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PROBLEM 1.

2
KNOWN: Inner surface temperature and thermal conductivity of a concrete wall. FIND: Heat loss by conduction through the wall as a function of outer surface temperatures ranging from -15 to 38C. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state conditions, (3) Constant properties. ANALYSIS: From Fouriers law, if q and k are each constant it is evident that the gradient, x dT dx = q k , is a constant, and hence the temperature distribution is linear. The heat flux must be x constant under one-dimensional, steady-state conditions; and k is approximately constant if it depends only weakly on temperature. The heat flux and heat rate when the outside wall temperature is T2 = -15C are

q = k x

25 C 15 C dT T T = k 1 2 = 1W m K = 133.3 W m 2 . dx L 0.30 m
(2)

(1)

q x = q A = 133.3 W m 2 20 m 2 = 2667 W . x

<

Combining Eqs. (1) and (2), the heat rate qx can be determined for the range of outer surface temperature, -15 T2 38C, with different wall thermal conductivities, k.
3500

2500

Heat loss, qx (W)

1500

500

-500

-1500 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40

Ambient air Outside surface temperature, T2 (C)

Wall thermal conductivity, k = 1.25 W/m.K k = 1 W/m.K, concrete wall k = 0.75 W/m.K

For the concrete wall, k = 1 W/mK, the heat loss varies linearly from +2667 W to -867 W and is zero when the inside and outer surface temperatures are the same. The magnitude of the heat rate increases with increasing thermal conductivity.
COMMENTS: Without steady-state conditions and constant k, the temperature distribution in a plane wall would not be linear.
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