologique {TefHpie de Luxor, fig. 203), in which both the royal infant and his
text
is

But perhaps the best commentary on our

to

ka are being fashioned by the hand of Chnum, upon
wheel.
3.

his potter's

Mortuary

gifts

^ |^

^

1

,

meals offered to the departed.
is

The meaning
determinatives,

of the

compound group

plain

enough from the
|

and such frequent forms

as <cz:>

a ^\

p^^ "consisting of X
The
voice,
is

^

JT

v\ V\

.m
^

I

I

I

bread and beer," but the origin of
|

it

is

not so clear.

usual meaning of

_p like that of the Coptic
it

^pCOO'Sf

but in the present group
plur.

stands for

|

I

I

I

corresponding to

.^pG,

^pHOTI,
in

Tpotpij, ^ptL'/iara, iSea/u ma.

and

<r::>

is

to

be understood as

the

very

common

formula

a

A^^,
reading
faulty
I

The
texts
is

v\ which

is

sometimes found

in

late

and leads

to

an erroneous interpretation.
|.

^^^^^^ is

a

mistake either for *^^^^ or for <:^~>, the phonetic of

In such passages of

the Pyramid texts as ^|\
_)ii^

<rr>
ci

/l[
(J
1

^-

-2:^

^\

:® ®:

w^

I

(Unas 36)
is

^^

is

a demonstrative

not a negative particle, " Here
thee,
4.

the mortuary meal presented for

and

/lere

are the two Eyes, the

White and the Black, of Horus."
this last passage.

All the early

MSS. except Fd omit

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby a largess
is

CVI.

presented at Hat-ka-Ptah. (i)

Oh

thou god of nutriment, oh great one
;

who

presidest over the

bread cometh from Annu] ye who g^ve bread to Ptah [from Annu], give me bread and beer let me

mansions on high

[to

whom

:

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
be made pure by the
bread. (2)
sacrificial
joint,

177
with
the

together

white

Oh
in the

thou ship of the Garden of Aarru,
;

let

me

be conveyed to

that bread of thy canal

as

my
I

father, the

Great one,

who advanceth

Divine ship [because

know

thee].

Notes.
This
is

one of the chapters found
It
is

on the

sarcophagus of
in

Horhotep.

also
to

inscribed on a statue,

now

the Berlin

Museum, belonging
{Denkm.,
found
Ill, 25
in the papyri.

the
k).

early

part

of the

XVIIlth dynasty
title

h and

These

authorities

do not give the
later authorities,

The

allusions to
differs

Anna
1.

are confined to the

earliest text,

which somewhat
the

from the

and

finishes sooner than they do.
1.

Cf. also Teta,

331.

Hat-ka-Plah

is

name

of Memphis, but as in so

many

it is not the earthly city which is meant. M. Naville out that the words " in the Netherworld " are added has pointed

other places

in the
2.

papyrus of Nebseni.

Bread and beer are not mentioned
variants.

in the earliest text,

which

has

other important
r

The

latest

texts
(I

have the verb

^^

-,

wash, make dean, purify, of which

^ ^^

on the

Berlin statue

and the Theban papyri may
But Horhotep has
\

fairly

be considered an

older form.

Y>

^

>

^ different word and

occurring in a grammatical construction differing from that of the
other texts.

The words /^^^

\\

^^^^

d

j

^ ^^^
a
]

occur as a familiar

formula in the Pyramid texts (Unas, 185,

205; Teta, 91); but

Horhotep
tives of the

interpolates

|

QA
(3

after

\^

.

The

determina-

group

^^^wna

^

(sometimes c?V» or

^^),

show

that

the copyist understood the word as meant for the sacrificial joint.
It is

not uninteresting to note, with reference to the correctness
title

of the

of this chapter, that the

expressly says of the deceased that

Pyramid ritual (Unas, 205) "the sacrificial joint with the
receives.

white bread" are the "largess

"

(/^ Q^©) which he

2

A

:

178

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER
[The chapter so called
chapter 109.

CVII.
two
lines of
It

consists, in fact, of the first
it

The

vignette over

really belongs to chapter 108.

has no separate existence in any of the papyri of the best periods.]

CHAPTER CVni.
Chapter whereby one knotveih the Poivers of
the West.

In respect of the Hill of Bachau
it

presenteth

itself (2)

upon which heaven resteth, three hundred cubits in length (3) and two
(i)
is

hundred cubits
temple
is

in

breadth.
at the east of the Hill,

Sebak, the Lord of Bachau,

and

his

upon
is

it.

There
I

a serpent

on the brow of that

hill, five

hundred cubits

in length, three cubits of his forepart are

in his

know the name own flame " is his name. (4) Now, at the close of day (5) he tumeth down
:

pierced with swords. " He who dwelleth of this serpent on his hill

his eyes to

Ra

;

for there

cometh a standing

still

in

the Bark and a deep slumber

within the ship.

And now he
is

swalloweth three cubits of the Great

Water.

Then Sutu
and he
is

made

to flee with a chain
all

upon him of

steel (6)
is

forced to vomit

that he hath swallowed.

Then Sutu

put into his prison.

And then
Away
with thee
!

••emain in thy prison,

Words of Power Steel, which art made fast upon my hand. I the Bark sails on and thou seest the path
he saith with
is

;

but thine eyes close, [thine eye
veiled, (7)

delivered

to me], thy head

is

and I go on and stay thy steps. I am the Manful one, who veileth thy head and who cooleth the hollow of thy hand thy strength is my strength.
:

I

am

the Master of the
is

Words

of Power.

Who

this

who hath been

delivered to

me

?

This Bright One, who cometh on his

belly,

on

his

hind parts

and on the

joints of his back.

Lo

!

then, I come,

and thy might

is

in

my

hand.

It is I

who

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
carry away thy might, that
I

179

of

Ra who

is

united to
art

But thou
of old.
I

upon the Timnels he goeth round heaven. (8) pierced with hooks, as was decreed against thee
seize

may come and

me

at sunset as

know

the powers of the West, they are

Tmu, Sebak

the

Lord

of Bachau,

and Hathor, Mistress of Sunset.

Notes.

The

chapters 108, 109, 112, 113, and 114 being so analogous to
style,

each other, in form, matter,

and composition, and each being

concerned with the divine Powers
teresting to

'^^
The

of

some

locality,
is

it

is

in-

know

that

one

at least of these

chapters

found on a
{Zeitschr. f.

monument
ancient,

of the Middle Empire.
text published

others are probably not less

and the

by Dr. Golenischef

Aegypt. Spr., 1874, p. 84) from the Sarcophagus at St. Petersburg already bears manifest signs of antiquity.

Another sign of antiquity as regards the present chapter may be seen in the numerous forms in which it has come down to us. These are so different, and sometimes so irreconcileable, that it seems evident that tradition has handed down very corrupt texts, and that the original meaning of this chapter had been entirely lost at a very early date and cannot be discovered now. The oldest
text
is

the shortest of

all,

but

it

is

both imperfect and incorrect.
later ones.

The

earliest papyri differ greatly

from the

But both the
the Turin and

earlier and the later papyri have the 149th chapter which contains

another recension of the loSth, and chapter
later papyri
I. is

in
*>-=

in

another form of
of Bachau.

it.

The

Hill

J'i^'^
In

"^ """^

has

for

determinative the sign

-^^

which connects the word with the
the later texts the word
co7i)

Coptic

£.OT^I

'

eyelids.'

has

for

determinative either a
if it

woman
j

or a
{

in the act of parturition, as
its

were connected with
^•^^

|

W) and

variants,

with which

\
\

j

m

another
itself,

name

of the

Dawn

is

identified.

2.

Presenteth

-^^ ^c-^

.

This Egyptian verb
to

is

always

expressive of activity,

and perhaps ought never

be translated
2

A

2

,

l8o

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

being.
'

^ W
I I I

are 'things which are,' but
'

-^^
/s.ww\

,

^
I I

,

are

'

things which

1

spring forth'
3.

come

to Hght.'
is

The

oldest text (which
hill,

here the best authority) does not give

the dimensions of the
])apyri give the

but only of the serpent.
hill

The

earliest

dimensions of both, but make the
it.

so absurdly

small that the serpent could not rest upon

Later papyri beginhill

ning with
of 300

^have corrected cubits, or ^^^ (each
7

the texts so as to give the

a length

of which

is

the statement that the cubit in question
cubit

100 cubits long). They omit is of 7I palms (ihe Royal

being of

palms), and also the interesting mention of the

41

^|
'

"balance
balance
'

(or

measurement) of the

earth."
is

The

relation of this

to the rest of the sentence

not clear,

because the MSS.

differ as to the preposition
hill

which precedes.

The Papyrus of Nebseni gives the The Todt€7ibuch of Turin reads 370
in breadth.
4.

300 cubits

in

oreadth.
cubits

^^

in length,

and 140

The

serpent's

name

is

not mentioned in chapter
in

in

the

earliest

text.

But

chapter

149

the

usual

in, nor is name

it

is

^ ^^
Nebseni.

^^1^' "^°^^

^"^^y written

^^f^—.^

in the

Papyrus of
to

The

determinative
expresses
the

^V},

commonly attached
smitten,'

the

name

of Apepi,

meaning 'sword

'shot

with swords,' ^KpoKTovo^.

We might
'

otherwise have understood the

term in the sense of
of Sutimes

^KJioKTovo^,

slayer with swords.'

The Papyrus
'

Pd

calls the serpent

T ^|\

^^^^ cz^^a

¥\

>=;^^^

knife-

wounded.'

The proper name .^^

"""^^

3

,

also written

.:^^

^;^

Mates, an epithet of Apepi, or of Sutu, also means "pierced with But the expression itself seems sometimes to be found swords."
in the active sense, " piercing like
5.

a sword."

Close of Day,
is

when

daylight has
the

come

to

^2l

stand'
oldest

-if

^

.

This

the

reading

of

papyri.

The

reading

is

6.

The

earliest text says

nothing of

this,

though

it

mentions the

"prison of Sutech," in a passage corresponding to what the papyri 1 he Turin Jcdtejiinclude in the Words of Power which follow.
'

'

PLATE XXVII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter
No.

C.

Chapter

C.
21.

Papyrus. Musee du Louvre,
Ill, 93-

Papyrus, Boulaq Museum, No.

»^m^^
Chapter
C.

^yi^?K^TCir:3ih~

\
Chapter CII. Papyrus, Musee du Louvre,
No.
Ill, 36.

Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, No. Ill, 89.

Chapter CIX.
ROSELLINI, "Mon. del Culto.,'
pi.

Chapter

CII.
II.

Papyrus Brocklehurst,

XXIII.

Chapter CVIII. Papyrus, Berlin Museum, No.

II.

Chapter CIX. Papyrus, British Museum, No.

9900.

PLATE

XXVIII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

msmmim
3

.

.

r^rr—t

lL_ ^ii^

wmmn
Chapter CX.
Papyrus, Ley den Mus;um.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
buck says
is

l8l

that,

"Sutu

is

put into his prison, and that a chain of steel
Pictures of the serpent with the chain

put upon his neck."
will

him
is

be found

in Bonorai, Sarcoph., plates

lo and ii.*

upon There

an evident fusion

in

this

chapter, in

its

later

form

at least, as in

chapter 39, of the personages of Sutu and Apepi.
7.

Thy head
'

is veiled.

The

'veiling of the head,'

and 'closing

of the eyes
time.

of the sun are of course mythological terms for night
the mythological event was celebrated on the festival

But

8.

Chapter

1

11 stops at the

word "Sunset."
first

And

after this, the
:

text in chapter 149

changes the third to the

person, and reads

" But
if

Ra to me

go round the heaven whilst thou art pierced with hooks," as were replying to the words of Sutu. This, I confess, appears
I

to offer a

better sense than

that of chapter 108.
in the first line of

And

I

should now

alter the

word "stabber"

chapter 39

to " pierced with hooks."

CHAPTER

CIX.

Chapter whereby one knoiveth the Poivers of the East.
I

know

that Eastern

Gate of Heaven (the South of
it

it

is

by the

lake of Cha-ru, and the north of

by the stream of Reu), from
I

whence Ra
I

saileth with favouring gales, (i)
:

am

the Teller (2) in the divine ship

am

the unresting navi-

gator in the Bark of Ra.
I

know

those two Sycomores of Emerald

between which
lifted

Ra

cometh

forth, as

he advanceth over what Shu hath

up,t to

every gate (3) through which he proceedeth. the wall of I know the Garden of Aarru
:

it

is

of

steel.
it

The
of 4

wheat of
cubits.

it is

of

7 cubits, the ears of
it is

it

of

2 cubits,

the stalk of

The

barley of

of

7 cubits,

and the

ears are of 4 cubits,

and
*

the stalk of 3 cubits.

On

this
;

picture

(plate 11)

may

also be seen

an interesting

illustration of

chapter 39

the scorpion goddess putting the chain upon Apepi, in front of

whom

are the divinities to execute, with swords and hooks, the decree passed against him.

The
t

children of
I.e.,

Horus are

also seen occupied in the execution.

the Sky.

l82
It is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
the glorified ones, each of

whom
:

is

9 cubits in height,

who

reap them, in presence of the Powers of the East.

Horus of the Solar Mount, the Calf in presence of the God, (4) and the Star of Dawn. A divine Domain (5) hath been constructed for me I know the name of it the name of it is the garden of Aarru.
I

know

the Powers of the East

;

;

Notes.
Another recension of
chapter 149.
this

chapter has been incorporated

into

The

differences lie chiefly in the order assigned to

each of the component sentences.
I.

Favouring gales

.

>y

^

v\

1

v\

\^

'=^

" sailing

breezes"

correspond to phrases like
tail

iKfievo^ ovpo9, venti secundi, trade
is

winds,

wind, stern wind.

There

not the faintest authority from the

older papyri (which are very numerous,

and remarkably unanimous

on

this point) in favour of the

determinative

'kJ

,

of the Turin

Todtenhich^ which gives the sense of violent or tempestuous winds.

" Ra at his rising is adored by the Powers of the 3. Every gate. " East. They it is who effect the rising of Ra, by opening the door " at each of the four portals of the Eastern horizon of heaven."
(Inscr. in

tomb of Rameses VI, ChampoUion,
in presence

Notices,

Tom.
seen

II, p.

640.)
4.

The Calf
I,

of the god.

The Calf
chapter
i.

is

in

the

vignettes of this chapter

and

also of

Brugsch {Rev.
the

Egypt,

p.

38)

quotes

texts

showing
is

that

Milch-cow

v\

1

T vx

^^~~qi

Hor-sechauit,

the mother of the Sun-god,

and that the infant god is the calf to whom she gives birth. The words " in presence of the god " are probably corrupt, but the variants are apparently worse. The Morning Star was equally
identified with
5.

Horus.
See M. Maspero's important
article

The divine Domain.

"Sur

le

sens des mots Nouit et Hait," in P.S.B.A., XII, p. 235-257.

"

Nouit

sert

a

designer un dcmaine rural d'etendue plus ou
portant ou

moins

conside'rable,

ne portant pas de village ou de

BOOK OK THE DEAD.
maison d'habitation un corps complet en
forme d'un
et
II

1

83

etait

une personne
le

reelle,

formant
la

soi, et c'est

pour cela qu'on

represente sous

homme

ou d'une femme apportant des produits agricoles

des offrandes."

Additional Note.

The

later copies of the

Book

of the

Dead add
as follows
:

a few lines to the

chapter, of which they certainly formed no part

when

first

written.

The most

interesting portion of

them

is

" There are writings in thy possession for the grant of fields of

corn-land in which there sprouteth corn from the effluxes of the god
Ut'eb.
cubits
;

The

height of the corn

is

seven cubits, the ears of two

and thou shall reap it with the Glorified ones, in presence of the Powers of the East. Thou shalt enter boldly at the mysterious portals and be purified by those who are there."

The name
by me {Proc.
result,

of the god hieroglyphically written
Soc. Bibl. Arch., Vol.

A/^r^ was shown
came
to the
is

VI,

p.

187) to be Uteb or Ut'eb.
note,

Brugsch, apparently without having seen

my

same
really

though he identified the god with Seb.

The god

Osiris,

and the
copies

text just

quoted

various

are

found.

is illustrated by a picture of which That here given is taken from the

temple of Philae.

These pictures were known from the Ramesside period, but the
conception of Osiris which they convey
142,
texts
7)
is

^^
is

Jml^

n

1

^
6)

{Todt.,

of primitive antiquity. the
Coffin

There

a chapter
(pi.

among

the

preserved by

of

Aniamu

xxvii,

about
I,

"assuming the form of corn,"

w ^o

^\

T.Ci

and

which speaks of " the vegetation of life proceeding from Osiris, growing out of the ribs of Osiris, and giving life to this generation of

The same
Tombs, and

idea gave rise to the

name

n

I

^

J] which

is

given

to Osiris in the

Book

of the Dead, in the sacred texts of the Royal
to the

in the

Hymn

Nile.

But the god

is

also twice

184

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
n

called

^x^T[(,^in Amamu,
T I

pi. xxvii, 8.

This

latter

form

proves that in

we have

a

compound

term.

The

deity (in very late times) appears in the feminine gender

ex. The Chapter which in the printed copy of the Turin Todtenbuch is numbered no interrupts the series of chapters on the Powers of certain localities. The translation of it is reserved till
that of these chapters
is

completed.

It will

be found

at

page 193.

CHAPTER CXI
is

only a repetition of Chapter CVIII.

CHAPTER
Oh

CXIl.

Chapter whereby one knoweth the Powers of Pit. (i)
thou of corpselike form

who

art in

Chait and Anpit

;

{2)

thou goddess of the Net, (3) who art in Pu ; ye who preside over the untilled lands, ye stars and constellations (4) Know ye
. .

.

wherefore

Pu hath been given to Horus } I know it if ye know it not. It was Ra who gave it to him in amends of eye, in consequence of what Ra said to Horus
is

:

the blindness in his " Let me look at
it.

what

happening

in thine

eye to-day," and he looked at

Ra

said to Horus, " Look, pray, at that black swine."

looked, and a grievous mishap afflicted his eye. Horus said to Ra, " Lo, my eye is as though the eye of Sutu

He

had made a wound

And Ra said he may recover."
It

my own eye." the gods, " Let to
in

And wrath devoured
him be
laid

his heart.

upon

his bed, that

was Sutu who had taken the form of a black swine, and he
in the

wrought the wound which was

eye of Horus.
swine
is

And Ra
to

said to

the gods,
well."

"The

an abomination

to

Horus; may he get Horus.

And

the swine

became an abomination

PLATE XXIX

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
^(^elft|5T^J2iU

Chapter CX.

Bas

Relief,

Leyden Museum.

Chapter CXII.
Mariette,
"Abydos,"
I, p.

Chapter CXII.
Mariette,
Abydos,"
I, pi.

Chapter CXII.
Mariette,
"Abydos,"
I,

83.

39.

p. 82.

PLATE XXX.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chatter CXII.
Mariette, "Abydos,"
I, pi.

Chapter CXIII.
lo.

Mariette, "Abydos,"

I, pi.

29.

Chapter CXII. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900.

Chapter CXIII. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9964.

Chapters CXII and CXIIT.
Mariette, "Abydos,"
I,

pi.

31.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

1

85

And

the circle of gods said,

who were

with

him when Horus

came to light in his own children: (6) for him be of his oxen, of his goats, and of his swine." As for Emsta, Hapi, Tuamautef, Kebhsenuf, Horus is their father and Isis their mother. And Horus said to Ra, " Give me tlien two (8) brothers in Pu and two brothers in Nechen, of this my own body and that they
"Let the
;

sacrificial victims {7)

may be

with

me

as an everlasting renewal, through

which the earth

flourisheth

and storms are quenched." And his name became that of Horus upon his Column. they are Horus, Emsta and Hapi. I know the Powers of Pu
:

Notes.
1.

On

the situation of Pu, see chapter 18, note
I,

6.

The Pyramid
"those of

Texts (Pepi
the

684) speak of the
are in Pu."

}^

'^

^

"}"


The

Red Crown who
2.

Thou of

corpselike form in
is

Chait and Anpii.
its

sign of the

plural, here as elsewhere,

quite consistent wiih

api)lication to a

single person,

"j^

^

Chait
Egj'pt,

is

the

name*

of the i6th, or
its

Men-

desian,

Nome of Northern

and Anpit was

metropolis.

The

nome is mentioned in the inscription of Amten in the third dynasty. The god is Osiris. He is invoked in the "Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys," and asked to come to Tattu, Anpit and Chait, which are
but different names of one Sanctuary,
p.

Cf.

Brugsch, Zeitschr., 187

1,

81, and his translation of the Mendesian Tablet, Zeitschr., 1875.
3.

Thou goddess of the Net
to the

v>V

-

This name corresreason

ponds
senting

Greek Diktynna.

The

why

a

goddess reprethe

Heaven should be so called may be understood by Homeric epithet ~o\vw-6v applied to a net.
If,

however, the deity was male, according to the other reading,
is

the reference
in the
4.

to -ov

-/yv ''lo-^cov rfiocfuf-iov

A/ktvi',

who was drowned
p. 3) identifies

river.

Plut, de Iside
etc.

and

Os., 8.
{Zeitschr.,

Ye 7vho preside,

Brugsch

1876,

the Egyptian f)^, ; \i> y>
*

^

^vith

the ^InXoTiwo's of the Demotic

Not Hdmehit, which
it,

is

the

name both
is

of the Uit of the
.

nome and

of the

goddess worshipped in

whose emblem

the fish '^'^^

^

2 B

l86

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
contracts.

and Greek
5.

The remainder of
be
safely

this invocation

is

so corrupt

that the sense cannot

guessed

at.

See Herodotus, II, 47, without attaching too

much importance

to details.

The

pig was certainly not considered impure (^lapof) in

the days of the third or fourth dynasty,
to the highest dignities,

when Amten, who had risen enumerates swine among the domestic

animals

it

is

natural to possess.

And impure

animals were

not

offered in sacrifice.

But long before the days of Herodotus a change

had taken place in the Egyptian religion as to the nature of Sutu.
Plutarch and Aelian are to be read with the like caution.
of their information
6.
is

Some
error.

correct, but
I

it is

mixed up with much

The

variants

^^ "^ ^
[![1

and "S"~

%^

^^J

1

are note-

worthy.
7.

Sacrificial victims

"^^

i

The

substitution in Egypt

of animal for

human sacrifice is

(I believe) entirely

without foundation.

And

the supposed evidence of

human

sacrifices

drawn from

certain

pictures has (I believe) been misinterpreted.
8.

The

four children of

for

two of them to

Horus were also his brothers. He asks be with him in each of his two cities, Pu and
is

Nechen.

The

true sense of the passage

entirely lost in the later

recensions and in translations

made from

them.

CHAPTER
know
Mystery of Nechen

CXIII.

Chapter whereby one knoweth the Powers of Nechen. (i)
I

the

:

Horus, and that which his
:

mother did

(2) for him,

when she

herself uttered the cry

" Let

Sebak, the Lord of the Marshes, be brought to us."

He

cast

the net for

them and he found them^ and

his

mother

made them

fast in their places.
:

Sebak, the Lord of the Marshes, said
the traces of them under

" I sought and I found
I

my

fingers

on the strand.

netted

them

in

a powerful net, as the net proved to be." And Ra said " Verily, those are fishes in the hands of Sebak.
:

and he hath found the two arms of Horus become fishes." (3)

for

him, which had

And Ra

said

:

"

A mystery,

a mystery, in the Net."

j

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
And
the hands of

1

87

Horus were brought

to him,

and displayed

before his face, on the feast of the fifteenth day of the

month

;

when the fishes were produced. Then Ra said " I grant Nechen
:

to

Horus,

in the place of his

two arms

;

that
I

Nechen

;

and

two hands be displayed before his face in grant to him whatsoever is therein comprised on the
his

feast of the fifteenth

day of the month."
:

Tuamautef and Kebhsenuf be taken WMth me, and that they be guards of my body in dutiful service. (4) Let them be this under the god of Nechen." And Ra said Be that granted to thee, there and in Sati, and let that be done for them which is done for those who are in Nechen
said
it

And Horns

"

Be

granted

to

me

that

:

;

yea, they are asking to

be with

thee.
thee, so that they
:

And Horus
listen to

said

:

Be they with
entry

be with
it

me

to

Sutu invoking the Powers of Nechen

"

Be

granted to

me

that I

may make my I know the Powers

among
:

the Powers of Nechen."

of

Nechen

they are

Horus, Tuamautef,

and Kebhsenuf.
Notes.
1.
(

Nechen, the chief hieroglyphic variants of which are

^

U

>

/VWAA[—

©

,

®

/oi Ten) of ^^^ir Upper Egypt, and was called by the Greeks Hieraconpolis, 'city of
/vNA/^/vA

©

and

®

/wvwv

©

,

was situated

in the third

nome

(

hawk -headed divinities mentioned in this chapter as Powers of Nechen, and of which numberless pictures are found on the monuments.
the Hawks,' from the

Between these words and those which the three old papyri* Aa, Ae, and lb, which unfortunately do not agree together on all points, have a few passages here which do not appear in the later They read, " Horus and what his mother did, tossing in papyri.
2.

distressful agitation

(

_4^

^k\

v\

4^

,

KIJUL, (rukeveaeai) over the

water."
in

The mother then

addresses persons
is

not clear ; which the only certain ones are " the son of Isis."
the usual
*

words of which the sense
text.
is

named, and Ra speaks words of
are not

who

Then

follows

There

a copy of the chapter in the

tomb of Cha-em-hait, which
all

is

our
is,

oldest authority.

But

it is

unfortunately mutilated, and

that can be said

that

if

the additional words were once there, they have been destroyed.

l88
3.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
This legend of Nechen
of
is

connected with
It

that of the dis-

memberment

HorUS

(to Trepl rhi>"Qpov ^lafieXKr/nov), of

have but very scanty information.*

which we must have been Hke a repe-

The Hmbs of tition of what had happened to his father Osiris. Horus had been thrown into the water, and when Sebak threw his net, at the prayer of Isis, he brought up two fishes, into which the
arms of Horus had been turned. Reminiscences of this story are preseived
localities.

in the

names of

several

<s^p^

^

"

Two

Fish,"

is

the

name

of the

Mer of the

second

Northern Nome, and of the pe/iu of the seventeenth Southern
just as -<s>,

Nome

;

"Two

Eyes,"
latter

is

the

name

of the _pe/iu of the eleventh

Northern Nome.
Osiris,
4.

The

name may perhaps have

reference to

but the same stories were probably told of both divinities.

On

dutiful service
texts.

,

a word omitted in the Turin
I,

[J

and other
It
^"Tt^,
is

Brugsch {Rev. Egypt,

22) has discussed the sense
it.

of this word, and quoted numerous passages in illustration of

of course ridiculous to identify the word with the

Hebrew

the

meaning of which

is

radically different.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby

CXIV.
Powers of Herinopolis.
(2)

ojie kno7iicth the

Maat
its level.

is

borne

(i)

over
is

the

Arm,

Ment'ait, (3)

and the Eye
and

illumined (4)

and Neith dawneth at by the one who adjusteth

I I tell I

am
it

led in by her,

I

know what
it

she bringeth from Kasu. (5)

not to

men

;

I

repeat

not to gods.
fast

am come

as a

messenger of Ra, to make

Maat upon the

Arm, for the dawning of Neith at Ment'ait, and for restoring the Eye to him who taketh the reckoning thereof. I am come as omnipotent through the knowledge of the Powers of Hermopolis, who love the Powers which you love.
*

The Apis

tablets (Zeitschr., 1882, p. 22) give the
;

name

of a place Fa-kerk-

en Hor, which seems to refer to this catastrophe
corresponding to the Greek iKKoirrtiv,
IkkKcli',

the Coptic

KODX, KCCpX

KaTaairacOat.

PLATE XXXI.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter CXIV
Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900.

Chapter CXIX. Papyrus, Leyden Museum, No. V.

Chapter CXVI. Papyrus, Musee du Louvre, No. IIL 36.
Chapter CXVII. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900.

Chapter CVII. Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9933.

Ch.\pter CXXIII.
British

Papyrus,
9903.

Chapter CXIX. Papyrus, Musee du Louvre.
Cab. des Medailles.

Museum, No.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

1

89

am one

acquainted with Maat

made

reckoned
reckoned.

out,

and

I

take delight in

and permanent and reckoning out that which is
firm
at

Hail ye Powers of Hermopolis, small

the beginning of the

month and
of Night,

great

upon the Fifteenth Day
it

;

Ra

teacheth the mysteries

and be

known

to

you that he who teacheth
I

me

is

Thoth.

Hail ye Powers of Hermopolis as

know

you.

Notes.

There are two chapters (114 and 1 16) of " the Powers of Hermopolis," and they have been preserved separately both in the older and in the more recent papyri. They are very similar in thought but differently worded, and each throws a certain light upon the other, without however dispelling the obscurity of this very ancient
religious

composition.

Some

farther help,

however

insufficient,

is

afforded by the pictures of the

Book which records

the passage of

the Sun-god through the twelve hours of the night.
[.

Aladt

is

borne.

[

1

w

1

is

the

same word

as

^^^^^
[
.

>

^^e

reduplicated form of
cases
it

I

^

to

gush, spring forth.

But

in certain

acquires the sense of being borne, or conveyed, and
in
is

is

written
in

is:

^
part

Ptolemaic inscriptions.
1

The corresponding word

chapter 116

j-,

^^

,

which has the same meanings.

One

of the pictures above alluded to (Lefebure, Hypogees, Toinbeau de
Seii,

IV,

pi.

31) represents a boat carrying the Moon-disk,

raised

upon a

stand.
is

A

personage kneeling behind
j c^
,

supporting the feather of Maat.

The words ^^^^
-,

which are written by way of explanation,
it

Si

might give
tions
2.

rise to

some misunderstanding were

not for considera-

mentioned

in the followins; note.

&

The
V

Arm ^^^
in

in

chapter 114 has for corresponding word

v\

chapter 116, implying that

Arm

is

to

be taken
the sea
'

in a geographical sense, as

when we speak of an 'arm of

Now

the

pictures

which have been spoken of have the words
2 C

.

igo

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

,-r-^Si

^^ —"—

,

'arm of the Urnes,' inscribed ever the stream down

which the Sun-god takes his nightly journey. These pictures have only the value of a commentar)' on a very
ancient text, but they are at least as old as the earUest papyrus

which contains the
3.

text.

Ment'ait

^S^

^

'

^^

^^^ ancient reading in chapter 114,

but the later texts have

^
texts

ll, Tar.

Chapter 116 has

g
4.

,

Mat'aii.

Illumined.

The

are discordant as to the reading.
H

I

follow that of the two old papyri which have

?

-<

^

;

though

this

orthography, however defensible,
5.

is

somewhat

suspicious.

Kasu.

j^l

I

,

the 'Burial Place,' was the metropolis of

the 14th

Nome

of Southern Eg}-pt.

Dendera

is

called

\Jj D

M4 "^ W. ©
"^

^^^

^"

^^^'^ ordinary characters
^

^

(j

^
has

X

n

°
I

^

-^^^^ ^^^^'

many

other geographical names,

it

the feminine form in

£:i

,

as well as the masculine in

v\

CHAPTER

CXV.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth into Heaven, and openeth the Aminehit : and whereby the Powers of Heliopolis are known.

have grown from yesterday, a Great one among the Great. I have raised myself above all things that come into being. The Face is revealed to the Eye of the Only One, and the round
I

of darkness
I

is

broken through.
from
like

I

am one

of you.

know

the Powers of Heliopolis.
it

One
one
1

(i) issue

Doth not the All-powerful one who extendeth a hand to us?

It is
is

with reference to
!

me

that the gods say

:

Lo, the afflicted

heir of Heliopolis

know on what occasion

the Lock of the

Male

child (2)

was

made.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Ra
him.

191

was speaking with Amhauf,

(3)

and a blindness came upon

Ra said to Amhauf: Take the spear, oh offspring of Men. (4) And Amhauf said The spear is taken. Two brethren came into being they were Heb-ra and Sotem: :

whose arm resteth not and he assumed the form of a female with a lock, which became the Lock in Heliopolis. Active and powerful is the heir of the temple the Active one
anes,
; ;

of Heliopolis.

The

flesh of his flesh (5) is the All-seer, for

he hath

the might divine as the Son
his will
I
is

that of the

whom the Father hath Mghty one of Heliopolis.
;

begotten.

And

know

the Powers of Heliopolis

they are Ra,

Shu and Tefnut.

Notes.

The
lost.

ancient text of this chapter has most unfortunately been

A

few words only remain in the fragments of Papyrus
is

P)7i.

M.

Naville has also published what

found on an ostracon of the

There is no doubt that the form of the text which has been handed down in the later papyri has suffered great alterations. And a comparison between the Turin and Cadet papyri shows in how untrustworthy a way this later form of the text has been transmitted. Special attention has been given to this chapter by Mr. Goodwin (Zeitschr., 1873, p. 104), and by M. Lefebure {Melanges d'Arch., 1874, p. 155), whose work is very much more valuable than that of But the most important study bearing on his English colleague. relations between the older and the more recent recension is the
time of the
dynasty.
that of

XVHIth

M.

Naville,

'

Un

ostrakon egyptien,' in the

first

volume of

the Antiaks du
I.

Musee Gurnet.

All powerful One,
for

^^^ ^
-^
;
,

c^.

M. Naville observes
is

that this

is

substituted

^^

which

found on the ostrakon.

Both terms are divine names the latter corresponding to the Greek TToXvcepKi'if or Trai'c.c/)Ki]<^, was the title of the high priest of Heliopolis, who, like his priestly colleagues all over Egypt, bore the titles of the

god whom they represented.
-2.

T^e Lock of

the

Male

child,

Q

vj

v

^

Yh

''^'^^

^^

.

is

not

a 'curly

wigged woman/ as generally interpreted, but the side lock
2 C 2

192

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

borne by Horus, and princes and princesses, as well as by other
priests
3.

and

priestesses, in

honour of Horus.
{?ifra

Amhanf.

See emendation proposed
I

at chapter

125,

note zi.
4.

O

offspring.

follow the Papyrus

Luyne

in

omitting the

preposition «crr>.
5.

The

flesh of his fleshy

or the heir of his heir.

This may

perhaps be an assertion as to the hereditary succession of the high
priest of Heliopolis.

CHAPTER

CXVI.

Chapter ivherehy one knoweth the Power of Hermopolis.

Neith dawneth forth in Mat'at, and Maat

is

conve3'ed upon the
it

Arm
I

of the Eater of the

Eye by him who reckoneth
therefore led in through the
I

out.
priest.

know
it

it,

and

I

am

Sem

I tell I

not to men,

repeat

it

not to the gods (and conversely).

enter as one

Hail, ye

Neith, that

who knoweth not, and seeth not. Know ye me as gods who are in Hermopolis. made firm and permanent. the Eye may be
is

I I

know
take

delight in reckoning out that which
I

reckoned.

know

the Powers of Hermopolis

who

are great at the beginning

of the month, and diminished at the fifteenth day.

They
If

are

Thoth the Unseen, Sau and Tmu.

this chapter be hioivn, filth is avoided^

and lye

is

not drunken.

Note.
This
places.
is

the last of the chapters concerning the Powers of certain
their positive antiquity there

Of

can be no doubt, whatever

alterations

they

may have undergone.

But

they are relatively

e.g., Mr. Goodwin compare them with Christian legends of the mediaeval used to These are ancient enough as far as we ourselves are period. concerned, but no one would think of judging by them of primitive

modern

with respect to other chapters,

the 17th.

Christianity.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

I93

CHAPTER
The Beginning of
the

ex.

Chapters of the Garden of Hotepit, and of the
;

forth in the Nethenvorld,

entering and coming and of arriving at the Garden 0/ A arm, at the Rise (i) in Hotepit and at the Grand Domain, blest with the breezes : that I may take possession there and be in Glory there : that there I may plough and moia : that there J may eat and drink and love : doing whatsoever things are done

Chapters of coming forth by day

and of

up07i earth,

Horus is seized by Sutu the Garden of Hotepit.
But
for

:

who looketh
:

as

one turning

(2)

towards

me

Sutu releaseth Horus
is

and the double path which

is

nigh to Heaven

thrown open by Sutu.

And
his

Sutu taketh
day, (3)

his

portion of the breeze through the

Power of

own

and he

dehvereth the bowels of Horus from the gods below,

took

the great Bark on the Stream of the god Hotep. I mansion of Shu, The mansion of his stars is again and again renewed. (4) I sail

Lo,
it

I

sail

at the

upon its streams that I may come to the domains thereof. For I am in unison with his successive changes and his and his papyrus, (5) and his attendant gods, and his chieftains.
reconcileth the two Warrior gods with those

rules,

He

who have

the charge

of food and the beautiful creation Avhich he raiseth up; and he
reconcileth the two Warrior go:ls with each other. (6)

He

severelh the mourners from those
a stop to
:

who

quarrel with

them

:

he putteth
Powers.

them whose hand

is

violent against those weaker

than themselves

he keepeth within bounds the contentions of the

May
I

I

have possession there.
it,

know

and
is

I sail

upon

its

streams that

I

may come

to the

domains

thereof.

My
may

mouth
I

potent and secured against the Glorified that they

not have the mastery of me.

May
wiliest,

have the investiture of thy Garden,
there,

O

Hotep.
there,

What thou
and jjlough
fill

do thou it. Let me be glorified

and

eat

and drink

there,

and reap there, and grind (7) there, and have

my

of love

there.

194

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
be potent there,
let

May my mouth
of

me

there utter

my^ Words

Power and not be shghted.

Pcwpr of mine Avhich is the most potent one within this body of mine here and by means of it I make myself either known or unknown. I make my progress and I plough. I take my rest in the divine Domain. I knoAv the names of the domains, the districts ard the streams within the Garden of Hotep.
I

am

in possession of that

Word

of

:

I
I

am

there, I
I

am

master there,
;

I

am

in glory there, I eat there
I

;

plant

and

reap there

I

plough there, and
I sail

take

my

fill

of love.

I

am

united there with the god Hotep.

I cast

my

seed there, and
thereof,
is

upon

its

stream that

I

may come

to the

domains

O

Hotep.
points.

Lo,

my mouth

armed with sharp

me

the abundance which belongeth to the
I give the I sail

Ka

There is given to and to the Glorified.
it.

reckoning of Shu to him
its

who understandeth

upon

stream, and I

range within the Garden of Hotep,
is

for

Ra
I

is

in the sky,

and Hotep
I

putting together the oblations.

hasten to the land, and
forth,
;

fasten

my

stole upo)i

me, that

I

may

come
given

and

that that

may be

given to

me

which hath to be

that I

may have

joy

and take possession of the wealth which

Hotep assigneth to me. Rise in Hotep, I
provision
is

arrive in thee,

before the Mistress of the

my Two
;

soul

is

with me, and

my
fast

Earths,

who maketh
which
I

my Words
forgotten.

of Power, which recall to

mind

that

have
to

Let

me

live free

from

stiife

and be there granted

me

enlargement of heart. Let

my

arteries

be made

fast,

and

let

me

ha\e the enjoyment of
thee,

the Breeze. (8)
"Rise in
is

Hotep, blest with the Breeze,
:

I arrive

in

my head

uncovered

shineth

Ra sleepeth, but there wakelh for me, and there upon me Hesit [the Cow-goddess] (9) who lieth at the
Heaven by
night.

confines of

He
But
as
I

standeth in
I

my way who

heapeth against

me

his

own

dross.

am in my own domain. Great Domain, I arrive in thee and
pass on to Uach. (to)

I

reckon up the abundance

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I
field
;

195
the lord of the Bull's

am

the Bull, raised on high in the Blue
to

;

which Sothis describcth
I arrive in thee,

me

at her successive hours.

of

my

and I eat my cakes, and take possession and meat and fowl. The winged things of Shu are given to me, and my Kau follow

Uach,

joints of flesh

rre. (11)

T'efait, (12)

I arrive in thee, I
is

put on the stole and fasten upon

me

the girdle of Ra, whilst he

m

heaven, (13) and the gods

who

are in heaven are following Ra.

Rise
I salute
is

in

Hotep, Lord of the
The
(15)
great

Two

Earths,

I arrive in

thee

:

the stream of Teserit. (14)

Lo, here

am
.

I,

and
. .

all

impurity
net the

far

from me.
I

one flourisheth

I

ducks, and

eat dainties.
I arrive in

Kankanit,
attentively view
I

thee; that I

may

see

my

father

and
is

my

mother.
;

lake care to net the reptiles

and

that
is

which protecteth

me

that I

know

the

name

of that

god who

next to T'eserit (goddess

with flowing locks and armed with horns), and
I

who

reapeth.

myself plough and reap.

Hesit,
I It is

and I encounter the Blue. follow the Breezes, and the company of the gods.
I arrive in thee,

the Great goddess

who hath
is

given

me my

head, and he

who who doeth according
fasteneth

my head upon me
to his

the Great god, the Blue-eyed,

own

will.

is

Userit, (16) I arrive produced for me.

in thee, in face of the

mansion where food

Smiit,
heavens
:

(17) I arrive in thee.

My

provided with

the
I

White crown and
thcs: things to

and
the

make

is awake: my head is am conveyed over the prosper which are below me

heart
I

:

a joy to the Bull of the gods above, the divine company.

Lord of the gods and through the midst of the Emerald ones. (18)
I

am

Bull,

the

;

I

make my way

Isle of

Corn and Barley,
I

divine district,

I

arrive in thee.

I

encounter and

bear olT that which proceedeth from the head of

Ra

:

the pair of horns which have the force of purification. (19) I make myself fast to the Block of Moorage on the heavenly

stream,

and

I utter

my

praise to the gods

who

are in the Gard:;n of

Hotepit.

196

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

The

text

of this chapter handed
it

down by

the Turin papyrus
difificult for
it

and those which agree with
translator, but

contains nothing very

a

on being compared with the older copies

is

found

to consist of a collection of small fragments of the older text put

together without any regard to their original order or context. And about three-quarters of the old chapter are suppressed in the new
recension.

The

editors of the fine pipyrus of Sutimes in their notes

upon

remark, that in the Turin text the sentences are in quite a different order from that of their papyrus, " On peut y voir," they .say, " I'effet de lectures et de transcriptions en rebours du sens, par des scribes ayant mal compris les editions en colonncs retrogrades."

this chapter

This Sutimes
" Isle of

is,

curiously enough,

itself,

which

is

very fault of the papyrus of here wrong from beginning to end,* though
It

the

probably derived from an excellent original.
sentences.

begins with the

Corn and Barley," and jumbles together quite incoherent
oldest

copy of the chapter yet discovered is that of the Tomb of Cha-em-hait, at Thebes, and by a strange fatality it has been published in such a form that in order to read it correctly, we must begin with what is printed as line 11 and finish with line i. We have it also in a very incomplete condition. We miss the first
eighteen Hues contained in the papyrus of Nebseni and the words of every line.
last

The

The papyrus

of Nebseni
it

is
is

the only complete text

we

have,

and

here as well as elsewhere

extremely incorrect.

Some

parts are

so corrupt that a translation

must necessarily be dependent upon conjectural emendations which can have no genm'ne claim upon the reader's confidence. We must be content with waiting till
better authorities are discovered.

The Gardens of Hotepit and Aanu are the Paradise, Elysian Fields and Islands of the Blessed of the Egyptian imagination.!
They were supposed
rising Sun,
islets

to

be situated

in

the neighbourhood of the

but certain features were apparently suggested by the

of the Delta.

* See

Jif.

Naville's remarks, Einlcilung, p. 156
I, p.

t Mission Ai-ch.,

125.

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The
usual meaning of the word ffofepif,
c^

I97

III written according to the orthography of the Pyramid Texts,
oblations, offe/'ings.

^

u

,*

when
is

This, however,

is

only a derived meaning.
things
.0

The
as

word

really only

expresses

a predicate of the
.

offered,

.

putting together,
or Peace
;

unitifig, reconciling

Hotep might

signify Rest,

very appropriate names for such a garden.
of a god

^

is

the

name

who

dwells here.f
,

There
in the

is

also a goddess here

called Hotepit

cM

mentioned

Pyramid inscription of
:

Pepi
is

I (line

423), as

mother of the great Scarab

and the same name
of

given to Hathor in the temple of Dendera.

The name

Hotep

(with different determinatives J) belongs to one of the islands of this
blissful place.

The Pyramid Texts furnish some interesting information not contained in the Book of the Dead. We are told that the approach to
the Garden
that there
is
is

over the Lake of Putrata (see chapter 40, note
(?

i),

a great lake

that of Konsit) in the

middle of the

Garden of Hotepit, upon which the great gods
AcJimiu Sekiu, the starry deities

alight,
set,

and

that the

who never
¥"
-^

there feed
vita;
)

the

departed from the wood of life

I

lignum

"

upon

which they themselves live, in order that he too may live." Shu and Tefnut are mentioned as divinities of this place. But perhaps the most remarkable fact is that Horus had enemies even here, who,
however, were annihilated by the divine weapons at the disposal of
the departed worthy,

who was

led there in order that " he might

sit

among

the stars in heaven."

And
of steel,

here

was that the beatified personage sat upon his throne which was decorated in front with faces of the lion-god
it

\

^^

>r5K

^^'^^^^^i t^s f^et of

it

being the hoofs of the great

* Also written

^

(

Unas, 422 and elsewhere).
pKy

t The garden

is

also called \
I,

.Q }\

.

Another form

is

-=i
I

{Pepi O C
AA^AAA

309)-

Nebseni,

I

1

Sutimes,

\\

in all the later

pupyri.

2

D

198

LOOK OF THE DEAD.
hand
to the

Bull Snta-ura, and extended his

coming generation of

men

(the \

'^

^^^^

^^ Q

),

whilst the gods approached
offerings to him.
its

him

in

submissive attitude, and

made

It

was, perhaps,

from these

offerings that the

Garden derived
I

name.
^
'

The Garden

of Aarru,

Mil
Heaven.
[I

^ „^
it.

is

often

men-

tioned in connection with that of Hotepit, and

may perhaps be
through
its

considered as the most notable part of
that the

It

is

Gate

Sun-god

rises

up

into

It takes its

name from

a plant

*^^^

\\

^

aarrii (later,

^©,B.M.
1
17
vV]
;

551;

(

<6.

^T ",

^^^,

Chapter
dissimi-

* Ba, Chapter

no, by phonetic
is
[

lation of rr into nr).

The

usual form in later times

\\
B.M.
32,

"^, but we
m*"^

®

find even shorter forms in

MAUHl,
<z>l

©

and

JLJij

.

The

determinative

IM^

of a reptile, indicates

a creeping, climbing^

twbiing plant, such as the convolvulus, hop, or

vine.t

Mc^ ^ V
published by

1

(

>

I

I

I

\

MR ®
I,

w \ <=>
I

.

,

in the

papyrus of Nesichonsu,

M. Maspero, Miss. Arch.,

p. 612.

+ The Pyramid Texts have the invocations ( Unas, 597), " Hail to thee, Horus, in the domains of Horus ; Hail to thee, Sutu, in the domains of Sutu ;
Hail to thee, Lion
ylar), in the
is

Garden of Aarru."

Another derivation

suggested in the "Destruction of Mankind," line 39,
it)

"^
not

(as I read

an augmented form of

^\

<y>

>

«'',

which does
jiectere,

mean

pluck,

as

in Bnigsch's

translation, but bind, fasten, twine,

constringere, convolvere.

This sense would explain the ancient determinatives
still

\|jj,

Aillj

and lead

to

more

interesting results.

For the ancient word

(J

^\

<:i^> liWK

,

aarei'it, 'a vine,'

has thus clearly the same etymological
.

vi-tex,

'^Vi-niem sense as our European word vine. and exactly like the Greek Fo1-vo^

.

.

attaches itself to vi-tis, vt-?/ien,
the
'

—to

Indo-Greek root

vei,

'

to

twine.'

So

that

m- no means

first

'creeper,' then

fruit

of the creeper,' finally

drink
324).

made from

the fruit of the creeper'" (O. Schia.dei, Fre/iistoric Antiquities,

Philological speculation might

make

a further advance.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The term 'Garden'
a cultivated enclosure.

1

99

implies in this connection nothing

more than

which are invoked by the deceased and appear on the vignette of the chapter, have here been made prominent by means of heavy type.
of different localities
1.

The names

Rise in Hotepit, or (later on) Hotep,
of one of the localities.

¥\ ^^ _cr^
/vwwA

-^

d

,

is

the

name

The word
to light,

^^,

as I

III have often

said,

has the sense of rising up, coming
like the

making an appearance,

and

Greek

(fmlvo^uu

is

especially applicable to the appearance

of daybreak, or the rise of the heavenly bodies.
2.

Turning,

\

.

The group
is

has the

apparent sense of

building, but the primitive sense

turning, as in the
it

pottery.

The

preposition
is

<=>

which follows

in this

making of place seems

to

show
3.
it

that building

not meant.

This, of course, sounds like nonsense, but so does the original

as

has

come down
,

to us.

The papyrus
upon the

of Ani, which reads
sign

rn

^

forces the sense of day

Qj which

in the

sense of turn would have been far

more

intelligible.

There was the
being half

'Portion of Sutu,' and the

'Portion of Horus,' each

the world, topographically, or half the twenty-four hours as regards
time.
I suspect that
'

day

'

is

a faulty interpretation of the ambiguous
is

O, and

that the true sense of the passage

that Sutu

is

satisfied

with the share which

comes
is

to his turn,

and thereupon

delivers

Horus from imprisonment
ignorance of the copyists

in the

lower world.

The

perplexity, or

seen in the very next words.

One

has

As

I

\N.

aar,

is

to

^-^^

«;-,

so perhaps

is

1

v\

v\

Nil aarni to
1
1

vl

di-ii.

The

first

I

<rr>i

II

two groups are not f phonetically iden1

tical,

but they are certainly allied and have very

last has,

much the same meaning ; the with some probability, been identified with the Vi)te-branch, and that,
\U
r

in conjunction with the text

<%/(

ra

^^^^ Zeiischr., 1878, p. 107,

of them at

" The Vine-plant is Osiris." The Greeks, or some Dionysos Plutarch, de hide et Osiride, The god is sometimes (as in the papyrus of Nebseni) sitting in a naos 34> 35)under a vine, from which bunches of grapes are hanging.

and the plate corresponding).
least,

identified Osiris with

(

2

D

2

'

200
'

BOOK OF THE" DEAD.
is is

he who
he

in Merit,'

others
if

'

he who

is

in

my

mouth,' and two

'

who

in the egg,'

this be the sense of the very questionable

group - h
well

^\

^ J]

,

which looks hke a mistake

for -\[- 'C.

O

known

title

of Anubis.

Amin and amin
5.

renewed

(ino<r>c ^ mehit,

His papyrus.

So the word

which occurs in the

rubric of Chapter 134, has hitherto been translated.

But the vases

t^ or

^,

as determinatives, rather imply 'inkstand' or 'palette for

holding colour.'

In

this place

it

is

the writing itself and not the

which is meant. And from the entire context Thoth is the god who is spoken of. Warrior gods with each other., reconcileth the two 6. He
material, paper, ink or inkstand,

Q^
invicem.
7.

Ym-i-\^
I

'^^^
.
I I I

The
. .

final

words en aru-sen show the origin of the Coptic form
the Coptic from of which

It

.

epHOT
From

Grind

\
'

^cn:::^

,

is

CIKI.

the notion of
I

reducing to powder,' that of
is

the frequent word

'^z:^
8.

-^^^ 'wearing away,' 'decay,'

derived.
the enjoyment of

Let

my

arteries be

made fast, and let me have
enjoyment.

the Breeze, or that

I may have

The

oldest

meaning of the
earlier I,atin

word

artery, uprrjpia, in Hippocrates, Aristotle
is

and the
arteries,

writers

wind-pipe, and, in the plural, air-duds.

But, even

when
were
the

the word was also applied to what

we

call

these

supposed

to

convey air whilst the veins conveyed

blood.

" Sanguis
is

per venas in

omne

corpus diffunditur et spiritus per arterias "

classic doctrine in Cicero {de

Natura Deorum,
:

2,

55).

Pliny says

{Nat. Hist., XI, 89), "arteriae carent sensu
error
is

nam

et sanguine."

This

corrected by Galen,
is

who has a
from the

treatise

on the question
found

"

Whether Blood

naturally {Kcnacfivaiv) contained in the arteries?"
arteries always being

The

error of the ancients arose

The blood flowing from a wound inflicted empty after death. inferred to have been intruded into them by the upon them was
rupture of the veins.

The Egyptian
^i.ItJULOTX)

doctrine of the
in the

'

arteries

^^^^
which

^
air is

(Coptic

head, by means of

conveyed

to all parts of the person,

was

first

found by

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

20I

M. Chabas in the Berlin Medical papyrus. The passage of the Book of the Dead on which this note is written is no doubt the
earhest allusion to the doctrine.
9.

Hesit [the Cozv-goddess]
is

|

jj

^, |
Isis or

^ ^, |
She
is
is

j

(

l^'
and

^
it

one of the many names of

Hathor.

repre-

sented as suckling her son Horus (see picture in Lanzone,
is

p.

844),

this

her name.

which characterizes her and from which she derives She is asked on the Louvre tablet (c. 14) for "the
This
distinctly called

white liquor which the glorified ones love."

'milk' on the Florentine tablet 2567, and vases of her milk are mentioned (Diimichen, Resultate, 27, 6) in the inscriptions of

Dendera.

A

picture

of

her

given

in

Diimichen's Historische

Inschriften (II, 32) identifies her with Hathor,

and calls her "divine and sovereign of the gods," while others call her " the divine mother and fair nurse." There can be no doubt about the right reading of the name
mother, mistress of heaven

which
306,

is

Hesit ; the
21,
i,

——
h

is

written in so

many

texts (see Pepi,
P

I,

Amamu,

Lepsius, Auswahl, IX,

and the form

'cn

^t

Philae), that there

o{ hetemit.

We

confounding the name with that must therefore attach no importance to this latter
is

no reason

for

name when

applied in the vignette of the Turin Todtcfilnuh to one of the divine abodes which bears the name of the goddess, and is
written exactly like
10.
it.

Uach Sp\

^^.®'\

blooming, flowering.

II.

— The

loijiged things

of Shu are given

to

me,

and my Kau

follow me.

V
deceased.

'T?

'

V

^-^

'

^^

^

word of very

rare occurrence.

Birch and Naville understood

it

of the netting,

and Brugsch, of the

pluming of birds. Both meanings may be disputed, but whatever Shu did, was done to birds, and these are said to be given to the

The

prayer that a person
[

may
j
»

travel over the blissful parts,
>

followed by his kau
the
early

^

H^^

is

repeatedly found on
that

f

monuments. Several papyri say followed by 'the gods and the hau.'

the deceased

is

202
12.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Tefait h-T^ J|, an abode abounding in

^°^ ^^\
I

I

delicacies.

13.

He

is

in heaven

ATi

The reading J_J

to

which

Brugsch
to

at one time attached much importance, has turned out be one of the many blunders of the text of Sutimes. But the
is

true reading

not without
[

its

difficulties.

If

/v7)

is

taken

as equivalent to
in

v\

we have

a strange anticipation of a charge
" texts

language of which the " enigmatical
first

of the royal tombs*
in the

give the

intimation, but which

first

becomes conspicuous
-Jj
[^
1

demotic period.

In a previous passage we have

C ^\ ATi

D^^ITD^
preposition

i

where Nebseni has ^^^

^^
[
I

.

But the important
earlier

^^\

had already dropped out of the
particle
is],'
'

text in

of

Chaemhait.
places
14.

The demonstrative
'

which occurs

both

may be rendered

there [he

le voila.'

/
'

salute the streavi of Teserit

:

a corrupt passage like so

many
'

others in this
is

chapter.

The

first

word

salute

rare but correct

and well

attested.
It

The proper name
has, however,

D

j\

is

but one of the contradictory readings.

the

advantage of being a real name and suitable to the passage, being
that of a goddess

mentioned
is

in

connection with the next abode.
to the classical 'A^/Xaia

„^^

ci

^V T'eserit

a

name corresponding

or Clara. t

In the texts of the Royal
Lh

Tombs

she
is

is

named

as

goddess in
* Here

U^-l Cher-aba.

And
I,

herej she

depicted as the

we

already have /Vf)

^^

\\\

and

^
+
It

O
is

=

V=\

III

U

111

- -

O
name

See

my

article in the Zeiischr., 1874, p. 102.

also the

of a liquid substance

^^ZT

U
in the

=0=) \
It

_~7^
all

>

a produce of the cow, such as cream or clarified butter.
lists

occurs in

the

of offerings.

J

A

reference to

M.

Naville's collation of this chapter (line 40), will

show

the corruption and uncertainty of the text which precedes the name of the If we look beyond the authorities given by jM. Naville, the difficulties goddess.
are multiplied.

The papyrus
^

of

Queen Net'emit
?C~^ <::z>

Louvre, for instance,

instead of

[
J

^''^•>

reads,

BOOK OF THE
goddess with long or flowing locks
horns.

DExVD.

203

(evTrXoKafio^) and armed with She is one of the forms of Isis or Hathor. 15. Kankanit\% etymologically akin to the verb of beating {see Chapter 17, note 20), but there is no reason from the notice here to

suppose that
16.
Isis,

this
~\

was a place of punishment.
<:zr> M^
is

Userit

one of the commonest appellatives of

especially in the later texts.

The names

of

all

these abodes,
are derived

situated in that region of the sky

where the sun
see
,

rises,

from the notion of daybreak.
17.
1 8.

Smait, another of these appellatives,

Chapter 62, note
those

i.

The Einerald ones
light of the

^N^
The sun

\\

^

who

are in the

emerald

dawn.

rises

(Chapter 109) through

two sycomores of emerald.
19.

Which have

the force oj purification

{\i

v!^

I

The

syllable db expresses the

word

signifying horn as well as that signify-

ing purification.

The

vignettes of the chapter

which are here given from

different

authorities are explained in their proper place.

CHAPTER
Chapter luhereby one taketh the
paths which are high above

CXVII.
blissful path at Restau. (i)

me

at

Restau

:

I

am the

Girdled (2)

and the Mighty one, coming
1

forth triumphantly. (3)

am come

:

I

am come

that I

may

firmly secure

my

suit in

(4) and that the path may be open to me at Restau. Let my suit be made pleasant for me by Osiris. I am he who produceth the water which balanceth his throne, and who maketh his way from the Great Valley. (5) Let the path be made for me for behold I am iV the trium-

Abydos,

;

phant. (6)
[Osiris
is

made triumphant

over his adversaries, and the Osiris
is

N

is

made triumphant over his adversaries, and
:

as

one of you,

he walketh even as ye walk, his patron (7) is the Lord of Eternity he standelh as ye stand, he speaketh as ye speak, before the great
god, the Lord of Amenta.]

204

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.

This chapter and the following have reference to Restau, one of the Gates between the Netherworld and Heaven. It is not mentioned in the most ancient recension of chapter i 7
I.

(from which

my

translation was taken), but in
it

all

the papyri of the

eighteenth and later dynasties

is

stated that Restau was a gate

south of An-aaref and north of the
Osiris."

"Domain
it,

''

-

)

of

The papyrus

of Ani has this picture of

ff^«;il^

but the most interesting representations of it are in the Dublin papyrus {D. a), where the Sun god is seen passing between the

and in the papyrus of Hunefer (A. g), where the (See doors are also open and the god is sitting between them. Plates VI, II and VII b.)
folding doors,

The name Restau
is

(the feminine form

—(p— ^
These

more frequent

in later texts) signifies

Gate of ihe passages.

are the passages guarded by the faithful attendants of Osiris, but

armed with "hurtful fingers" against the adversaries of Ra, against whose onslaught the deceased prays Ra for protection in chapter 17.

A
2.

mystical interpretation will be found in chapter 119 and note.
Girdled, or staled,

^^
66,

.

On

the importance attached

to this ritual investiture, the following references

may (among many

others) be useful:

Unas

Teta 149, Pepi\, 395, Merejiia 190,

.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Todt.

205

The deceased prays (Chapter 82, 4) 125 (rubric), 145, 25. A passage in Todt. 78, 26 girt by the goddess Tait. that he may be
(Turin text) would be of greater interest were
of those
3.
it

not an emendation

who no longer understood the ancient text. Coming forth triumphantly. This is the reading
(Nebseni),

of the oldest

authority

but the

reading which
is

has

prevailed,

not

only here, but in Chapter 147,

"coming

forth

from the Crown,"

4.

That

I may

firmly secure

my

suit at Abydos,

The

scholion

on Chapter 17, referred to in note i, states that the "place of Maat It is, of course, the mystical, not the geograpical, is at Abydos."

Abydos which
settled
5.
is

is

meant, and the suit

1

{res)

which has

to

be

the final judgment of the deceased.

The

throne of Osiris in pictures
rests

of the

Psychostasia

{see

Vignettes to Chapter 125)
springs a lotus flower
;

upon

water, out of

which there

and upon

this flower stand the four children
is

of Horus.

In a passage of chapter 147, which
(I

an adaptation of the
.M.

present chapter, the deceased says
Zrt,

^

p.

V\

^
[

'-^'^^

"I am he whose stream
193)
after

is

secret."

And

a Pyramid

Text

{Merenra,' 188,

mention of the Great Valley
I/w-La)

and of the

investiture

proceeds,

/vwv^^

-^
S

^w

^

—-*5

"thy water, thy

fresh current,

is

a great inundation proceeding from thee."
identified with the Nile and
its

Here the deceased

is

inundation, as in Chapter 64 of the

Book
6.

of the Dead.

The

chapter ends here.
is

The passage which
a word supposed by

follows in the

translation
7

taken from the Paris papyrus Fe.
Q

Patron, /wvw>
It

^.

I

^

,

some

scholars

to signify uncle.

occurs on funereal

monuments among

the desig-

nations of persons connected with the deceased, such as brother,
sister,

nurse.

A man may

have several bearing the designation, and
{see e.g.,

they are not necessarily children of the same parents
Cat. d^ Abydos, p. 110,
all

Mariette,

where a man has
I

five chenemesu,

who cannot
occurs
it

be brothers either of

his father or his mother).

The word

repeatedly in the Prisse papyrus.
the legal guardian of a minor.

am

inclined to think

means

2

E

206

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER
am he who
is

CXVIII.

Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau.
I
is

born

in Restau.

Glory
in Pu, at

given to

me by

those

who

are in their

mummied

forms
at

the sanctuary of Osiris, whom the guards (i) receive Restau when they conduct Osiris through the demesnes of Osiris.

Note.
(i)

Guards,

(1

^^

^:z:::^

V>

~^

I

aaku, the same personages as
2,

those mentioned in Chapter 28, note

and they seem

to

me

to

be identical with the "wardens of the passages," Chapter 17, "attendant upon Osiris." There is an imperfect tablet of the 1 2th dynasty
at

Hamamat

{Denkm.,

II,

138, c)
soldiers

in

which

thirty

[

'cz;

are
to

mentioned along with the
the expedition.

and other persons belonging
the word
[

The Pyramid Texts have

but
I,

apparently with a determinative of salutation,
cf.

^

.

{Pepi

160,

line 82.)

CHAPTER
am
the Mighty one,
to thee, Osiris,

CXIX.

Chapter lohereby one entereth or goeth forth from Restau.
I
I

who
and

createth his
I

own

light.

come
thy

worship thee.
(2)

Pure are thine

effluxes, (i)

which flow from thee,
it

and which

make

name

in Restau,

when

hath passed there.

Hail to thee, Osiris, in thy power and thy might,
possession of Restau.
Osiris raiseth thee

who

hast

up in thy power and in thy might. Osiris raiseth thee up in thy power in Restau, and in thy might in Abydos, that thou mayest go round heaven with Ra, and survey the human
race.*

One
*

art

thou and triumphant.

The
(_

W

liSfc=, Rechit,

mankind

actually^ living, as distinguished

from the dead or yet unborn.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Notes.
1.

207

Pure are
fX3
,

thine effluxes.

The

true reading

is

/

^"¥2 ^AAAAA ,^;> *\ -wwva v\ I

AAAAAA

a phrase which recurs in these texts.

The
first

suffix

Vo^ of

A/VSA/V\

III
I I I

^

person, which is sometimes added to the give the sense " thine effluxes are my purification."

the

first

word, would
the meaning

On

"""^

of

V:>fl3, see 65 B,

note

4.

At the end of Chapter 149
let

the deceased prays, "let

me
thee.

be joined,
;

me

be united with the

sap which proceedeth from Osiris
2.

let

me

not be parted from him."
,

Which flow from

1

n \\
is

sta,

which has here

the same meaning as
into the

when
f
I

the Nile

said {Denktn., Ill, 13) to flow
n

Great Sea,
is

n

<ir>

^^5

1)

"^^^SSS^

.

The name

of

I

I

Restau

here derived from the effiuxes flozai?tg (stau) from Osiris.
I

The various meanings of
are
all

r-.

—<&— and of the Coptic ceT,
,

traceable to the notion of sending forth, thro7ving,

and are
for the

easily illustrated

from the Greek.
sea
;

Thus

eK/3dX\etu
'

is

used

discharge of a river into the

eV/3o\a« are
bolts, /toxXoi''?

passes, passages.'

Doors are secured by pushing the
O.XQ

o^QntdLhy shooting back the
58).
I

n c^
bolt,
I

— ——
(p

eTn^uWeiv
{M-TuxieiiQ,

;

they

"
'

ri

Abydos,

p.

pj"^
ll

is

exactly the reverse of tvift/iWetv

acjypa^ftcoc..

PD

^
,

O

)

^ Q
<=^
,

'

^OT,

stercus

is

an

UfioX^], dejectio.

And
C^.T-,

C^-i"

,

COTTe,

/Se'Xo?,

/3ox;?,

n

^

M

,

saninare,

and ever so many others are

all

determinations of one and

the

same concept.
In such passages as

n

o -(0- ''^'^ s,*_^
Trof.nri],
'

I

,

the like,

i-/a

has the sense not of totving, but of
It

solemn
e.g.,

procession.''

occurs even where towing

is

out of question,

in

the

march of

military

men

I

(Tombs

of

Amenemheb
289).
'

and Pehsukher, Miss. Arch. Francaise, V,

pp. 229

and

And
ing
'

\~^
our

string, rope

is

connected with the notion of throwpitt-tw).

like

own warp

with werfen (Goth, vairp-ati) and

2 E 2

208
Chapter Chapter
Chapter

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CXX
CXXI

is

a repetition of Chapter XII. a repetition of Chapter XIII. a repetition of Chapter LVIII.

is

CXXII

is

CHAPTER
Chapter (i) ivhereby
Hail to thee,
I
ofie

CXXIII.

entereth into the Great House.

O Tmu,

I

am

Thoth.
I

have equally balanced the Divine Pair,

have put a stop to

their strife, I
I I

have ended their complaints. have rescued the Atu from his backward course. have done what thou hast prescribed for him.
that thou mayest see

And I rest since then within my own Eye. and I come I am free from obstruction
;

me

in the

house where

I

repeat the ancient ordinances and words,

as a guidance wherewith thou shalt guide posterity. (2)

Notes.
I.

This chapter (which
of

is

repeated in Chapter 139)

is

like the

repetition

an important

passage in Chapter

no.

But

the

differences are very considerable,

and it is for criticism to decide the question of priority between the two recensions. Whichever be the earlier recension, the present one is of very great It is found on two of the most carefully interest and importance. But the most interesting written papyri of the eighteenth dynasty.
is

^feature

the mythological allusion at this date (at latest) to an

astronomical phenomenon, with reference to which later researches

may furnish fresh evidence. The speaker in this chapter is said (not merely implied, Chapter no, see note 5) to be Thoth, who is the measurer
things in heaven
science.

as in

of

all all

and
here

earth,

and the author and regulator of
to

He
))

is

said

have established

the

equilibriu7n
;

\\

~r^ between
Night.

the Divine Pair,

Horus and Sutu

that

is

Day and

Such an equilibrium,

strictly

speaking, never exists

except at the Equinoxes.

But the most important passage
from his backward course."

is,

" I have rescued the

Atu

The

^

^^Pi^j

Atu

is

a mytho-

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
logical
yfi-//,

209

of Ra.
in

who is represented as following The meaning of the name is, the
.

the course of the Bark
Cleaver, Divider, Cutter

two

It is

one of the appellatives of the Sun-god,

with reference to his path through the sky.

But what

is

that solar
its

phenomenon

specially deserving to
?

be characterised by

motion

backwards c^ ^^^
I

do not think any astronomer would
is

hesitate to answer, that

Precession

meant.

The cause

of Precession could only be
is

known

to really scientific philosophers (which
case),

out of question in this

but the phenomena would necessarily be noted by those

who had important interests in keeping their calendar correct.* Even the Chinese, by dint of records and without any mathematics, came to infer the precession of the equinoxes so did the Egyptians apparently at a very much earlier period and Hipparchus, who has the credit of the discovery, may have learnt it from them.
; ;

Although

's^Pca^

is

commonly represented
I

as

a Jish,

the

same name

is

I—(— given to a Crustacean c^ii
for

XI5C
cissj

whose organs of

locomotion are specially adapted
" Rescuing the Atu from
less
its

backward motion. backward course " can mean nothing
(in technical

than being able to correct or

language) to equate

the phenomena.
It might perhaps be suggested that the backward course here spoken of has reference to the year of 360 days, corrected at an early period by the addition of the five supplementary days. This would certainly have been a very probable explanation of the clause,

but for the direct connection which this has with what precedes,
concerning the equilibrium between

Day and Night;
literally,

that

is,

the

Equinox.
2.

Posterity,

<^r> \\

^"^^^^^
seems
to

'

minores.

The word

in the present context
* "

have a different meaning from

The amount
it

of this motion by which the equinox travels backward, or
called), is

retrogrades (as

is

fer

annum an

extremely minute quantity, but

which, by

its

continual accumulation from year to year, at last
in a

palpable, and that
destroying, in

catalogues of

makes itself very way highly inconvenient to practical astronomers, by the lapse of a moderate number of years, the arrangement of their Herschul. stars, and making it necessary to reconstruct them."

Astronomy,

chapt;;r 4.

;

2IO
what
it

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
has
in

Chapter

no, where

it

is

put

in

contrast

with

violent ones, against
J3

whom Thoth

interposes

nis protection.

CHAPTER CXXIV.
Chapter whereby one cometh
to the

Divine Circle of

Osiris.

My soul buildeth for me a Hall (i) in Tattu and I flourish in Pu. My fields are ploughed by those who belong to me therefore is
:

my palm
I eat
it

tree like

Amsu.
I eat

Abominations, abominations,
not.

them

not.

I

abominate

filth,

[Peace offerings are
I

my
is

food, by which I

am

not upset]

approach
;

it

not with

my hands

;

I

tread not

upon

it

with

my

sandals

for

my

bread

of the white corn

and my beer of the red

corn of the Nile.
It is

the Sektit boat, or
I

it

is

the Atit boat, which bringeth
foliage of the

them

to

me, and
I

feed

know how

Tamarisk. (2) beautiful are the arms which announce Glory for
lifted

upon them under the

me

(3)

O

and the white crown which is thou Gate-keeper of him who

up by the divine

Uraei.

pacifieth the world, let

that

be

brought to

me
and

of which oblations are made, and grant that the floors

may be
his

a support for me,
that

and

that the glorious

god may open
silent

to

me
the

arms,

the

company

of

gods be

whilst

Hammemit

(4)

converse with me.
guidest the hearts of the gods, protect
in

O
me

thou

who

me and

let

have power

heaven among the

starrj-

ones.

And
to the

every divinity

forerunners

who of Ra

presenteth himself to me, be he reckoned
:

be he reckoned to the forerunners of

Light and to the Bright ones
ones.

who deck

the sky

amid the Mighty

Let

me

have

my

will there

of the Bread and Beer with the gods

that I enter through the Sun-disk
Pair, that the

and come
in

forth through the Divine

gods who follow may speak

to

me, and that Darkness

and Night may be terrified before me him "Who is in his Sanctuary."

Mehit-urit,

by the side of

PLATE XXXII.

BOOK OF

T

HE DEAD.

Chapter CXXV. Papyrus, Musee du Louvre,

Cl
III, 36-

lAPTER
is

CXXV.
III, 89.

Papyri

du Louvre,

'_

llllll.l|.U.IIi.l|.|i.llill.llnlllllIT;

Chai'tkr
Papyrus,

CXXV.
III, 93.

Musee du Louvre,

Chapter CXXV. Papyrus, Musee di Louvre,
i

Chapter CXXV.
III, 36.

Papyrus, Ani.

ClIAl-lKR

CXXV.
III, 9.

Chapter CXXIV.

Pap

jrrus,

Musee du

Chapter CXXV.
Papyrus, Paris, Sketch by Mr. Renouf

Papyrus du Louvre,

Louvre, Cab. des iMedaille

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
And
among
I

211
is

lo

I

am

here with Osiris.
I

My

measure

his

measure

(5)

the mighty ones.

speak to him the words of

men and
to

repeat to

him the words of gods. There cometh a glorified one, equipped, who bringeth Maat

those
I

who

love her.

am

the Glorified one and the Equipped.

And

better equipped

am

I

than any of the Glorified.

Notes.
1.

^.//^,
'

^, ^Yn'
first

^'^

2^
I,

/..«/.

the .,oV«o,,

irpoSofio's,

Vorsaal,'

room of a temple
to
it

or palace.

The
is

sense of
entirely

harim which has been ascribed
erroneous.
p.

in certain

texts

The temple
fol.,

inscriptions (see Brugsch, Zeiischr.,
6) leave

1875,

118,

and

and Mariette, Denderah,

no doubt on
it

the subject.

If there were " ladies of the royal

antechamber,"

by no means follows that they were wives or concubines of the king, and hall or antechamber convey a very different idea from that of the most reserved portion of the house.* Pictures and inscriptions on mummy cases identify the term mythologically with that portion of the sky whence the first rays of
the rising sun are visible.

The mention
is

of the word in the Pyramid Texts
])

{FeJ>i, I,

672)

in

connection with the notion of food,

^\.
effect as in

2.

We

have here a repetition of passages to the same

Chapters 53 (A and B) and others. 344) have a section nearly identical.
3.

The Pyramid Texts The
,

{Tela,

The arjns which announce Glory for me.
this

clue to the
is

meaning of

passage

is

to

be found

in

which

a relative

form implying an antecedent, which can only be "the arms."
*

The

V\

I

mentioned

in the tablet of Pa-shere-en-Ptah are not

concubines, as Brugsch and others have thought, but female children, as Birch It is the feminine Cf. my Hihbert Lectures, p. 79, note. rightly asserted.

form of

® d"^
is

^.
^
AAA-AAA
,

There

also another word,

applied on the walls of tombs to

persons {male as well as female) executing certain g)'mnastic movements.

212

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
are to be explained by

The arms which announce Glory for me
or attitudes in the

the usages of the ancient ritual, which prescribed certain postures

ceremony of
pla)

.<2>part.

I

''1>^

,

as in other forms

wherein the arms
it

ed a great

These

religious

ceremonies
repre-

must always be jemembered, were considered as dramatic sentations of what was done in the invisible world.
4.

The Hammemit,
'

^

^^ ^ ^
'

'
i

°^

^Q

"^ ^Z ^
human

^J
5.

'

nH

"^ S^^v'V ^ ^
v\

'

^^^ generations of

beings yet unborn.

My measure is his measure.

The meaning of

L,

^^^/^^"^
form
Harris

or
L^

^Q

can only be inferred from the
in

^^

^J\ "FV which occurs repeatedly

the

great

Papyrus and some other documents.

The
tion.

scribe of the Turin Todtenbuch carelessly omitted the

second
sense

part of the phrase,

and therefore altered the grammatical construcPierret

This

is

how M.
is

came

to

conjecture

the

'proclaim,'

which

not suggested by any of the ancient authorities,

or even

by the

later ones.

The

reading of the Leyden Papyrus

T, 16

is

identical with that of the oldest papyrus.

CHAPTER CXXV.
Part
I.

Said on arriving at the Hall of Righteousness, that
loosed from
all

N may be
may

the sins which he hath committed and that he

look upon the divine countenances.

He
I

saiih

:

Hail to thee, mighty god, lord of Righteousness
to thee,

!

am come

oh

my Lord
I

:

I

have brought myself that

I

know thee, and I know the name of the Forty-two gods who make their appearance with thee in the Hall of Righteousness devouring those who harbour mischief, and swallowing their blood, upon the Day of the searching examination

may

look upon thy glory.

;

(1) in

presence of Unneferu.

PLATE XXXV.

BOOK O

THE DEAD.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.
i.

Chapter CXXV.

Papyrus, Leyden Museum, No.

Chapter CXXV.

Lf.psius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Ill, BI. 78.

Chaiter XVII.
Papyrus, Musee du Louvre.

No. 3091.

PLATE

XXXIII.

BOOK

)F

THE DEAD.

Chaptrr CXXV.

Papyrus

Brit.

Mus.

,

No.

9,901,

and Papyrus Leyden, No.

II,

(^

BOOK OV THE DEAD.
Verily,

213
of

'Thou of
I
;

the Pair of Eyes, (2)

Lord

Righteousness'

is

thy name.

Here am
I
I
X.

I

am come

to thee; I bring to thee Right

and have

put a stop to Wrong.

I I I
I

am am am am am

not a doer of wrong to men.

not one
not

who one who

slayeth his kindred. (3)
telleth hes instead of truth. (4)

not conscious of treason. not a doer of mischief.

do not exact as the firstfruits of each day more work than should be done for me. (5) My name cometh not to the Bark of the god who is at the Helm.

^

I
I

I I
I

am am am am

not a transgressor against the god. not a tale-bearer.
not a detractor.

not a doer of that which the gods abhor.

hurt no servant with his master.

I I
"^

cause no famine.

cause not weeping.

I

am

not a murderer.

I give
I

not orders for murder.

cause not suffering to men.

I
I

reduce not the offerings in the temples.
lessen not the cakes of the gods.

I

rob not the dead of their funereal food.

X

I I
I

am am am am

not an adulterer.
undefiled in the Sanctuary of the god of

my

domain.

neither increase nor diminish the measures of grain.

shorteneth the palm's length. (6) cutteth short the field's measure. (7) not I I put not pressure upon the beam (8) of the balance.
I

not one

who one who

I I

tamper not with the tongue of the balance. snatch not the milk from the mouth of infants.
not the cattle from their pastures.

I drive

I net not the birds of the

manors of the gods.
ponds. (10) appointed time.
in its course.
its

(9)

I catch not the fish of their
I stop

not the water at

its

I divide not

an arm of the water

I extinguish not the I

lamp during

appointed time.
their sacrificial joints.

do not defraud the Divine Circle of

2

F

214
I drive not
I

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
away the cattle of the sacred stop not a god when he cometh forth.
pure, I
is

estate.

I

am

am

pure, I

am

pure, I

am

pure.
in

My
the

purity

that of the Great

Bennu

Sutenhunen,
all

for I
;

am
;

Nose of the Lord day when the Eye is full in Annu, on the last day of Mechir in presence of the Lord of this land. And I am one who see the fulness of the Eye in Annu, let no harm come to me in this land, in the Hall of Righteousness because I know the names of those gods who make their appearance in it.
of Air,
giveth hfe to

who

mortals

on the

;

Part
1.

II.

Oh
;

thou of long

strides,

who makest

thine appearance in

Annu
2.

I

am
;

not a doer of wrong.

Oh

thou
I

who

holdest the

fire,

and makest thine appearance

in

Cher-aba
3.

am

not a

man

of violence.

Oh thou of the Nose, (11) who makest thine appearance at Chemunnu I am not evil minded. 4. Oh Eater of the Shadow, (12) who makest thine appearance I am not rapacious. at Elephantine 5. Oh thou Facing-backward god, who makest thine appearance at Re-Stau ^l am not a slayer of men.
; ;

6.

Oh
;

Heaven
7.

thou of Lion form, (13) who makest thine appearance in I am not fraudulent in measures of grain. thou whose eyes [pierce] like swords,
;

Oh
Oh

who makest
;

thine

appearance in Sechem
8.

thou of

fiery

commit no fraud. face, whose motion is backwards
I

I

am

not

a robber of sacred property.
9.

Oh
;

Breaker of bones,

who makest

thine appearance in Suten-

hunen
in

in

in

am not a teller of lies. 10. Oh thou who orderest the flame, who makest thine appearance Memphis I am not a robber of food. 11. Oh thou of the Two Caverns, who makest thine appearance Amenta I am not sluggish. (14) 12. Oh thou of the Bright Teeth, (15) who makest thine appearance I am not a transgressor. the Unseen Land 13. Oh Eater of Blood, who makest thine appearance at the
I
; ;

;

Block

;

I

have not slaughtered the sacred animals.

PLATE XXXVI.

BOOK OF TH
Chapter

:

DEAD.

CXXV

(Notes).

Fig. 17.

Lkpsius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Ill,

Bl. 39.

Fig. 18.

Lepsius, " Denlcmiiler," Abth. Ill,

Bl. 39.

6

Fig. 19.

Mariette, "Deii
PI.

el

Bahari,"

Fig. 20.

Rosellini,

"M.C,"

PI. LI.

Fig. 21.

Rosellini,
PI.

Fig. 22.

Rosellini,

"M.C,"

PI

LII.

VIII.

"

M.C,

LII.

I

PLATE XXXIV.

EOOK OF THE DEAD.

Tsas?

TTTrTTTr rr
-

i-

rYr 'TTTTTrr
r

I I

_l

L_l_

I

r

czzse:
IC J

i

r

]c

I

1

Fig. II.

Chapter CXXV.

Sarcophagus of Sebek-aa, Berlin Museum.

•N[!!ii!illllll^'

Fig. 12.

Chapter CXXV.

Lepsius, "Denkmaler," Abth.

Ill, Bl.

232

Fig. 13.

Chapter CXXV.

LEP.SIUS, " Denkmaler," Abth. Ill, Bl. 232.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
14.
I

215

Oh

Eater of Livers,

who makest

thine appearance at Mabit;

deal not fraudulently.
15.

Oh Lord

of Righteousness,
;

who makest

thine appearance in

the place of Righteousness
16.

I

am

not a land-grabber.

in

Oh thou who turnest backwards, who makest thine appearance Bubastis I am not an eaves-dropper. 17. Oh Aati, (16) who makest thine appearance at Annu I am
;

j

not one of prating tongue.

who makest thine appearance in myself (18) only with my own affairs. 19. Oh Uammetu, who makest thine appearance
18.

Oh Tutu,

(17)

Ati

;

I

trouble

at the

Block

;

1

commit not adultery with
20.

another's wife.

Oh Oh

Maa-antu-f,

who makest

thine appearance in Pa-Amsu,

I

am

not unchaste with any one.

above Princes, and who makest thine appearance in Amu (19) I do not cause terrors. 22. Oh Chemiu, (20) who makest thine appearance in Kauu I
21.
art
;

thou who

;

am

not a transgressor.
23.

Oh
Oh
Oh

thou
;

who
I

raisest thy voice, (21)

and makest thine ap-

pearance
24.

in Urit

am

not hot of speech.

divine Babe,

who makest

thy appearance in

Annu

;

I

lend not a deaf ear to the words of Righteousness.
25.

high-voiced one,

who makest

thy appearance in Unsit;

I

am

not boisterous in behaviour.

thine appearance at the Shetait; I not the cause of weeping to any.
26.
Basit,

Oh

who makest

am

27.

Oh Oh

thou whose face
at thy

is

behind thee, and who makest thine
not given to unnatural
lust.

appearance
28.

cavern

;

I

am

thou, hot of foot, (22)

who makest

thy appearance at

even

;

I indulge not in anger.

29.

Oh Kenemtu, who
Oh Oh Oh
thou

makest thine appearance

in

Kenemit

;

I

am

not given to cursing.
30.

who
;

earnest thine
I

own

offering,

and makest thine

appearance in Syut
31.

am

not of aggressive hand.
faces,

thou who hast different
;

and makest thine appearI

ance

in Net'efit

32.

not one of inconstant mind. (23) Busy one, who makest thine appearance at Utenit
I

am

;

do

not steal the skins of the sacred animals. (24) 33. Oh thoQ Horned one, who makest thine appearance at Sais I am not noisy (25) in my speech.
2

F 2

2l6
34.

BOOK OF THE DEAD,
Oh
Nefertmu, who makest thine appearance
in

Memphis;
;

I

am

neither a har nor a doer of mischief.
35.

Oh Oh

Tem-sepu, who makest thine appearance in Tattu
curseth the king.
will,

I

am

not one
36.

who

thou who doest according to thine own

and makest
its

thine appearance in
flow.

Tebua

;

I

put no check upon the water in
thine appearance in

37.

Oh

Striker, (26)

who makest

Heaven

;

I

am

not one of loud voice.
38.

Oh

thou

who makest
;

mortals to flourish, and

who makest

thine appearance at Sais
39.
at

I

curse not a god.

Oh

thou of beautiful shoulder, who makest thine appearance
;

.... (27) I am not swollen with pride. 40. Oh Neheb-kau, who makest thy appearance

at thy

cavern

;

I

have no unjust preferences. (28) 41. Oh thou of raised head, (29) who makest thine appearance
;

at thy cavern

I

have no strong desire except

for

my own

property.

42.

Oh
my

thou
in

appearance

an arm, (30) and who makest thine the Netherworld, I do not that which offendeth the

who

liftest

god of

domain.

Part
[Said

III.

upon approaching

to the

gods who are

in the Tuat. (31)]

Hail ye gods,

I

know you and
:

I

know your names

;

let

me

not

be stricken down by your blows report not the evil which is in me Let not reverse (32) of mine come to to the god whom ye follow.
pass through you.

Let not

evil things
I

be said against
let

me
in

in presence of the Inviolate

One
I

;

because
revile

have done the right
:

Tamerit.

not the god

not reverse of mine

come

to pass

through the King

who resideth within His own Day. (33) Hail ye gods who are in the Hall of Righteousness, who have nothing wrong about you who subsist upon Righteousness in Annu, and who sate themselves with cares, (34) in presence of the god who resideth within his own Orb deliver me from Babai who feedeth upon the livers of princes on the Day of the Great Reckoning.
;
:

PLATE XXXVII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter CXXV.

Tombeau de

Seti

I^"'

(Ann. du Musee Guimet, Vol. IX).

BOOK OF THE DLAD.
Behold
against me.
I subsist

217

me
:

:

harmless one

am come to you, void of wrong, without fraud, a let me not be declared guilty let not the issue be
I
;
:

upon Righteousness

I sate myself with uprightness of

heart

:

I

have done that which

man

prescribeth and that which

pleaseth the gods.
I

have propitiated the god with that which he loveth.
thirsty, clothes to

I

have

given bread to the hungry, water to the
a boat to the shipwrecked.
funeral
offerings
:

the naked,

I

have made oblations to the gods and
:

to

the

departed

deliver

me

therefore

:

protect

me
god.

therefore

and report not against me
is

in presence of the great

I

am one whose mouth
there
is

pure,

and whose hands are pure,
in peace,"

to

whom
For

said "

Come, come

by

those svho look

upon him.
I

have listened to the words which were spoken by the Ass

and the Cat

And

I

house of Hept-ro. (35) have undergone the inspection of the god Whose face
in the

is

behind him, who awardeth

my

verdict (36), so that I

may behold

what the Persea tree covereth (37) in Restau. I am one who glorifieth the gods and who knoweth the things

which concern them.
I

am come and am
and

awaiting that inquisition be

made

of Right-

fulness

that the Balance be set

upon

its

stand within the bower

of amaranth. (38)

thou

who

art exalted
:

upon thy pedestal and who

callest thy

name. Lord of Air

deliver

me

from those messengers of thine

who

inflict disasters (39)

and bring about mishaps.

No

covering

have they upon their

faces.

For
1

have done the Righteousness of a Lord of Righteousness. have made myself pure my front parts are washed, my back
I
:

parts are pure,
ness.
I

and

my

inwards steeped in the

Tank

of Righteous-

There
purify

is

not a limb in
in the

me which

is

void of Righteousness.
I rest

me

Southern Tank, and

me

at the

northern

lake, in the

Garden of Grasshoppers. (40) The Boatmen of Ra purify them there at this hour of the night or day (^i) and the hearts of the gods are appeased (42) when I pass through it by night or by day. Let him come (43) that is what they say to me. Who, pray, art thou ? that is what they say to me.
:

:

2l8
What,
pray,
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
thy

what they say to me. " He who groweth under the Grass (44) and who dwelleth the OHve tree " is my name. Pass on, then that is what they say to me.
that
is
:

name?

in

I pass

on

to a place north of the

OUve.

What,

prithee, didst thou see there ?

A

thigh (45)

and a

leg.
?

And
That

what, prithee, said they to thee
I shall see (46) the

greetings in the lands there of the

Fenchu What,

prithee, did they give to thee ?
fire

A
I

flame of

and a

pillar

of crystal.

And

them ? buried them on the bank of the Lake of Maait
what, prithee, didst thou to
prithee, didst thou find there

as Provision of

the Evening.

What,
Maait
?

on the bank of the Lake of
'

A

sceptre of

flint

:

*

Giver of Breath

is its

name.

And what
I cried

didst thou to the flame of fire

and

to the pillar of

crystal after thou hadst buried them ?

out after

the

and I Thou mayest now enter through Righteousness, for thou knowest us.
fire,

them and drew them forth and broke the pillar, and I made a Tank.
:

I

extinguished

the

door of the

hall

of

I allow thee

not to pass by me, saith the Leaf (47) of the Door,

unless thou

tell

my name

:

"
I

The

Pointer of Truth

"

(48)

is

thy name.

allow thee not to pass by me, saith the right side post (49) of
tell

the Door, unless thou

my

name.

"The
name.
I

Scale-pan

(50)

of one

who

lifteth

up Right"

is

thy

allow thee not to pass by me, saith the
tell

left

side post of the

Door, unless thou
"
I

my name
Wine
" is

:

The

Scale-pan of

thy name.

allow thee not to pass over me, saith the Threshold of the
tell

Door, unless thou
"
I

my name

:

Ox

of Seb

" is

thy name.
thee, saith the

open not to
:

Lock of

the Door, unless thou

tell

mv name

:

:

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Bone of An-maut-ef
I
is

219

thy name.

open not

to thee, saiih the Latch, unless thou tell

my name

of Sebak, Lord of Bachau," is thy name. open not to thee, and I allow thee not to pass by me, saith the Keeper of the Door, unless thou tell my name "The Knee of Shu, which he hath lent for the support of Osiris," is thy name.
I
:

"The Eye

We

allow thee not to pass by us, say the Lintels of the Door,
tell

unless thou

our names

:

"The dragon brood (51) of Renenut" is Thou knowest us pass therefore by us.
:

your name.

I allow thee not to pass over

me,

saith the Floor of the Hall, for

the reason that I the

am

noiseless
feet,

names of thy two
"

and because we know not wherewith thou wouldst walk upon us.
clean,

and

Tell me, then, their names.

He who

goeth before

Amsu "
:

is

the
is

and "The Truncheon of Hathor" (52)

the

name of my right name of my left
us.

foot
foot.

Thou mayest walk

over us

for

thou knowest

I

do not announce
:

thee, saith the Doorkeeper, unless thou tell

my name " He who knoweth
thy name.

the heart

and exploreth the person

"

(53)

is

Then I will announce thee. But who is that god who abideth in his own hour ? Name He who provideth for (54) the Two Worlds). Who, pray, is it ? It is Thoth. Come hither, saith Thoth, wherefore hast thou come?

him.

am come, and wait to be announced. And what manner of man, prithee, art thou ?
I

I

have cleansed myself from
;

all

the sins and faults of those

who

abide in their

own day for I am no longer among them. Then I shall announce thee. But who is he whose roof is of fire, and whose walls
and the
floor of

are living

Uraei,

whose house

is

of running water?

Who

is il ?

It is Osiris.

Proceed then

:

for behold,

thou art announced.

220

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
is

Thy bread
Eye
(55).

from the Eye, thy beer

is

from the Eye, and the
forth to thee

funeral meals offered

upon earth

will

come

from the
in
;

So

is it

decreed for me.
said by the person, ivhe?i ptirified
7vhite

This chapter

is

and clad
beer

raiment ; shod with

sandals

;

anoifited

from

vases of dnta

and

presenting oblations of beeves, birds,

inceiise,

bread,

and

vegetables.

A?id thou shall make a
extracted from a field
ifi

picture,

drawn upon a
trod.

clean brick of clay,

which no swine hath
he will rise

And if
and

this chapter be written jipon it
:

— the man will prosper
the shesit cake, the

and

his children will prosper his court
:

ifi

the affection of the ki?ig

there will be given to

him

measure
table

of drink, the persen cake
the great

and

the
ftoi

meat

offeri?ig

god ; and he shall

be cut off at

but he shall be conveyed alons, with the

of any gate of Amenta, Kirigs of North and South,
:

upon the altar

and make

his appearance as a foUoiver of Osiris

undeviatingly aiid

for times infinite.

CHAPTER CXXV.
Notes.
For the significance of this most important chapter with reference to the religion and ethics of ancient Egypt I must refer to the Introduction. The notes in this place must be confined to the text and
its

elucidation.

No

copy of the chapter
consists.

is

known

of

more ancient date than the
is

eighteenth dynasty, but the oldest papyri contain the three parts of

which the chapter

That the chapter
is

of

much

earlier

date than the eighteenth dynasty
the corruptions which had
earliest copies

quite certain from the nature of
their
us.

made which have come down to
already

appearance

in the

But the three parts
part seems

are not necessarily of the
to

same
first

antiquity.

The second

have grown out of the
called, of certain sins.

mention
it is

of the " Forty-two " gods

are

named and

a sin

is

and to have been suggested by the and the " negative confession," as It is a tabulated form in which the gods mentioned in connection with each god.

PLATE XXXVIII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter CXXV. (Note
2.)

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900.

Mummy

Case, Leyden

Museum.

PLATE XXXIX.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter CXXV. (Note
2.)

Papyrus, Leyden Museum.

Lepsius, Todtenbuch.

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9964.

Mummy Case,

Leyden Museum.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The number of sins in this form is number than in Part I. The two catalogues agree to a
disagree,

221

therefore forty-two; a higher

certain

extent, but

they also

and the second

is

evidently the result of a different process
first.

of thought than that which gave birth to the
Part
I is

The

author of

not the author of Part

II,

unless perhaps at a different

and

later period.

Nor

is

there any indication in Part I of the extrais

ordinary examination to which the deceased person
Part III.

subjected in

This in

itself

would not be a serious objection, but the
if

matter becomes more complicated

we remember
upon
it

that the picture

of the Psychostasia has the right to be considered as a part of the
chapter.

The

texts

which

are

written

differ,

indeed,

according to the taste
canonical authority.

of the

artist,

and can therefore claim no
to the order of succession
is

But the question as

in the trials, or the precise
finally freed

moment
all

at

which the deceased person
fate,

from

all

anxiety as to his

cannot be

satisfactorily

solved on the supposition that
consistent whole.
really
It

these documents form parts of a
to consider
in

seems much more natural

them

as

independent compositions brought together
of Hunefer
is

consequence of

their subject matter.

papyri

The artists of the Ramseside period (in the and Ani) add another scene * in which the

deceased

judged not by the forty-two assessors of Osiris but by a smaller company of gods (twelve or fourteen), sitting on thrones and

bearing the names of well

known

divinities.
trial

The
is

essential notion

was that of a

before Osiris, in which the
in the Balance.

man's conduct or conscience was weighed
referred to in various chapters of the

This

trial

Book

of the

Dead and

in

other texts which prove that, with reference to the details, free scope

was allowed

to the

imagination of the scribes or

artists.

The number

of the Forty-two assessors might be thought con-

nected with that of the

Nomes

of Egypt.

But

this

number
is

is

only

certain for the later periods of Egyptian history,
earlier times.

and

not true for

Moreover the localities in which the gods are said to make their appearances do not correspond to the nomes, or places within them. Some of the localities occur more than once, and some of them, if not all, are localities not upon earth. Heaven occurs twice, the eleventh god makes his appearance at Amenta and
* Apparently sugj^ested

by the scene

in
III.

the

tomb

of

Hor-em-heb
lig.

(see

Dcnkm.,

Ill, 78), in the time of

Amenophis

(Plate

XXXIl,

15.)

2

G

222

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

But the names which have a more earthly sound may have a mystical meaning. The first god makes his appearance in Annu, so does the seventeenth and so does But does this mean Heliopolis of Egypt? On the twenty-fourth.
the forty-second in the Netherworld.
referring
pi.

to

46,

it

an important text in Mariette's Moiiufnenis Divers, will be seen that Annu is the Eastern Solar Aioiintain
the

T

n

'

'^^'here

Sun

rises^

and where he

is

saluted by the Powers

of the East.

There cannot be a more striking illustration of "the Divine Babe who maketh his appearance in Annu " (the twenty\.\\e

fourth Assessor), than

picture

I refer to.*

And Chemunnu,

ZZq

%^ ©,

is

surely not the

Hermopolis of
1

Egypt, but the place of the Eight gods

1

1

D

^
who

A

,

four to the

Left and four to the Right of the rising sun,

hail his

coming

and help him
(that
is,

to rise;

where Shu, according

to the ]\ISS. of the 17th

Chapter, raises up the Sky, and where

" the children of Failure,"
It is
r

shades of darkness) are exterminated.

not simply of

Hermopolis nor yet of Lake Moeris that one may say
"'^'^^^
1 1

D v\

rjj fi)

'

T"

^ ¥i^

'^^

^^

^^^ place of the Eight deities

where

Ra

riseth {Zeitschr., 1872, p. 8).

The same

considerations

apply to

such names as

those

of

Sutenhunen and Tattu.

The

presence of the divine "Babe," of the god "of long strides"

god " of Lion form," of the goddess Bast, of Nefertmu, of the " Striker " {Ahi, a. name of Horus), and of Nehebkau,
(Ra), of the

not to mention
sufficient to

others,

among
that,

the Assessors, would of

itself

be

convince us

in spite of the strange

and

terrific

names of some of these personages, they are not to be looked upon as fiends, like Malacoda, Scarmiglione, and the rest of the demon crew in the Inferno of Dante. They are not evil spirits, but gods, all of them, "subsisting on righteousness;" there is "nothing wrong
*

The

picture of the
itself.

speaks for
of the

first

Babe lifted up into the upper world by two divinities Of the birth of the Sun as the Winged Scarab at the beginning hour of the day, M. Maspero, in his dercription of the text, says
: '

"II est salue a ton apparition par les huit .... les esptits d'Orient, dieux du ciel, des terres, des pays etrangtrs, de la montagne d'horizon orientale qui est On.'"

:

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
about them."*
according to

223
Osiris,

They
names
Justice

are the gods

who accompany
his

and,

Egyptian theology,
of
is

are

Names,

his

Limbs, his
it is

Body.

If the
strict

because

some of them appear harsh inexorable, and Mercy is a
is

or cruel,

quality never

thought of in Egyptian theology.

The
it

exact notion

of Maat in Egyptian texts

discussed in

another part of the present work.

In

this

chapter

I

have translated

is about moral conduct Rule of Right towards one's fellow self and the heavenly powers is what is meant by Righteousness. And here it is opposed to moral transgression or sin, not to physical evil, which itself is a very frequent result from

Righteousness, because the question here
to the strict

and conformity men, one's own

the operation of the inexorable Maat.

But

in
is

the expression, "Hall of

Righteousness," the word in
:

Egyptian

used in the dual number

hence the erroneous or

inadequate translations, "the

Two

Truths," or

"Double

Justice,"

and the guesses which have been made

as to their meaning.
is

A

very important determinative of the Egyptian word

found

not only in the papyri but in the very earliest mention yet
of the Hall.
calls
it

known
Kab,
indi-

The
CTZD

great inscription of the
-^^^

tomb

of Peher at El

the

o

.

The

repetition of the sign
is

all©
and many
others.

©

cates a locality in which the Sun-god
, ,

present, as in the cases of

Space

is

divided into two

one on the Southern and one on the Northern side of the god as he proceeds on his course. And when we have for departs
;

terminatives two Urgei

TL JL

,

or two ostrich

Feathers

j

f)

,

we
god

* This

is

the principle by which to judge the c^ses of the Facing-backward

S
"^T

m^
k\
§>

^
oil
I

serpentine, or crocodile

^
^y-

^

§5^-

'

^"^ °f Uammeta

i\
Hades' (Bonomi, Sarc,
infeiior

,

against both of

whom

a passage of the

'

Book
is

of of

pi.

authority to

the

H A) has been quoted. The book, of 'Book of the Dead,' but in any case
appellatives, are coinvion
in question),

course,
it

must be

nouns {Uammelu is in and may simply mean Serpents. Sutu is called by th- first of tht-se names at Edfu {Zeitschr., 1871, p. 108). But even at Dendera (Lanzone, Diz., pi. 173, l) this 'god of serpent fact-' is 'disastrous to the Sebau,' the enemies of Osiris and Ra, and is therefore not one

remembered that these names, as the //«ra/ number in the passage

.

of them.

His soul

is

invoked

like those of all the great go.'s in the royal

tombs.

2

G

2

224

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
to the Left

have to understand two goddesses Maat, one
to the Right side of Osiris.

and one

to

These goddesses are Isis and Nephthys, who play very conspicuous parts in a symbolism discussed in note 2 of the present
chapter.

would be well if evidence could be brought with equal facility to bear upon all the difiticulties with which the chapter abounds. But though a very lively interest was attracted to it ever since
It

ChampoUion quoted

extracts from

it

in his

Grammar, the
treatment.

difficulties

with which he did not attempt to cope have only increased with our

knowledge of the language and
extremely doubtful in
not the same in
all

its scientific

The

text

is

many important
same gods.

parts, the forty-two sins are

the manuscripts, and they are not assigned to

the jurisdiction of the

So important a papyrus
is

as that

of Sutimes omits some sins of which an Egyptian would certainly be

expected to give an account.

The same word

made

to appear

with different meanings in the same passage of the papyri
are

when they

compared together. And there are not a few important words of which the meaning was first only guessed at by the first translators, but has been retained without sufficient warrant by their successors. The present translation is presented under the full consciousness of all its imperfections, and of the difficulties which have yet to be overcome before a version can be called satisfactory.

A
the

very admirable contribution
part of the chapter

towards our acquaintance with
as far

first

was made

back as 1866 by Dr.

Pleyte in his Etudes Egyptologiques.

Since then other versions have

appeared by

MM.

Deveria, Lefebure and Pierret.
first

The Demotic text of the chapter, now more recently, with a complete
in itself

published by Brugsch, and

translation,
it is,

by M. Revillout,

is

most

interesting, but written, as

in the

days of imperial

Rome, cannot always be appealed
of the ancient text.

to as to

an authoritative exposition

I.

The

Day
has

of searching exaviinaiion or reckoning.
to

The word
in

1.^^

be compared with the Coptic
^rjreiv, ^jryjcn^.

KtJO'f"
is

the

sense of search, enquiry,
\

This sense
the

derived from
of

a

circle

(

I

M

^

[]^

sail

round) and
it

notion
all sides.

going

completely round a thing and approaching

from

,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
2.

225

Thou

riiterally heX

of the Pair of Eyes of Osiris
is

vm:\
clear

Pn Pn

•*

This

title

made

by the 37th

chapter, which Goddesses,
fying

begins with

an invocation to the Sister Pair of

Mcrta

"T^ | ,^

^^

Two

Eyes, and the divine Sister pair being Isis and Nephthys.
e.g., PI.

^ ^^
^^

^.

^^-^- ^ign-

In vignettes of the chapter (see,
figs.

14 and 16 for instances) the two

XXXIII and XXXIV, goddesses appear in human

form with their brother Osiris within the naos where the judgment
is

delivered.

It is

not so easy to recognise them under the form
in

^^"^^
or in the

which they have
picture which
is

the vignette of Pd. (see
in

PL XXXI),
those of
the

found

many

papyri

{e.g.,

Nebseni, Hunefer, Ani and the Turin
cornice or top row of the decoration

Todtenbuch), wherein

surmounting the forty-two
PI.

judges has for central figure a

man

(Osiris) either supporting the

Two
fig.

Eyes or extending

his

hands above them (see

XXXIV,

14).

We

have here a symbolism of such extreme importance as to

justify a short excursus

on the

subject.

The Two Eyes ^^^^ ^^^ on the most funereal monuments Apaanchu, Antuf, Taka {Denkjii.,
;

^^

^ most

frequent symbol on

all

ancient coffins, such as those of
II,

98,

146,

147),

{Aelteste Texte, pi. 9

and

25), Sebak-aa (Gio. d'Athanasi,

Mentuhotep pl. 3) and

Amamu,
and

on mummy cases generally, and on funereal tablets. Between the Eyes on many tablets we frequently find the sign
as

Q

this is often

followed by the sign of Water "^Z^ or the Vase

^
the

and very frequently by both.
by each Eye, and not
facing

Very often we have two signs

Q, one
or

less frequently a pair of jackals, fiJ^sv

^^

each other.
is

No

two tablets

are

exactly

alike,

but

meaning

always the same.

Nor is the meaning changed when the tablet is headed by the Winged Disk ^Qj or,:^^ even though the Eyes are not seen.
*

The ''^
number

is

not to be

re.id

fi or fy.

The

sign

W

is

merely the ideogram

of the

2, like

the letter
is

^

in Coptic.

The

belief in

an Egyptian dual

With \\ as a final syllable

an

illusion,

though a very pardonable one, of our

grammarians.

226
Their place
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
supplied by two Uraei, sometimes crowned with the
insignia of Southern

n

and the >/,

and Northern sovereignty.
the

On
sign

a fine tablet of the twelfth dynasty {Denkm.^ 11, 136Z'),
is

Q

attached to each Uraeus, and

this

device

is

repeated on

innumerable monuments.

According to another device the Two Eyes are represented within the Winged Disk (seee.^., Leemans, J/(?«., Ill, M., PI. XVI).

But Osiris is a god many names," as the Pyramid Texts show no less than the Book of the De:id, where in the seventeenth chapter he is identified with Tmu, Ra, the Bennu, Amsu and Horus, not to mention others,
is

"

He

of the Pair of Eyes "

always Osiris.

" of

and where in the Scholia the Two Feathers, the Two Uraei, the Two Eyes and the Two Kites* are identified with the Sister pair Isis and Nephthys. And wherever these symbols occur in pairs Isis and
Nephthys are meant, one
for the
left

for the right or northern side

and the other

or southern.
'

The same
'

idea

is

conveyed under such forms
Dr. Birch long ago
as representing Osiris
TT,

^^

Wm ^^
1

^''

h^M^

^"^ many

others.

{Ziitschr.,

iStj, p. 33) mentioned

A

^

n

between

his

two

sisters.

Osiris

is

often represented as a living

with eyes.

The
fjfj^f^
,

royal crowns

and

their decorations,
in this

such as

[1|,

///,

)i\,

and

[m

,

abound

symbolism.
pi. 29), in

The

ancient coffin of Sebakaa at Berlin {Ae/fesfe Texfe,
[1
!>

the phrase

r

^ ^^ rji
latest

»

recognizes Isis as one of the
the
Sisters

Two

Eves.
<cr::>

Down
^
fl

to
,

the

periods

were known as
fl '^

^=4r^

Eye ofthe Southern or Left side (Isis), and <c=> r^

f,

Eye of the Northern or Right side (Nephthys). On countless coffins and sarcophagi these goddesses are represented on opposite sides,
in

kneeling attitude, holding the

Q

in their hands, like the equi-

valent Vultures of the North and South, with their claws, and the
Ursei
*

on

their bodies.
See

Or

Vultures.

M. Gayet's Teviple de Luxor,

PI.

xliii,

fig.

ihe Bird at each end of the picture holds nacles (a very frequent picture)
either side of the solar scarab.

Q

127,

where

in

its

claw.

And

note the taber[)

where a winged goddess bearing the

kneels on

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The meaning
is

22/
It
is

of the sign

Q

is

well

known.

a

7-ing,

and

applied to the circuit of the heavens
It
is

made by

the sun and other

heavenly bodies.
the Nile.
It

also applied to the yearly recurring flow of

has numerically the signification of 10,000,000 or an

indefinitely large
it

number. As attached^

{,

to the sign of years

4

,

3

means
It
is

Eternity.
therefore an
\
,

appropriate

emblem
the

of Osiris, the Lord of

Years, "^3

annosus,

A

\

XI

King of Eternity.
,

The
Osiris,

sign of

Water ^^C^, and the Vase ^7 AA/VV/VS
is

are a^so

emblems

of

Water of Rcneiiuil. A chapter of the Pyramid Texts, Teta, 176, Pepi I, 518, which begins by saying that Seb has given to the departed (identified with Osiris) the Two Eyes
one of whose names
tliat

of

Great One* and has done that through Horus who recognizes
:

his father, proceeds after this to say

"

He

renews thee

in thy

name

of T^X^
I

/^,/vs

\

v\ Water
say
is

of Renewal."

cannot

if

the
it

Vase \j

is

a mere

appendage

to

the

Water, but
,

if it

not

most probably was meant to contain the

the divine
in

and

life-giving

Sap flowing from
I,

Osiris,

which

is

mentioned

another Pyramid Text (Pepi

33), also

speaking of

the Water of Renewal, as a

name

of Osiris.
as

The goddesses
thrown out
in

Isis

and

Nephthys

mythological

figures

represent not merely the Light at
right

Dawn and

Sunset, but the Light

and

left

by the Sun

in his entire course,

whether

the

heavens or in
^-^
,

the

Netherworld.

n
his

1

"he

lightens

up the earth with
is

two eyes," an

expression most frequent in the texts,

not confined to special

moments, though
In
all

it is

said of these emphatically.
far,

that

has been said thus

the

Two Eyes

have been

considered as acting conjointly and discharging one and the same
function.
in different

When

they are distinguished one from the other as acting
is

ways the symbolism

altered.

The ancient scholion on the 17th Chapter speaks of the Right Eye of Ra, and the more recent scholion of the papyri speaks of the
said in other words (Teta, 172 Pepi I, 130 Pepi II, 107, and " Seb hath brought to thy side thy two sisters, Isis and Nephthys. Merenra, 152), *

Or

as

it

is

;

;

.

228
Eye

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
as being in pain

and weeping

for its sister

II

^—
is

^'^

.

The
fre-

"

Egj'ptian

name

for the
'

Eye

is

here

^

|

^^,

;^
n St ^^^^^

ut'ait.

The

quent expression

"^^ means

full moon, and
.

constantly
is

identified with the filteenth

day of the month

The moon
is

in these texts called the Ze/if

Eye

y ^^

,

and

Osiris

said to unite
f

with her (or with her

sister) in
is

order to renew her revolution
'

Q
^
full

I

J

And

of the

Eye

it

said

that
,

she renews her revolution on the
(Osiris)

fifteenth

day

'FN

^^^^ and the god

makes her

of

her glory or splendour

(ITT M)

or what she requires, ""^W^

'

=
is

cr^> Jo \°°/
But what
this

*

'^^

explains die symbol

^^ III ^^ which
last

seen on certain tablets.
chapter — "when
/
ir

is

the meaning of the passage at the end of Part I of
the

Eye
,
I

is

full

in

Annu, on the
is

day of

Mechir"
the
as
title

<:rz>

G

I

G

an expression which ^
is

repeated in ^

of Chapter 140?

The moon, which

always represented

on the fifteenth of the month, cannot be full on the thirtieth. Now we know what is meant It must be the other Eye, the Sun. by the Full Moon, the Plenilunium, but what is the Full Sun ?
full

M. de Rouge,
key to
this,

of the sixth

commentary on the 17th Chapter, gave the by pointing out that the 30th Mechir was the last day month of the year that is the i8oth day after the first
in his
;

of Thoth, which
It is

is

supposed to coincide with the

Summer

Solstice.

therefore at the time of the Winter Solstice that the
full.

Eye

is

said to be

The

inaccuracy, of course, arises from the length

of the Eg}'ptian year. of the Winter Solstice
is

But there can be no doubt that the time
meant.

In the year 1470 B.C. the Egj-ptian year began on July 20, and the 30th Mechir coincided with January 15 of the Julian calendar.
If the

Winter

Solstice,

Eye (considered as the Sun) is said to be full at the it was most probably spoken of in the same way

not only at the

Summer

Solstice, but also at

the two Equinoxes.

And

this

is

the most probable reason

why

in

the pictures repre-

senting the Four

Rudders of Heaven (North, South, East and West)

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
an Eye

229
(See
Vignettes
of

'^^

is

attached to

each

rudder.

Chapter 148.)

The Two
only to

Eyes, considered as Sun and
Osiris,

Moon,

are attributed not

Ra and
is

but to gods identified with these.

Of
"

the

two

passages

which have been
|]

most

frequently
left
is

quoted,

Thy

Right Eye

the Sun

-^ Jj
Sun and

and thy
his left

the

Moon (3,"
first is

" His Right

Eye

is

the

is

the Moon," the
1.

addressed to Ptah
as

(in the

Pap. Berlin, VII,
Stele,
is

42),

and the second,

which occurs on the Neapolitan

really

addressed to Osiris

god of Suten-hunen, under the form of the Ram-headed deity Her-s'efit. Reference is made towards the end of the inscription to " divine Eyes which are in Suten-hunen." the Horus according to the Pyramid Texts has two eyes, a Light one and a Dark one. But the " Eye of Horus " is most frequently spoken of in the singular number. It is certainly meant for the Sun, and the name of it is given to cakes and ale, wine, corn, oil, honey, and all the good things which come to maturity through the beneficent god: who has in himself all the attributes of 'Ceres and
Bacchus.'
I

must bring
is

this

long note to an end with one or two observations.
will

Many
There

goddesses

be found bearing the

title

of

Eye

of Ra.

not one of these

who

is

not identified with Isis or Nephthys,

who

and personify the Light of the Sun. Shu and Tefnut, who are brother and sister, play the same parts
are in fact one,

as the two goddesses.

There is a picture, which appears in the vignette of Chapter 17 in most of the papyri of the second and later periods, of two wa/e deities bearing the Eyes over their heads (see PI. XXXV). If the beards upon their chins are not a mistake,* copied from one papyrus upon another, they must represent not Isis and Nephthys
but the two

Rehu

'^^^^

|

^^

r^ ^^ ^"^ Thoth, Sun and Moon,

instead of the
It is

'^ i ^ ^
j^
is

important to note that

or

Ra

or Ptah, the deity

Eyes of Osiris not to be confounded with them they
if

Sun and Moon

are

:

are but manifestations of himself.
*

A

very conceivable, because a very frequent, one.

2

H

2jO
Kindred, *!" [[

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
<::i

3.

^

JJi

.

The
i,

sign of plurality does

not

here,

any more than

in

Chapter

necessarily imply
is

more than one

one to which men are easily tempted in certain stages of society. Abimelech, in the book of Judges (ix, 5), "slew his brethren, the sons of Jerubbaal." Jephthah Absalom had his had to " flee from the face of his brethren."
person.

The crime

in question

and all the king's sons fled in fear of Solomon put to death his elder brother sharing the same fate. Athaliah, the queen mother, "destroyed all the seed Adonijah. The annals of eastern* and even westernf nations " of Judah. royal
brother
assasinated,
are full of such occurrences.

Amnon

But, in positions less exalted than

that of claimants to royalty, ambition or covetousness are motives to crimes like that of the

wicked uncle of the Babes
'

in the

Wood.'

\

The

reading ^F"

\\

c^

^^,

which has

for determinative the sign

"'^

of smallness, seems to indicate that the victims of the crime are

minors, perhaps wards.

Some

of the papyri (even that of Nebseni) have a

calf,
'

5^,
is

as determinative of the word,

and

as the

'

slaying of calves
|

not

necessarily a crime, other scribes have

added

'^^~s^

,

'sacred,'

and

thus

made the sin one of sacrilege. The same word, like the Greek
in

/noaxo^
all

and the Latin pullus^
but the

might be applied to the young of
Egyptian scribes have

kinds of animals;

such cases a propensity to use a deter-

minative which forces a wrong sense upon the word.
4.

Instead of truth,

\\

\

^^

\

.

There are two

ways according to which

this expression

may be
r

translated, but only
is

one of them can be the
*

right one.

^
'

a

compound

pre-

" His sons were kept

in prison,

till

they grew

Of years
t

to

fill

a bowstring or a throne."

To

quote only well

known

cases,

we have
III.

the massacre of the princes,'

involving the two unc'es and seven cousins of the
those of our
:J:

Emperor Constantius, and

own King John and Richard
Solon
is

The

le^isiaiion of

said by
to

contradicted by no orious evidence)

Diogenes Laertius (who is however have excluded from the position of

guardian anyone who had the right of succession to the ward's estate. And this was also the law of Enj^land with reference to guardians in socage. In France
the next in s icce-sion had the charge of the estate, but was excluded from the

custody of the person of the ward.

^

1

LOOK OF THE DEAD.
position, instead
of,

23
Z'^j^a^

in loco, anstatf,

au

lieu de,

.

And

this is

evidently the right construction.
preposition governing

If V\\

be taken as the simple

r

^^
lies

ci

[3

,

the

meaning

will

be that the

deceased did not "

tell

in the cetnetery."

The Pyramid Texts

(Unas, 394) have the expression
" Right instead of Wrong."
5.

|\

n

'^
[]

'''^g-

{sic),

This

is

only an approximate version of a passage, the true
lost at
it

text of
p.

which was

an early period.
:

M. Maspero
qu'il faisait

{Origines,

189) understands

as follows

" Je n'ai jamais impose

a I'homme libre quelconque, en plus de celui

du travail pour lui-

meme

!

"

The
to

last

words are the translation of

^

yV^AAAA ^j^—

according

Td.

(tomb of Ramses IV)
^for me.'

all

the

other ancient

texts having

\A

,

But the chief

difficulties

occur at the

beginning of the sentence.
6.

Shorten the palm's length,

®

1

r

n

Vv 3Sr
more

.

INfany in place

papyri read

-^ ^q
I

,

which

is

a superficial measure,

I 1

under the next precept. icept.
7.

The fields' measure,

I

8.

The beam of the

balance,

c^'^^^^^^^Y^^^^^

The tongue

[rather plunwiet'] of the balance,

1

1.

The balance
artists,

is

so frequently represented in false perspective

by

that Sir J. G. Wilkinson has given an account of it, Egyptian which is quite unintelligible to those who have ever so moderate

a knowledge of
"

statics.

Mr.

Petrie's description is

the true one-

The beam was suspended by a loop or ring from a bracket proThen below the beam, a long tongue jecting from the stand. was attached, not above the beam as with us. To test the level of the beam, a plummet hung down the tongue, and it was this plummet which was observed to see if the tongue was vertical and A Season in Egypt, p. 42. the beam horizontal."
.

.

.

In

PI.

XXXVI,

a few pictures will be found which give a 2
11

more

2

,

232

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
some
of the absurd

correct notion of the Egyptian balance than

representations which defy a scientific explanation.
It is will

evident that

if the

tongue

is

fastened at a wrong angle, the
is

not really be horizontal

when the tongue

shown by the

beam plummet
text.

line to

be

vertical.

This seems to be the fraud alluded to in the

The word §=0=,

§

'^'^^> ^^^

name

given to the plummet, apetymologically identical
ebrius^
ebrietas),

parently signifies a cup full of liquid.

It is

with
c^

^ V"^

m^' ^

^^^^^

(^^-^Ij
[)

i~&^j

_ ^%^ ^^^^, TI^I,
The
whether
for

a crane, and
the

^ the crane-god,

Thoth.
a

apparatus of which

plummet forms so important
is

part,

the balance or for building purposes,
Ill, 26),

called

2:0= {Denkni.,
Q, ^

S^^^
d
N
III

The manors of -^

the gods, "^

III
I I I

I

understand d
El

Ns

as

property acquired by royal grant.

Aahmes
^"'^^'^

at

Kab

says that he

has

acquired

(^^^:=:^

y^^)

^^^^

through the royal

bounty.
(Ch.
in
I,

The deceased

in the later copies of the \=^
•<

Book

of the

Dead
«
1

24), acquires the allotment of land,

^^ v\

the Garden of Aarrn, and Ani (PI. Ill) acquires " a permanent
(

allotment

"^^

r^^^

\

in the

Garden of Hotepit hke the followers

of Horus."
10.

Ponds.

The

right

readmg

is

/

^V

-i

-r

'

^^

Birch

already noted in his Diciionary, from the excellent papyrus
the

Ao

of

XVIIIth dynasty.
Hieratic papyri also give the determinative

t=t

.

The
from
I

determinative
is

-^
. <

which some

of the papyri give to the
is

word, and which
I

a self-evident blunder,
1

,

or from

probably copied either
a

1

.

The

sign

'''5>^,

and

man

striking with

an instrument, which also occur, are mere symbols of the operation by which either quarries, ox ponds, are cut.
11.

Thoii of the Nose, or rather Beak, aw^-

[[1 £)

-J|

,

in allusion

to one of the chief characteristic features of the Ibis
es
TO,

god

{Trpoawirov

fiakia-ra e-i'ipvirov ;

Herodotus,

II, 76, in his description
is

of the

bird).

Thoth, the god of Chemunnu,

meant by

this appellative.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

233
in the

He

is

SO called,

(1[

ifll

,

on the statue of the King Horus
[|[

Museum
altar,

of Turin

(1.

8),

and

^ on the very much more ancient
to the

of the Vlih dynasty,
is

belongmg

same appellative *

found

in the list

same museum. The of gods upon each of the

Memphite
12.

of "

cubits described by Lepsius.f Eater of the Shadozv. The Demotic version interprets this his own shadow." I am rather inclined to interpret it by " the

gnomons which were without shadows at noon," and Syene" (Strabo, 817) at the Summer Solstice; when
vertical.

the " well of the

Sun was

13.

Thou of Lion form,
But

-^^
fl

I

<>/(

'^^^

Demotic has "Shu
gods in
in
all,

and Tefnut."
as

as there are only forty-two

we must
sarco-

here think of a single god with a lion's head, as
Wilkinson, III, PI.
(<f.^.,

such pictures

XLIX
Theban

;

Denkm.,

Ill, 276,

and many

phagi

Leemans, Mon.,
of the

Ill, L, PI, III).

Even some

papyri have two divinities by

way of

determinatives to the group.
14.

Sluggish,

tk^. --(]^^,
^W^/^AA

sluggishness.

Coptic (f\[^t.

See

my
el
;

note {Froc. Soc. Bib. Arch.,

XI,

p. 76)

on the Inscription of

Kum

There are however other readings
any value.
15.

Ahmar. none of them apparently of

Thou of

the
is,

Bright Teeth,
"

|

"^ J | ^
(]

^,

The

Demotic equivalent
their brightness.
16.

who openeth

his teeth,"

and so

exhibits

Aati,
a

\\ _M^

c-=-^ Ll rJ[
11 111

)

^

name about which

the

copyists have bungled.

It is
(1.

one of the names of
^^v
c-^='^

Ra
v\

in the Solar

Litany, where

it

appears

23) as

<0<

^
it

,

or

<^<
*

.

Whether applied

to the Sun, to the Fish of the

name,
way.
Teti,
it is

or to a Ship, the

name means
it

Cutter,

'

that

which cleaves
Birch,

'

its

The

true sense of the

name has been missed by

who

reads

and by Brugsch, who reads
written r^^^^

" Chonti, der Anfangliche."

At Beb-el-moluk

t D. Aegyptische Elle, Taf.

i

and

2.

1

2 34

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
17.

Tufu

[yi^r-^^i<^

,

with

many

variants,

showing

that the scribes did not understand the sense of the syllable

some of them adding

the bird of evil ^^=^, others the

1

——

C^^^,
deter-

minative oi 7twtuitai7i. The name on the Sarcophagus of Seti (Bon. II, A. 30) has a snake for determinative, and some papyri call him Tutu. The god may be recognised in later texts. In the Calendar of Esneh there is a feast on the 14th day of Thotb, in honour of

^^

lull

'

Tutu,

'

the son of Neith,'

and the

text gives the

I HHt) of a serpent, tvonn, or slug. feel sure, therefore, that we should in the text read the name Tutu, and consider ^.^ as a determinative.* The symbolism would then be identical with that in PI. XXIII, illustrative of Chapter 87. The Sun-god there rises up like a worm out of the Lotus of Dawn, whereas

important

determinative

j

in

another picture a slug (<-=^)

is

seen moving upon the flower.
his appearance,
is

M ^^
of the ninth
18.

,

Ati.,

where the god makes
of

the

name

Nome

Lower Egypt.
with

/

trouble myself only

my

o%V7i

affairs.

I

understand

this of the virtue spoken of

by Cicero {de Officiis, I, 34), " nihil praeter suum negotium agere, nihil de alieno anquirere, minimeque It is the same to which Plato esse in aliena republica curiosum."
refers in the
-ji/ibvai

TimaeuS, 72

A;

ev kuI ircikai \e-^€7ai
/itovu)

to

Trpdr-etv

kuI

T« Te tavTOO Kal Iuvtov (Jw(ppovi

TrpoaijKCti',

not in the

sense of a selfish indifference to a neighbour's welfare or the public good, but in opposition to the ways of the busybodies, who tattle
i.nd

"speak things which they ought not"

(i

Tim.,

v,

13).

The Egyptian
of
is
it is

-^^^

QA

is

a rare word.

Brugsch's etymology
it

an impossible one, and his identification of

with OJUOCJUL

not less unfortunate.
,9.

A,„„
to

or A,„U.

(}^\^,

000

seems

tou'n of Fahn. be the favourite reading. It But, as the name was written ideographically, it appears in some copies as the town of other trees, such as N'ehait, or Ndrit.

o' means the

Oko- ™'

Amu
*

was a place
forms
(1

in the north of Egypt,

which Biugsch thinks
h-

Cf. the

-L
J]

,

(1

-

and

o o°o

:n

(Naville,

Litanies, pp. 55, 83, and the corresponding texts) of one of the

hJo'.ar

names.

.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
he has identified with a town called Apis (the
doubtful).
site

23s
of which
is

itself

The most
de M., IV, PI.

interesting thing

known about

Amu

(Diimichen, Rec.

XV, 90
is

rt),

is

that in the rites performed

on the 16
was known

Choiak, Horns

represented as raising up the body of Osiris out of

the water in the form of a crocodile;

and

that Osiris

under the name of

u ()()©, The
Book

Crocodile,

Lord of Amu.
list

The 142nd
of the

chapter of the
Osiris,

of the Dead, which gives a
H
,

names of

has (L

17) that of

'Osiris

of

Crocodile form,' or 'with Crocodile head.'*
group, however, show the reading
'

The
>

variants of this
(

0,

5A

U

L

f4

'

king,' or
(as

U

"^
I

p|

of kingly form.'

There
190)

is

but

little

doubt that

M.

Naville says,

Zeitschr., 1882, p.

Jj
j

1

on the Turin
gods,'

tablet published

by Professor
in the Prisse

Piehl,

means

'

King of the

and

that

Ptahhotep

i) addresses not Osiris, but King Assa as Goodwin had already asserted this meaning 'my Lord in his "Story of S'aneha" and in \.\\^- Zeitschr., 1874, p.. 38^ The orthography of the crocodile name here played upon is

papyrus (IV,

the King.*^

remarkably vague,

V\

c^^a \\
It is

=S3f=>

,

(

\\
<ssf=.

,

and ^K\

^

VOi

rapax, Louvre, C, 26).
see

this last
s,

form which enables us to
,

the paranomasia

in

2^=*

—3 y

(

rapax

sicut

Raptor
into

{crocodilus) of the Prisse

papyrus (VII,
aii,
'

6),

and brings the word
'

connection with dta, or

he who

is

seized

of the Sovereignty

(see supra, Ch. 40, note 10).
20.

Chemiu,
is

®

k«^i
at

'one who overthrows.'

His

appearance

made

Kauu,

S
'^

/wwna

the Canobic

entrance to the Nile, which the Libyan invaders had taken possession
of in the time of

Rameses III (Great Harris Pap.,
is

77, 2).

The

transgression here disavowed

understood by some of the

scribes as a violation

of ritual precepts, such as those regarding

sacred seasons.
*

On

the other

hand
his

in the

standard
Osiris.

and the Feather upon

head

is

^!^ T"

of Dendera, the Crocodile

is

Sut,

1

236
21.
JF/io

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
raises f
^^ ^^^

thy

voice

words

of Righteousness.

c=^^

I

V Q()
is

attribute assigned to Isis in the

Hymn

to Osiris
;

(line 14)

on the Stele of Amenemhait

in the Bibliotheque Nationale

and

it

there further defined through the addition of the words

'with clearness of utterance'

{cf.

Ch.
in

i,

note

2).

III

I

One

of the chief names of Isis

is

SUl
Hymn

'Mighty
as
'

Words

of
01

Power.'

She

is

also described in the

Most potent

tongue

7~:>

J

and unfailing of speech.'*
I

Her name Urit
place

taken

may have suggested the name Urit as the But we do not know if Urit is to be of her manifestation. as the name of a town or if some papyri are correct in reading
hekait
,

^^ [[
There
i<=r>
I
I

which may mean
ancient

tribunal.

were in
11111,

Eg3-pt

six

great

courts

of justice,

A
has
a

High

Priest of

Ptah of Memphis, named Ptahmes,

in the early

part of the eighteenth dynasty,
left

who was
in

President of these six Courts,!

a very remarkable attestation relative to the 24th Precept,
scribe's

on

beautiful

palette

basalt (Louvre, Inv., 3026).

The

inscription, after saying that the

whole country was subject to the

jurisdiction of Ptahmes, proceeds ._;l»

J-

r -o

~"^
,

.

/vww^

^

#

I

f?

<:2;> y

,

^w
1
1

I
,

(]()tii

"

He

turned not a deaf ear to the
is,

'ill

truth,

through the terrors of his Eye;" that
not used for the
*'

"the

terrors of his

Eye" were
meant by
pt. I, p.
*"

per\-ersion of Justice.

his

Eye

" ?

M.
'

Pierret (in his Inscr.

But what is inedites du Louvre,
it

96) suggested the

Eye
these

of Horus.'
gifts.

I

think

has reference
Stele,

Her son Horus

inherited

He

is

invoked (Metternich

'^-;=^''StklV
I

I

Rechmara
and the
charged.

filled this office shortly

before this, in the time of

Thothmes HI,
s-

inscriptions of his

tomb

give interesting information of the duties d
for the

His clerks are praised
the reports read

virtue of discretion

(i8th Precejst).

Fnch heard

bj- others,

but \\ithout troubling himself with what

did not concern him.

See next note.

.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
to the position of
'

237

Ptahmes

as

^^^^^

^^^^^

1

TT

^

^^

'''''^^

the King's Eye,' 6 ftuaiXcw^- 6(/)Oa\^i6'.* and had in consequence,
justice

an unlimited power of defeating
It
is

only by a

blunderf

that

had he been so incHned. the papyrus of Ani makes

1)1 ""^^
The name

^^^^ nineteenth

Nome

of

Upper Egypt)
is

the scene of

the divine Babe's manifestation, which

unquestionably Heliopolis.

of

the

Nome

has numerous variants, but they always
i
|

consist of two signs, a crooked staff

,

|,

[,

1

1

either double or

with a twisted cord
(

Q T
>

,

X

,

H
.

),

and the

final

sound of the name

(when expressed)
of the

is

in

1,

—h—

The key

to the phonetic reading
is

name of
at

the

Heliopolitan
(J.

Nome

to

be found
46)
;

in

the
f

inscription

Edfu
\

de Rouge, Edfou,

pi.

|\

a.^^

Q
is

[11

^

J\

I

vy

-^

n.

Here the

crook of the

name
\|\

identified with the crook andy?fl//^^\

^\

1

^='-7=' a;«.y, (1

ams,

1

7

\

I

or ^^\

I

e;;isit

of Osiris,

who
"SV
I

is

called in the
tke

Book

of the

Dead

(Todt.,

142,

9)

1

'^^^^
/
f^ f^

fll

^ ^^^k^^^k

'

^.

^LU

\

111

©

,

by Greek writers as existing in the Persian is one of the Dramatis Personse in Herodotus (i, 114) tells how Cyrus being the Acharnians of Aristophanes. chosen king by his playfellows, selected his principal fficers, and one among the boys to be the King's Eye.' Aeschylus does not forget in his Persae (line 976) to make the Chorus bewail the loss of the King's faithful Eye. The most ancient personage who is known to me as the King's Eye in His Eg)'pt is Antuf, whose tablet (of the 12th dynasty) is in the Louvre (C. 2^). duties are detailed on this magnificent tablet, and they are very similar to those He is described not only as the King's Eyes which see, but of Rechmaia.
This
office is often referred to

*

hierarchy.

Pseudartabas, the

'

King's Eye,'

c

'

'

'

Tans
the Palace."

^VW^ftA

3^

the

"Tongue which

speaks, of the lord of

t
I

[

in

cursive writing
his learning,

might be mistaken

for
]

]

or for

|

],

and the

scribe, to

show

might interpolate the

J

,

but even this might be an

error for |

2

r

238

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
And
in
this is

August Dismembered* one of the Fo7vers of Amiu.
in the important

how,

papyrus Pc, we find
1

f

Q

1

Ch. 17 as the

equivalent of -

H

W J],

a few words
;

after, in

the

same papyrus.
the

Both groups are to be read amsu
crook {or sceptre)

which means furnished with

and flail^

[

/\

or

y^.f

22.

Hot of foot

"^"^^-^l
poenitentiam agere, would

The Coptic Onf eJUL^^HT",
natural representative of
a

be the

^\
The

T

Qi)

'

^"^ ^^^ meanings of

the terms cannot be the same.

latter is expressive of a passion, in the

the indulgence in

which may be laudable

gods and yet blame;

worthy in men.

For the divine wrath

is

necessarily just

whereas

human
The

anger, even

when

it

seems
|

to listen to reason, listens, as the

philosopher says, but imperfectly.

29th

god,

Kenemta,

l

^\

l^, has
This
is

also

for

determinative the sign

j\ of a cynocephalus.
constellation which

explained
the whole

by

his identity with

the

occupies

month
means

of

Thoth

in the

list

of the Decans.

But though the name

'in

Ape
i,

form,'

the

word
is

V\

MA

in

the

Pyramid

Texts (Pepi

408, and Merira 579) 'clad,' perhaps simply 'covered.'

used in the sense of 'vested,'

Brugsch has identified the
at

locality
if

Kenemit with the Great Oasis

Khargeh.

It

may be asked
chapter

the Oasis bore this

name

at the

time

when

this

was

composed.

The

determinative
it

^

<

proves nothing beyond the actual sense of the word, but

suggests that the

Dark may be

a sufficient translation.
it

From

the

etymology
*

I

should like to assimilate

to the iroiKikel^wv vr^ of the

The

detenninatives in

n °
(a

no
,

express the

sense of division,
exhibits the

Sio/ifXttT^oc,

and

the

insect

scolopendron) in

n

°
very

notion which has given

rise to the Latin insecta and the Greek ivTOfiov. For more particular details, see P.S.B.A., viii, p. 245, and following. t J 'Akovhv n Tov Koycv, irapaKoiiiv 5t Ethic. Nick., viii. "].
:

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Prometheus Vinctus, or
Latin poet.
23. 24.

239
peplo
'

to the

'

furvo circumdata

of the

Of

inconstant mind,
intelh'gible
"
;

I

Another
their

reading of the precept

is,

" I rob not the

dead of

wrappings

but the text

is

so corrupt that none of the

readings are of any value.

The god
which words

is

called

O

(j(]

'^

^

or

1

® ^^

(](]

^
>

,

both of

I

understand in the sense of busy-minded^ plafining,

devising, crafty, wise.

The
precept,

appellative
is

Horned

one, ^'^zzy -41-^

W

^ \^
at

of the next

the exact equivalent of the

Hebrew D'^^lp

hy'3.

and

is

the attribute of Osiris (Todt., <^[ZSZ)
of
I

144, 4), especially in the character

;

under which name he was worshipped

Sutenhunen.

25.

Noisy in speech

'^^

Ti
A name

c^

26. Striker

103, note.
27.

mnno
locality

of Horus, on which see ch.

any agreement between the older papyri, and many of them omit the mention of a
is
is

There

about which there

locality

;

later authorities, like the

Turin
j

text,

read

fjl

Annu.
is

28.

No

unjust preferences,
extolled

^=^[i

There
I I

no virtue
the

I

more frequently

on the

funereal

monuments than

absence of favouritism.
in their declarations

Great personages in their epitaphs are strong

that they

made no

distinction

between great

and

small, rich or poor, wise or simple.
ii,

The

declaration of

Ameni

{Denkm.,
is

122), ^JU-

I

£^'
?=^
is

a type of
29.

many

others.

Of

raised head,

©
a

^-^^

@.

This, like the last two,

name

of the Nile god,

who

is

one of the manifestations of
IV/io liftest
cjyeiiciv,

Osiris.
'

30.

an arm,

|\

^

j, not aniener son

bras.'

|\

,

like

the Greek

means bear

in the sense of holding up, supporting.

2

12

,

240

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
it

When

signifies

bring the collateral notion of motion

is

imported
holds
Jip,

from the context.

The god

Shu,

who
it.

is

called

A

v=^

,

supports, the sky, but does not bring
is

The god
,

tuho holds up his ar7n,

of course the ithyphallic

Amon * F who

in

Ch.

1

7 is

identified

not only with Horus but with Osiris.
31. This introduction to Part III of this chapter occurs only in

the Papyrus of Nebkat {Pe).

Another ancient manuscript {Fb) has
the

the words "Said upon approaching triumphantly to

Hall

of

Righteousness." " Hail ye gods, I
X2.

But the texts generally begin with the invocation,

know you and
mi?te,

I

know your names."

Reverse of

^M?^, a turn of the wheel, which the

context implies to be unfortunate.

A very absurd reading is

V
A
very

/v>^

V Vra
I

III judges.
33,

^

as

if

the defendant were master of the fates of his divine

The King who

re side th

within His

own

Da

v.

doubtful passage at present.

The words do
as far as

not occur in the oldest

text of the chapter (that of Nebseni),

the later recensions.

Ad

is,

and they are omitted here in I know, the only authority for

I

u

\\

.

other papyri having merely

4^'

>

which might

possibly correspond to the

W^

immediately preceding.

The

Royal tombs have
*

[~[]

^^\

^

,

and one of the papyri has
as

There

is

no such god as Min or Mitiu, except
(7r//i(7frrt/'^?V

an abbreviated (or

perhaps primitive)

form of ^;«i?«.

v\
1

J

^

and

1

i^ bear

to

[1

i^ exactly the same relationship that

c^

,

/wwv.

W'

ll

wl

'

have

to

[1

1

^

,

[1

^^^ <^

and

[I

\d\""

Neither

Amen

nor the shorter form can be the phonetic equivalent of
the Flail at Edfu
>

H>

.

The image of Horus with
VN.
/

is

described

(J. I

de Rouge,

pi.

C. Ill) as

^^^l
I,

Horns

as Amstc-Atnen,

and

have elsewhere quoted
[or

from Tempel insch.,

32, the

^^

1

'm Avisu-

Men

Amen]

as well as

^^ >Ov

A/usu Horus.

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
(I

24

^ instead of
^w
w|

I

^

j4

.

All this reminds

one of an obscure
I

passage in Chapter 115, where
nil

Ra

is

speaking with

according to the Text of the Turin Todtenbiuh.
'

Goodwin conjectured that King Amhauf belonged to the race of mythical kings who preceded Menes,' and that his history is 'a legend somewhat analogous to that of Deucalion and Pyrrha.' There is a much more probable solution of the matter.
I

w|

^^

meant

for

I

.^i

Sut,

and

it

was with

this

god
'^

^==|l]'^^^^^--or-|[-^[-g'^^^ffT*
that

'm\{\?, course

Ra was
who

speaking when
for his talk

divinity,

happened to the had chosen a wrong moment, which
the disaster
Cf. supra note 3 on Chapter no.
I

latter

really

belonged to his adversary.

And

here too

I

would instead of

read

I

,

and the
to pass

sense of the passage would be "let not reverse of mine

come

through Sutu, when his time cometh."
34.

Cares,

==--^
c.

W

^
111

in

the later texts.

The

older texts differ

greatly

from each other

:

^
Cat

_

'STP

^^^

*v\

Q

is

the most frequent

reading.
35.

The Ass and

the

ift

the house of Hept-ro.

The two

per-

sonages
of the

who take part in this dialogue are known from other portions Book of the Dead. The Cat is Ra in the 7th chapter. And
1

the Ass appears in the 40th chapter, as the victim of the devouring
Serpent.
so called

The Sun-god overcome by darkness is Osnis by name in the Demotic version of this chapter.
'iS:^

;

and he

is

Hept-ro,^

J^, 'god of the gaping mouth.'

The
it

word

fi

g-g-:i

is

not found elsewhere, but the meaning of
It
is

seems to be indicated by the determinative.
akin to the more

very probably

common

^

AA, 1.=-^^^, which does not

The Luynes papyrus reads reason for n

rn

v\

O
,

M'hich affords

good

thinking that in Cha Chapter 115, as elsewhere,
its

t;^-,

was

originally

written without

phonetic value.

242

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
'

mean

squat

'

or

'

sit,'

but

'

stretch

out,'

distetidi.

Cf.

Note

6,

Chapter 63B,

The

'

house of the god of the gaping mouth,' seems to be the

Earthy considered as the universal tomb
TTuai xat'ot, II. 14, 417).

(aW

uvrou
(the

r^a7a fieXaiva

And
'

here Osiris and
'

Ra

Ass and the

Cat) meet daily,

'

Yesterday
"ir2«

speaketh to

To-day.'

TT

nvh

DV.

A

note of M. Guyesse in the Reaieil, X,

p. 64,

contains references

word occurs. I will add a very important one, the picture of a god (Lefebure, To77ibeau de Sefi, The p. Ill, pi. 2,2)) ^^'^th sword in hand, whose name is this word.
to the chief passages in

which

this

ideographic signs which express
division,' (2) that the act
is

it

imply

(i)

'

a adting in two, parting,
intellect,

one of speech or

such as 'judgof the signs
•^

ment, decision,

verdict.'

The phonetic equivalence
right Egyptian

and
'I'l'

or
37.

I

j

j

show

that the value is that of Seb.

Covereth.

passage in

There are hidden within or behind a tree. 38. That tlie Balafice may be

word here, as in a similar Chapter 1 7, is uncertain, but the meaning is plain enough. many pictures showing a divinity (the sun or moon-god)
set

The

upon

its

stand within th£ bower

of amara?ith. Cf. the passage (Rochemonteix, Edfoit, p. 191) where mention

is

made of the divine powers which animate the Princes who are in the train of Osiris and who lift the Balance upon the stand before them

^^

II i^D^ y\ ^ i D A7)iaranth (see Note 3 of Chapter 26)
I I I I

is

only one of the readings

of this doubtful text.
39. Disasters,
fl

[

V [or ^^^'
-m^
^C\
in Lev.

'

^^^ ^^^, misfortune.

See

my

note on this word, T.S.B.A.,
40.

II, p. 313.

Grasshoppers,

Ks>^

_^ C

v\ ^^^
_ZI
I

.

The

similar

word

I

I

C^^TDj which only occurs
Semitic.
It
is

xi,

22,

does not appear to be

a sufficiently familiar word in Egyptian to serve as a

term

in comparison, 'as plentiful as grasshoppers.'

The Turin Todtenbiich has 41. The text here is quite uncertain. " the fourth hour of the Night and the eighth hour of the Day,"

.

.

,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
which does not agree with any early reading.
hour of the Night and of the Day."

243

Cd. has "the fourth Several papyri have the " second

hour of the Night and the third r=L[)
this passage, as written in

of the Day."

It

was

in

B.M. 9904,

that, in the

year i860, I found
:

the phonetic value of the Egyptian

number

3

a discovery

first

ascribed

by Brugsch* to Goodwin, and afterwards by others to

Brugsch himself.
42.
Cf.

The hearts of the gods are appeased,

11221/]

JR =

^awv^
j

|

j

rt^I, l\dcTK€a6ai,

and

n^HT,

eXeij^twu,

otKTi'pfiwv.

This ex

plains Pap. Prisse
43. Let
it

XVII,
J\

6^fI^^n^^|^J^.
v\
is

him

come.

a tolerably certain reading, but
this.

is

not possible to say what should be the word preceding
scribes have written 'there he cometh,' 'we grant that
'

The
*

he come,'

I grant,'

let

him be brought

in,'

and the

like.
X5

44.

He who groweth

under the Grass,
(2
,

<===>

j

n]/

[\\

1

45.

A

thigh,

^^^-^

^

also written
||

46. See
Col.

the greetifigs

:

(jywvij

^/ap

6pw,

to

(paTc^o/u.ei/ou,

Oedip.

138
I

47.

The Leaf,

J

^

w

I

48. Pointer [or Plummet'] of Truth, 49.
50.

^\>^

^^^^
J]

"^

S^

I

The Scale Pan, \

^ -^=:^\^^, \ ^^^
\

The Dragon Brood,
27/1?

m

V\

^ Mr

.

51.

Truncheon of Hathor,

^^
All that

vo'-t^

does not appear to
it

be a very familiar word to the
diverse ways possible
'

scribes,

who

write

in

the most
it

;

one of them even understanding

as the

opening of heaven
is

'

^^
its

^

.

we can say

is

that the
its

word

shown by
(cf

determinative to be of wood, and by
1
,

etymology
slaying.

^^

\\

to serve for striking,

blinding,

or

Scne

of the texts

name Hathor, and
3.

others Nephthys,

* Zeiischr., No.

244

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
sign
I

The
rest

occurs in both names, and the scribes have read the

of the
52.

name

as best they could.

He zvho knoweth the heart and exploreth theperson,
j\
I

"^
I

-_j1
(

I

!<=:>

^

.

This

is

so exactly the equivalent of " Searchinsr
.

111

the

heart

and

trying the reins" of Jeremiah (xvii,

10),

that

we

might have expected to find something like it in the Coptic version of the Bible. But there we have nothing but a close adherence to
the sense of the Septuagint, and even to such a word as CGKijud^etv.
53.

Who provideth for,

^^

<::()=^^

QA

is

the equivalent of the

Greek irpovoeiv in the inscription of Tanis, and of ^lipifxva in the Demotic text of the verses of Moschion. The Coptic form is
JULeTI, JULeexe, which stands for
(f)poi>e7v

in Phil,

iv,

10,

"Your

care of me, wherein ye also were careful."

Thoth
54.

is

thus represented as the divine Providence, which takes

care of the universe.

The same view
;

is

found

in a text at Edfu.

The Eye of Horus

see

latter

part of

Note

2,

of this

chapter.

CHAPTER CXXVI.
Oh
ye four Harbingers (i)

who

sit

at the

prow of the Bark of Ra,

and convey the
are judges of

One, ye who and of my good fortune, and propitiate the gods with the flames from your mouths ye who present to the gods their oblations and the sacrificial meals to the Glorified ye who live through Maat and are sated with Maat who have nothing wrong in you and execrate that which is disordered, (4) do ye put an end to my ills and remove that w-hich is disorderly in me through
fixed ordinances (2) of the Inviolate
di«;tress (3)

my

:

:

:

my

being smitten to the earth. (5)

Grant that
Restau
;

I

may
I

penetrate into the

Ammehit and

enter into

and that

may

pass through the mysterious portals of

Amenta.

Be

there given to

me

the Shensu cakes and the Persen cakes

PLATE XL.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CiiArTER

CXXVI

Papyrus of Ani.

ClIAl'TER

CXXIX.
III, 36.

Musee du Louvre, Papyrus
Chapter CXXVI.
Papyrus. British Museum. No. 9913.

Chapter CXXX.

Papyrus, Leyden, VI.

PLATE

XLI.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

P

r^

Papyrus,

ClIAPTEK CXXXI. Musee du Louvre, No. 3079.

Chapter CXXXII.
Brit.

Mus. Papyrus, No. 9964.

^
Chai'TER CXXXII. Papyrus, Brocklehurst,
Ch.-M'TEr
II.

CXXXIII.

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900.

Chapter CXX.XIV.

Papyrus of Ani, British Museum.

Chapter CXXXIV.

Papyrus, British Museum, No. 9900.

Chapter CXXXVI.
Papyrus,
Brit.

Chapter CXXXVI.
Papyrus,
Brit.

Mus., No. 9913.

Mus., No. 9900.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
[and
all

245
their

things] even as to the Glorified,

who make

appearance

on entering into Restau or on coming forth. (6) Enter thou, Osiris N: We put an end to thine ills, and we remove that which is disorderly in thee through thy being smitten We put away from thee all the ills which thou hast. to the earth.

Amenta.

Enter thou into Restau and pass through the mysterious portals of Enter thou in and come forth at thy pleasure, like the

Glorified ones;

and be thou invoked each day
Notes.

in the

Mount

of

Glory. (7)

In the older papyri the vignette of this chapter

is

unaccompanied

by any
of

text.

The

only exception as yet

known

is

that of the papyrus

Ab, of the XVIIIth dynasty.

The

text is also

found

Rameses VI, with the important addition
retained in
all

of the

tomb answer made by
in

the

the four Harbingers to the prayer of the deceased.
is

This addition

the later recensions.

Other discrepancies between

the two texts lead to the conclusion that even the older one has
suffered from interpolation.
1.

Harbingers or Saluters,
5, for

^

v

r1

'

*

^^^

Chapter

5,

Note

an explanation of the name of those Apes who salute*
"Utrefour only are spoken of, and this was probably number, corresponding to the four portals of the Mount
is

the Daybreak. the original

The number eight (the Chemunnu) than six, which is the number stated in the tomb of Rameses VI.
of Glory.
2.

more easy

to explain

text

quoted from the

Fixed ordinances,

S^
y,

.

^

.

;

OeuKnei in the different accep-

tations of that word.
3.

Distress,

^^

I

"^^^

"

Te semper

anteit saeva neces-

siias,"

Horace
in

says to Fortuna.

The

determinative

"^

and the

Coplic JULp evidently point to the notion of constraint, but the few
texts

which the word

is

found

imply

ivatit,

need {angustice,
2)

av('riKi]),j

rather than captivity.
(the Cock), to

Amenemhat
the

at

Benihassan (tomb

*

The Gothic Hana

Singer, and are words cognate

German Hahn and our Hen signify the Latin can-ere. The Latin Callus is

probably related to onr

call.

it

t The Greek language would furnish an interesting parallel to the Egj-ptian if could be shown that Sew, bind, and Sew, want, need, had the same root. But the

latter

was

originally (5ffw.

2

K

24*5

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

boasts that in his days and under his government no one was seen

"in
at

distress
(

^

^k\

[

y.

"^^-^jj
pi.

or starving."
is

And Horus

Edfu

(Naville,

Mythe d'Borus,
I

XXII)

said to protect the

needy or distressed

^^^

^

Q
is

|

against the powerful

This

is

an honour already claimed by Antuf on
line 17),

his tablet (Louvre, C. 26

who mentions

the maarii as being an object of interest to

him, like the orphan and the widow.
4.

Disordered,

[

^

1

iU
order,

^ ^^

1

,

the absence of

I

and always spoken of
is

as in

_ opposition

_

S^ r-^
a

,

strict

to

it.

One

is

Koa^o?

and the other
is

ov Kara Koafxou,

and may be predicated of whatever

contrary to rule, faulty, defective, out of line, deformed, or dis-

figured, not only in a

moral but in a purely physical sense.

^^^,
evil,

///,

does not

mean

wickedness or

sin,

but simply physical
texts to

mischief, pain or sorrow.

There are many
is

prove

this,

but

perhaps the most interesting
pi.

the

great

text

at

Dendera
pi.

(Mariette, Denderah, IV,

73,

or Diimichen, Rec, III,

96),

where Osiris

is

invoked

at

Apu

(Panopolis) as the fiery Bull, hiding

(or scarcely seen)

on the day of the

New

INIoon

.

.

,

.

,

but at length
fixed

rising into full strength,*

and seeing the Golden Horus
v?
'V^
1

upon

the throne of the universe.
text),

^ [^
;

-"^^^ (continues the

"Joy cometh round

afterf pain," or sorrow

most

certainly, not

after sin.

* in

Such

is

the real

meaning of -^^^ '^^^ ^^\
|

,

not only in this place, but

the extremely ancient
(see

text

found on

many

sarcophagi and already in the

Pyramid Texts

Pepi

I,

33),

A
I

\\ ^

^ ^^ -^d^
it

^

^a^^
|

z'/^/w^

AWAAA

" Thy mother Nut bringeth

to pass that

thou

c^
risest into full strength,

without an adversary, in thy
it

name

o(

i/i£

Strong one^
Zeitschr.,

In this translation
as
p.
it

is

assumed that the second '^'^^

is

the negative 1—'L-^i

was always understood in later times (see for an instance 51, and the beautiful text of Bakenrenf, Denkm., Ill, 263).

1869,

The

true

meaning of
1—1

is

not simply 'this god' but 'the Strong one,
;'
|

*
I

/vwvw
is

6 'Yax^'^v.

1
is,

the

'

Strong and Beautiful

A

is

^^t^'

7X)

'^

Hai TOKpuTwp.

t That

'succeedeth.'

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The meaning
destroying,
5.

247
the

of

<zz>, which governs °
1,

noun,
io

has been

explained (Chapter 40, Note 6) as stoppmg, britiging

an end ; not
to

and still \t%% forgiving. Through tny being [or because

I

am] smitten

the earth,

(I

v\

in this position,

without a

suffix or

nominal subject,

is

not

an auxiliary verb, but a particle of correlation, used when a cause,
motive, or circumstance
is

asserted or implied in connection with a

preceding statement.

Like
deictic,

all
it

such

particles, of

which the function was

originally only
it

is

susceptible of very
in this

many shades

of meaning, and

would be impossible

place to do justice to a

word so frequently
\ts

occurring, especially in the hieratic papyri of a secular character.

The

following examples are only intended to illustrate
text.

grammatical

use in our

The
'I

particle occurs three times before as

many

propositions at

the beginning of Chapter 123; 'I have balanced the divine Pair,'

have put a

stop,

etc.,^

'I have

ended

their complaints;'
'

[

connects each of these statements with the preceding one,
Thoth.'
It is as if

I

^ am

the speaker said, '//
etc.

is

in co?tseqieence

of my being
is

Thoth, that

I

have balanced,'
'

In Chapter 36,

I

am
'

the bearer of the divine words
'

'

followed

by

(J

Y^

'

X

t

V^^
7,

^"^

^'^

^^

comes that
of those

I

make

the report.'

In Chapter 15, line

'I
(

upon earth

'

is

followed by

am one v\ —-^

who honoured
"
let

thee

me

therefore

attain to the

Land of

eternity."

Aahmes, the son of Abana,
he was young and unwedded,

says in his inscription (line 5) that
(

v\

1

O^ 'V^ v^
P3))

''and so

I

continued to wear" a certain dress.

Amenemheb
favour
of

was, he

tell

us {Zeitchr., 1S73,
so
it

high in the

the

King,

'^

and

comes that I followed

my Lord

Una was

sent by his sovereign on a certain mission,
districts

and the
for

negro chieftains of certain

furnished

the

wood
2

his

K

2

248
purpose, "
this wise."

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
and
so it

came

to

pass that he spent

I

^
how,

a year in

After verba dicendi
or the

(I

v\ corresponds
Latinity.
in

to our as
It

cotnttie quoi\

guod or quia of late translation than the Greek on

often

needs

no more

such a relation.

In the inscription of Pianchi (line 2) one came to tell his Majesty "that {comme quoi) a prince [or magnate] had started up
(1

Y^
C

-^^

1^

"

and seized upon a

part of the kingdom.

V^ ^^^ most
it

certainly does not

mean
est.'

^est,

est/

any more

than

means

'

Dominus meus mortuus

Nebuaiu
A Tv
(]

v\

{Zeitschr., 1876, p. 5) in the time of Thothmes III pg ^ f " says, as how ' I have presided over <r:z=> v^

cS^
""

O

f^'^'^/'j^

^

^^^

many

constructions.'"

The Naophoros
vf2^

of
'

the

Vatican in like manner
a petition
'

^^^

(I

V\

" says that

I

made

" to

Cambyses.

Long
(line

before this
I

Chnumhotep of Eenihassan begins his biography
[1

14)

^=S^

V:>

j5

v\ M^

" his mouth,

it

says as

how

'his Majesty appointed

me

'

to the dignity oi

Erpd

hd."

The absence

of Verbal character

becomes

especially apparent in

such combinations as(vi^
6.
is

,(^'y),["\^J
What
It is the reply

The

older texts finish here.

follows in the tran'-lation

taken from the later recensions.

made by

the four

Harbingers to the prayer addressed to them.
7.

AToioit of Glory
is

^n

.

This

is

the real

meamng

of the word,

and there

no reason why we should continue

to use the mis-

leading term horizon.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

249

CHAPTER
The Book
rcciteth

CXXVII.
which
efiter

(i) for irivoking the gods of the Bouftds, (2)

the person
see the

when he approacheth
(3) in the

them, that he

may

and

Strong one

Gnat Abode
who

of the Tuat.

Hail, ye gods of the Bounds,

are in

Amenta.

who guard this Strong one, and who bring the reports before Osiris ye who protect them who worship you, and who annihilate the adversaries of Ra who give light and put away your darkness ye who see and extol your Great one, who live even as he liveth, and invoke him who is in his Solar
Hail, ye Doorkeepers of the Tuat,
;
: :

disk.

Guide me, and opened to me.
I

let

the gates of Heaven, Earth,

and the Tuat be

am the Soul of Osiris and rest in him. Let me pass through the Gateways, and let them
when they
see me.
I will,

raise

acclamation

Let nie enter as

and come

forth at

my

pleasure,

and make

my way
to me.

without there being found any defect or any evil attaching

Notes.

The
chapter

text
is

which has been followed

in

the translation of this

Royal Tombs of Rameses IV and Rameses VI, called by M. Naville Chapter 1 2 7 a. The lost Busca papyrus, of which Lepsius had a tracing, furnishes a different text, (127 b), and the
that of the
text

of the

Turin Todteftbuch

has

been

enlarged

by means of
part of the

numerous

interpolations.

M.

Naville has called attention to the

close relationship between this chapter

and the second

" Solar Litany."
I.

Book

^~

^
,

,

properly a Roll; a
129,
130,

title

given to several of

the chapters (125, 127,

140,

141,
,

142 and 148 in the
.

Turin

TodtenbucJi),

instead of the

usual

Too much

im-

portance should not be attached to the difference of terms
chapter
is

This

called

by the Busca papyrus; and Chapter 125,
in the earliest texts containing
it

which
title is

is

called
is

'^~p^
called

whenever a

given,

'7^

^

ever since the time of

Rameses IV.

250
2.
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Bounds^

'c^^'^n'

'"

^^ ^^^

form, though

<^

*^^^^
Ivi
is

not unfrequent, here and in other places.

The

English word

not a translation of the Egyptian one, which has to be explained
before any equivalent for
of
it

it

can be proposed.
'

And
first

the explanation

has to be sought in the

Solar Litany,'

completely pub-

lished

by M.

Naville. find the

There we

Sun-god
. I

Ra
It
. I

invoked as a Power potiring
'

itself

forth or overfIowi?tg "^l^
\v

<^ji

* ^"75 fo^"^^ ^i^d ihe fortns
(

in

7=;

<:::r>

I.

Each of these divine forms
as a dwelling-place, to

v5

"l

1

I

has
is

its

own
confined.

{}\

which however

it

not

The
or solar
'

seventy-five

Forms

in

question (each of which

is

a god) are,

as the text itself shows, simply so

many names
is

of the Solar god

phenomena.

Each of them

addressed as

r^^T

Y'
this

Ra, supreme of power,' after which some attribute of the deity

is

mentioned, and the name of the deity
In Greece, Apollo was called

is

connected with

attribute.
eicrj/SoXo?,

Karai^daio^, a7roTpo7ra?09,

veour'jviov,

attributes

and by ever so many other names expressive of the with which he was credited. These names correspond to
vi
(
1

what Egyptian mythology called the
of the

of a god, and each
is

names has but a limited
as

application.

The god

not always
of

thought of
menios,'

'Far-darting';
in

under

the

conception

'Neoanother

he dwells
is

what Egyptian mythology

called

„_^-^[^, which

the local habitation, or, as mathematicians would

say, the locus of the concept.

M. de Rouge, without
by what

giving any reason, but probably guided
written,

Champollion

had

translates

the

word

zone.

M.

Naville,

who

has carefully studied the word, prefers sphere.
leaves this

And

*
it

M. Naville

word untranslated, though he

rightly conjectures

to be the origin of
lA

XCOCtl

effundere, effusio, infundere, t»imergere.
is

^^

at
^

chapter 64, 23,

undoubtedly the overfowing, or otitpouring.
;

There are the reduplicated Coptic forms (T^CtjCTcy and (TeCLJf^^Cy

and (Tecye, a name of the

goose, has its origin in

a ^>

1

w

1

(jO

X

^i*:,

and has the same sense etymologically as the Latin mergus.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

25

I

no better word could be thought of, if we used it as we do in speaking of moving in a certain sphere,' each in his own sphere,*
'

'

or, 'the

sphere of action

;'

without applying a

strict

geometrical sense

For the Egyptian ^^_^^ S was a hollow cylinder like a round tower, a chimney, or -a deep well rather than a sphere. With the explanation I have just given, I prefer Boimds as a more expressive translation. The word appears in the dual form on account of the presence of the god.
to the word.

The name
Nile,

was given
in the
at

to the fabulous Source of the

supposed to be
of Seti
I

inscription

neighbourhood of Elephantine. The Redesieh {Denkm., Ill, 140B) compares
at

the

abundance of water
/I

the

King's 't>

cistern

to

that

of the
of

u ^ H^^ aXQ<r:=>00 ? J Jf
I

^\\n nfk

o
111

"the cavern of the Double Well
..c^^^^^^

Elephantine."

In the later orthography the word
It

is

written

1^^^

or

Z**^
might be

has been supposed

that the Coptic

KOpI

cataracts

connected with the old
Coptic word
3.
is

Egyptian name.

not sufficiently

known

to justify

But the history of the any inferences.
Osiris.

to

The Stro?2g one, 'l^^^^, the name of Chapter 126, Note 4.

See footnote

CHAPTER

CXXVIII.

Invocation of Osiris,

Hail to thee, Osiris Unneferu, son of Nut and eldest son of

Seb

:

the
;

Great
(i) the
;

One who proceedeth from Nut
Prince in

;

the

king in
;

Taa-urit

Amenta;
;

the Lord

of

Abydos

the

Lord of Forces
in

the most Mighty

the Lord of the Atef crown

Suten-hunen, the Lord of Power in Taa-urit, (2) the Lord of the Mansion most Powerful in Tattu Lord of Administration, (3)
:

:

and of many festivals in Tattu. Horus exalteth liis father Osiris
the Great with her
sister

in every place

;

associating Isis

Nephthys.

Thoih

s^jeaketh to [Horus] with the potent utterances (4)

which

!

'252

BOOK OF THE DEAD,
in himself their origin

have

and proceed from his mouth, and which strengthen the heart of Horus beyond all gods. Rise up Horus, son of Isis, and restore thy father
Osiris

Ha,

Osiris
life

!

I

am come

to thee

;

I

am Horus and

I

restore
all

thee unto

upon

this day, with the funereal offerings

and

good
thine

things for Osiris.

Rise up, then, Osiris
enemies,
I
I

:

I

have stricken down
beautiful

for thee

have delivered thee from them.

of

am Horus on this fair day, at the thy Powers who lifteth thee up with
:

coming forth (5) himself on this fair day as

thine associate god. (6)

Ha,

Osiris

!

thou hast

come and

with thee thy Ka, which uniteth

with thee in thy

He
in thy

of Ka-hotep. (7) glorifieth thee in thy name of the Glorified
of

name

:

he invoketh thee

name

Hekau
I

:

he openeth

for thee the paths in thy

name

of Ap-uat. (8)

Ha, Osiris
beneath thee
presence of
all

!

am come
who

to thee that I

may

set thine adversaries

in every place,

and

that thou mayest be triumphant in

the gods
!

are around thee.

Ha,
flight

Osiris

thou hast received thy sceptre, thy pedestal and the

of stairs beneath thee. (9) Regulate thou the festivals of the gods, and do thou regulate the

oblations to those

who

reside in their mansions.

Grant thou thy greatness to the gods

whom

thou hast made,

great god, and make thine appearance with them

as their Ensign. (10)

Take thou precedence (11) over Voice of Maat on this day. Said over t/te oblations made to
of Uaka, (12)

all

the gods and listen to the

the

Strong One on the Festival

Notes.

The

ancient papyri

do not contain

this chapter.

The

translation

follows the text of the Turin Todtenbuck, occasionally corrected

by
in-

other papyri of the later period.
teresting in the chapter
:

There

is

nothing specially
it

the

first

portion of

is

an invocation to
to the

Osiris under certain names, as
* Cf. the

in

many

other

hymns*

god

Hymn to

Osiris in the Bibl. Nationale, the

Hymn

of Tunrei (Marietta, the temp'e of Ptah the

Mou. div., pi. 57), and an inscription copied hy Mariette from at Memphis [Alon. div., pi. 28 e). There are plenty others of

same kind.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
:

253

from the time of the Xllth dynasty down to the latest times the latter portion consists of evocations addressed by Horus to his
father.

Their prototype

is

to

be found

in formulas frequent in the
in the

Pyramid Texts. These were much admired and imitated Saitic and the later periods.
1.

King
[

in

Tau-urit

I

^ 2_J
l"^ ^t Philae.
()

^^ <^
And

Osiris

is

also

called
this

1 1](

jI

^ ^^ ^
is

in the

second
if

line of

chapter he

called ^^37

Jfj in

Tau-urit which,

not identical

with Abydos, must have been a part of that town or in

its

immediate

neighbourhood.
2.

^^' 8 ^

^= Iy2 ^^ g
/,

is

- equivalent to ^

^

,

the

title

of Osiris in Pepi

line

8.

And

the

Power

is

defined as

"thy Power which
Glorified."
X.

is

upon the

Administration
18.

r-^-^

;

literally

things.

See

note

3

on

III

Chapter
4.

Utterances

%^®'~^Q^^

See note

2

on Chapter

i,

and compare

Merenrd, 103, and FeJ>i
5.

/I, 13.
.

Coming forth
e^oBei'a

Cf.

cy^-I, iwcneWcn', <h'oro\,),

and the
corres-

meanings

and

Lo/m) which,

on the
first

tablet of

Canopus,

pond
I
"vl
I

to the

Egyptian

^n-

The

hour

after sunrise

was called
"

®
: I
I

so that " the beautiful

Coming

forth of thy

Powers

may

be a mere technical periphrasis
Besides the

for

daybreak.

^

%> "^^^

Vi> of

Ra

in

Chapter

1 7, it is

well to

remember such proper names
L_J
I

as

^

^

,

p>nrtq

^

3, T

III'
:^
6.

^^_^
O
thee,
\ \
ff^
I
I

Q ^^

)

with several others.
I

Thine associate god, or one of those about
2

See Note
the fine

on Chapter 18, M. Chabas in his commentary upon hymn translated by him in the Rev. Arch., 1857, considers 2 L

254
it

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
is

" line circonstance bizarre " that Osiris
his
'

several times included

among

Djadjou.^

The

bizarrerie

is

easily explained
uf.i(f)l

by

parallel

expressions

known

to every

Greek

scholar, ol
his troops,

YletaiffrpuTov in

Herodotus means Pisistratus with
ol
Trepi

and

in

Thucydides,
In the

Qpa(Tv/3ov\oi'

means Thrasyhulus with
Wpiafiov
is

his soldiers.

Iliad

(3,

146)

ol

«/(0t

explained by the Scholiast as
of one

meaning Priam Inmself :
7.

tovt" iaTtv., o Ylpiafio-}.
it

This passage as

stands

is

the

alteration

of the
to
in

Pyramid Texts (Teta, 284; Pepi I, 54): " Horus hath brought pass that his Ka [? image] which is in thee should unite with thee
thy

name
8.

of Ka-hotep."
is

This whole passage

also taken from tlie
is

Pyramid Texts.
not yet

Its

chief value in this place

in

evidence of a truth

generally acknowledged by Egyptologists, that Ap-uat (or as written
in

the Pyramid Texts,

Up-uat)

is

really Osiris.

The

proofs are

numerous and overwhelming. I produced evidence of this identity in the P.S.B.A. of June i, 1886, from an obelisk of the Xllth dynasty now at Alnwick Castle,
and
in

now
treats

1891 Brugsch published in his Thesmirus (p. 1420) a tablet, in the Louvre, of the same period as the obelisk, which also

Ap-uat as one of the names of

Osiris.

But the

earliest as well

as the
later

most instructive evidence is that of the Pyramid Texts. The form of it is thus given on the coffin of Nes-Shu-Tefnut at

Vienna (see Bergman, Pecueil, VI, p. 165): "Horus openeth for thee thy Two Eyes that thou mayest see with them in thy name of
Ap-uat."

But the Pyramids

of

Teta

(1.

281) and Pepi

(1.

131) say,

openeth for thee thine Eye that thou mayest see with it in Ap-uat." Each of the Eyes of Osiris is Ap-uat, one of them
Southern and the other
is

"Horus its name
is

the

each other fcrm part
Chapter 125.

These two facing of the symbolism explained in Note 2 upon
the Northern Jackal.
is

The

figure of the Jackal
is

wholly insufficient as an argument

that Ap-uat

identical with Anubis.

Much
is

in the fact that the

name

of Anubis

figure.*

But the

true explanation of this

better evidence is found sometimes written over the is, what might have seemed

some of our older one of the names of Osiris.
incredible to
* See Mariette,
,

scholars, that

Anubis

is itself

only

with the Eye and bears the

Mon. div pi. 61, where each name Anpu.

of the jackals

is

surmounted

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The Pyramids
of Pepi
I

25

474 and following) and Pepi II (1. 1262 and following) give imaginary etymologies of certain names of Osiris which are repeated in the inscriptions of the tomb of
(line

Horhotep, published by M. Maspero
these names
is ^^r-::^

{Aliss. Arch.,

I,

260).

One

of
t
,

^(tf

'

which

is

said to be derived from v
J)=3,

-^1

AnJ)u, which

is

derived from
;

v\

!

The

true

meaning of
;

(I

V

^^

^^''

jackal, but 7tihelp

the fierce

young of an animal
(J

not only of jackals

or lions but of men, kings or gods,
(Eur., Orest., i) of gkv^ivov uvonlov
TTttT/joV,

SI

Thus Orestes speaks

and the Chorus of another

play talks of the reception of yhv *Ax''A-Xe(oi/ aicvfivov [Atidr., 1170).

And

Shakespeare speaks of "the young whelp of Talbot's raging

brood."
9.

Pedestal,

L

^v

>.

y.

;

the statid

upon which the images or

emblems of the god were
frequently supported by
it
;

carried in procession.
^'-j
.
^

The

\

is
|

very

Flight of stairs,
10.

^
ins/_i::nis,

.

See Note 2 on Chapter 22.

Ensign,

i.e.,

one who bears the distinguishing mark

or sign of investiture
Osiris
is

Q

\\

^ .*

See Note 4 on Chapter 78.

here presented as the Sahu of the gods

whom

he has

called into existence.
(line 7) calls

The Hymn
"
j'

of the Bibliotheque

Nationale

him

^^ '^^
of this sign

||

The importance

is

manifest in the Pyramid Text (A/erenrd, 634),

"^Vmaketh
his throne.
'

his

appearance as King, he hath possession of his

HR
I

X

O

and of

[Since the above was in print
in

M.

Naville has published an inscrip1

tion of

Queen Hatshepsit,

which the remarkable expression

?

J\^
'

'V

occurs three times.]

The word
or
I

written

'

|

"~Q^'
'

D

| "TT,

but also

y | MT
has

Yr^ Q

S

(^"'-'

^^^° without

any vowel, though

^v

is

understood),

determinatives in Pe/ti
zone.

Hence

I, 635, and Merenrd, 509, which imply the sense oi girdle, the sense of neighbourhood, " the men or places round about one."

2

L

2

;

256

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chnumhotep
at

Benihassan says of the king,
J

^^
above
all his

v^
nobles^'

/wwsA^OA^
that
is

fi

" he distinguished

me

the order of

men

bearing the sign of investiture.
1

1 1.

Take

precedence,
it

J

-^J5^

.

I

take the word in the same

sense as where

occurs (without the determinative of sound) in

Denkm.,
1

Ill,

29a; in parallelism with

'^^

.

2.

Uaka,
I,

^\ S

^^\

^

;

in

the older texts

X S
]

f

1 (as

98) ; one of the oldest festivals of the Egyptian calendar, kept on the 17th and 18th of the month Thoth.
in

Pepi

The Pyramid Text
(1
Q

says "Behold, he

cometh

to thee as

Orion

^

)'

bs^o^^ Osiris cometh as Orion the Lord of Wiite
,

I

^^Z^ U

vinosus, full of wine),

who cometh on

the

fair festival

of

Uakar
Uaka,

"v\S'v\3^3:
to the Nile.

or

-C]^

^i\

T=^

is

also

one of the

names given

CHAPTER CXXIX
is

a repetition of Chapter C.

CHAPTER CXXX.
A
Book
for ei-er, on the day of entering into the Bark of Rd, and to pass the She?iizi of the Tuat. Made on the Birthday of Osiris, (i)
ivherehy
the
is

Soul

?>iade to

lire

opened be the gates of Earth opened be the gates of the East opened be the gatf s of the West opened be the gates of the Southern and of the Northern sanctuaries. Opened be the gates and thrown wide the portals as Ra riseth

Opened be

the gates of

Heaven
;

;

;

*

Does

1331

represent what

we

call the Belt of Orion

with

its

three bright stars.'

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
;

257

up from the Mount of Glory opened to him be the doors of the Sektit boat, thrown open to him be the portals of the Maatit, as he scenteth Shu and setteth in motion Tefnut, and those follow who are in the train of the Osiris N, who foUoweth Ra and takeih possession of his arms of steel. (2)
I

am
:

coffined in an ark like Horus, to

whom
own

his cradle (3) is

brought

and

secret

is

the place, hard by his
willeth.

shrine,

which the

god openeth

to

whom

he

And so it cometh that I lift up Right to the Lord of Right, and that I make fast the cord which windeth about the shrine. The Osiris iVavoideth the raging storm the Osiris JV is not to
:

be kept away from Ra, not to be repulsed is he. advance into the Valley of Darkness Let not the Osiris

N

:

let

not the Osiris

N enter
come

into the

not leap into the grip of Fate,

imprison souls or

forth

dungeon of the captives let him him not fall among those who among those who would drag him
:

let

behind the slaughtering block of the

Armed

god. (4)

the hands of Seb, at daybreak, for he delighteth in drawing to himself both old and

Salutations to you, ye sejant gods. (5) The divine Sword (6) is concealed in

young

own season. And now behold Thoth
at his

in

the secret of his mysteries.
;

He
steel

maketh

purifications

and endless reckonings
Osiris

piercing

the

firmament and dissipating the storms around him.

And
of
his.

so

it

cometh that the

N hath reached every

station

He

hath fashioned his

the swift

and received the oblations of Ra, of speed and beautiful in his rising and almighty through
staff,

what he hath done.

He

putteih an end to his pain

and
yea,

suffering,

and the

Osiris

N

putteth an end to his

own

pain

;

he gladdeneih the counten-

ance of Thoth by the worship of

The Osiris entereth the of Ra, who hath made his Bark and saileth prosperously, lightening up the face or Thoth, that he may listen to Ra and beat down the obstacles in his
way, and put an end to his adversaries.

N

Ra and Osiris. Mount of Glory

Let not the Osiris

N be
own

shipwrecked on the great voyage hy
lap
:

him whose
to

face

is

in his

(7) for the
is

name
N,

of

Ra

is

upon

the Osiris, and his token of honour

on

his

mouth, which speaketh

him

w^ho listeneth to the words of the Osiris

258
Glory to thee,
thee,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

O

Ra, Lord of the

Mount

of Glory.

Hail to
this

who

purifiest

the generations yet unborn and to

whom

great quarter of heaven oflfereth homage.

The

steering keepeth clear from misadventure.
is

Lo, here

Osiris

who

proclaimeth Right, because of the marvel
for

in the West, for

he hath put an end to the rage of Apepi,

he

is

himself the god in Lion form
tecteth

among

the associate gods and pro-

Ra

against Apepi daily, that

he

may

not approach him,

and he keepeth watch upon him.
receiveth the offerings.

Osiris seizeth the scrolls

and
shall

And Thoth
perform for him.

supplieth
It
is

the Osiris

N with

that

which he

granted that the Osiris shall carry Maat at

the head of the great Bark,

and hold up Maat among

the associate

gods, and that Osiris gain endless triumphs.

The Sheniu marshal
Osiris a voyage

the Osiris

N, and they procure

for the

amid acclamations.
of

The

Satellites

Ra make

their

round, in the train of the

exaltation of Ma5t,

who

followeth her Lord.

And

glory

is

given to

the Inviolate one.

The

Osiris

receiveth

the Amsu-staff (8)

wherewith he goeth
glory, as to

round Heaven. The unborn generations of men give him
standeth without
ever
resting.

one who
that

Ra

exalteth

him by
in
is

this,

he

alloweth the Osiris to disperse the cloud and behold his glories.

He

maketh firm
of
his

his

rudders that the Bark
in

may go round
Thoth

Heaven and
in the centre

that he may make his appearance
eye,

Antu.

sejant

in

the

great

Bark of Chepera.

becometh one whose words come to pass. He it is over Heaven unto the West, and the Chabasu gods of Light They receive the cable of Ra rise up to him with acclamation. from his rowers, and Ra goeth on his round and seeth the Osiris who issueth his decrees (9) the Osiris N, the Victorious in peace
; ;
!

The Osiris who passeth

in

peace

!

Not

to

be repelled

is

he

;

not to be caught by the

fire

of thy

fate.

Let not the tempest of thy mouth come forth against him. Let not the Osiris iV advance upon the paths of misfortune

:

let

him avoid disasters, let them not attain him. enters into the Bark of Ra, he succeedeth The Osiris

N throne he receiveth thine The N inaugurateth
;

to thy

insignia.

Osiris

the paths of

Ra and

prayeth that he

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
may
drive off the

259
against thy

Lock which cometh out of the flame

Bark out of the great Stream.

But the
the Osiris
offerings.

Osiris

N

N knoweth
within
it
;

it,

and

it

attaineth not thy Bark.

is

the Osiris

N who
prow

For

maketh the divine

Said over a Bark of Rd. coloured in pure green, (10)
sh alt place a picture of the deceased at the
Sektit boat on the right side
thereof.

And thou And make a
the left side

of

it

and an Aiit boat on

of it. (11)

Notes.
1.

This

title is

given to the Chapter in the later recensions, and

nearly resembles that given in the Berlin papyrus of
(of the

Nechtu-amen

XlXth
is

dynasty).

period

quite different,

— " Chapter -whereby
Tieat,

That given

in

another papyrus of the older

Instead of the Sheniu of the

Ba

(the
'

Chu is fortified.'^ papyrus of Nechtuamen)
the
"

has the Sheniu of Fire gested by the
in
-^ [
I

[p| rVf

1

'

^ reading sug-

[,

\\the
\ly

circuit

yw\AAA

1

/^

of fire, which occurs
of this chapter are

(~\

»y

the

title

of another chapter.

The Sheniu

living personages
their acclamations.

who attend upon the Osiris and greet him with The word is often translated 'princes,' 'oflficers,
are in the
circle

but
'

it

signifies those ivho

of a king or god, hence

ministrants,' 'courtiers,' as in the rubric of

Chapter

CXXV.

The words made on
later texts,

Birth-day of Osiris are only found in the but the old papyrus Lc, which has another title, has the
tlie

words

f1

n^

^X ^
is

^^^

important word

^

%^

which

is

here carelessly omitted
of Osiris, was the
first

supplied by the rubric.

For the Birth-day

of the five supplementary days, added to the
this

day the chapter was to be recited and the usual oblations offered (see Note 11), So we must understand
year of 360 days.
a^
2.
* ,

On

which

is

to

be made or done,'

Anns

of steel,

^\ ~"^
[\

I

.

3.

Cradle or Nest,

S

;

the 'Nest of Reeds'

^ #'

so

often represented in pictures of the later periods,
4.

The Armed god, A

J

Septu,

called

A

°

^

A

R

26o
{Unas 282) and
is,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

A c—=-^

^\
is
is
[

sepfu dbu,

'armed with horns/

that

rays of light.

In pictures he

represented as a
in

hawk armed with
is

bow and

arrows,

and there

one picture

which he

in the

form

of Bes, destroyer of the Menti.
5.

Sejant gods

^^

*?

Wl

'

^

^™

compelled

for

want of a

better

word

to use the heraldic

term which most nearly expresses the

posture of gods sitting on the ground with their knees raised up
acfainst

their

breasts.

Egyptian pictures.

The posture is a very common one in The second Sallier Papyrus represents an

unfortunate artisan as sittmg, ^^:/ J

Ik"^

^
\\

(? (?

"S

n
l

^

_i

with his two knees at the pit of his stomach."

The

r

o^

is

the limb between the knee and the pelvis.

6.

This divine Szvord

:1

Unseen

fate brings

down

the

old and the young alike to the Grave ever ready to receive them.

Seb, the

(fyvai^oo^ aJa,

is

here, as elsewhere, spoken of in reference
in the Tuat, as in

to his icaToxrj of the
7.

dead

Unas 210.

Whose face

is

in his

own

lap,

o W^
it

J 2^
phonetically
written

Cf.

Note 5. 8. The

Atnsti
1

staff.

The name

of
It is

is

^K\

^\

Y

ii^

the later texts.

the

emblem both

of Osiris

and of Horus, and is constantly represented along with bows, arrows, and other weapons, in the oldest coffins, as belonging to the celestial armoury of the deceased person.
9.

Who

issiietk

his decrees.

See INIaspero, Bibl. Egyptol.
<^
^-^^^^^

II.,

p. 3 (note)

and

39.
o

10.

Green.

The Egyptian

.

is

probably nearer in meaning

to the
11.

Greek

xkwpo'i, 'pale green, yellowish-green.'

bread,

The Rubric ends here in beer, and all good things on

Pb.

Zr. adds,

They shall

offer

the Birth-day of Osiris.
luill rise
iij>

A7id if

these rites

are performed for him, his soul

and

ever

;

he will not ever die a s(C07id time in the divine Nether
later texts

live for world"

The

add the information

that the text

was discovered
it

in the great hall of the palace in the

time of king Septa, and that

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
was found
in a pit or

26
'^

chamber

in the rock,

.

It wa*;

made by Horus for his royal name on the great

father Osiris Unneferu.
tablet of

Septa

is

the

fifth

Abydos.

chaptp:r cxxxi.
Chapter whereby one proceedeth into Heaven by the side cf Rd. (i)

Oh Ra

(2)

who
let

art shining this night

:

if

there be any one

among
Thoth,

thy followers,

him present himself who causeth Horus to come forth this

living as a follower of

night.

The
them.

heart of the Osiris

is

glad, because

he

is

one

at the

head of

by the warriors (3) of the Osiris N, who is a follower of Ra, and hath taken his arms of steel. He Cometh to thee, his father Ra, he followeth Shu and calleth
to a stop
for the

His adversaries are brought

Crown.
is

He

putteth

on

Hu

(4)
is

and

is

arrayed with the

Lock which

on the path of

Ra and

his glory.

And he
The Thy

aniveth at the

Aged
up.

one, at the confines of the

Mount

of Glory, and the crown awaiteth him.
Osiris iVraiseth
it

Soul

is

with thee, and strong
thee,
in

is

thy Soul through the terror
Osiris

and the might which belong to decrees which Ra hath spoken

Oh

N, who

utterest the

Heaven. Hail to thee, great god in the East of Heaven, who enterest into the Bark of Ra in the form of the Divine Hawk and executest the decrees which have been uttered thou who strikest with thy sceptre
;

from thy Bark.

The
Fair

Osiris iV^entereth into thy
;

Bark and
:

saileth peacefully to the

West

and Tniu
is

saith to

Mehenit

millions

him Art thou coming in? upon millions in length from Amur

to

Ta-ur (5) an endless river wherein the gods move. whose path is in the fire ; and they travel in (6)
the
fire

who come behind him.
Notes.

I.

None

of the oldest papyri yet

known
its

contain this chapter.

This of

itself is

not an argument against

antiquity,

and there
2

is

M

262
really

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
no reason
for
it.

supposing

it

to

be

less ancient

than the chapter
is,

which precedes
2.

The

latter portion of the text

however, very
it.

corrupt and we have unfortunately no

means
is

as yet of correcting
in

O

Ha.

The name

of the god
its

sometimes omitted
It

MSS.
?

The

context, however, requires
:

presence.

may

nevertheless

be asked

how can

the Sun-god be said to be shining in the night
:

how can Horus (in the very same line) be said to come forth in the night ? The answer to both these questions is ihat the Sun, whether as Ra or as Horus
question might as pertinently be asked
or Osiris, shines in the night through the agency of Thoth, the

The

Moon.

For further information see Notes
3.

to next chapter.

Warriors

—*—

^

jjl

I

.

I

take this group as
-^
(,

11

or
"^
i

=

*-•
1

or ^
I

iM
!^

1

.

I

II

I

But a papyrus gives the variant
4.

[

He

putteth on

Hu.

This

is

certainly obscure

;

but

it is

not

the less in conformity with the doctrine of the Pyramid texts.

The
is

deceased {Pepi
fed from night
=="=s^

I.

432, Merira 618)

is

borne to a region where he

till

daybreak, and then seizes upon the god Hu,

Q

Q V^

X

\\ jq>-.

And

according to other texts {Unas, 446,

Teta, 250) the deceased seizes (^5t^)

been fastened to his

feet enters

upon Hu, and after Sau has the bark and seizes upon i^jf^) the

Mount
5.
is

of Glory.
\
I

Mehenit ^'^^

A.

,

or in the masculine form

^ (/-

,

the

name

of the mythological serpent which personifies the sub-

terranean path from West to East of the Sun's nightly course.
the

In
it

Book of Hades

{e.g.

on the Sarcophagus of
in his

Seti,

passim)

is

represented as extending over the back, top and front of the shrine
in

which the Sun-god

is

borne

Bark.

The many
This

folds of the

serpent are symbolical of the turnings and windings of the river or

canal

(

^
is

)
1

over which the god

is

conveyed.
is

river

is

here

described as infinite in length.

This

one of the instances from

which

it

clear

s°^\

like the

corresponding Coptic OTGI,

has the meaning oi length.

The
7fl?/r'

length

'

See P.S.B.A., XVII, 190. from West to East is described as from Atnur to
' '

^v

-Vr-

^\ ^^^ ® <zr=>
to signify the

-^-^

^^* ©

.

Amur

is

known
13).

from many texts

West

(see supra,

Chapter 64, note

ROOK OF THE DEAD.
The
East
is

263
royal Ritual at

known
I.

as Ta-ur or Ta-urit,

The
U

Ahydos

(Mariette,
"^=5- i\y\^

37)

says

^=^^c^^f-fl-^cv£^^^:'^
I

^ f
I

.

And

as one of the values of the sign

)y

^

is

ta as in

p-j

>^

.

^

(Louvre, B. 14),

I feel

sure that

we should read

Ta-iir (or

in the

feminine Ta-urit) rather than Nif-ur or Nif-urif, even in such
i

passages as those quoted sup?-a in Chapter 128, notes

and

2,

which

have no necessary references to earthly geography.

There is a corrupt passage here, which I have at present no means of correcting by manuscript authority. M. Pierret thus renders it: " Le dieu qui partage les paroles y fait son chemin do millions d'annees, seigneur sans egal, dont le chemin est dans le feu."
6.

CHAPTER
Chapter whereby a person
is

CXXXII.

enabled to go round, to visit his dwelling

in the Netherworld.
I

am

the Lion-god

who

issueth from the

Bow,

(i)

and therefore

have
I

I shot forth. (2)

and the Eye of Horus is opened at the instant that I reach the strand, coming with happy issue. there is no defect found in me, and the I advance and, lo
the

am

Eye of Horus

;

!

Balance

is

relieved of

my

case. (3)

Notes.
I.

The Bow, c—=-^
which
is

,

often written wnth the

determinative J\, of
in
this

stretching,

the conception implied
1

name
its

of the
Soc.

instrument.
Bill.

This mythological Bow, as
,

explained, Proc.

Arch

VI, 131,
is

is

the moon's crescent, which during
;

course

through the sky

always turned towards the sun

so that a line at

right angles to the

chord of the arc passes through the sun's centre.
delicate

From

this

" very

observation,"
infers

as

Arago
the

calls

it,

the

Alexandrian astronomer Geminus
its light

that

moon

derives

from the sun.

The

observation evidently had been

made

in

Egypt some thousands of years before Geminus, and explains

264

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
in several chapters the

why
the

sun

is

spoken of as shining in or from

moon.

See also Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., XVII, 37, on another form of the myth. 2. I follow the Turin text in omitting a word about which the
earlier texts are not agreed,

but which seems to have originated in an
.

alternate reading for
3.

|^

See end of Chapter
text.

i

and

note.

These words are omitted

in

Turin

CHAPTER
Book whereby
presmce of the great Cycle of the MontK\. (2)

CXXXIII.
Might
(

the Deceased acquireth

i)

in the
011

Netherworld in
the first

the gods.

[^Said

day of

Ra maketh
abode.

his

appearance

at

the

Mount

of Glory, with the

Cycle of gods about

him
(3)

:

the Strong one issueth from his hidden

The Twinklers

fall

away from the Mount of Glory

at

the

East of Heaven, at the voice of Nut as she buildeth up the paths of

Ra, before the Ancient one who goeth round.

Be thou

lift

up,

O Ra who

art in thine shrine

;

breathe thou the

breezes, inhale the north wind

....
;

(4)

on the day when

thou discernest the Land of Maat,

Thou

dividest

them

that follow

the Bark advanceth

and the

Ancient ones step onwards

at thy voice.
set thy limbs,

Reckon thou thy bones, and
towards the beautiful Amenta.

and turn thy face

golden Form, (5) with a couch of the heavenly orbs, with the Twinklers amongst whom thou goest round, and ait

For thou

art the

renewed daily. Acclamation cometh from the Mount of Glory, and greeting from the lines of measurement. (6)

The gods who
to

are in heaven, they see the Osiris

N, they present

him

their adorations as to
is

Ra.
seeketh the

He

the Great one,
is

who

Crown and reckoneth up

that which

needful.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

265

He is the
of
earth

One, who cometh forth
Netherworld.

this

day from the primeval

womb

them who were before Ra, and
and
in the

coming forth taketh place upon His coming forth is like Ra daily.
his
is

Without haste, but unresting,
Eternity.

the Osiris

N on

this

Land

of

Twice blessed
his ears.

is

he that seeth with his eyes and heareth with

Right, right

is

the Osiris

N: and

his future, his future, (7)

is

in

Annu. His oars are

lifted as in

The
his face.

Osiris

N hath

the service of Nu.
;

not told what he hath seen

he hath not

repeated what he hath heard in the house of the god

who

hideth

welcome to the Osiris N, the divine body of Ra, on traversing the Nu, and whilst the ka of the god is being propitiated, according to his pleasure. The Osiris JV is the Hawk, rich in variety of Forms. The Deceased acquireth might with Ra, and is enabled to possess power among the gods, for the gods are made to regard him as one of themselves, and when the Dead ones see him they fall upon their faces. He is seen in the Netherworld even as the beams of Ra. Said over a Boat of fotir cubits in length, painted green. And let a starry sky be tnade, clean and purified with natron and incense. And see thou make an image of Rd upon a tablet of light greeti colour at the prozv of the Boat. And see thou make an image of the Deceased 7vhom thou lovest, that he may be made strong in this boat, atid that his voyage be made in the Bark of Rd, and that Rd himself may look
cries of

There are hailing and

upon him.

Do

not do this for any one except for thine

ozvti self,

thy

father and thy son.
selves.

And let them be exceedingly cautious for themThe Deceased acquireth might with Rd, afid made to possess power among the gods, who regard him as one of themselves, and when men or the Dead see him they fall upon their faces. He is seen i?i the
Nethenvorld as
the

image of Rd.

(8)

Notes.

The earliest known text of this chapter is that of the Tomb Amenemhait at Thebes {Ta), of the time of Thothmes HI. It
Ax.

of
is

almost as inaccurate as that of Nebseni {Aa), or the Brockelhurst

Nor

is

the text of Ani of any use towards clearing up any of

the difficulties.

2

N

266

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I.

Acquireth Might.

(1

<rp> does not

signify

7i'ise,

nor has

it

anything to do with instruction or perfection, as supposed by other As an adjective it is used to quaUfy not only animate translators.
but inanimate things, such as an egg,
beer,

and

incense.

The

well-

known
the
the

\\

expressions <cir>

A
<:r:>

I.

and

^

\\
(.

«c=^

A ®
The

exactly correspond to

Hebrew li>^r2 1i^ and -l^^?3 li^?2Hebrew "11^^, is that oi strength.
(1
I

notion implied, as in

<:zr>,

in

the Prisse Papyrus,

is

not a wise man, but a

poiverful one, a

man of ra7ik

or infinence, hwa^cvo'i, cwmo'^.
[

This

is

the meaning of the word in such passages as

^^^n^
(/nscr.

^
<

y
>

^^

(Rouge, Inscr.

hier.,

8o)

'^\j'
(I
1 \j

^^

of

d

.

J:

^
repeatedly)
i).

Una

(1'^

^'^^O,
ftaaiXJjt,
is

<^-__^!> /VSA.AAA

A

p<=r=>^[|^
of
7, 5.

{Pap. Prisse 17,

These expressions are the exact equivalents
Herodot.

the Greek Svfd/icuo^ Tmpd rw

The might acquired by the deceased
and
in
all

stated in the final rubric

the

titles

of the chapter in the later recensions to be

^ "O" ^.^^
2.

o^

,

with reference to Ra.

Said on

the first

day of the Month.

These words

first

appear

on the Papyrus of Ani
3.

The Twinklers.
',

The

oldest texts in this place have

M
further on

though the equivalent and corresponding word a

^
little

:
is

^^.

vN^^^^^,

which

is

the usual

reading

here in the later recensions.
of both groups.
to

The

stars

The same meaning may be made out are manifestly alluded to, as being made
his appearance.

disappear

when

the

Sun makes
|

"^--^

,

oi'

in

reduplicated form
to ogle,

^)

O

,

is

the pupil of the eye
^'^

;

I

^^--^

is

far

Focchiata.

^^ V ^^

^^^ other

hand
glance

signifies the little tremblers, "

tremulo fulgore micantes."
stars are here

The

of the eye
as so
*

is

1^

^

VX ^-^5-.* The
signifying tremble

considered

many

eyes, characterised b) their tremulous motion.
is

The Egyptian word

written either wiih

c:S> or

with

o.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
4.

iCiJ

The
if

true

text

is

here quite

lost.

Some

sense might be

restored,
latter
it

we
is

miglit read

A
is

)

1

"2

()

instead of

\a\

\>

'^

y.-

he

word

absolute nonsense in this place, whatever determinative
the weil

known name of a tree held The whole passage then might sacred at various places in Egypt. " Enjoy the north wind, and may the Kabasu trees of thine mean

may

have, but the former

abode
5.

refresh thee."

The golden Form.

The whole

of this passage will

become

clear after reading the final rubric

and examining the Vignettes of

the chapter.
6.

Line of measurement,
in the pictures

^
and

VX
text

"

^''^'"'

explanation of this
In

will

be found

of the

Book of Hades.

Bonomi's Sarcph., Plates VII and VIb, twelve personages are represented in the act of acclamation, and twelve others carry the line
/I\

<zz=>

V\ 1^

^

V

5

^

^^^

^^^ intended for the line

is

stated

in the text.

" I'he bearers of the line are those

who

settle the fields

of the Chu,

0"^^^^""'^^^.
and

^ ..wwv'^^
I
~~^
(
(1

1."

They
9
,

are called

upon

to take their line

to fix the

^^.

ceoiO^^I,
.satis-

upovpri, the

arable land of each allotment.

Ra

expresses his

faction at the
their

measurement, and tells the gods and the Chu that domains are theirs, and that he provides their food.

8.

The

rubric

is

taken from Ax.

CHAPTER CXXXIV.
Chapter whereby the Deceased acquireth might.
Hail to thee

who

art in the

midst of thine Ark,
:

who

risest,

and declining

(i)

one who declinest

spring forth, as he turneth his face to

Oh rising Sun whose will millions the unborn generations of
at

Chepera in the middle of his Bark, who overthroweth Apepi. Here are the children of Seb who overthrow the adversaries of Osiris and destroy them from the Bark of Ra.
:

men

2

N

2

;

268

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Horus
cutteth off their heads in heaven

when

in

the forms of

winged
All

fowl, their hinder parts
[in

on earth when
the
Osiris

in the

forms of quad-

rupeds or

the water] as fishes.

fiends,

male

or

female,

N

destroyeth

them,

whether descending from heaven or coming forth upon the earth, or
issuing out of the water or travelling along with the Stars.

Thoth slaughtereth them, the Son of the Rock, proceeding from
the place of the

The

Osiris

Two Rocks. (2) IV is dumb and deaf (3)
in their gore.

for the

Strong one

is

Ra, the

puissant of stroke, the Almighty one,

who washeth

in their

blood

and walloweth

The The

Osiris Osiris

N destroyeth them from the Bark of bringeth him N Horus mother
is
:

his father Ra.
forth,

his

Isis

and

Nephthys nurseth him,
ones of Sutu
fall
:

as they did to

Horus, who repelleth the dark

who, when they see the Crown fixed upon his brow,
triumphant over his adversaries

upon
Osiris
earth,

their faces.

Unneferu

is

in

heaven and

on

and

in

the cycle of each god and goddess.

Said over a

Hawk

in a Boat, 7uith the White

Crown npon

its

head, atid the figure of Tnni, Shu,

Tefnut, Seb, Nut,

Osiris, Isis,

Sutu, (4) Ahphthys, painted yellowish green on a fresh papyrus placed
in this Boat, together ivith the figure of the Deceased, anointed with
the

Heknu
It
to

oil.

Let there be offered
his

to

them

i/icense

burning and roast
it is

fowl.

is

the adoration of

Ra, and

his voyage,

for

granted

to
lie

him

make
;

appearance each day luith Ra, ivhiihersoever
adversaries

fourneyeth
positively

and it is the Slaughter of the and ttndeviatingly for times infinite.
Notes.

of

Ra

1.

Declining

— — m.
h

This word frequently occurs
latter

in contrast

with

V

^
1

understand the

in

all

such cases

to

fri

signify the shining of the sun

on his

rising,

and the former

to signify

the shining of the sun in his afternoon course.
2.

The son of

the Rock, proceeding
I

from

the place of the T700
is

Rocks.

The

only explanation

can think of

derived from the

identification (in chapter 6 2) of Thoth with the Nile,

1^^ X

D

Jj.

,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
P>om
issues
this point of

269

view the god
the

is

both the son of the Rock and
[
I

from the place of
in ihe

Double Rock,

1

1

,

or

of the

*-

-"

o

o

two Rocks, called
3.

time of Herodotus Krojihi and Mophi.

Dumb

and

deaf,

QAl

a 4

It

i^

strange

that

this

meaning of the passage has so long been misunderstood. sense of the first word has long been recognised, and 'deaf meaning
rightly

The
is

the

assigned to

[

^

in

Birch's Dictionary.
is

One

instance like the following (from Unas, 608)

sufficient to settle

the question— .^JU
"

^

^

>=n:

^

^..^

I

T|

^^ ^
is

^=:^
J

He

is

not so deaf that he should not hear thy voice."
attributes
is

That the subject of these

the Osiris

seen by

reference to At, where instead of 'the Osiris 'the deceased speaks
in the first

person,

^
^

\&

^

\^

^

"^

''^"^

dumb,

I

am

deaf."
4.

Sutii.

the reign of

This divine name occurs in the text of Amenhait in Thothmes HI. And I have noted another instance
is

where the name

written
It

I

J].

Dr. Birch called the papyrus

Miss Brockelhurst's.

cannot however be the

Ax

of

M.

Naville,

which does not contain the chapter.

The disappearance
is

of the god's

name from

all

other documents

a fatal argument against their claims to high antiquity.

CHAPTER CXXXV.
Another chapter
recited

when

the

Moon

renews

itself on the first

day of the month.
Osiris
is

enveloped in storm and rain
daily, the

:

he

is

enveloped

:

but

the
. .

fair
.

Horus lendeth succour
(1)

Lord of high
journey

attributes

he driveth

off the
:

storm from the face of the Osiris N.

Behold him coming

he

is

Ra on

his

:

he

is

the four

gods who are over the upper region.

The
lines
is

Osiris VVarriveth at his

own time

:

and by means of

his

brought to the light of day.

2/0
If
this chapter be

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
kti07c<n

he hecotnefh a

Chu of Might

in the

Nethenc'orld ; he dieth not a second time, in the Netherworld ; but he
eateth by the side of Osiris.

If it
or

be kno7i>n

upon earth he
:

7i<ill

become like Thoth, so as

to be

worshipped by the living
to the fierce

he

tvill

not fall a victim to a king's ivrath (2)

heat of Basil, but will be

made

to

advance

to

a most

blissful old age.

Notes.
This chapter
1.

is

not found in the papyri of the older period.
^C\
Offerings of (or to) the

The words vX^^^- ^^= ^.v^

Moment have
See next note.
2.

the appearance of an interpolated rubrical direction.

A

kinifs tcrath

\\

^
I

.

^^\

"^

in

the cases of

gods and

men

is

an impulse which cannot be stopped, but carries
it.

everything before

CHAPTER CXXXVIa.
Chapter
7i'hereby one is conveyed in the

Bark of Rd.

Lo

the Light (i) which riseth up in Cher-aba. (2)
is

He
and

born, he of the strong cord, (3) his cable (4)

is

at

an end,

his rudder (5) hath
I poise

been taken

in

hand.

the divine machinery (6) by which

the cord above head, by

means

of which I

up the Bark to come forth into Heaven,
I raise

and

am conveyed to Nut. I am conveyed by it along

with Ra.

I

am conveyed by

it

like

the Kaf. (7) I stop the path at the Uarit of Nut, at the staircase where Seb

and Nut bewail

their hearts.

1

HOOK OF

TIIK DEAD.

27

CHAPTER CXXXVlB.
Chapter whereby one
is

conveyed in the Great

Bark

0/

Rd

to

pass

through the orbit offlame.
bright flame which art behind Ra,

and dividest

his

Crown

!

The Bark of Ra feareth the storm. Ye* are bright and ye are exalted.
1

come

daily with Sek-hra (8) from his exalted station, so that I

miy

and the lion-forms (10) which belong to them .... so that I may see them there. We are rejoicing: their great ones are in jubilation, and their
witness the process of the
(9)

Maat

smaller ones in
I

bliss.

make my way

at the

prow of the Bark of Ra, which

lifteth

me

up

like his disk.
I

shine like the Glorious ones,

whom

he hath enriched with his

wealth, holding fast like a

Lord of Maat. Here is the Cycle of the gods, and the Kite of Osiris. Grant ye that his father, the Lord of them, may judge

in his

behalf

And
it

so I poise for

him the Balance, which
live.

is iSIaat,

and

I

raise

to

Tefnut that he may

Come, come, for the father is uttering the judgment of Maat. Oh thou who callest out at thine evening hours, grant that I may come and bring to him the two jaws of Restau, and that I may bring to him the books which are in the Annu and add up for him his
hosts.

And
Let
I

so I have repulsed Apepi

and healed the wounds he made.
the two Barks

me make my way through the midst of you. am the Great one among the gods, coming in
Lord of Sau, the Figure of the great
saluter,

of the

who hath made
I

the Flame.

Let the fathers and their Apes
enter the

make way

for

me, that

may

Mount
is is

of

Glory,

and pass through where the Great

ones are.
I see

who

there in his Bark,

and

I

pass through the orbit of

Flame which

behind the Lord of the Side-lock, over the serpents.
* Sic.

272
Let
:

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
me pass I am the powerful one, the Lord of the powerful. I am the Sahu, the Lord of Maat, the creator of every Dawn, (i i) Place me among the followers of Ra place me as one who
:

goeth round
I

in the

Garden

of Peace of Ra,

am a god greater than thou art. Let me be numbered in presence
offerings are presented to

of the Divine Cycle

when

the

me.

Notes.

The two

chapters which are

numbered by M.

Naville as 136A

and 136B are represented in the later recensions by a single There is very much chapter, which has been made out of them. obscurity in the ancient texts, though the MSS. containing them are numerous, and the more recent versions are quite as difficult to understand. We must be satisfied for the present by a strict
literal
is

and grammatical

translation,

wherever

this

amount

of success

attainable.

The

royal sarcophagus 32 of the British

Museum

gives the latest form of 136A.
1.

Light

T

'

v^^"

^ common

noun

signifying lamp, but
is

the determinative here shows that a heavenly body

meant.

sun

is

here spoken of exactly in the same poetical way as
16(0.

The when

Antigone (879) speaks of
Phoeboea lampas.
2.

\a/n7rdco^

le/ioi'

o/u^ui,

or Virgil of the

The later recension speaks of " the Lamp in Annu and the Hammemit in Cheraba. This reading is already found in a few The royal sarcophagus 32 of the British of the Theban texts.

Museum
whence
it

gives the

important variant

/I\

^ ^

Q-^
sign has

follows that

Q^
,

is

phonetically

— Y-'I'ld

The latter

only two
the latter
of the

known
is

values

v-

-^ '^h'^^-:

^

'^^"^-

That

the true equivalent of Lf^-^

is

certain, in

consequence

complementary vowels

^^,

,

which commonly accompany

that sign, wheth.er in the

word

signifying battle, or in the

name

of

.

,

BOOK OF
a place.
reading,
It
is

TIIK DEAD.

273
should be the right
''""to

impossible that

o

Y ^

d

and no one has a
well

right to convert

a simple Q
the prothetic(l,

The
and
is

known word

R

^,
[

"strike," takes

found under the form

9

Qy^

,

in the

name
is

of one of the

hours of the night.*
discovery by
that
is
ft

No

fresh

information

derived from the
(1

M. Daressy of the same word under the form
as
it

8

o,

(.

i=5,

should be corrected

if

cited.

To

strike

and

though they may often be used synonomously, and admit of being substituted one for the other.f
to fight are different words,
3.

He

of the strong
is

cord,
I

|T- This
it

is

grammatically the subject

of the verb

born,

and

consider

as a

compound
in

expression in

which the adjective precedes the substantive, as
I

longimanus.

understand

T

as

=

1^^^
Q-/^

(^^^ Zeitsch., j868, p. 70,

and 1870,

70 press the identity of

and

[j

^

Q^
:

in the

name
[r\

of this
'=^

hou r

IS

to forget that its variants

would equally prove thai

V

iS^

=:=

The

t See F.S.B.A. IX, p. 313, and two previous articles of mine there referred to. corrections I have to make are the following I wrongly assumed that i\\e/ish

which

in hieratic papyri crosses the foot of the sign

j

in the variants of

fW\
<zz^
II,

was the same

fish as

we

find in the

group

I

'^^

T

^^^

The
pi.

fishes are different.
18,

On

referring to

M.

Naville's Festival

Hall of Osorkon

pictures
is

will

be found of the

^ <0<
>
j

and the

Q^
the

<g<.

The

first

of these

clearly the fish in
to be read

.^^^
,

heui-reii,

and the corresponding sign
other evidence
it

in the variant

is

^

hem,

in

harmony with
IX).

produced by

W. Max

Miiller {Recueil, vol.
its

The

picture of

does net

enable one to determine

species.

The

pictures at Bubastis of the

{\^\ ^^5=4
pi.

seem shows an immense
Nilotica.

to indicate the Synodontis, but a picture found
fish

by Petrie (Aledum,
is

12)

which has been

identified

with the Latus or Perca
of

This being of
Tffl:r;-/(7r,

the Acanthopterygian

family

course a very
says,

formidable
not yield

like our

own

small perch, which, as Mr.
its

Ward

"does

its life

without endangering the person of
to the first dorsal fin

captor, for the formidable

rows of spinous rays belonging many an incautious angler."

have wounded the hands of

2

O

.

^

274
p.
it

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
In the later recessions
this place,

154, 155).
is

omitted in
4.

but not
.

in

Todt. 136, and B.M. 32) the passage which follows.
(e.g.,
cf.

His

cable,

1

v^i

See Bonomi, Sarc. 8 D, and
I,

a

passage in the Pyramid Texts {Pepi
refers to this or a similar voyage.

Merenrd 590) which M. Maspero thus translates it
413,
:

" Fais

amener a Pepi

ta

barque sur laquelle naviguent

tes

purs et

quand

tu auras regu ta libation d'eau fraiche sur cette

Cuisse des

Indestructibles (the
Stars), fais naviguer

Uarit

v^

<:r::>

^^gj of the Circumpolar

Pepi dans cette barque avec ce cable d'etoffe
I'CEil

verte

et

blanche par lequel

d'Hor

est
i)

remorque," &c.

The
at

Uarit, or

Leg (on which
this chapter.

see Ch. 74,

Note

of

Nut

is

mentioned

the

end of

6.

Machinery

^

<


^-^

.

The word

has disappeared from

the later texts and been replaced by various conjectural emendations of the scribes.
7.

The Kaf,

j\

^^

divinities in form of SiP^' °"^ ^^ ^^^

apes.
8.

Etymologically the word signifies " the hot one."
Sek-hra,

\\

^

<^

^^

^^^

more common
'^

reading,
I

but

§

"^

^ also occurs
I

and so does
found

r^

n

5

*i

oJ[-

cannot

remember where
would
9.

'^YvnO^
Thoth.
of

{P.S.B.A. VI, 191) which

identify this divinity with

The

Madt,

the

series
is

phenomena occurring

in

strict

conformity with Law, that
10.

with the laws of Nature.

Lion ]orms, I^S, phonetically <cz>

I^
| I

^^

,

in

most of the
in

III
evidently

papyri.

Some

of the words which follow

are

very

corrupt condition.
1 1

Every Dawn,

^

|/ri

^^^^-

1I

PLATE

XLII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

o o

o\ On

-^

5^^^^i>!^5-,
3M'i

^^???3^-,

t^

"^

^

o ^
« r H CQ

^v %^=y^>=r:j

^===^

CO

U

9
ctl

9
I—

>-

< w u

a
cd

3

a.

><

3
S
S

u

< u

> X X X o
H <

U

a,
a,

u

1—

K

^\ O^

Q o
o

> 2X X u
Ul
ai

a U
r-'

-M

CQ
.^

<

U 3 u ^ a.
cd

U)

CU

PLATE

XLIII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD,

Chapter CXL.

Mus. du Louvre.

No.

Ill, 52.

^Mn.

Chapter CXXXVIII.

Papyrus, Busca.

:

:

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

275

CHAPTER CXXXVIIa.
Chapter whereby a Light
is

kifidled

(

i )

for a person.
thy

Oh

Light

!

let

the Light be

kindled

for

Ka,

O

Osiris

Chentamenta.
followeth the

Let the Light be kindled

for

the Night

which

Eye of Horus which riseth at thy temple (2) which riseth up (3) over thee and which gathereth upon thy brow which granteth thee its protection and overthroweth thine enemies. Undefiledly (bis) and successfully (bis) The light is kindled for Osiris Unnefer with fresh vases and raiment like the Dawn.
:

Day

the

;

:

CHAPTER CXXXVHb.
Chapter whereby a Light
is

kindled for a persofi.
the

The Eye

of

Horus cometh, the Light one

:

Eye of Horus

Cometh, the Glorious one.

Come
Glory,

thou, propitiously, shining like

Ra

from the Mount of

and putting an end

to the opposition (4) of Sutu.

The
seized

prescription (5) of her (6)
for

upon the Light

him, and

who hath raised him up, and who putteth an end to the
of Glory.

troubles against thee, like the

Mount

Notes.

The two most
in the

ancient authorities for this chapter, as
late recension, are

it

is

found

Turin Todtenbuch and the

one of the four

tablets of the

Museum

of Marseilles, published by M. Naville {Les

qiiatre steles orient'ees dii Miis'ee de Marseille),

of

Nechtuamon.
first

and the Berlin papyrus which M. Naville has published as The chapter
his

137A, in the

volume of

own

Todtenbuch, and which

is

taken

from the papyrus of Nebseni,

is

manifestly, I think, not the original

2

2

2/6
text,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

but another edition very considerably revised and enlarged. And, in imitation of the rubric of ch. 64, it concludes with a veracious
statement, that
chest in
carriages.

was discovered by Prince Hortatef in a secret the temple of Unnut, and was brought away by the royal
it

These texts are found among the texts preserved in the tomb of Petamenemapt (see Zeiischr., 1883, Taf i), but with various additions, and have been appropriated by the Ritual of Amnion, published by Dr. O. von Lemm. The solemn ceremony of Kindling the Light for the dead is
repeatedly mentioned in the Siut inscriptions of Hapit'efae.
I.

Kindle

I

£55

conveys the same notion as
Ritual has
I

I

r-,

^^, \\

in the title of 137B. strike

The Amnion

^

'

n ^v'A
it

a Light.

Dr. von

Lemm
1

thinks that by a play of words
is

is

implied not only that a light but Sut
2.

struck.

At
v\

thy

temple ^^v

Ba and

Marseilles

:

^^^^

y

1

_.

in Abydos,

Aa
D,

and Fetafnenemapt.

3.

Riseth up

Ba,

0^
3

Marseilles;

/ni\

^K
Sallier

Aa, lp\
4.

'"-l^l

fl

Petamenemapt.

Oppositiofi

Y YY
sense

^^'^'^^''^
'

T

^^

~

[\£\ ^^
in

^"

^^^^

Calendar.
.
.
.

—M-^

The
/v^/vv\
I

is
I

made
n

clear

the

parallel

passages

w ^
I !;

\\

fl

.

V
>

'

^^

^^^ ^^ error of recent transcribers,
is

is

a wrong reading for

Y

which

very distinctly written in the

Nebseni papryus.
5.

Prescription

"^^"^^^

y^l'
in

6.

Her.

The Vignette
in
t
I

the

Nebseni papyrus exhibits the
light.

goddess Apit,
are the words
protections."

hippopotamus form, lightmg the
Hi*

Over her
of

5A
<=>

nV
ili

x o A

»
I I I

"

^'^pit>

mistress

divine

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

277

CHAPTER CXXXVIII.
Chapter whereby one
is

enabled
in

to enter into

Abydos.
his] (i)

Oh
divine

all

ye gods

who

are
its

Abydos, [each one and
entirety,

circle

likewise

in
:

who

are

coming
:

with

acclamation to meet

me

let

me

see

my

father Osiris
(2).

let

me

be held as one who cometh forth as of his house
I

am
I

Horus, the Lord of Kamit, and the heir of Tesherit,(3)
seized.
:

which

have also

I,

the invincible one, whose eye
his father,

is

potent

against his adversaries

the drowning of his

who avengeth mother (4) who
;

and

is

fierce at

smiteth his adversaries and
. .

putteth an end to violence on their part.

.

(5).

oh thou of the potent Lock, king of of the Two Worlds whose father's house
;

hosts,
is

who

art

seized

seized (6) [by him]

in virtue of the writs (7);
is

my

balance

is

perfectly even,

my

voice

law,

and

I prevail

over

all

mine

adversaries. (8)

Notes.

These words are necessary for the purpose of bringing out the meaning of the text. Every god, it has already been said, has his circle of associates. The feminine
I.

\Each one and

his?[

sufifix

——
M

after

I

shows

the

concordance
is

with

I—f— gender.
(iii (ii)

W

'^
rJf
1
I

)

which, like other collective nouns,

of the feminne

lli

I

2.

The

exact text here

is

doubtful, and the sense of
is

fllil

^c-^
of a

depends upon
priestly official,

it.

^^^^ \\\^ or -lU r[m

the well

known

title

whose presence was required in the ritual of the dead. He is sometimes in attendance upon royal personages. Here according to its etymological sense the word might simply mean a
relative.
3.

Artw/V

^mi

^^

,

the "Black

Land"

is

Egypt; Tesherit

278

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
the '"'Red Land,"
is

^^1 ^',
Egypt.
4.

whatever Hes beyond the limits of

T/ie

drowning of

his

mother

<^<=\ Q [![

^ ^aaaaa ^ 'V\
at least

^1|
is

^^__

.

Droivningmayhe. too strong a word, but immersion

meant.

We

are at present without any other reference to this incident in the
Isis.

career of the goddess
5.

Here occurs a word,

1

/I\

^
it

or n

^

d|)

'

of doubtful
it

meaning.

As

the next

word

to

begins a sentence,
it.

must be
I

considered as connected with
satisfied that " silently " or "

the words preceding
"

am

not

causing silence

would be a grammatical

solution of the question.
6.

Seized (throughout this chapter) in the juridical sense o( seisin

or feudal possession.
7.

Writs
in

jp]

,

a reading of three early papyri, which
ones.

has

disappeared
Q

the later

The Turin

Todtenlnich

has

^

>\
,

^^-^
J}

" with his two hands."
in Pi,

8.

Here the chapter ends
and

The

three older papyri differ

as

and even sooner in the later texts. to the words which immediately
untelligible.

follow,

are certainly corrupt

and

CHAPTER CXXXIX.
Identical with

CHAPTER CXXHI.

This completes Sir P. Le Page Renotifs translation of the Book of
the

Dead,

so

far as he had prepared

it

for publication at

the time of

his death.

HOOK OF

TIIK DEAD.

279

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Bv Edouard Naville, D.C.L.,
&^c.,

•^c.

Introductory Note.
During the
last

days of his

life,

the lamented Sir Peter

Le Page

Renouf, foreseeing that he would not be able to reach the goal he had

been striving to

attain, the

completion of his translation of the Book
did not feel at liberty to go

of the Dead, expressed the wish that the writer of these lines should

continue and complete his work.

I

against the desire of the eminent master,

who had done me

the

honour to choose

me

as his successor,

and

to leave unfinished a

work which he had kept in view all his life long, and which he considered to be the choicest fruit of his Egyptological researches. But I had hardly set myself to the task, when I realised the difficulties which were in my way. It is never easy, even for a
translator, to put himself into

the place of another, to enter fully

into his views, to reconstitute the conception he

book he had to interpret. To these difficulties had hardly any help with regard to that part of the book which Renouf, like many eminent Renouf has not published himself. scholars, had his learning chiefly in his head his notes are very scanty, mere scraps without any methodical order. There is not a line of written translation left, beyond what he printed himself.
;

had formed of the must be added, that I

Thus,

for

the translation of the following chapters,
I

I

was

entirely

dependent on the part already published, and
refer to those chapters, in order to

had constantly to know the sense which Renouf
I

would have given to words and sentences
course of
I

came

across

in the

my

work.
as

endeavoured
though

much
it

as I could, to translate as

Renouf would
I

have done.
readings,
his choice of

Whenever
I

was possible,

I

used his words or his
followed

did

not

always agree with them.

texts.

He

generally took the oldest one

he had,

;

28o

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
in

which he frequently found
to continue the

my
lines

edition.

On

the whole

I

tried

work on the

which Renouf himself adopted.
this translation is
is

Thus

it

cannot be said absolutely that

my work

Egyptological scholars will soon recognize what
interpretations for which I
to look at

mine, and the

am

not responsible.

I

beg the reader
that at present

my work

in this light,

and

to

remember
is

any translation of the Book of the Dead

tentative

and

provisional,

and liable, with the progress in our knowledge of Egyptian, to undergo considerable changes. Nevertheless, I hope that this joint work will not compare too unfavourably with the part done by my
illustrious predecessor.

EDOUARD NAVILLE.

CHAPTER
The book read on
the last

CXL.
the

day of Alechir, when last day of Mechir.

Eye

is

full on the

There

rises

a form which shines

on the horizon.

Atmu

rises

pouring out his dew, and the bright one

who

shines in the sky.

The abode
cheering

of the obelisk

is

in joy

because of them, because they
in the sanctuary

are complete.
fills

There are shouts of joy
the Tuat.

and loud
His he

They

fall

down

before

Atmu Harmachis.

For His Majesty gave orders to the cycle of his followers.
Majesty ordered to give praise to the Eye, and behold,
gave
it

my

flesh

and all my limbs are renewed, as soon as the order came out of the mouth of Ra. His glorious Eye rests on its place on His Majesty in this hour
strength,

of the night.

When
last

the fourth hour

is

accomplished, the world
is

is

joyous in the

day of Mechir, for the Majesty of the Eye

in the

presence of the cycle of the gods,
beginning, with the Eye on his

and His Majesty head as Ra Atmu.
Suti,

rises as

from the

The(i) eyes

of Shu, Seb, Osiris,

Horus,

Menthu, Ptah,

Raneheh, Thoth, Chati, Nai, Eternity, Necht, Mert, the land, he who is born by himself. After the computation of the eye has been made in the presence of this god, and when it is full and completed,
all

these gods are joyous on that day, they

who were

silent

;

(2)

and

1

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
behold there
is

28

god and they say hail to thee, praise from Ra, the boatmen tow his boat, Apepi is struck down. Hail to thee, praise from Ra who causes the form of Chepera to exist hail to thee, praise from Ra, there is joy in him,
a festival
to every
;
:

made

;

his

enemies are conquered

;

hail to thee. })raise

from Ra, who has

repelled the chiefs of the sons of the rebellion.

Acclamation

to

thee and praise to Osiris

N.

Said on an eye of pure lapis-lazuli or
with gold
;

mak
all

stone,

ornamented

good and holy, when Ra puts it on (on his head) on the last day of Mechir another one is made of jasper, which a man will put on any of his limbs he likes. When this chapter is read by one who is in the boat of Ra, he is towed like the gods, he is like one of them, and he prescribes what is done to him in the Netherworld.
is

an offering

made

before

it

of

things

;

When
altars for
is

this chapter has

been read

to its end, this

is

the copy of

the order of offerings

made when
:

the

Eye

is

full

:

four burning
;

Ra, four for the Eye, and four for these gods
is

on each of them
cakes, five

fruit

what there good pointed white loaves five pointed baskets of pastry, one measure of incense, one of
five
;

fruit

and one of

roast meat.

Notes.

is

The ancient papyri do made from the Turin
It

not contain this chapter.

The

translation

Tcdtenbuch, supplemented and corrected
Its real

from hieratic papyri in Paris.
stand.

meaning

is

difficult to

under-

seems that under symbolical expressions it refers to an astronomical phenomenon, the renewal of the sun after the winter According to the principle which I have adopted, to mainsolstice.
tain

my

predecessor's interpretations,
is

I

translated

^"^ v
t^

Notes on ch. 125, p. 214). But as it seems evident that here the two eyes of the sun are the two periods of his apparent course, the decrease and the growth, I should translate

"the Eye

full"

{cf.

" the period
after

is

accomplished," this period being that of the decrease
its

which the sun enters

ascending course, or according to
It is

Egyptian ideas begins again to grow.

natural that the

comthe

pleting of the period should be hailed with joy by Ra, since

it is

final victory over his enemies, which sets him free and allows him to

rise

again as at the beginning.

The

sign of his triumph

is

that he

puts the

\\

I

^^^"^P^

°"

^^^ head, as

we

see in the vignette.

2 P

.

e:82

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
T.

Why

this hst of

gods comes here,

it is

difficult to

understand.

It

seems quite out of
In some
I

place.

Their number varies according to the
divinities often alluded to as these

papyri.

of them, they are put after the text in vertical

columns.
gods.

presume they are the

They
I

are the witnesses of the scene of

Ra

rising with the

Eye

on

his head.
2.

have adopted the reading of the Paris papyrus.

III,

58,

^ W

n
I

n
I I
I

<^
the Turin papyrus, of the deceased

^

The

vignettes consist, in

worshipping a black Anubis lying
his

down on
is

a naos, and having on

back the sign y.

This god
\

the

y^

first

mentioned.

Behind him are the

v\

V\ -^^

,

a

human form

with the

Eye

on its head, and Harmachis. Harmachis.

Several papyri have only the

Eye and

Chapters CXLI to CXLIII.
The hook{\) said by a man or
the

his father or his sofi in the festival of

Amenta, and wherewith he acquires might{2) with Rd, and with the gods when he is ivith them. Said on the day of the netu
moon, when offerings are made of bread,
beer, oxen, geese,

and

burnt incense
Osiris

to

Chentamenta,

Nu,
Maat,

The boat of Ra, Tmu, The Cycle of the The Cycle of the
Horus the
Shu,
Tefnut,

great gods.

small gods,

lord of the double diadem,

Seb,

Nut,
Isis,

Nephthys,

The house

of the

ka of the

inviolate god, (3)

PLATE

XL,IV.

BOOK OJ THE DEAD.

Chapters CXLI and CXLII.

Berlin Mus.,

2.

Chapter CXLVI.
Leyden, No.
II.

Chapter CXL.

Lepsius, Todtenbuch.

HITO
t^
Chapter CXLVI.
Berlin Mus., No.
2.

Ch.^pter CXLVI. Louvre, III, i.

L
Chapter CXLVI.
Leyden, No. VI.

PLATE XLV.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CiiAi'TERS

CXLI AND CXLII.

Leydcn Museum, No. VII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
The storm of the sky which raises The hidden one in her dwelling,
the god,

283

Chebt the mummified form of the god.

The greatly beloved, with red hair, The abundant in life, the veiled one. Her whose name is powerful in her works, The bull of the cows. The divine force, the good one, the good rudder
sky.

of the Northern

Him who
The
The

goes round and piloteth the double earth, the good

rudder of the Western sky,
shining one,

who

dwelleth in the house of the devouring

monster, the good rudder of the Eastern sky.
inner one in the house of the red ones, the

good rudder of

the Southern sky,

Emsta,
Hapi,

Tuamautef,
Kebehsenuf,

The Southern part The Northern part The Sektit boat. The Atit boat,
Thoth,

of heaven,
of heaven,

The gods of the South, The gods of the North, The gods of the West, The gods of the East, The sejant gods, (4) The resting gods. The great house. The house of flame, The gods of the abodes. The gods of the horizon. The gods of the field, The gods of the houses, (5) The gods of the thrones, The ways of the South, The ways of the North, The ways of the West,
2 P 2

284

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

The ways of the East, The halls of the Tuat, The holds of the Tuat, The mysterious doors, The doorkeepers of the
Those

halls of the Tuat,

with hidden faces, the guards of the roads,

The guardians of those who are lamenting, The guardians of those whose faces are joyous, (6) The burning ones who put the flame on the altar, The door openers who extinguish the flames in the Amenta,
Osiris Unneferu, (7) Osiris the living,
1

Osiris the lord of
1

life,

Osiris the inviolate god,
1

Osiris

1

n Kau,

Osiris Orion,
Osiris Sep,
Osiris
]

n Tanenit,

Osiris
Osiris

]

n the South,
n the North,

Osiris creator of millions of
( 1

men.
(?),

Osiris ;he spirit in the crouching figure Osiris Ptah lord of Osiris
life,

n Restau,
n the water of Heliopolis,

Osiris fnside the mountain.
Osiris
1

Osiris in Hesert,
Osiris

m

Siut,

Osiris in Net'eft,
Osiris

n the South,

Osiris in Pu, Osiris in Neteru,

Osiris in

Lower

Sais,

Osiris in Bak,

n Sun (Syene), Osiris in Rohenen,
Osiris Osiris in Aper,
Osiris

m

Keftennu,

Osiris Sokaris in Petshe,
Osiris

m

his city,

ROOK OF THE DEAD.
Osiris in Pesekro,
Osiris in his

285

abodes

in the

land of the North,

Osiris in heaven, Osiris in his

abodes

in

Restau,

Osiris in Nest,

Osiris in Atefur, Osiris Sokaris,

Osiris the lord of eternity,
Osiris the begetter, Osiris the lord of Heliopolis, Osiris in the monstrance, Osiris the lord of eternity,
Osiris the prince,

Osiris of the gate of Osiris in Restau,
Osiris

judgment,

on

his sand,

Osiris in the hall of the cows,
Osiris in Tanenit, Osiris in Netit, Osiris in Sati,

Osiris in Beteshu,
Osiris in

Upper
Tepu,

Sais,

Osiris in
Osiris in

Shennu,

Osiris in Henket,

Osiris in the land of Sokaris,
Osiris in Shau, Osiris in Faur,
Osiris in Maati,

Osiris in

Hena,
god the
everlasting.

Osiris the great

Notes.

The
what

old texts which v/e follow here, join in one chapter, 141,

Turin Todtenbuchx^ divided into two, 141, 142 ; 143 being merely the vignettes which accompany them. This chapter is the first of a series in which the deceased has to show his knowledge.
in the

His being well-informed as
sanctuaries,

to the

names of the gods and of
which he passes, the

their
halls

and

also of the doors through

286
which he

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
enters, confers

deceased has to recite

upon him certain privileges. Here the the names of the gods while offerings are
numerous
sanctuaries, which have not
all

made
been

to

them

;

the second part of the chapter refers only to Osiris

in all his forms,

and

in his

identified.

The

old versions differ only slightly in length,

from one or two of the gods being omitted.
mainly the Cairo papyrus,
Cc^ with a
is

The
is

translation follows

few variants taken from other

papyri, one of the best of which

the papyrus

Nu
:

of the British

Museum
1.

(ed.

Budge).
of the later texts
is

The

title

much

longer

the book where-

with the Chjiu acquire might, knowing the names of the gods of the Southern sky, and of the Northern sky, of the gods of the Boufids, of
the gods

who

are the guides in the Tuat.

If

it is

said by a 7nan, to

his father or to his mother, in the festival

of the Amenta, he acquires might with Rd, and with the gods when he is ivith them. Spoken on

the

day of
. . .

the

new moon

by Osiris

N when
to

offerings are

made

of

etc.,

and

offerings are

made

Osiris under all his

him names by
to

Osiris
2.

N.
See note
i

to ch. 133.

I

cannot quite agree with Renouf as
'I.

to the

meaning
not so

of the

word

l[

It

seems

to

me

that

its

making someone mighty," as of " distinguishing him, making him eminent" in the opinion of his god or I consider his master, so that he may become his lord's favourite.
sense
is

much

that of "

the meaning of
3.

/}
[

'^ wvAAA O"

as similar to that of

^T^ "0"
I

The

following

names

are those of the seven celestial
bull in chapter

cows

which are represented with the

148, together with

the rudders of the four cardinal points.
4.

See ch. 130, note ''^

5.

5.

pertiu, the adjective

form of the noun
^

" a house," the gods of the houses, contrasted with those of the fields.

This word shows that
the <r:r>

in

the complete spelling of the word
off,

has not fallen

as

it

probably was the case in the
^ N|ll ,
IE

pronunciation, and in composite

names such as:
I

Dns;

^'

PLATE XLVI.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

kL

Chapter CXLVIII.

Louvre,

III, 89.

Chapter CXLVIII.

Leyden Mus., No. IL

Chapter CXLIV.

Brit.

Mus., 9913.

Chapter CXLIII.
Lepsius, Todtenbuch.
Brit.

Chapter CXLIV.
Mus. Pap. Brocklehurst IL

PLATE

XLVII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

01

> 3 O

X u

U

<
in

c
00

3

(X
nS

0,

o>

o
«)

o o 3
Uc

s o

>

o
< X

>. O.
cU

(J
oi Cd

a.

u

3

<

U
45

CQ

>

U

O

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
6.
I

287

read here according to Ld.
Instead
of

-^
Lc.

"^^^

7" O f"^
1

'

flQ

'^

*
I
I

T
1

.

D V\

writes
G\
I

,

and

Nu

— — pvAy^
,

w

I

which does not give any sense.

&jf

might here

be translated companiotis.
7.

In the Turin Todtenbuch, ch. 142 begins here with this
is

title

:

Chapler ivhereby the deceased acquireth mighty whereby
go and
to tuiden his steps, nafties

given him to
likes,

coming forth by day in ail the forms he
the places he likes to be.

knoiuing the

of Osiris in all

Chapter CXLIV.
The Chapter of
the

Arrival

(i).

The

first
is

gate.

attributes,

the

adjuster,

is

the

He whose face is overturned, who has many name of the occupant of the first gate. The name of the warden thereof, and he with the loud
He who
; ;

voice the

name

of the herald.
gate.
raises his face,
is

The second
name

the

name

of the

occupant of the second gate
of the warden thereof
herald.

he with the revolving face (2) is the the consuming one is the name of the
eats his

The

third gate.

He who

The watchful, is the curser is the name of the herald. The fourth gate. He who opposes
occupant.

own filth, is the name of name of the warden thereof,
garrulity,
is

the
the

the

occupant of the fourth gate ; the attentive one is the of the warden thereof, the great one who drives back the crocodile is the

name name

of the

name of the The fifth

herald.
gate.

He who

lives
is

on worms,

is

the

name

of

its

occupant, the consuming flame,

the
is

the horn which strikes the furious,

name of the warden thereof, the name of the herald.
the loaves, with a thundering

The
voice,
is

sixth gate.

He who makes
of
its

the

name

occupant

;

he who shows his

face,

is

the

name
sky,
is

of the warden thereof, the stoneknife which belongs to the

the

name

of the herald.

The
is

seventh gate.

He who

takes possession (3) of their knives,
;

the

name

of the occupant of the seventh gate

the high voice

is

288
the
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
thereof,

name of the warden the name of the herald.

he who drives back the enemies

O

ye, these gates,

who

are the gates to Osiris, ye

who guard

their

gates, ye Osiris

who

herald the things of the world to Osiris every day.

N. knows you he knows your names for he is born in AK Restau, where all the glory of the horizon was given him. receives the investiture in Pu, like the purification of Osiris. N. receives the saying in Restau, w'hen he leads the gods on the
;

horizon with the ministrant, the protectors of Osiris.

I

am

one of

them

in

their leading.

N'. is

the

glorious one, the lord of the
rites.

glorious, a glorious
festival of

one who performs the day of the month
;

JV. celebrates the

the

first

he

is

the

herald in

the

fifteenth

day of the month.

O

thou

who

revolvest.

hand of Thoth in the night through the sky as victor. iV. passes on in peace, he navigates in the boat of Ra. The attributes (5) of N. are the attributes of the boat of Ra. N. has a name greater than yours, mightier than you who are on the roads of Maat. A^. hates what is corrupt. The attributes of N. are the attributes of Horus, the firstborn of Ra,
the sacred flame to the

N. carries when he sails

who accomplishes

his will.

iV.

is

not fettered, he

is

not driven

away from the gates of Osiris. JV. is perfect, the one who loUows Osiris Khent Amenta every day.
in

lion god, the pure

His domains are
rites,

Sechet hotepu

among

those

who know

the sacred

among
side of
to the

those

who perform

the sacred rites to Osiris.

N.

is

on the

Thoth, among those who bring offerings.

Anubis ordered

bearers of offerings, that there should be offerings to

N. of

his

own,

and

that they should

not be taken from him by those
like

who

are in

captivity.

N.
A',

has

come
the

Horus, when he adorns the horizon of
gates
JV.

heaven. horizon
;

directs

the

march of Ra towards the
in the
Osiris,

of the

therefore
is

gods rejoice
the

presence of

The

divine scent (6)

upon

god with the lock

(7) will not

reach

him

;

the keepers of the gates will not be hostile to him.
face
is

N.

is

the one whose

hidden inside the palace,

in

the

sanctuary of the god, the lord of Tuat.

AL gathers his hosts away the Mighty One, Apepi. N. pierces the steel firmament (8), and repels the raging storm he gives life to the seamen of Ra. N. carries offerings to the place where it (the boat) is. N. causes that A\ marches, and when he the boat gives him a successful voyage.
Hathor.
;

A\ has reached it after he brings Maat to Ra, he drives

;

COOK OF THE DEAD.
reaches
it,

289
his

the face of

N.

is

Hke the Oreat One, and
N.
is

back

like the

lofty one.

N.
JV.

is

the lord of the mighty.
valiant
;

well pleased
;

on the
;

horizon.

is

he

strikes

you down

you wakers

he
in

makes
This

his
is

way

to

your lord, Osiris.
is

on the copy which
are

in

the books (9).

It is written

yellow ink, on the sacred circle of gods in the boat of

Ra

(10),

where

offerings

made
that

of

victuals,

geese,

incense, in

their

presence, in order to revive the deceased, to

make him powerful
it

among

the gods,

and

he

may
If
it

not be repulsed nor driven

back from the pylons of the Tuat.
of this deceased in their presence,
to every hall of those

thou readest
causes him

to the statue

to

have access

which are

in the

books.

This
in

is

said at the

entrance of every gate, of those which are

the books,

and

to

each of them an offering

is

made
bull,

of the

haunch, the head, the heart, and the hoof of a red
vases of blood which
vases,

and four

does not come from the heart, and scent

and sixteen pointed white loaves, and eight round loaves, and eight chenfu loaves, and eight hebennu loaves, eight casks of
beer, eight vases of dry corn, four tanks of earthenware filled with

the milk of a white
paint,

cow,

fresh
oils,

herbs, fresh olive

oil,

green eye
Said while

antimony, odoriferous

and burning incense.
if

putting on a clay seal twice.

After this copy has been read,
the day, beware of what
is

the fourth hour
;

is

going round in
if

threatening in the sky

but

thou hast

read this book without any
steps of the deceased in
this

human

being seeing
earth,

it, it

will

widen the
;

book

exalts

and in the Tuat because the deceased more than any ceremony performed to
heaven or
this

him, henceforth, from

day undeviatingly

for times infinite.

Notes.
This chapter
is

the

first

of a series of four (144

— 147),
I

in Avhich the

old versions differ considerably from the Turin text.
refer to the
(
(I

144 and 147

CTz^
1/

,

145 and 146 to the

j

Si.

The word
Brugsch
calls

ir"^]

has been translated in various ways.

them "watch-towers, pylons," Pierret "stations." Maspero considers them as the old "ergastules," a kind of vaulted hall. Jequier speaks of them as " magazines," but generally
2

Q

290
translates the

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
word by
calls
*'

pylons."
[(,

Renouf,

in his

introducton to the
I

Papyrus of Ani,
"pylons."

the

«d^>

II

ir^i "gates," and the 111
I

-:iJ

O

In another place he says the

j

is

not a mere

gate, but a hold or keep.

If

we

refer to the old texts

where

this
Q

chapter

is

mixed together
a door, a gate,

with chapter 146, we see that the

is

which has
each

to

be passed in order to reach the

I

S.

Behind

o
\\ CTZD 1i
is its

a

is

represented as a shrine close to

which

god.
is

And

also in the

book

called -

the

book of what
iX

in the Tuat,

we

see that

Ra

has to go through the

and make a long navigation before he reaches the

gods of the Tuat.

144 and 147 are two different versions of the same chapter, and no old papyrus has them both. It is the same with chapters 145 and
146.

Evidently before the Saitic period, for these chapters, as for

the 15th, there was

had the choice between various versions which the compilers of the Turin text
text,

no received

and the

writers

collected together.

There are seven
to

[(I

nr^y,
;

and the deceased
the
[

who approaches them has
[j(,

know

three

names

first,

V^t' i

whom Renouf
v\

calls the porter^ evidently

from

his

being

styled in chapter 147(1

-

\\\ %

But

if

we consider

that in
itself,

[\

some

of the old papyri the

name

of the

man

is

that of the gate
to,

\X^
the
(I

has to be translated he
a sense which

who

belongs

the occupant,

inhabitant,
V^r'
J-

does not disagree with the word
Oriental customs, the master of

since, according to

a house

is

generally

met with

at the door, at the entrance.

The
is

doorkeeper, the watcher (Budge), or the 7varder (Renouf),

the second person,

^^
person
I

\\

he

who guards
text

the gate.

The

third

y

(,

^

[,

^|\

1

,

as

the

says

BOOK OF

TTTE DEAD.

291 and
I

reports to Osiris every day the tilings of the world,
also,

suppose

teller.

coming towards the gate. Renouf calls this person the use the word herald, which I adopted previously. In the six old texts which I collated, we find only the reciting of
is

who

I shall

the three names.

The Papyrus

of

Nu

in the British

Museum
It is

alone
there-

contains the allocution to the gates of the Turin text.
fore

from the Papyrus of

Nu

that this chapter has

been translated.
text calls

(Budge, The Book of the
1.

Dead)

The

title

is

taken from Papyrus Ax.

The Turin

this chapter " the chapter of ktiowittg the occupafits of the seven gates."
2.

A

flame, judging from the determinative

'f
4I

as

we read

in

Ill III

chapter 147.

5^
it

I

lit.

"receives the saying."
privilege
to say the

means receives the right or the words which follow " I am one of them."
suppose
:

?5

J

I

a

word which

lias

various meanings.
I

Renouf
believe in
that

J

i

translates

:

"protection, safeguard, powers, attributes."
it

many
it

cases

corresponds to what we
Egyptian.
J]

call

"the nature," and

is

used as a periphrase instead of an abstract adjective, which
in

does not exist
J]
;
I

The

real sense of
a

such an expression

seems

to

be

'

such as he
6.

is,

such

am

I,

and such

is

Ra.'

I

read with the Turin text
this

/
in

]

rfl

'^^^ papyrus Pb,

which reproduces

sentence

an addition to

136A writes

7.

1

Yh

w|

'The god of
D D

the lock, or the curling god,'
evil

another

name

for

Apepi, an
line
39,
I

power which must be
'Osiris

driven away.

Chapter 130,

should translate:

follows the path of
sod.'
8.
'

Ra

in the

morning, and drives away the curling

The

steel

firmament

connection with storms

J^ and bad

,

generally mentioned in

weather, so that possibly we have
2 3

292

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
and
translate
'

to consider here the colour of the metal,

the dark sky

the black sky.'
9.

The books

of Thoth, the divine writer.

10.

Probably the name of the book or of the page which
vignettes of chapter 144 represent the gates, the warder,
;

contains also the catalogue of the offerings.

The

and the herald
chapter 147.

the occupant

is

not seen, as he

is

in the vignettes of

There seems

to

be no definite order or rule

in these

figures, just as in the

names, which are not always attributed to the

same member

{cf.

Introd. to the Todte?ibuch, p. 172).

CHAPTERS CXLV
The knowing of
Aarrti.

and CXLVI.
of Osiris^ in the Garden of

the pylons of the house

The

first

pylon (i)(is named)

:

the lady of trembling whose walls

are high, the lady of destruction,

who
:

directs the

words which drive

away the storm, she who
her.

forces back the violent (2)

coming towards

The name of the doorkeeper is The second pylon (is named) the
:

the brave.

lady of heaven, mistress of the

world,

the consuming one, the lady of mankind,

who counts

the

human beings. The third pylon
all

The name
:

of the doorkeeper

is

:

Meshept.

the lady ot altars, rich in offerings, with

whom

the gods are gathered, on the day
:

when they

sail

to

Abydos.

The name of the doorkeeper is the anointer. The fourth pylon she who holds the knives, the mistress of the world, who destroys the enemies of the god whose heart is motionThe name of less, who gives advice, who is free from impurity.
:

the doorkeeper

is

;

the bull.
:

The fifth pylon the flame, the lady of the words of power (3), who gives joy to him who addresses his supplications to her, to whom no one who is on earth (4) will come near. The name of the doorkeeper is he who coerces the rebels. The sixth pylon the lady of light, who roars loud whose length
:

:

;

and breadth are not known, and the like of whom never was found from the beginning. There are serpents on her, the number of which is not known they were born before the god whose heart is
;

motionless.

The name
:

of the doorkeeper

is,

the consort.
;

The seventh pylon

the shroiid which enwrappeth the dead

the

<5

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4-

PLATE XLIX.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

N 6

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s
ni

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a.

u
a V. <

X

u
Q 2 <
(A

H <

•J

H H < X

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
monster who seeks to hide the body.
is
:

293
of the doorkeeper

'I'he

name

Akesti.

The
quenched

eighth
;

pylon

:

the

burning flame whose

fire

is

never

she

who

is

provided with burning heat, who sends forth

her hand, and slaughters without mercy.
for fear of

Nobody goes
is
:

near her

being hurt.

The name

of the doorkeeper

he who

protects his body.

The
she

ninth pylon

:

the foremost, the Mighty One, the joyous
;

who
(5)

gives birth to her lord

whose circumference
emerald,

is

350 measures
raises

who

shines

like

southern

who

Besu,

and

encourages the dead, she who provides her lord with offerings every
day.

The tenth pylon she with a loud voice who shouts curses to those who make supplications to her; the very brave, the dreadful, who does not destroy what is within her. The name of the doorkeeper is he who embraces the great god. The eleventh pylon she who renews her knives, who consumes
:

;

:

:

her enemies, the mistress of

all

pylons, to
twilight.

whom
She

acclamations are
will

given in

the daytime and

in

the

prepare the

enwrapping of the dead.

The twelfth pylon she who addresses her world and destroys who come through the morning heat, the lady of brightness, who listens to the words of her lord every day. She will prepare the enwrappmg of the dead. The thirteenth pylon Isis extends her two hands upon her she
:

those

:

;

lightens

the

Nile

in

its

hidden abode.

She

will

prepare the

enwrapping of the dead.
l"he fourteenth

pylon

:

the lady of fear,
festival
is

who dances on

the

impure, to
hearing of

whom
yells.

the

Haker
will
:

celebrated on the day of the

She

prepare the enwrapping of the dead.

The

fifteenth

pylon

the evil one, with red hair and eyes,

who

comes out
danger),

at night,

who binds

her

enemy
is

all

round,

who
his

puts her

hands over the god whose heait

motionless, in

hour (of

who

goes and comes.

She

will

prepare the enwrapping of

the dead.

The sixteenth pylon the terrible, the lady of the morning dew, who throws out (6) her burning heat, and sprinkles her sparks of fire over her enemies when she appears. She who creates (reveals ?)
:

the mysteries of the earth. dead.

She

will

prepare the enwrapping of the

294

ROOK OF THE DEAD.
seventeenth pylon
:

The

she

who

revels in blood

;

Aahit, the lady

of the unuai plants.

She
;

will

prepare the enwrapping of the dead.

The eighteenth pylon she who likes fire, who washes her knives, who loves cutting heads, the welcome one, the lady of the palace, who slays her enemies in the evening. She will prepare the
enwrapping of the dead.

morning light in her time, and observes the midday heat, the lady of the books written by Thoth himself. She will prepare the enwrapping of the dead.
nineteenth pylon
:

The

she

who

directs the

The twentieth pylon she who is within the cavern of her lord, who covers her name, and hides what she creates, who takes
:

possession of hearts, which she swallows.

She

will

prepare the

enwrapping of the dead.

The

twenty-first pylon

:

she

who

cuts the stone by her word,

and

sacrifices

him on whom

fall

her flames.

She follows the hidden

counsels.

Notes.
Chapters 145 and 146 are two versions of the same
are
text.
I

They

the chapter of the arrival of the deceased to

the

y^F
jP^ F

of the house of Osiris.
really are.

It is difificult to

know what

these

I

Renouf
but

translates the

word by pylon.
to

At the same time
I shall

he says they are not mere gates, but keeps or holds.

use his

word pylon
exactly

;

the

word which seems
is

me
of

to

convey most
I

the

meaning

a

cell,

since

each

the

1

ip

i

There are various versions of these chapters. The oldest. No. 146, is found in several papyri, and has been translated from Lc. (Ley den), the only one which has the
has an inhabitant.
chapter complete.
begins
with
a
It

consists

of

21

paragraphs, each of which
It
is

sentence giving the
the
(.

names of the pylon.
'<

followed by

that of

n\

"fj

r

°

>

which

I

translate,

with
is

Renouf, the porter or doorkeeper though

I

should prefer, he who

within the door, since the vignettes show that the so-called porter or

There are 21 pylons, out of which the papyri give us a certain number. Brugsch finds
doorkeeper
in their
is

the god

who occupies

the

cell.

names those of some of the hours

of night or day

;

but the

HOOK OF THE DEAD.
fact of their

295

being 21, absolutely precludes the idea of these pylons

being the hours.

The papyrus of Nu in
words, " said
arrived,
I

the British

Museum
at

gives a slightly different
is

version of this chapter 146.

Each pylon
he arrives
the

introduced by these
first

by

Nu when
thee, I

the

pylon

:

I

have

know
is

know

name
is

of the

thee

;

the lady of trembling, &c.,

thy

god who guardeth name, the name of the
constitutes

doorkeeper

the

brave.'"'

The

other

version which

chapter 145 shows that the god

who guardeth

the pylon

and the

doorkeeper are the same person.

Chapter 145 is the same text which has been spun out a little We have no older copy of it than the fragments in the tomb more

Meneptah Siphtah and queen Tauser, which give us only eleven pylons, with a very incorrect teft. As for the Turin text, it is so
of

hopelessly corrupt, especially in the most important part, the names,
that I did not attempt to translate
it.

Then chapter 145

is

the text

of

Nu for
:

146

still

more developed.
called
:

In the version of the royal tomb,
Osiris, the king, to the
I know the name of the god name of the pylon, and that

each paragraph
pylon
I

is

" The salutation of
thy name,
follow the

know

thee, I

who guardeth
purifications

thee."

know Then

of the god, and after having said them, the deceased describes the

he goes through,

the oils with which
:

he has been

anointed, and the text ends with these words
It is

pass on, thou art pure.
is

curious that both in 145
11.

and 146
the

there

a change at the

pylon

No.

In

our

text,

Lc^

name

of the

doorkeeper
find these

disappears,

and each time,

after the

name

of the pylon,

we

In

145 the

name

of the doorkeeper

is

still

mentioned, but

this

sentence takes the place of the description of the purifications and

ointments which occurred in the previous paragraphs.
late these

I

should trans-

words
I

:

she ivill direct or prepare the
is

enwrapping or clothing
to

0/ the dead.

think that the dead
is

supposed

wear a different
itself.

garment

at

each pylon, which

provided to him by the pylon

A

still

rus Fg, of which

more detailed version of 145 is found in the Paris papywe have only a very short fragment. At each
is

pylon there

a dialogue between the deceased and doorkeeper,

who

asks whether the deceased has been purified, in what water,
oil

he has been anointed, which garment he wears, which stick he holds in his hand.

with what

.

296

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapters 145 and 146 are among the most incorrect texts of the Book of the Dead, and until we have new copies of the old versions,
there will always be a large measure of conjecture in any attempt to
translate them.
(i)
II

I

HV.

Being feminine, the name

is

that of a

woman

or

a goddess.

Hathor, the consort of Thoth
II, pi. 27,

at

Hermojiolis (Mariette, Denderah,

15).

(3)
I

\

\

^v\

W" 5?)

'•

Renouf
«

translates,

"words of power."

should prefer " magic power."
(4) I read with the

Turin text

-^^

^

'

(5)

^

.
I

According to Lepsius, the
the
text

G-^^owiof, in

40

cubits.

(6) I

read with
fl

of chapter 145

the

royal

tomb
c^

^iii^ajpa-=^:a
according to the papyri.
sitting

The
Lc
the
all

vignettes vary considerably,

In

the pylons

are alike, with a

artist

was

free to

god draw them according
still

inside
his

;

evidently

to

fancy.

The

vignettes of the papyrus of Ani, and,
for their fine colours.

more, /V, are remarkable

CHAPTER
The
first

CXLVII.
:

The name of the doorkeeper is he whose face The name of its warder is is overturned, who has many attributes. The name of the herald is he with a loud voice. the adjuster. Said by A" when he approaches the first gate. I am the mighty one, who createth his own light, (i) I come to thee, Osiris, and I worship thee. Pure are thine effluxes, which flow from thee, and which make thy name in Restau (2) when it hath passed there,
gate.

:

Hail to thee, Osiris.
Arise, thou art mighty, Osiris, in

Abydos.

PLATE

L.

BOOit OF

THE DEAD.

*^
o o
8t

6

«Jc2^
o
I

« 9 u
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(4

CU

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<1)

00

TJ

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hJ
tn

8 s M S

0)

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3 o
.J

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ja

M

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«^
L

nl

n
>

>

> J X U
a H < X
ei

U
X
b]

X

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<:

«E:

u
u

X

Q Z <

u

•^

u

u H < X

PLATE

LT.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

N d
'Z

B 3
(/)

D a
OQ

3
a.
nt

a.

^

> u
M H < S

u

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Thou
Osiris.
I

297

goest round the sky, thou sailest with Ra, thou surveyest
art alone

mankind, thou

going round with Ra,

for

thou art called

am

the divine

mummy.
in

What
it

I

say takes place.
(the gate)
;

I shall

not be driven back from

its

walls of

burning
Osiris,

coals

show the way

Restau.

I

have soothed the pain of

when he supports him who balances his pedestal, when he arrives from the great valley. I have made my way to the light of Osiris.(3)

The second
shows
face.

gate.

his

face.

The name of the doorkeeper The name of its warder is he with
: :

is

:

he who

a revolving

The name of the herald is the consumer. when he approaches the second Said by

N

gate.

He

sitteth

and acts in accordance with the desire of his heart, weighing the words as the second of Thoth. The attributes of are those of Thoth. When faint the Maat gods, the hidden ones who live on truth, whose years are those of Osiris, (still) I am mighty in offerings I have made my way out of the fire. at the appointed time. I march, I have made my way. Grant that I may pass on freely, that

N

I

may

see

Ra among

those

who

give offerings.

his

The own

third gate.
filth.

The name of the doorkeeper is he who cateth The name of its warder is the watchful. The name
: :

of the herald

is

:

the great one.

Said by JV
I

when he approaches the third gate. am he whose stream is secret, who judgeth the Rehui.
to

I

have

come
I

remove

all evil

from

Osiris.

am

the girdled (4) at his appointed time,

coming
I

forth with the

double crown.
I

secured firmly
I

my

suit in

Abydos, and

opened

my

path in

Restau.
I

have soothed the pain of Osiris who balances his pedestal.

have made

my way when

he shines

at Restau.

The name of the doorkeeper is he who opposes garrulity. The name of its warder is the attentive one. The name of the herald is he who drives back the crocodile. when he approaches the fourth gate. Said by

The

fourth gate.

:

:

:

N

I

am

the bull, (5) the son of the Kite of Osiris.

Behold, his

father the Fiery

One

sat in

judgment.

I

poised the balance for him.
I

Life has

been brought

to

me.

I

live for ever.

have made
2

my

way.

I

am

the son of Osiris, I live for ever.

R

298

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
fifth

The

on worms.

name
I

of the

gate. The name of the doorkeeper is he who hves The name of the warder is the consuming flame. The herald is the bow which strikes the furious (?).
:

:

:

Said by i\^when he approaches the

fifth gate.

have brought the two jaws of Restau.
(?)

(6)
I

I

have brought

to

thee the books
hosts.
I

made my
the gods.
his bones,

add up for him his have repulsed Apepi and healed the wounds he made. I way through the midst of you. I am the great one among
which are
in the

Annu, and

I purified

Osiris.

I

restored

him

as victor.

I

joined

and put together

his limbs.

The

sixth gate.

The name

of the doorkeeper

is

:

he who makes
warder
is
:

the loaves, with a thundering voice.

The name

of
is
:

its

he

who shows
Said by
I

his face.

The name

of the herald

the stolen knife

which belongs

to the sky.

N when he approaches the
every day,
I go. I

sixth gate.

come
I

who was

created by Anubis, I

am
I

the

lord of the diadem.

I

ignore the magic words (however). I avenge
I

Maat,

avenge his eye.
way.

gave his eye to Osiris himself.

have

made my

N goes along with you.
The name
of the doorkeeper
is
:

The

seventh gate.

he who
is
:

takes possession of their knives.

The name
:

of

its

warder

he

with a high voice.
the enemies.

The name

of the herald

he who drives back
gate.

Said by
I

N when he approaches the seventh
Osiris, (7)

have come to thee,

pure are thine efHuxes.

Thou

goest round and thou seest the sky with Ra.

Thou
say

seest

mankind,
wish,

thou the only one.
sky,

Thou

addressest

Ra

in
I

the Sektit boat of the

when he goes round mummy is mighty. What
shall not

the horizon.
I

what

I

my
I

say takes place like what he says.
I

be driven back from thee.

have made

my

way.

Said near the seven gates. (8)
pylons, he
is

When

the deceased arrives at the
It is

not driven back, nor repulsed from Osiris.

given
so

him
that

among the glorious ones, the most excellent of them, he may have dominion over the first followers of Osiris.
to

be

Every deceased
eternity,

to

whom

this

chapter

is

read

is

like the lord of

he

is

of one substance with Osiris, and in no place has he

to encounter a great fight.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Note?.
Chapter 147
loped.
is

299

very like 144, in

fact,
;

it

is

the same more deve-

It refers also co the

seven gates

and whenever the deceased

approaches one of the gates, he has to say the name of the doorkeeper, which, as
the

name

of the

we saw before, is that of the gate itself; and also warder and that of the herald. Besides the deceased
it

has to address the gate, probably in order to open
pass through.

so that he

may

and 136B.
the

The words he utters are found in chapters 117, 119 The two first have nearly the same title, //^^ amz^^r/ a/
If,

Restau, near Abydos.

as

is

most probable, the various parts

ot

Book

of the

Dead

did not originate in the same place,

safely assert that these chapters, as well as

we may those of the gates and
for chapter

the pylons,

come from Abydos.
is

On

the whole the Papyrus of Ani
text

more complete
is

147 than the Leyden

Lc which

published in

my

edition.

Therefore

this
is

chapter has
too corrupt.

been translated from Ani, using

Lc

whenever Ani
1.

Chapter 119, vide p. 206, "Chapter whereby one entereth and goeth forth from Restau."
2.

I

should translate

:

which give

to

Restau

its

name.

This

is

an

instance of those wonderful etymologies often
texts.

met with

in religious

From

the word

1

V\
gate

to fioiv, is

derived the

name

I

I

Q£^*
Osiris of the
first

3.

The
to

whom
moon

the deceased addresses
is

seems

be the moon.

The word ^^^

often used in speaking

of the pale
P- 54).

and

silvery light of the

(Naville, Litanie

du

soieil,

The
4.
5. 6.

last

sentences are found in chapter 117, line
1

3.

Chapter Chapter
I
:

17.

Chapter 136B, line 14.
136B,
line
18.
I

repeat

Renouf's

translation,
I

though
translate

differ

from him

in various points.
iti

For instance,
(cf.

should

/

have closed the doors

Restau

Inscr. of Piankhi,

line 104).
7.

An

abridged version of chapter 119.
rubric
is

8.

The

taken from the Paris papyrus Fc.

There

also the vignettes vary considerably according to the fancy

2 K 2

300
of the
artist.
is

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
In Lc the gates and the gods are
all alike.

In Pc

the god

always represented in

human form

-with

a ram's head.

In

the Papyrus of Ani, where there are three figures for each gate, these
figures are all different.

CHAPTER
Giving sustena7ice
delivering hi7n

CXLVIII.
Netherworld^ and

{\) to the deceased in the

from

all evil things. (2)

Hail to thee
the horizon,

who shinest as living soul, and who appearest on N. who is in the boat knows thee he knows thy name,
;
;

he knows the names of the seven cows and of their bull
bread and drink
grant that he
to the glorified soul.

they give

You who

give sustenance to

the inhabitants of the West, give bread and drink to the soul of N.^

may be your

follower,

and be between your

thighs. (3).

(Then follow the names of the seven cows.)

The house of the ka, of the inviolate god, The storm of the sky, which raises the gods, The hidden one in her dwelling,
Chebt the mummified form of the god.

The greatly beloved, with red hair. The abundant in life, the veiled one. She who is powerful in her works, or on The bull of the Nether^vorld.
(Then the deceased
cardinal points.)
calls

her pedestal,

on the four rudders of the

sky, the four

Hail

!

divine
sky.

form,

the

good one, the good rudder of the

Northern
Hail
!

thou who goest round and pilotest the double earth, the
sky.

good rudder of the Western
Hail Hail
!

the

shining one,

who

dwellest

in

the

house

of

the

devouring monsters, the good rudder of the Eastern sky.
!

the inner one

who

dwelleth in the house of the red ones,

the good rudder of the Southern sky.

Give bread and drink, oxen, geese,

all

things good and pure to

N. Give him sustenance, give him joy, may he rest on the earth, and may he be victorious on the horizon of Annu, in the Tuat, in the sky, and on the earth, eternally.

Ye

fathers

and mothers, gods of the

sky,

and of the Netherworld,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
deliver iV; from
all

3OI
all

things pernicious

and

evil,

from

liarm

and

evil,

and from all evil things; and order what is to be done to him by the men, the glorious ones, and the dead, in this day, in this night, in this month, and in this
from the cruel huntsman and
his swords,

year.

Said (4) by a man, when Ra is put before these gods, painted in green, and standing on a wooden board, and when they give him
the offerings, and the sustenance which
drink, geese,
gifts to the
is

before them, bread and

and frankincense, and when they present mortuary
called)

deceased before Ra.
giving

(The book

sustenance to a deceased
all evil

in

the

Netherworld, delivers a
read to any other

man from

things.

Thou

shalt not

man

than thyself the book of Unnefer.

He

to

whom

this

has been read,

Ra

is

his steersman and his protecting

power, he

will

not be attacked by his enemies in the Netherworld,
earth,

in the sky,

on the

and

in every place

he goes,

for (the

book)

giving sustenance to the deceased has

its effect

regularly.

Notes.
This chapter in the Turin text begins with a long
title

which
it

is

found by

itself in

the papyrus of N'u.

Dr.

Budge considers
is

as a

special chapter, to
it is

which he has given No. 190.
is

But the proof that
one of the hymns
b, 3).

not a chapter,
that
it is

that the whole of
;

it

written in red, which

means

a

title

besides this
15, the

title is

that of

which constitute chapter

hymn
last

to the setting sun (15

The
text.

chapter

itself

begins with the

word

in line 7 of the
it

Turin

We
is

have a nearly complete version of
compiled from several Theban papyri.
translates the

in

the

tomb of
I

Senmut, the architect of queen Hatshepsu.
translate
1.

The

text

from which

Renouf

word

in various

ways

:

" sustenance,

nutriment, dainties, delicacies."
2.

Note the connection between these two ideas which occurs
:

throughout the chapter
delivers
3.

the giving nourishment to the deceased

him from

all evil.

To

be suckled by the divine cows,

like

Hatshepsu

at

Der

el

Bahari, by Hathor.
4.

Several papyri have here the rubric of 30B, with the

name

of

Mycerinus.

The

rubric which

is

here translated

is

taken from the

;

302
papyrus of
chapter.
N^i/.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Lepsius
calls

148c the vignettes belonging to

this

In a columned hall stands Osiris, and behind him the
Osiris

cows, the rudders, and the four gods of the cardinal points.
is

sometimes

left out.

In the papyrus of Ani the god has his hair

painted green, and he stands on a green basement.

CHAPTER
The
live
first

CXLIX.

domain.
of
I

upon bread

domain of the Amenta, where they the plant tej> sent. Take off your head dress in
this

O

my

presence, for

am

the great one
his

among

you, he

who

joins his

bones and establishes firmly

limbs.

Ahi, the lord of hearts,

came to me, he joined my bones, and as he fixed the diadem of Tmu, he fastened on me the head of Nehebkau, and estabhshed my balance. I am lord among the gods, I am Amsi the builder.

The second domain,
of Aarru.

(i)

I

am

the great proprietor in the garden
steel

O

this
its

garden of Aarru, the walls of which are of
is

the height of

wheat

seven cubits, the ears are two cubits, and
glorified ones, each of

the stalks five cubits.
cubits in height, reap
I

The

whom

is

seven

them

in presence of

Harmachis.

know

the inner gate of the garden of Aarru, out of which
;

cometh Ra, in the East of the sky the South of Cha ru, and the North of it by the stream of Reu
with favouring gales.
I

it is
;

by the lake of

thence

Ra

saileth

am

the Teller in the divine ship

;

I

am

the unresting navi-

gator in the Bark of Ra.
I

know

those two sycamores of emerald, between which

Ra
(the

cometh

forth, as

he advanceth over what

Tmu

hath

lifted

up

firmament) to the
proceedeth.
I

Eastern gates of the sky, through which he

know
is

this

garden of Aarru of Ra, the height of
five

its

wheat
;

is

seven cubits, the ears are two cubits, the stalks
barley

cubits

the

seven cubits.

It is

the glorified ones, each of
in presence of the

whom

is

nine

cubits in height,
East.

who reap them

powers of the

domain of the glorious ones through which nobody can sail, which contains glorious ones, and O this domain of the the flame of which is a consuming fire.
third

The

domain.

(2)

O

this

PLATE

LI I.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

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Chapter CXLIX.

British

Museum.

Papyrus

9900.

PLATE

LIII.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapters

CXLV and CXLVI.

British

Museum.

Papyrus

9900.

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f

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X

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Chapter CL.

British

Museum,

9900.

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
glorious ones, your faces are looking

303
;

down

make
to

straight

your

ways, and purify your abodes as
eternal one.
I

it

was ordered

you by Osiris the

am

the lord of the red crown which

is

on the head of the
of his

shining one, (3) he

who

gives

life

to

mankind from the heat

mouth, and who delivers

Ra

from Apepi.
this great

mountain of the Netherworld, on the highest point of which ends the sky. It is three hundred measures in length, and ten in width. There is a
fourth domain,
lofty

The

O

and

snake on

it,

he with sharp knives
Netherworld.

is

his

name, he

is

seventy cubits

in his windings, lie lives

by slaughtering the glorious ones and the

damned
I

in the

stand on thy wall, (4) directing my navigation. I see the way towards thee. I am the man who puts a I gather myself together.

on thy head, and I am uninjured, thy eyes have been given me, and I
veil

I

am
Thy
I

the great magician

am
it,

glorified

through them.
is
is

Who
hand.

is

he
;

who goeth on
behold,
I

his

belly?

strength

on thy
in
I

mountain
I

march towards
lifts

and thy strength
rests with

my

am

he who

the strength.

have come and

have

taken away the serpents (5) of Ra,
I

when he

me

at eventide.

go round the

sky,

thou art in thy valley, as was ordered to

thee before.

The
open
to

fifth

domain,

O

this

domain of the glorious ones, which

is

no one.
to

The

glorious ones

who

are in

it

have thighs of

seven cubits, and they live on the shades of the motionless.

Open

me

the ways, that

I

may appear

before you, that I

may

reach the good Amenta, as was ordered
one, the lord of
I live
all

me

by

Osiris, the glorious

the glorified.
first

of your glory, I observe the

day of the month, and
in

the half-month on the fifteenth day.
I

have gone round with the eye of Horus
god, or damned,

my

power, following

Thoth.

Any

me

on

this day, is struck

who opens down on the
thou

his

devouring mouth against

block.

The
gods.

sixth

domain.

O
is

Amemhet who

art

sacred more than
art dreadful to the

the hidden gods and the glorious ones, and

who

The god

in

it

called Sechez-at, (6)

304

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
I

Hail to thee, Amemhet.

have come to see the gods within thee.

Show

your faces,

and
to

take

away your
bread.
I
;

head-dresses

in

my

presence, I have

come

make your

Sechez-at will not be stronger than

the slaughterers will not

come behind me, the impure ones I live upon your offerings.

will

not

come behind me.

The seventh domain.
heat of which
is

O

this Ases,
fire.

too remote to be seen
is

;

the

that of blazing

There

a serpent in
lives

it

whose

name

is

Rerek.

His backbone

is

seven cubits, he

on glorious

ones, destroying their glory.

Get thee behind me, Rerek, who is in Ases, who mouth and who paralyses with his eyes.
;

bites with his

Thy teeth are torn away, thy venom is powerless. Thou shalt not come towards me, thy venom will not penetrate into me. Thy poison is fallen and thrown down, and thy lips are in
a hole.

The

white serpent has struck his ka, and his ka has struck the

white serpent. (7)
I shall

be protected.

His head was cut

off

by the

lynx. (8)

The

eighth domain.

O

this

Hahotep, the very
its

great, the

stream

of which nobody takes the water for fear of

roaring.
it,

The god whose name is the lofty order that nobody may come near it.
I (9)

one, keeps watch over

in

am

the vulture which

is

on the stream without end.

I

brought the things of the world to
sailors
I
I

Tmu,

at

the

time when the

(of Ra) are abundantly provided.

have given

my

strength to the lords of the shrines,

and the awe

inspire to the lord of all things.
I shall

not be taken to the block.
I

The

pleasure they take in

me

will

not be destroyed.

am

the guide on the northern horizon.

The

ninth domain. (10)

O

this

Akset which

art

hidden

to the

gods, the

name

of which the glorious ones are afraid to know.

No

one goes out who goes into it, except this venerable god, who Its openinspires fear to the gods and terror to the glorious ones. He made it such(i i) ing is of fire, its wind destroys the nostrils.
for his followers in order that they
this

may

not breathe

its

wind, except

venerable god

who comes out

of his egg.

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
lie

305

made
except

it

such, being in
is

it,

in order that

nobody may come
I

near

it,

Ra who
be
in

supreme

in his attributes.

Hail to thee, venerable god,

who comes
I I

out of his egg.
of,

have
into

come
Akset.
I

to thee to

thy following.
the doors, that
it.

go out

and

I

come

Open

to

me

may

inhale

its

wind, and that

may

take the offerings within

The

tenth domain. (12)

O

this city of the

Kahu gods who

take

hold of the glorious ones, and

who

gain mastery over the shades (13)
;

Who
with the earth.

they see with their eyes

who have no connection

O
that
I

ye

who are in your domain, throw yourselves on your bellies, may pass near you. My glorious nature will not be taken

from me.
divine

No

one

will give

mastery over

my
me
;

shade, for I

am

the

hawk who has been rubbed with
;

anti and anointed with
Isis
is

incense

libations
is

have been offered

to

before

me

:

Nephthys

behind me.

The way has been pointed to me by Nau, the bull of Nut and Nehebkau. I have come to you, ye gods deliver me and glorify
;

me

of an eternal glory.

The
cavity

eleventh domain.

O

this

city

in

the

Netherworld,

this

which masters the glorious ones.

No

one goes
sees

out, of those

who went
in
is
it.

into

it,

from the dread of

the appearance of

He who

him who is the god who

in

it,

face to face, he

who

sees

him

dies there from his blows, except the gods

who

are there,

and who

are hidden to the glorious ones.
this Atu, in the
I

Netherworld.

Grant that
;

I

may

reach them

am the great magician, with his knife I am issued of Set, (I stand on) my feet for ever. 1 rise, and I am mighty through this eye of Horus my heart is
;

raised, after
I

it

has fallen low.

am

glorious in heaven,

and

I

am

mighty on earth.
stand

I fly like It

Horus,

I

cackle like the divine goose.
;

was given
I sit

me
it,

to alight near the stream of the lake
I eat of

I

near

it,

near

the food in Sechit Hotepit,
stars.

I

go down

to the islands of the

wandering

The doors

of the Maati are open to

me

;

and the gates of the
2 S

lupper waters are unbolted to me.

306
I raise
I

BOOK OF THE DEAD. my
ladder up to the sky to see the gods.

am one

of them, I speak hke the divine goose,

and

I listen to

the gods.
I talk aloud, I

repeat the words of Sothis.

domain of Unt, within Restau, the No god goes down into it, and the heat of which is that of fire. glorious ones do not gather into it, for the four snakes would destroy

The

twelfth

domain.

O

this

their

names. (14)
this

domain of Unt

!

I

am

the great

among
I

the glorious ones

within.

I
is

am among

the wandering stars.

am

not destroyed

;

my name
1

not destroyed.
divine scent, say the gods
I

Come, thou

am

with you,

live

who are in the domain of Unt. with you, ye gods who are within the
I

domain of Unt.

You

love

me more

than your gods.

am

with you for ever, in

the presence of the followers of the great god.

The

thirteenth domain.

O

this

domain

of the

water, which

none of the glorious ones can possess, for its water is of fire, its stream is burning, and its heat is of blazing flame, so that they may not drink its water in order to quench the thirst which is within
them, for their mighty
fear,

and
and

their great terror.
its
is

The gods and
do not quench
they

the glorious ones look at
their heart

water from afar, they
rest,

their thirst,
it.

not set at

because

may

not go near
the river

When

is

full

and green

like the flowing sap

which

comes out of Osiris, I take its water, I draw from its flood like the great god who is in the domain of the water, and who keeps watch over it for fear that the gods may drink from its water, and who
inspires dread to the glorious ones.

Hail to thee, thou great god,
I

who

art in the

domain of the

water.

have come to thee.

Grant

me

to take of thy water, to take of thy

stream, as

thou doest to this great god.
the Nile will come,
to

When

when he
;

will give birth to

the plants,

and cause the herbs

grow

as

it

is

given to the gods,

when he
J

appears in peace, grant that the Nile

may come

to

me, and that

may

take his plants

;

for I

am

thy

own son

for ever.

The

fourteenth domain.

O

this

domain of Cher-aba

(15),

which

drives the Nile towards Tattu,

and which causes the Nile

to

go and

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
spend
its

307
pre-

corn in his course from
a serpent belonging to

Kokekmu (16); thou which
gifts to the
it,

sentest offerings to the dead,

and mortuary

glorious ones.
the two wells

There
at

is

who comes from

Elephantine, at the gate of the water.
at

He

goes with the water,

and stops Hood he
;

the stream of Cher-aba, near the powers of the high

sees his hour of the silent evening.
live in

Ye gods who
may may
I

the water of Cher-aba, ye powers of the

high flood, open to

me

your ponds, open to
I

me

your lakes, that

I
I

take of your water, and that
eat of your corn, that I

may

rest in

your stream, that

may be
is

satisfied with

your food.
the
great

have

risen,

my

heart

high,

for I

am

god

in

Cher-aba.

Make me
out of Osiris.

offerings.
I shall

I

have been

filled

with the vital sap coming
it.

not be despoiled of

The

end.

Notes.
This
It is
is

one of the interesting chapters of the Book of the Dead.

more frequently met with than the other ones, and it generally It is the chapter of the constitutes the end of the Theban papyri. various domains which the deceased has to reach, and in which he
enjoys special privileges.

The

vignettes generally give the plan of the domain,

and very
green

often the
\

colour with which
yellow
3, 9,
,,^^,^^^1

it

is

painted; they are either

^

or light

^

I" most of the papyri there are

only four yellow

10,

and

14.

Renouf
keeps

translates

(,

^R\

"domain"
them
as

(p. 208).

Dr.

Budge

the word aat, and considers
fields.

the divisions of the
siege, defrmire,

Elysian

Pierret translates demeiire,
shall

Brugsch

habitatmi.

I

adopt

Renoufs word, though

residence

or

habitation seems to

me

preferable.

An

/

>\

is

an enclosed
text.

space which has inhabitants descnoed or mentioned in the
calls first

on the domain, and often in the same breath The deceased goes over to the inhabitants without any transition. The text of the vignette 1. The second domain is the horizon. The text to this domain says the god who is in it is Harmachis. being a repetition of chapter 109, I adopt Renoufs translation
:

(p. 181.)
2.

The

third

domain

is

called "that of the glorious ones."

.

308

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
3.

The moon.

^^

reads

:

()-[]--

Vl

f^

"11"

"

on the face of the sun, and on the face of the moon." 4. The deceased speaks of himself as a magician who can cover The eyes of the the head of the serpent without being hurt.

M

ll^

^^

power of paralyzing, of making impotent the result is, that when he (see seventh domain), are given him goes to the mountain on which the serpent shows his strength, this strength collapses, as the deceased says thy strength is in my hand
serpent, which have the
;
:

;

I

am
5.

he who

lifts,

who

takes away the strength.
translates
p.

Renouf generally
and Proc, 1893, serpent or worms.

^^.

V

<^/|

'

'^^'"'^^Is.

'

See

p. 126,

385

;

but here we must adopt the other

sense,
6.

Copt. <i.Kopi.
or he

Or Secher-remn, he who knocks down the worm, knocks down the fishes. 7. Ka and serpent have killed each other.
8.

who

The

lynx (see note,

p.

82,

on chapter

34).

It

seems

to

be the cat who is represented in the vignettes of chapter cutting off the head of the serpent.
9.

17,

This

is

a chapter found on the sarcophagus of

~

Amam
r^

British

Museum

:

it

has the

title >rfi

%v
p.

v^
139)
:

in the
,

rs

\> |~^

"taking the form of a vulture" (see

I

should rather say

a goose.
10.

The

ninth domain, Akset or Aksi, has the form of a vase,

which a crocodile called Maatetf touches with his snout. 11. The words are obscure. I believe them to mean: Akset
was made such as
12.
it is,

in

order that, &c.
is

The tenth domain
I

called that which

is

at

the

mouth

of

the stream.
13.

cannot translate the following words.
destruction of the

14.

The
I

name means

absolute destruction of

the person.
15.

have kept the reading Cher-aba, which Renouf advocates,

in opposition to Cher-aha,
16.
I

adopted by most egyptologists.

believe

this

name,

which

is

spelt

differently

in

each

papyrus, to be the origin of the K/3w0<

mentioned by Herodotus (II, 28), There are hardly any variants

and Mw0<, these two rocks out of which issues the Niles. in the vignettes which accompany

the text of the chapter of the domains.

PLATE

LIY.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter

151.

Papyrus, British Museum, looio.

Chatter

152.

Papyrus, Busca.

1
n

t

1

J
151 a ter.

Chapter

Chapter

153.

Papyrus, B.M., 9900.

Papyrus, Louvre,

III, 93.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Chapter CL.
Notes.
This
is

309

not a separate chapter:

it

stands to 149 as 16 to 15.

It

consists of the vignettes accompanying Chapter 149, and it is the end of many papyri. Curiously, there are fifteen domains instead of fourteen, one of them, the fifth, seems to have been divided into two.

At the corner of the picture are four serpents, which
as the four cardinal points.

I

consider

same order as in the preceding text, we find them named in the following way in the papyrus Aa 1. The good Amenta, the gods within which live on s/iens and ///
in the
:

Taking the domains

loaves.
2.

3.
4.
5.

The garden of Aarru; the god in it is Ra. The domain of the glorious ones. The high and lofty mountain. The basin, the fire of which is a blazing flame
the god in
it is

;

the front of

the

fire,

the bearer of altars.
in
it is

6.
7.

Amemhet,
Asset.

the

god

he who knocks down the

fishes.

8. 9.

Hasert, the god

m

it is
it

the bearer of heaven.
Maatetf.

Akset, the god in

is

10. 11.

The

face of the

Kahu
it is

gods.

Aat, the god in

Sothis.
is

12.
13.

14.

The domain of Unt, the god in it The surface of the water, the god The domain of Cher-aba, the god

the destroyer of souls.
it

in

is

the mighty power.

in

it is

the Nile.

CHAPTER
(a)

CLI.

Words of Anubis.
right eye
is

Thy
boat.

in the Sektit boat,

thy

left

eye

is

in the Atit

Thy eyebrows

are with

(i)

Anubis, thy fingers are with
;

Thoth, thy locks are with Ptah Sokaris

they prepare for thee a

good way, they smite
(d)

for thee the associates of Sut.

Said by

Isis.

I

have come as thy protector,

JV,

with the thee thy

breath coming forth from

Tmu.

I

shall strengthen for

2

T

3IO
throat.
T

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
give thee to be like a god.
feet.
I

will

put

all

thy enemies

under thy

(c)

Said by Nephthys.

I

go round

my

brother Osiris

A^.

I

have come as thy protector. I am myself behind thee for ever, hearing when thou art addressed by Ra, and when thou art justified by
the gods.
thee.
Arise, thou art justified

through
;

all

that has
art

been done

for

Ptah has smitten thy enemies
will

Hathor.

head

Horus the son of Thy It has been ordered what should be done for thee. not be taken away from thee for ever.
thou

Words of the figure of the Northern wall. Ke who Cometh to enchain, I shall not. let him enchain thee. He who Cometh to throw bonds, I shall not let him throw bonds on
(d)
ihee.
I

am
I

here to throw bonds on thee.

I

am

here to enchain

thee; but

am

thy protector. (2)

(e)

Words

of the Tat of the U'estern wall.

Come
into his

in haste,

and turn away the steps of Kep-her.
I

Bring light

hidden abode.

am

behind Tat,
is

I

am
I

verily

behind Tat,

on the day when the slaughter
ofiV^. (3)

repelled.

am

the protector

(/) Words of the flame of the Southern wall. I have spread sand around the hidden abode, repelling the
aggressor that
illuminated the
I

might throw
mountain.
I

light on the mountain. 1 have have turned the direction of the

sword.

I

am

the protector of

N.

(4)

{£)
I

Said by Anubis in his divine

hall,

the

lord of Ta-Tsert.

keep watch over thy head.
is

Awake, thou on the mountain.
I

Thy
thy

wrath

averted.

I

have averted thy furious wrath.

am

protector. (5)

(Ji)

The two figures of the soul, with raised hands The Uving soul, the powerful Chu of N. worships
The
living soul of

the sun

when

he ariseth on the Eastern horizon of the sky.

N. adoreth Ra, when he

setteth in the land of

the living, on the Western horizon of the sky.

;

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
(/)

3II

Words

of the two statuettes. (6)
!

O

statuette there

Should

I

be called and appointed to do any
in

of the labours that are done

the

Netherworld, by a person
soil,

according to his
the

abilities, to

plant fields, to water the
;

to

convey

sand

from

East

to

West

here

am

I,

whithersoever thou

callest

me.
of the genii of the four cardinal points.

Words
{k) I
I

am

Kebehsenuf.
I

I

have come to be thy protector.
I

have joined thy bones.

have strengthened thy limbs.
it

have

brought thee thy heart and put
I will
(/)

in

its

place,

into

thy

body.

cause thy house to prosper after thee.
I

am Hapi
I

thy protector.

I

have revived thy head and thy
I

limbs.

have smitten thy enemies under thee.

give thee thy

head
I

for ever.
I

am Tuamautef. I am thy son Horus, I have come, and my father from the evil doer, whom I put under thy feet. I cause thy I have come, I am thy protector. («) I am Emsta. house to prosper permanently, according to the command of Ptah, according to the command of Ra himself.
{m)
rescue

Notes. With Chapter 151 begins a series of texts written either on the walls of the funeral chamber or on the mummy cloth, or on various
amulets.

This series goes as

far as 160, with the

exception of 152

and 153, which have been inserted there without any apparent
reason.

Chapter 151 is not so much a text as a picture. It represents The four walls, which should be vertical, are the funeral chamber. drawn lying flat on the ground. In the middle of the chamber,

under a canopy, under the bed
or a
is

is

the

mummy, on which Anubis
human
that the

lays his

hands

a bird with a

head, the symbol of the soul

of the deceased.

We

must suppose

god Anubis

is

a priest,

member

of the family,

who has put on

a jackal's head,

and who
foot of

pronounces the words said to be those of the god.
the bed are the two goddesses Isis

At the

and Nephthys.
it.

Each

of the four walls had a small niche of the exact size of
in

an amulet, which was lodged

We know

it

from the four

oriented steles of Marseilles (Naville, Les quatre

steles orieiitees

du

Musee de

Marseille),

where we

find the text

belonging to each wall,
2

T

2

312

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
also the niche cut in the stone for each amulet.
figure,

and

On

the North
jackal,

was a human

on the South a flame, on the East a

on the West a Tat. In the chamber were four so-called canopic
of the four cardinal points, each of

vases, with the

gods

whom

has his words to say.

Besides these were statuettes called shabti or ushabti, the helpers of
the deceased in his work in the Elysian
fields.
is

In the papyrus
translated,

London, looio

{A/.),

from which

this

chapter

one of

them has the usual appearance, the other the head of Anubis. The soul of the deceased is supposed to be in the chamber, and to worship the rising and the setting sun.
Very few papyri have
taken here as standard
of
it

this

chapter as complete as Af., which

is

for text

and
(ed.

vignettes, but there are fragments

here and there.

The Turin
of
JSFii

version

is

much

shorter than the
texts of the

old one.

The papyrus

Budge) contains the

four walls with rubrics very similar to those of the steles in Marseilles.

They form

a special chapter joined to 137 a, with the
in

title

:

What

is

do7ie secretly

the Ttiat, the mysteries

of the Timt,

the introduction

into the mysteries of the Nether^vorld.

In order to

facilitate the

understanding of the chapter, I have
figures.

lettered the words
1.

spoken by the various

Renouf would have
;

translated (see Chapter 42), thy eyebrows

are those of Anubis
to

but the following chapter shows that

we have

translate

7vith

Anubis,

which should

mean

here,

under the
is

protection of Anubis.
2.

The The

rubrics say the figure

is

made

of

palm wood, and

seven

fingers high.
3.

rubric of this Tat

is

the following
gold.

:

said on a Tat of

crystal^

the branches of

which are of

It

is

folded up

ift

fitie

linen.

There

is

another chapter of the Tat put on the neck of the

deceased (Chapter 155), the words of which are totally different. 4. According to the rubric, the flame is a torch made of reeds

5.

The Anubis was made
Words
'^
\

of clay.

6.

engraved
or

on
J

the
>

funerary
'iii

statuettes

called TjI^T
6, for

Nk\

t

^czsm

f

\

abridged form of Chapter

which

I

take Renouf's translation.

BOOK OF THE DEAD

313

CHAPTER
hands over the body of
to him.
yV.,

CLiA

bis.

Said by Anubis Amut, in his divine

hall,

when he puts
all

his

and provides him with
sight,

that belongs

Hail to thee, beautiful face, lord of

sacred eye lifted up
its

by Ptah Sokaris, raised by Anubis, and to which Shu has given
stand.

Beautiful face, which art
Sektit boat, thy left eye
is

among
in

the gods, thy right eye
;

is

in the

the Atit boat

thy eyebrows are a
in

pleasant sight

among
is

the gods.

Thy

front

is

the protection of

Anubis, thy back

pleasant to the venerable hawk.

Thy

fingers (i)

are well preserved in writing before the lord of Hermopolis, Thoth,

the giver of written words.
Sokaris.

Thy

locks are beautified before Ptah

welcome among the gods he sees the great god, he is led on the good roads, he is presented with funerary offerings, his enemies are beaten down under him in the house of the Prince of

N.

is

;

Heliopolis

(2).

Notes.

The words spoken by Anubis in Chapter 1 5 1 have been taken out and made into a special chapter, which in papyrus London, 9900 {All) occurs in two different forms. I called them CLIa Ms and CLLa ier, the second one being only an abridgement of the first.
Vignettes and
translated,
titles

are not the
is

same

for these

two chapters.

That
of the

CLIa
is

bis,

the longest of the two.

The

title

other one

the Chapter of the Mysterious Head,

and the vignette

thereof consists of a

mummy's

head.

In comparing
before,

this

chapter with the words of Anubis we had
:

we

find the explanation of expressions like this

thy eyebrows

are with Anubis.
(i)
]]].
is

This word has always been translated yf^^^rx, a sense

wrong in this place, where parts of the head only are mentioned, and when one would expect the hair or the beard. I suppose that this obscure sentence means that since everything m him is divine the design or colour of his fingers (?) was taken from
evidently the books of Thoth.
(2)

which

See note 8 on Chapter

i.

314

HOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER
rejoice, Seb,

CLII.
(i)

The Chapter of building a house

on earth.

N. has been set in motion with his vital power he has given to men and gods their creative strength. There is cheering, when it is seen that Seshait (2) has come build a house on towards Seb when Anubis has commanded to N. earth, the foundations of which be Hke On, and the circuit Hke Cher-aba let the god of the sanctuary be in the sanctuary. I also
;
:

;

decree that

it

should contain the

sacrificial victim,

brought by slaves,

and held up by ministrants.
Said by Osiris to the gods in his following
:

come

hastily,

and see

the house which has been built for the glorified, the well equipt,

who

Cometh every day.
l^raise,

Look
I

at

him, hold him in awe, and give him
the great god

which

is

well pleasing to him.

(3)

You

see what
day.

have done myself,
ye, Osiris brings

I

who

Cometh every
brings

Look

me

cattle,

the south wind

me

grain, the north

wind brings

me

barley as far as the end

of the earth.
1

have been exalted by the mouth of Osiris
left

(4),

applause sur-

rounds him (5) on his

Look
him, and

ye,
I

and on his right. men, gods, and Chus, they applaud him, they applaud
well pleased.

am

Notes.

The

text here translated

is

that of the Papyrus of A^u. with a few-

variants taken from contemporary texts.
1.

The

J

here mentioned

is

the abode of the
j

j,

where

it

is

worshipped and receives
(Ik), the plan of this

offerings.

In the vignette of Pap.

Busca

discovered at
2.

abode is Nagadah and Abydos.

like the funerary constructions

The goddess ^is

often connected with building (Chapter 52).
to speak himself.

3.

Here the deceased begins

_^.

"^^
The person

^^^ beating in measure as the musicians

do, the regular applause so often heard in the- East.
5.

changes, as

is

often the case in such texts.

The

deceased speaks of himself

in the third person.

PLATE

LV.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Chapter

153A.

Louvre,

III, 93.

Chapter

153A.

Louvre, 3084.

y

Chapfer
Louvre,

161.

III, 93,

Chapter

153A.

B.M.,

9900.

BOOK OV THK DEAD.

315

CHAPTER

CLIIlA.
net. (i)

T^e Chapter of comifig out of the

he who turns backwards, mighty of heart, who spreads his net
before him,

who
in

entereth the earth

!

O

you the fishermen sons of
will

their fathers (2),

who go round
your
net, in

in the

midst of the stream, you

not catch
will evil

me

which you catch the disabled, and you

not carry

me away

in
;

your canvas, in which you take away the
(jf

ones in the earth

the frame

which reaches the

sky,

and

the weights of which are on the earth.

For
I

I will

come
out of

out of
its

will

come

meshes and shine like Hunnu (Sokaris). bars (3) and shine like Sebak. I shall fly
its

against you like a fisher
1

know
its

the fork (5)
I

whose fingers (4) are hidden. which belongs to it. It is the great

finger
(7).

of
I

Hunnu
know
its

(Sokaris).

know
it

pointed head,
;

is

the stake (6) ; the hand of

it is

the leg of
I

Nemu
the

Isis.

know

name
for

of

blade

it

is

the knife of Isis with which she cut the

meat

Horus.
I

know

the

name

of the frame and of the weights.

They

are the

feet

and the
I

legs of the

Sphinx

(8).
;

are the
I

the name of the ropes with which fishing is done they bonds of Tmu. know the names of the fishermen who are fishing. They are

know

the

worms
in

(9), the

ancestors of the blood drinkers (10),

who pour
(11),

their flow

on

my

hands,

when

the great

god the

lord listens to the

words
in the
I

Heliopolis, in the night of the

15th of the

month

temple of the moon.
the

know

the soil of iron
I

marked space (12) on which the gods

in

which they are enclosed.

It

is

stand.

know

the

name

of the divine supervisor
tail.

who

takes hold of the

fishes,

and marks them on the
the

He

is

the supervisor of the

divine property.
I
it is

know
sits

name

of the table

on which he

lays

them (the

fishes)

;

the table of Horu.s.

He
I

alone in the night; nobody sees him

see him,

and the present ones give him shine like Horus I govern the land, and
;

the future ones (13) their acclamations.
;

I

go down to the land

;

3l6
in the

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
two great boats.

Horus introduces me

into the

house of the

Prince (14).
I

have come as a
is

fisher; the fork has

been given into

my hand
forth

;

my
I

blade

in

my

hand,

my

knife

is

in

my

hand.

I

come

go round about,
I

and

I

entangle in

my

net.

know

the

name

of the fork which closes the

mouths vomiting

(fire ?).

It is

the great finger of Osiris.

The
I

fingers (prongs)

which hold

fast,

they are the fingers of the

ancestors of Ra, the claw of the ancestor of Hathor.

know

the strings which are on this fork, they are the bonds

of the lord of mankind.
I

know

the

name

of the stake

;

the thigh of

Nemu.

Its point
its

is

the

hand
I

of

Isis, its coil,

the cord of the first-born god,

cordage

the rope of Ra.

know

the

name

of the fishermen

who

are fishing

;

they are the

worms, the ancestors of Ra, the creatures

(15), the ancestors of Seb.
I

When
to

what thou eatest
eatest

is
is

brought to thee, what

eat

is

brought

me.

Thou

what

eaten by Seb and Osiris.

(16) thou

who

turnest backwards, mighty of heart,
;

who

fishes

and entangles him who enters the earth
their
fathers,

O

you

fishers,
;

sons of

you will and ye fowlers who are in Nefer-sent not catch me in your nets, and you will not entangle me in your meshes, wherein you catch the disabled, and where you catch those who are in the earth for I know it (the net), its frame above, and Behold, I come, my stake is in my hand the its weights below.
;

;

point
1

is

in

my
I

hand, the blade
arrive to
it,

is

in

my

hand.
I

come,
in

my
it

....(?)

have come myself;

I

have
I

come
put
it

to bind
its

to put

in its place.

My

knife

is

sharpened.

place.
is is

The
which
is

stake which
in
is

in

my hand
;

is

the thigh of
;

Nemu
in

;

the fork
is
is

my hand

the fingers of Sokaris

this point
is

which

in

my hand
knife of

the claws of Isis

the blade which

my hand

the

Nemu.
I

Behold
of

have come,

I sit in

the boat of Ra,

I

sail

on the lake
I

Cha
I

()

7)

and on the

lake of the

Northern
I

sky.

hear the words of the gods.

do what they are doing,
for

give

praises to their persons, I live as they live.

N. appears on the ladder which was made father Ra, when Horus and Sut lake hold of him.

him by

his

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

317

Notes.
In the Theban version the Chapter of the Net
is

divided into two,

153A and 153B, which have
153A
^^

different titles
oui,^' or,

and

different vignettes.

is

called the

''

Chapter of coming
net.'"

as might be translated,

of escaping from the

The

vignettes represent a clap-net, used
is ,"
1

for waterfowl.

The second Chapter

called

''''

the

Chapter of escapifig

from

those zvho catch

c ^ _zr
may

\\ <&<

which, from the etymology,

I

might be translated foul or fetid fish. There the vignette represents a drag-net containing fishes, and drawn by apes.
It is

probable, one

suppose, that originally one Chapter
1

referred to the fowlers, the

© ^11

[

saV Mi IN
-

,

who use

the clap-net, ^

and the other

to the fishermen, the

'w '\\ r\ ^"^ M _M. .>5r^ <e^

use the drag-net.
in

But

in the

form in

TTT, III which these Chapters appear

who

the three best texts where they have been preserved, London,

Paris, III, 93 {-Ph-), and the papyrus of Nu, fowlers and fishermen are mixed together.

9900 {Aa),

The

text of

153A

is

very corrupt, and seems to differ greatly
variants between the chief
it

from the

original.

The
show
first

considerable, and
It

that the understanding of

documents are was nearly lost.

probably had two different versions, which have been cast into
two-thirds
it

one, since after the
repeats itself

begins over again and nearly

The Turin
but
it

text contains only 153A,

and
is

that even

much

shorter,

is

followed by a rubric, which

absent from the

Theban

version.

The The

translation

is

made from

the three above-named documents.

vignette of 153A, in the papyrus III, 93, of the Louvre {Pb),

shows a clap-net drawn by four men.
holding in his
D

comes the deceased, hand two instruments mentioned in the text the
Behind
it
:

c

and the

\\

,

called

v\

\2_vo^t^ or

^\

—h— \X_

eacb

of

them

consists of different parts having a distinct name.
JVii

In the papyrus of
the net.

the deceased

is

seen drawing the rope of

In the vignette of London, 9900 {Aa), he
same.

is

supposed
2

to

do the

U

3l8
1.

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Among
the dangers to which the deceased
in
is

exposed

is

that

of being caught

by hidden genii, who will treat him as is But he escapes from this peril, done to water-fowl or fishes. because he knows the names of the fowlers and fishermen who intend to attack him, and also of the net itself, and of the various
a net

parts of

which

it

consists.

All these

names

are mystical

;

they are

connected with some
suppose
this

divinity,

and

this gives

them a magical power,

owing to which the deceased can make
2.

his escape.

I

means
:

fishermen, sons of fishermen.

3.

Litt.

the hands

the bars, the sides of the frame of the net.

The fingers hand. The act or
4.

are often

mentioned when we should say the
fingers.

fingers are
strike.
5.

wound is attributed to the hidden," means he who hides the hand
the

"Whose

with which he will

:>

c.

The instrument
is

in

the

hand of the deceased.

Though
it

the determinative

^^^-^,

it

does not necessarily mean that

is

made
It

of

wood
is

;

it

may be
like

the determinative of weapons in general.
it

has prongs, which are compared to nails or claws, so that
a

probably

weapon

the bident for spearing fishes, the tines

of which are

held together by a string (Wilkinson, Mariners

and

Customs, 2nd edition, Vol. II, p. J07).
a netting needle (Wilkinson,
loc. cit., p.
it is

Otherwise
175).
If
it

it

is

not unlike

is

a weapon, one

does not very well understand why
6.

said to belong to the ret.

The

^^\

^

\2^sj7-7^

is

evidently

the stake or peg

to

which the end of the clap-net is fastentd. But it must be noticed Therethat in the vignette of London, 9900, this peg is a dagger.
for

one

may speak
and of
is

of
its [

its

pointed
a^'';^,

head
blade. of

(Brugsch, Diet.

SuppL,
7.

p. 85),

.

Nemu

perhaps a local

name

Horus (Brugsch, Did.

geog.,V- 708.

jTt

"

The god

in

Lion form

"

(Renouf)

is

the

name

of

the Sphinx {Sphinx, Vol. V, p. 193).
9.

See Chapter 149, note 5. 10. We know from an inscription
>

at

L')endereh
•¥"

that

the

(][

\^ Wl

'

^^^ drinkers, feast on blood,
p. 18)

C

^=^^

^

(Brugsch, Diet. Suppl.,

BOOK OF THE DEAD.
11.

319

The

late

contain 1531;.

recension of Chipter 153 ends here, and does not It is followed by this rubric
:

Said on a figure of the deceased ivhich is placed in a boat. Thou shalt put the Ssktit boat on his right, and the Atit boat on his
left.

things,

made to him of cakes, beer, and all good on the day of the birth of Osiris. He to wh vn these things have been done ivill be a living soul for ever, and will not die a
Offerings tvill be

second time.
12.
I

Y
'

.

I

J
^^'^'"^^"^

consider

this

word

as

derived

from
or
of

Y

J

\\
fire,

T A

J lil'

means

to

mark an object with a cut
simply as an
fishes

with

for a

religious

purpose,
it

or

indication
L=>^n::>^

property.
I

little

further
tail

is

spoken of

4

^
13.

"

marked on the

We have here the opposition between
I

"R

1

" those

who are,"

and

^"^

"those who are not," that

is,

those

who

are not yet, the

future

ones.
is

The

negative,

which often

expresses

the

idea

of

one of the usual ways of rendering the future; that which has not yet taken place, which is to come. An official of the
anteriority,

Xllth dynasty says:
A/W\/\A
ft

''the king

T~^ 'v> AA/WV\

V§^

1\ <:c^LJ^

<:ir>

^;

f\

made me

his

commissioner of works, having
It

charge of present and future work" {Zeitschr., 1882, p 8, note). is said of Isis that " she issues her directions for what is and what
PL

will

/V\AAAA

be

"

1

"""^^ ''^^^

^ ^
i,

J^

^^
8.

(Stele Metternich,

Brugsch,

Diet.

Suppl., p. 355).
14.
^5-

See Chapter

note

^tor

t>^^s_y
I
first

^W
:

"^^

^^^^ ^^^ sometimes
translated,

menthe

tioned before the gods,
first

believe the

word might be

beings, the
16.

creatures

"die Urwesen."

Hero begins the second version of the chapter which has been added to the other one.
I
-7. '
I

wvAA/N

H

T
illl

.

This lake

is

often

mentioned

in the texts

of the pyramids.

It is
fields.

one of the

celestial

lakes not very distant"

from the Elysian

2

U

2

:

320

BOOK OF THE DEAD.

CHAPTER
O
O

CLIIIb.
the catchers offish.
fishers,

The Chapter of escaping from
ye snarers
(?),

ye fowlers,

ye

sons of their fathers,
very great net
:

know ye

do know, the name of embracer is its name. Know ye what I do know, the name of
(i)

what

I

this

the

its

cordage
stake

:

the bonds

of

Isis.

Know
Tmu.

ye what ye what

I

do know, the name of

its

:

the thigh of

Know
Nemu.

I

do know, the name of the fork do know, the name of do know, the name of
I
its

:

the finger of

Know Know Know
which
is

ye what ye what

I
I

point

:

the nail of Ptah.
Isis.

its

blade: the knife of
its

ye what ye what

do know, the name of do know, the name of

weight

:

the iron

in the sky.
I
its

Know Know

flowers (2)

:

the

feathers of the hawk.

ye

what
I

I

do know, the name

of

the fisherman

:

the

cyno