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Rocket Science

Submitted by: Dave, Shannon, Jennifer, Kim, Oksana Date: May 30, 2011
Grade Levels: 4-7 Subject(s): Science Physical Science, Science as Inquiry, Science and Technology Science Process Skills Making Models, Investigating, Predicting Math Measurement, Problem Solving Music Uses music to communicate for a specific purpose. Subtopics: Trajectory, Transfer of force, Types of energy, Aerodynamics. Duration: 2 days period for 1 hour 30 minutes each Standards EALR 4: Physical Science Big Idea: Energy: Transfer, Transformation, and Conservation (PS3) Core Content: Measurement of Force and Motion EALR 2: Inquiry Big Idea: Inquiry (INQ) Core Content: Questioning and Investigating Energy can be transferred from one place to another through waves. Waves include vibrations in materials. Sound and earthquake waves are examples. These and other waves move at different speeds in different materials. Prior Knowledge y In prior grades students learned that forces work not only to push and pull objects, but also to affect objects when they are dropped or thrown. In grades 4-5 students learn how to use basic tools to measure the fundamental quantities of force, time, and distance. Force can be measured with a spring scale. Distance and time can be measured by a variety of methods, and the results can be used to compare the motion of two objects. Focusing on accuracy of measurement, recording of data and logical conclusions from the data provide the foundation for future years when students will undertake more complex investigations.

In prior grades students learned to use basic tools to measure force, time, and distance. In grades 6-8 students learn to measure, record, and calculate the average speed of objects and to tabulate and graph the results. They also develop a qualitative understanding of inertia. Students learn to predict the motion of objects subject to opposing forces along the line of travel. If the forces are balanced, the object will continue moving with the same speed and direction, but if the forces are not balanced, the object's motion will change. These concepts and principles prepare students for a more formal understanding of mechanics in high school and help them make sense of the world around them.

Justification Throughout the lessons students will be learning principles and concepts of physics. The activities of the lessons will help students to become authentic learners and real scientists. Throughout the lessons students will be asking and answering questions and exploring the physical science that they encounter in their everyday lives. Students will have the opportunity to see science from different perspectives. The goal of all activities is to provide students with experiences and knowledge that they will carry in future science curriculum and beyond. During the demonstrations, students will be able to work collaboratively with one another, share the results and extend their knowledge. By using diagrams, illustrations, models, and hands-on activities students will be able to clearly understand the concept of the lesson, and to explain their thoughts in a logical and relative manner by using science vocabulary. During the lesson students will be actively involved in scientific investigation by asking and answering questions and comparing the answers with evidence from real world examples. Students will conduct the experiments, collect the data, and record the observations. At the end of the lesson students will generate a conclusion from a scientific investigation and show how the conclusion is supported by evidence. Also, students will design their own models and be able to test them.

Lesson Objectives & Outcomes To teach students about types of energy, transfer of force, trajectory, Bernoulli Principle, and Aerodynamics. At the conclusion of this lesson: 1. Students will be able to explain that the weight of an object is a measure of the force of gravity on the object. Record the measurements in a table. 2. Students will be able to identify the questions being asked in an investigation. Gather scientific evidence that helps to answer a question. 3. Students will be able to explain the process of energy transfer and identify types of energy. 4. Students will be able to explain how the trajectory measures and how trajectory is used in rocket science. Vocabulary definitions for the lesson: Inertia- The physical force that keeps something in the same position or moving in the same direction Trajectory- The curved path that an object follows after it has been thrown or shot into the air Aerodynamics- Is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object. Kinetic energy- is motion energy. Potential energy- is energy stored in matter. Gravity- A force that pulls objects. When a plane is on the ground, standing still in calm air, only the force of gravity is working on it. Force- That which causes or changes motion. Thrust- The force that causes forward motion. The engine provides the thrust for flight. . The plane can be pulled through the air by propellers or pushed by a jet engine. Drag- When a plane moves through the air, it is slowed down by the friction of the air. If it slows too much, the plane stalls and quickly loses altitude. Pilots must keep enough speed to make sure the plane stays in flight. Lift- Air is a gas, and air has pressure. Picture the air surrounding a plane as putting pressure on various parts of the plane. Lift is a force of this air pressure acting on the wings of the plane. It is generated when the air pressure on the upper surface of a wing is less than the air pressure on its lower surface. The faster the gas moves, the lower the pressure on the surface of the wing. The wing of a plane is curved so that the air moving past its upper surface travels further and moves faster than the air moving past its lower surface. The difference in pressures is lift. T-chart- Is an organizational tool that is designed to place information into two separate columns. The purpose of the two columns is to enable group participants to better compare various ideas and, in the end, make better decisions. Materials Newtons Cradle Precut foam airplanes (each for every student) Measuring tapes (5) Tuning Forks and Rubber holders (3) Metal Spring (1-10 ft long) Slinky (1) Trajectory Angle Models (5) Plastic Bottle Rocket for demonstration (1) Launching station (1) Rocket Design Worksheets (one for each group) Materials for students own rockets Safety and classroom management considerations During the lesson students will be working with materials and models that are age appropriate and safe to use. However, during the experiment, students will be under direct team supervision while exploring the models.

Introduction (20 minutes)

Engage (10 min) With students seated, ask if anybody knows who Isaac Newton was. If students know the answer, ask them about Newtons Laws. Ask a student- volunteer to show how First, Second, and Third Laws work. Ex 1. The teacher and the student-volunteer are pulling each other apart. Ex 2. The teacher is pushing on the table. Ex 3. The teacher is showing students the car that stays still. After applying some force the car starts to move. Students are taught the concept song: The Laws of Motion Song (to the tune of Upside Down by Jack Johnson). Explain (5 min) Briefly discuss some of the vocabulary concepts students will be investigating. At this time explain to the students the purpose of this lesson. Students will be working in groups and exploring different science stations where they will either record their observations or participate in demonstrations. Explore (15 min for each station) Students travel form station to station and learn the concepts of physical science by exploring and completing hands-on activities. See below for activity instructions.

Activity # 1 (15 minutes)

Energy transfer, Energy travels in waves, Difference between potential and kinetic energy What is energy? Energy is classified into two main forms: kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy is defined as the energy of a moving object. A thrown football, a speeding automobile, a waterfall, or a rock falling from a cliff is examples of objects that have kinetic energy. Potential energy appears in many different forms, and is defined as the energy in matter due to its position or the arrangement of its parts. The various forms of potential energy include gravitational potential energy, elastic potential energy, chemical potential energy, and electrical potential energy. Potential Energy is often referred to as stored energy. Some scientists avoid use of the word "stored" because it inaccurately depicts energy as a substance that is contained within a substance. In other words, some scientists and energy educators believe saying energy is "stored" is a misconception. Energy Transfer Energy can be transferred from one location to another, as in the sun's energy travels in waves through space to Earth the energy is transmitted in various forms: Sound, microwaves, visible light, thermal energy etc. The two ways that energy can be transferred are by doing work and heat transfer. Doing Work Energy is often defined as the ability to do work. Work equals force multiplied by distance. Suppose that a person exerts a force on the wheelbarrow that is initially at rest, causing it to move over a certain distance. Recall that the work done on the wheelbarrow by the person is equal to the product of the person's force multiplied by the distance traveled by the wheelbarrow. Notice that when the force is exerted on the wheelbarrow, there's a change in its motion. Its kinetic energy increases. But where did the wheelbarrow get its kinetic energy? It came from the person exerting the force, who used chemical energy stored in the food they ate to move the wheelbarrow. In other words, when the person did work on the wheelbarrow, they transferred a certain amount of chemical energy stored in the person was transferred to the wheelbarrow, causing its kinetic energy to increase. As a result, the person's store of chemical energy decreases and the wheelbarrow's kinetic energy increases. Wherever you look, you can see examples of energy transfers. When you turn on a light, you see result of energy being transferred from the sun to the plants to the coal to electricity and finally to light you see. During each of these transfers, energy changes form. There are two main forms of energy, kinetic energy (motion) and potential energy (position). To further classify energy, these forms are sometimes further described as thermal (heat), elastic, electromagnetic (light, electrical, magnetic), gravitational, chemical (food), and nuclear energy.

Extend (5 min) Step 1. Show students Newtons Cradle.

Step 2. Carefully pick one ball up. Step 3. When you have taken this ball about one to two inches above its initial height, then gently let it go without any force applied from your hand/arm. Step 4. Tell the students to Watch as Newton's third law springs into action: as the ball that you let drop hits the other one, the force is carried through the line of balls, making one ball on the opposite side fly up, come back down, and then continues the cycle without your aid. Step 5. Repeat steps 2-4, for as the cycle repeats the force gets weaker and eventually the balls stop moving at all. Step 6. Pick up two balls from one side, and, once again, gently let it drop. The ball will hit the third ball, and relay the force gained from your action; and then the reaction will be triggered, so two balls from the opposite side will fly up, come down, hit the third ball, and continue the cycle for awhile. Step 7. Do this with three and four balls, instead of just one and two. Step 8. Allow student to try Newton's cradle themselves. Step 9. Explain to students that energy transfers from potential to kinetic. Explain that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Step 10. Show students the metal spring. Ask one student to hold one end and another student to hold another end. Ask one student to apply force (or move one end of the spring). Ask students what they observe. Explain students that energy moves in waves. Step 11. Show students the tuning forks and ask them if they can feel the vibration. Help them to draw the parallel between the applied force and energy. Ask them about the tune that they hear. After, ask them what they experience first during the rainy day. Do they hear the thunder first or they see the lightening first. Explain that light travels faster than sound. Challenge students to test this at home. Elaborate Use slinkys, drums, and tuning forks to demonstrate energy travels in waves. Use spring action toys to demonstrate difference between potential and kinetic energy. Explain that springs can hold a lot of energy. It is important to demonstrate that the energy comes from the arm of the person pushing on the spring, and that when the toy releases from the suction it is using the potential energy as kinetic energy. For deeper discussions, point out that when a ball bounces, some of the energy is transferred into the floor. Explain that the ball cannot rebound and maintain a higher amount of energy. The reduced amount of energy determines how high the ball can travel. This demonstrates that the amount of energy in an object determines its ability to do work. Evaluate (2-3 min) Pick some students at random and ask them questions about the concept that they have just learned. Check the students answers with the checklist.

Activity #2 (15 minutes)

Bernoulli Principle & Aerodynamics Engage (2min) Ask students what the term aerodynamics means. Give students Styrofoam airplane parts that are cut from a template. Ask students to arrange the wings, the tail, the body of the plane, and use the clip on the nose of the airplane to see how the flight path of the plane is affected by putting the pieces together in different arrangements. Students learn about Bernoullis principle of what makes an airplane fly, and learn about the terminology of flight, which is our vocabulary. Explain (5min) Bernoulli's Principle is a relation discovered by the 18th-century Swiss scientist and mathematician Daniel Bernoulli. He discovered that the faster a fluid (such as air) moves the lower is the pressure that it exerts. The summary of Bernoulli's Principle is: " air travels faster [than surrounding air] across a surface, the air pressure against it is reduced..." What that means is that the air pressure where air travels faster drops, literally "sucking" that surface at that point.

Explore (3 min) Tell students that every flying thing, whether it's an airplane, spacecraft, soccer ball, or flying kid, experiences four aerodynamic primary forces: lift, weight, thrust and drag. An airplane uses a propeller or jet engine to generate thrust. The wings to create lift. The smooth, pencil-thin shape minimizes drag. Let's find out what are all the parts of an airplane for! Take the balsa wood airplane and try to fly just the body (no wings or fins). It flips all over the place. Try flying just the large wing (no body). Somersaults! Now slide the large wing into the body and fly (fewer somersaults, but still sickening to fly in!). Now add a horizontal stabilizer (elevator) tail, and when you throw it, add a slight curve so the plane "fishtails" in the air (like a car) but did you notice that there are no more somersaults? Add the vertical tail (rudder) and see how it now steers straight no matter how to curve-throw it. Extend (5 min) Have students experiment with different arrangements to see how the flight of planes change as a result of moving a wing in place of a tail, or taking away the clip that maintains the center of gravity. Evaluate Ask students the concept of aerodynamics and check the students answers for the accuracy with the checklist.

Activity #3 (15 minutes)

Trajectory Engage (2-3 min) The teacher shows the students a picture of a rocket that illustrates the system of forces that act upon it while in flight. The teacher then shows the students the rocket launcher and demonstrates how it works by setting the launch angle and blowing into the straw. The teacher then asks the students to predict which launch angle will result in the longest flight. The students are then put into groups of three and given a rocket launcher, a measuring tape and a T-chart. Explore (15 min) Working in groups of three, the students will test launching their rocket at different angles. They will record the launch angle and the distance traveled for each flight. As their launch angle approaches 45 degrees, the distance traveled should increase. Once they have recorded 8 flights, they will identify their longest flight and the corresponding launch angle. Explain (2-3 min) Students rejoin with the teacher to share data, and to discuss what they observed. When the rocket is on the launcher, there is no motion as the forces acting on it are balanced. Blowing into the straw puts a force on the rocket which results in an acceleration. As the rocket flies, it is being acted upon by gravity and drag which slow it down and pull it back to the ground. Part of the launch force (the vertical component) is affected by gravity while the other part (the horizontal component) is not. Altering the launch angle changes the interaction between the launch force and gravity. The tests should show that the angle which results in the longest flight is 45 degrees because at that angle the horizontal and vertical components of the launch force are equal in magnitude. As the angle decreases from 45 degrees, the force counteracting gravity is reduced and the rocket returns to earth sooner. As the angle increases from 45 degrees, the horizontal force is reduced, and the rocket will not fly as far. Extend/Elaborate (2-3 min) The actual test results will vary from group to group. Ask the students which indentify the variables in the experiment. It is hoped that they identify the launch angle as a manipulated variable and the launch force as an uncontrolled variable. Being unable to provide a consistent launch force can skew the data and result in inconsistencies from group to group and cause an angle other than 45 degrees to be identified as the best angle for a long distance flight. Evaluate (2min) Students will be evaluated on their class participation during discussion opportunities.

Activity #4 (20 minutes)

Rocket Design Teams Engage The teacher will demonstrate a water rocket launch.

Explain Have a brief discussion explaining the expectations of the rocket design teams. Include physics vocabulary to explain how students would apply these principles to their designs. Explain that students will be evaluated for their designs, creativity, and team collaboration. It is important to explain that scientists use drawings, journals, and materials lists to capture their thoughts and ideas. Students are required to notate any changes made to their designs and explain why they made the changes. Explore Using the design worksheet attached have students work in groups of 2 or 3. Teachers will guide and assist when appropriate. Students must determine what materials will be needed for the teachers to gather. Elaborate When appropriate, discuss how the student designs are using ideas regarding physics. Students can be given hints such as, how does center of gravity affect how your rocket will fly? Will the materials you choose provide enough thrust to create the lift you need to get your rocket off of the ground? Does your launch situation provide enough stability for the rocket to fly straight and not go sideways? What will you use to create enough force for the rocket to be able to fly despite the downward pull of gravity? Does your design create inertia? Will the rocket actually move? Evaluate Teachers should use the design sheet to evaluate concept attainment regarding aerodynamics.

Day 2
Preparation Gather all materials students have requested. Prepare awards using creative categories. Bring launching station for rockets. Make sure all students will receive an award. Engage Have students build their rockets. Encourage them to continue being creative, and allow them to record changes in their designs. Explain The next activity after the demonstration will involve the students being given a chance to demonstrate what they have learned about physics, the three laws of motion, and aerodynamics. After the rockets are built conduct the launches. Have students gather after launches to elaborate. Explore Conduct launches one by one, allowing each team to witness their launch up close. Students can talk about their rockets and what they did when they were launched. Elaborate Discuss the results of how the rockets flew. Were the students surprised? What would they do differently? Evaluate Teachers will assess the students understanding of how rockets and airplanes fly through observations made when they design their rockets, and put their airplane parts together. Evaluation Checklist

Student Name

Student can Describe that energy travels in waves, and can be transferred

Student can identify kinetic and potential energy

Student can explain the relationship between angle and distance when discussing trajectory

0 Student can explain the concept with a hint or help - Student is off task or cannot explain the concept

+ Student can complete the task and explain the concept with no hints or prompting Rocket Design Work Sheet Team Name_________________________________________________________________________

Group Members____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Design____________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Pictures/ Diagrams of Design-

Materials Needed__________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________

The Laws of Motion Song (to the tune of Upside Down by Jack Johnson) People used to say Its impossible to fly away Dont you know what the laws of motion say? They didnt understand them like we do today Chorus: If you want to turn the world upside down A system of forces can always be found The laws of motion apply to everyone Even the planets spinning around the sun We dont want them to fly away The first law says An object at rest will want to stay that way But an object in motion will likely go away Unless an outside force comes into play Chorus: The second law says F is always equal to m a But what does that mean to you anyway? It takes a force to make a thing go away Chorus: The third laws cool Its kind of like physics golden rule If you push something then it will push you And thats exactly what you need to do

Resources: Green River Community College Physics Department provided many demonstrations for hands on use.