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Is Hell For Real?

By Gerry W. Webb, September 2000. Revised October 2011. (Contact: )

Does the human soul survive the death of the body? Is Hell a reality in the afterlife? Will unbelieving mankind be sent to Hell forever? Or, is Hell just annihilation where unregenerate mankind is obliterated out of existence, as the Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventists, and Christadelphians believe? I believe the Bible teaches that Hell will be a real and terrible place of conscious existence in the afterlife after the great white throne judgment, mentioned in Revelation 20. This paper seeks to demonstrate it. I wrote it after having had a number of discussions on the subject with former Jehovahs Witnesses and Seventh-Day Adventists, who still hold to the annihilation view.

Judgment of the Soul, and the fire that does not consume.1
A. Separation of the soul from the body. As with the majority of Jews and Christians throughout the centuries, I believe human souls are immortal. Biblical passages such as Hebrews 9:27; II Peter 3:7; and Revelation 20:12, 15 indicate some aspect of man lives on after the death of the body, and will be judged because of sins done in the body. (Compare Matt. 8:12; 25:30, 41, 46; Mark 9:41-50; Luke 12:4-5; John 5:28-29; Rom. 2:5-11; II Cor. 5:8-11; Rev. 19:20; 20:10.) In Matthew 10:28 Jesus declared: "And do not fear those who kill the body, but are unable to kill the soul; but rather fear Him (i.e. God) who is able to destroy (Gr. apollumi) both soul and body in hell (Gr. Gehenna)." In addition to teaching that God will "destroy" both the souls and bodies of unbelievers in a future hell, Jesus clearly said that when our bodies are killed, our souls are not killed with them. In First Thessalonians 5:23 the Apostle Paul also made a distinction between the soul and body when he said: "... and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved complete, without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ (NASB)." The Holy Scripture indicates that disembodied souls survive and continue to live after the death of the body (cf. Gen. 35:16-20; I Kings 17:17-24; Ps. 42:1-6; 73:24; Acts 20:10; II Cor. 5:1-11; Phil. 1:21-26; II Tim. 4:6; II Pet. 1:13-15; Rev. 6:9-11; 20:4). In other words, the soul does not die, "sleep," go into some kind of unconscious state, or be annihilated when the body dies. There are at least six examples in the Old Testament, and seven examples in the New Testament that confirm this: (i) As Rachel was dying, Genesis 35:18 states: "And it came about as her soul was departing (for she died)... (NASB)." Rachel's soul (Heb. nephesh) departed her body; it did not die with her body. If the soul and body were united together as a single inseparable unit, how then could the soul (or the person) depart from itself? Today we normally just say, "as she was dying." Note: the Bible does not say that either Rachel's breath (Heb. neshmh), or her life (Heb. chay) departed. It is interesting to note that the Jehovah's Witnesses' New World Translation consistently translates the English word "soul" for the Hebrew "nephesh" throughout the Old Testament.

Generally speaking, "nephesh" (Strongs Concordance #5315) refers to a living creature or soul that breathes and moves (cf. Gen. 1:20-28; 2:7, 19; 9:1-16; Lev. 11:46); but we must keep in mind that words vary in their meanings because of different contexts. This is particularly the case regarding mankind. Animals can be killed and eaten for food, but not human beings. People are not only called "living souls"; they also possess living souls. According to the Bible, humankind was the only creature that was created in the image of God (cf. Gen. 1:26-30; 2:725; 5:1-2, and 9:2-7). In addition, humankind was the only creature that God commanded to have dominion over the earth. If the soul dies (or "sleeps") with the person's body and cannot be separated, as those who hold to the unity (holistic, or monistic) view like the Jehovah's Witnesses and Seventh-Day Adventists, how then could Rachel's soul (nephesh) depart from itself? Moreover, the human soul cannot be extinguished as the physical light of a candle. The human soul is immaterial, whereas light and heat are forms of material energy. According to the first law of thermodynamics, even when the light of a candle goes out, no energy is annihilated in the process. I believe those who teach annihilation of the human soul, and deny the existence of a future judgment in Hell, not only do so by cutting into the heart of missions, but they also belittle an aspect of the image of God in mankind. In his book death in the city, Dr. Francis A. Schaeffer wrote: All menlost or savedare great in their significance. Having been made in the image of God, man is magnificent even in ruin. God made man to be responsible for his thoughts and actions, and man fashions a significant history When a man sins, he sins against the character of God, and he has moral guilt in the presence of the Great Judge We should look in more detail at the truth about man which those without the Bible suppress. The list is rather long, for man is distinguished from both animals and machines on the basis of his moral motions, his need for love, his fear of nonbeing and his longings for beauty and meaning. Only the biblical system has a way of explaining these factors which make man unique.2 [See pages 86-98.] One aspect of the image is that man is a moral being. For example, in Romans 2:14-16 , the Apostle Paul puts special emphasis upon the moral motions of man: For when the Gentiles who do not have the Law do instinctively the things of the Law, these, not having the Law, are a law to themselves, in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness, and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them, on the day when, according to my Gospel, God will judge the secrets of men through Christ Jesus (NASB). Another aspect of the image is that man, as opposed to the animals, not only fears death, but also contemplates what may happen after. In Ecclesiastes 3:10-11 King Solomon wrote: I have seen the task which God has given the sons of men with which to occupy themselves. He has made everything appropriate in its time. He has also set eternity in their heart, yet so that man will not find out the work which God has done from the beginning even to the end. This is one of the reasons why different religions exist in order for mankind to worship a being higher than oneself. On page 98 of his book death in the city, Dr. Schaeffer wrote:

All men, however, have a deep longing for significance, a longing for meaning Its quite clear: no manno matter what his philosophy is, no matter what his era or his ageis able to escape the longing to be more than a stream of consciousness or a chance configuration of atoms now observing itself by chance. In an extreme form the longing for significance expresses itself most clearly in the fear of non-being. It has been obvious for centuries that men fear death, but depth psychologists tell us that such a fear, while not found in animals, is for man a basic psychosis: no man, regardless of his theoretical system, is content to look at himself as a finally meaningless machine which can and will be discarded totally and forever. Even those who seek death and cry for the fulfillment of the death-wish still have a fear of non-being somewhere inside them. I am struck that when you talk to men contemplating suicide, somewhere inside they see themselves as a continuing spectator.3 (ii) According to I Kings 17:17-24, the soul (nephesh), not just the life (chay), of the widow's son "returned to him and he revived." Notice that the child's soul returned to him; it was not awakened, resurrected, or brought back to life. The child's soul still existed, and must have been living somewhere outside of and beyond his dead body. (iii) Another situation is in I Samuel 28:3-25 where King Saul went to the witch of Endor to "conjure up," or "bring up" Samuel from the dead. Since the witch was a medium, she was expecting to conjure up a demon spirit and counterfeit, but instead was surprised to see the real Samuel (v. 12). [Satan does not have the power to bring a person back from beyond the grave.] Also, according to verse 14, an "old man" was seen coming up, and Saul "knew that it was Samuel." The Bible states that it was Samuel who appeared, or came up. In fact, Samuel spoke the truth as a true prophet of God (vs. 15-19). The inspired writer further states that Saul "was very afraid because of the words of Samuel (v. 20)." The text reveals that Samuel was living beyond the grave. (iv) The Hebrew word "rph'", or "Rephaim" is used eight times in the Old Testament to describe some kind of existence for the wicked dead in lower Sheol (sometimes called the pit). Rph [Strong's #7496] means "dead, deceased, a ghost, departed spirits". This Hebrew conception of the realm of the dead (departed spirits) in lower Sheol is those shadowy (or weakened) figures of what the living souls once were. Job 26:5-6; Ps. 88:10; Prov. 2:18; 9:18; 21:16; Isa. 14:4-11; 26:14, 19. The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament states that the Rephaim are: Ghosts of the dead, shades. A word and idea of Ugaritic origin, rp'i, which means "the dead inhabitants of the netherworld" is cognate to both Hebrew and Phoenician rep'm... [Vol. 2, #2198c, p. 858.]4 According to Isaiah 14:9, "the spirits of the dead" in Sheol were aroused at the expected arrival of the tyrant "king of Babylon." Edward J Young comments: "... Sheol, where the departed spirits go, and where the wicked await the judgment under the reign of death, was

agitated with respect to the tyrant... The shadows of the underworld, the shadowy corporeity of the spirits, have aroused themselves, even they who once were princes, the he-goats of earth..." [The Book of Isaiah, A commentary, Volume 1, p. 438.]5 (v) According to the Bible, and especially the words of the Apostle Paul in Acts 17:2431, God is the giver of all life and breath. However, as the result of Adam and Eves sin, all physical creation, particularly living things, will eventually die and decay (cf. Gen. 3:1-24; Rom. 5:12; 8:18-25; II Peter 3:10-14). Nevertheless, as the pinnacle of creation, and being created in the image of God, mankinds spirit and soul are qualitatively superior to all other living things. I believe this distinction is made in Ecclesiastes 12:1-8. After all is said and done, verse seven states: Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was; and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it (KJV). Notice that the spirit of man is separate from the physical body. The word "spirit" comes from the Hebrew word rwach, or "ruah" [Strong's #7307, spirit, breath, wind]. Further, only mankind has vexation of spirit (cf. Eccl. 1:1-18; 3:16-22; Exod. 6:9 (KJV); and Job 7:11; 10:1-13; 34:10-15). (vi) According to Exodus 3:6, God spoke to Moses in the present tense and said: "I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." (Compare with verse 16.) What does this mean since Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Moses' father were all dead? If, in reality, their souls had ceased to exist on the other side of the grave, God should have said that He "was" their God, not "am" their God. Jesus gives us the meaning in Matthew 22:23-33 and Luke 20:27-40. Jesus responded to the Sadducees by quoting this verse and saying that God "is not the God of the dead, but of the living; for all live to Him (Luke 20:38)." Although those four men were physically dead, Jesus affirms they were still living in some state beyond the grave. His statement implies that all the faithful continue to live in the presence of God. When Jesus returns, human bodies will be resurrected from the grave and re-united with their souls. However, those who hold to the soul-sleep and annihilation view, interpret the phrase "for all live to Him", as meaning that all the dead are only alive in God's "mind". Leon Morris counters this by writing: ...the statement that God is not God of the dead, but of the living can be true only if they are alive beyond the grave. The alternative is to think of God as the God of non-existent beings, which is absurd...Death may put an end to physical existence, but not to a relationship that is by nature eternal... Luke adds some words not in the other accounts: for all live to him, or as NEB, "for him all are alive." To us they are dead, but not to God. Death cannot break their relationship to Him... [The Gospel According to St. Luke, TNTC., 1974.]6 (vii) The New Testament often uses the term "asleep" as a euphemism for the death of a believer (Matt. 9:24; 27:52; John 11:11-15,39; Acts 7:60; 13:36; I Cor. 11:30; 15:6,17-20,51; I Thess. 4:13-17; II Pet. 3:4; cf. I Kings 2:10; 11:21,43). Although this may be an unusual way of talking about death, it says nothing in favour of "soul-sleep." Instead, it indicates that death will not be final, but awaits resurrection. It is a delicate expression which tries to take away the sting from the death of a loved one; and where the body of the person is seen as resting from life's toil and pain. Although the body may be killed, a believer's redeemed soul still lives on and is conscious in Heaven. There are at least seven New Testament passages that teach this.

According to the Apostle John in the book of Revelation, chapter 4:1-2, he was somehow caught up to heaven through an open door, and was immediately "in the Spirit." He records in Revelation 6:9-11 that he "saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held." (Compare Luke 23:39-43; Rev. 20:4-6.) Although we dont know how John saw the disembodied souls of slain believers, it is clear that they had not been annihilated when their bodies were killed. The Greek word for soul is the word psuch, from which we get our word psychology. If believers' souls remain, or "sleep" with their decaying bodies in the grave, then the only human souls who presently reside in heaven with Jesus should be Enoch and Elijah. After all, only Enoch and Elijah did not die, but were translated into heaven (cf. Gen. 5:18-24; II Kings 2:1-12; Matt. 17:1-9). (viii) According to I Thessalonians 4:13-18, when Jesus comes back He will bring with Him the souls of those believers who have fallen asleep in Him (vs. 13-15), then He will raise their dead bodies (v.16), then "we who are still alive and are left will be caught up with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air (v.17 NIV)." It is obvious that Jesus cannot bring those saints with Him who had died if they (or their souls) were dead and lying with their bodies in the graves. At the resurrection, there will be a re-uniting of human souls with their new glorified risen imperishable bodies (cf. I Cor. 15:35-58; Rom. 8:23). (ix) Philippians 1:21-26 is an important passage in helping us to understand the separation between the soul (i.e. the inner man), and the physical body (or flesh) at death. According to verse 21, how can the Apostle Paul say, "to die is gain," if his soul either "slept," died, or was annihilated when his body died? Conscious existence is infinitely better than nonexistence. St. Paul ("I", or the person) desired to depart his body and to "be with Christ, for that is very much better" (Phil. 1:23, cf. II Cor. 4:16; 5:1-11; 12:1-4; II Tim. 4:6; II Pet. 1:13-15; Rev. 6:9-11). He believed he would be more in union with Christ without the limitations of this life. Although Paul mentions the return of Christ in Philippians 1:6, 10; and 2:16, it has nothing to do with the point he is trying to make within the context of chapter 1, verses 12 to 30. The main teaching of the book of Philippians is "joy" in the faith, not the return of Christ. Except for chapter 3, verses 10-14 and 20-21, St. Paul says nothing about the rapture and the resurrection of his body. Paul probably wrote this epistle from prison in Rome while awaiting trial. He was thinking about his death, not his future resurrection. He also hoped "to remain on in the flesh" for the greater benefit of the Philippian Christians (1:24-26). (x) There are three other important New Testament texts relating to the separation of the soul and spirit from the body at death. They are: Acts 7:54-60; Luke 23:39-46, and II Corinthians 5:1-11. According to Acts 7:59, when Stephen said, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit," he believed his spirit would go to heaven and be with Jesus when he died (cf. Acts 7:55-56; Eccl. 12:7). (xi) According to Luke 23:43, Jesus responded to one of the two thieves on the cross and said: "Truly I say to you, today you shall be with Me in Paradise." This statement would be meaningless if the thief's soul went into a soul-sleep mode, died with his body, or was annihilated when his body died. The Jehovahs Witnesses New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures distorts the meaning of this passage and mistranslates it by saying: Truly I tell you today, You will be with me in Paradise. Instead believing that the one thief would be with Jesus beyond the grave after they were both killed on the same day, the Witnesses say that Jesus was only talking

to the thief on the same day. That is nonsense, because it would be physically impossible for Jesus to talk to the thief the next day. Its amazing how the placement of a little comma can change the whole meaning of a sentence! (xii) In II Corinthians 5:1-11 the Apostle Paul contrasted himself with being at home in his physical body (i.e. earthly tent) and absent from the Lord, or being absent from his body and home with the Lord in the heavens. This could only happen if his inner soul survived the death of his body. Notice the pronouns we and our that the Apostle uses in the text. They actually refer to the real person or soul, whereas the body is seen as just the covering like a change of clothes. This passage is giving assurance of a future resurrection when we will be given new glorified bodies in the likeness of Christs (cf. I Cor. 15:1-58; I Thess. 4:13-18; I John 3:1-3). (xiii) In II Corinthians 12:1-7, the Apostle Paul related an experience he had of being caught up to the third heaven. Although it sounds like some kind of a mystical out of the body experience, Paul stated that he was caught up into Paradise, and heard inexpressible words, which a man is not permitted to speak. By saying that he wasnt sure whether his revelation was in the body, or out of the body, it indicates that Paul believed in a separation between the soul and the body. Paradise cannot be in the physical grave. So where is it? Two main Orthodox views of Paradise are the Scofield view and the Reformed view. The Scofield Reference Bible (pp. 10989) teaches that Paradise was the place called "Abraham's bosom" in upper Sheol before Christ's ascension (cf. Luke 16:19-31). (The word "bosom" connotes a close relationship or presence.) At Christ's ascension, the conscious souls of those righteous believers in upper Sheol were taken to heaven (cf. Eph. 4:7-10). On the other hand, the Reformed position holds that although everyone's body goes to the grave at death, the wicked souls continue on to lower Sheol or the "pit" (cf., Deut. 32:22; Ps. 86:13; Prov. 9:18; Isa. 14:9); whereas the righteous souls continue on into heaven, which is also called "Paradise" or "Abraham's bosom" (cf. II Cor. 12:1-6). The "inner man" or soul manifests itself through the physical body. According to John 3:3-8, Jesus said: "... unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God." Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God (I Cor. 15:50). From Jesus' statement, it is obvious that it is the spirit-soul, or spirit and soul in man which must be "born-again" and given new life, not his body. This being the case, one cannot say the soul dies when the body dies. Only God is eternal (i.e. without beginning and without end), and He "alone possesses immortality (I Tim. 6:15-16 NASB)." Human beings, however, are created by God, given life, and are immortal only to the extent that God sustains their immortality (Gr. athanasia, Strong's #110), both now and forever. Conscious existence continues beyond the grave for both believers and non-believers. It is the quality of human life that is really under dispute, not the duration of it, because both lives are eternal (cf. Matt. 25:31-46; Mark 9:42-48; Rom. 2:5-8; 1 Cor. 15: 5154). B. The following are the Bible names for the places of existence in the afterlife: (i) The Old Testament word "Sheol" [Strong's #7585 means "hades or the world of the

dead (as if a subterranean retreat), including its accessories and inmates: - grave, hell, pit." (KJV)]: Gen. 37:35 (grave); 42:38 (grave); Num. 16:30-33 (pit); Deut. 32:22 (hell, lowest part of Sheol); I Sam. 2:6 (grave); II Sam. 22:6; Job 17:16 (pit); 26:6; Ps. 6:5 (earthly grave); 9:17 (hell); 16:10; 18:5; 30:3 (grave); 49:15 (grave); 55:15; 86:13; 88:3 (grave); 89:48 (grave); 116:3; 139:8; Prov. 1:12 (grave); 5:5; 7:27; 9:18; 15:11,24; 23:14; 27:20; 30:16 (grave); Eccl. 9:10 (grave from a human earthly perspective); Song 8:6 (grave); Isa. 5:14; 14:9-11,15-17; 38:10,18 (grave); Ezek. 28:8 (pit, Strong's #7845); 31:15-18; 32:21,27; Hos. 13:14 (grave); Amos 9:2; Jonah 2:2; Hab. 2:5. [Cf. II Sam. 12:15-23 concerning David joining his dead son.] The NASB more properly translates "Sheol" as just "Sheol," meaning the underworld, or place to which people descend at death. The Hebrew word "Sheol" must be distinguished from the words "qeburah" and "qeber" (Strong's #6900, 6913) meaning physical grave, burying place, or sepulchre (e.g. Gen. 35:20; Num. 19:16; I Kings 13:30; II Chron. 34:28). It is interesting to note the manner in which one died was of particular importance to the Hebrew, for example: drowning and those slain by the sword (cf. Ezek. 31:17; 32:17-32). The wicked and all the nations that forget God depart to lower Sheol (cf. Ps. 9:17; 55:15; Prov. 5:3-6; 9:18; Isa. 14:9,15). In contrast, there seems to be honour and satisfaction to the faithful who die a natural death in old age. In this case, one was "gathered to his people" (Gen. 25:8; 35:29; 49:33; Judges 2:10), or "slept with his fathers" (I Kings 2:10; 11:43; cf. Prov. 15:24). (ii) The Old Testament word "bore" [Strong's #953] means "a pit hole (especially one used as a cistern or prison): cistern, dungeon, pit, well." It relates to lower Sheol, and obviously means more than just the grave [cf. Strong's #7585]. See Psalm 28:1; 30:3; 88:4,6; 143:7; Prov. 1:12; Isa. 14:9-15,19; 24:22; 38:18; Ezek. 26:20; 31:14-17; 32:17-32 (cf. Prov. 2:18-19). The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament explains bore as: ... The state of death is a going down to the pit (Ps 28:1). Hence the dead are those who go down to the pit (Ps 88:4; 143:7). The pit is in some sense a synonym of Sheol (q.v.; cf. Prov. 1:12; Isa 14:15,19; 38:18). Ezekiel, however, distinguishes between them (32:18-32). The Psalmist in distress pleads for deliverance from the pit (Ps 30:3) and likens his recovery to being drawn up from the horrible pit (Ps 40:2)... [Vol. 1, #194e.]7 (iii) The New Testament Greek word "Hades" (Strong's #86) is basically the term for the Old Testament "Sheol." It is the place or state of departed souls. (Sometimes the word "hell" is incorrectly used in the King James Version for the words "sheol" and "hades." Compare with "Gehenna" and "everlasting fire.") Matt. 11:23; 16:18; Luke 10:15; 16:23; Acts 2:27,31; Rev. 1:18; 6:8; 20:13,14. (Cf. I Pet. 3:18-20; Rev. 20:1-3.) The Greek word "Hades" must be distinguished from the words mnema, mnemeion, and taphos, meaning physical grave, sepulchre, tomb, or place of interment (see Strong's #3418, 3419, and 5028). Hades is also distinguished from the word death (Greek thanatos, Strongs #2288, e.g. I Cor. 15:21,26,54-56).

(iv) The New Testament Greek word "abussos" (Strong's #12) means the abyss, the deep, or the bottomless pit. It is the present dwelling place for the demons, evil spirits, or fallen angels. Luke 8:31; Rom. 10:7; Rev. 9:1,2,11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1,3. (v) The New Testament Greek word "Gehenna" (Strong's #1067, which is translated into English as Hell), is named after the Valley of Hinnom south-west of Jerusalem where there was a burning garbage dump, and it was figuratively used by Jesus for the place or state of future everlasting punishment. Matt. 5:22,29,30; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15,33; Mark 9:43,45,47; Luke 12:5; James 3:6. (vi) The New Testament Greek word "tartaro" (Strong's #5020), is used only in II Peter 2:4 and means: "the deepest abyss of Hades; to incarcerate in eternal torment; cast down to hell." (vii) Contrast with "paradise" (Strong's #3857), meaning an Eden or place of future happiness: Luke 23:43; II Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7. Compare with "Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:2223), "third heaven" (II Cor. 12:2-4), and "heaven" (II Kings 2:11; Ps. 11:4; 76:8; Mat. 5:12; 6:910; John 14:1-6; Acts 1:11; Rev. 3:12-4:11; 21-22, etc.). (viii). The following New Testament texts also relate to "hell, outer darkness, banishment, hell-fire, unquenchable fire, the second death, the lake of fire, everlasting fire and punishment," which had been originally prepared for the devil and his angels: Matt. 3:12; 7:21-23; 8:12; 11:20-24; 13:40-42,47-50; 18:6-9; 22:13; 24:45-51; 25:12,3046; Mark 3:29; 9:42-48 (cf. Isa. 66:24; Dan. 12:2); Luke 13:22-30; 16:19-31 (hades); John 5:29; Rom. 2:5-12; 9:3-24; II Thess. 1:6-10; Heb. 6:2; 9:27; 10:26-31; 12:29; II Pet. 2:9; 3:7; Jude 57,13; Rev. 2:11; 14:9-11; 19:20; 20:6,10-15 ("death and hades" cast into the "lake of fire," which is synonymous with everlasting hell); 21:8. (Compare Isa. 66:22-24; Dan. 12:2.) C. The Reality of Hell and the Afterlife. Jesus' illustration in Luke 16:19-31 about the afterlife is quite unique. Is it a true story, or is it a parable? A parable is "a story designed to teach a moral or religious principle by suggesting a parallel." In other words, it is an earthy story with a heavenly meaning. The parables in Matthew 13, 21, Mark 4, and Luke 12 to 13 generally begin with: "He spoke another parable to them saying, 'The kingdom of heaven (or God) is like...'" Jesus spoke to the Pharisees and the multitudes in parables, but He explained everything privately to His disciples (Matt. 13:34-35: Mark 4:33-34). If Luke 16:19-31 is a parable, it is the only one Jesus gave in which a character's name is given. There is nothing on earth with which to compare or liken the spiritual significance of "Abraham's bosom," or the temporary dwelling place of the soul between death of the body and the resurrection. In addition, if it were a parable, it would still be teaching one main thing or spiritual truth about the afterlife. What is that truth? It certainly does not teach a state of either unconscious soul-sleep, or annihilation. Rather, Jesus refers to unregenerate souls residing in lower Hades (or Sheol) being in a state of agony and torment (cf. Luke 16:2228).

I believe this story is true. It did not begin with the usual: "The kingdom of God is like..." It required no further explanation to the disciples. It was told before Jesus ascended to the Father and "led captivity captive" (Eph. 4:7-10). After death there was a separation between a place called "Abraham's bosom" (upper Sheol or Hades), and a place called lower "Hades" (i.e. lower Sheol or the "pit," cf. Isa. 14:9-15). The hedonistic rich man in lower Hades was not only conscious, but he was also in continual torment in some kind of hell-fire that didn't go out, possibly similar to the fire that did not consume the burning bush in Exodus 3:2. From the New Testament we see a definite distinction made between Hades and Hell or Gehenna. Joachim Jeremias states: ...This distinction is a. that Hades receives the ungodly only for the intervening period between death and resurrection, whereas Gehenna is their place of punishment in the last judgment; the judgment of the former is thus provisional but the torment of the latter eternal (Mk. 9:43 and par.; 9:48). It is then b. that the souls of the ungodly are outside the body in Hades, whereas in Gehenna both body and soul, reunited at the resurrection are destroyed by eternal fire (Mk. 9:43 and par., 45,47 and par., 48; Mt. 10:28 and par.).8 The above passages dealing with judgment upon the unrighteous souls certainly do not sound to be temporary or conditional. For example, in Mark 9:44, Jesus referred to those who were sent to Hell "where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched (KJV)." Without a Hell, there is nothing to save us from. Jehovah's Witnesses and Seventh Day Adventists, however, come to a different conclusion. I believe they do so only by inference. There are no texts in the New Testament which teach their aberrant views of "soul sleep" and annihilation. It seems to me they assume that a word like "destroy" means annihilation or extinction. But Scripture teaches eternal or everlasting life to those in Christ, and eternal (Strong's #166, perpetual) or unending damnation, punishment, and separation from God to the unrighteous without Christ (cf. Matt. 25:46). Death of the physical body is one thing; eternal death of the immortal soul is another thing. The word "punishment" (Gr. kolasis) in Matthew 25:46 means penal infliction or torment. Ungodly men will be eternally punished because of God's holiness, justice, wrath, and displeasure. Second Thessalonians 1:7-9 declares: ... and to give you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power (NKJV). The English adjective "everlasting" is a translation of the Greek New Testament word aionios (cf. Strong's #166), and means: lasting forever, perpetual, without end. It is derived from the Greek word aion (Strong's #165), which is a broader term and can mean: age, a Messianic period, eternal. As an age or eon, it generally signifies a period of definite duration. However, when aion relates to the future age after Christ's return, as the last age, it will be endless. [The writer personally received the view expressed in this last statement from Dr. J. I. Packer.] We need to keep in mind that this last and endless age will begin right after the final judgment (e.g. Rev. 20:10-15). If the Greek word aion or aionios always meant an age in the sense of a

limited period of time, then the Word of God (Bible) cannot abide forever (cf. I Peter 1:22-25), and Jesus cannot be the same forever (cf. Heb. 13:8; 5:6; I Peter 5:11; Rev. 1:18 etc.). Some argue that such verses as Matthew 10:28; 25:41,46 and II Thessalonians 1:9 do not mean everlasting punishing or "destroying," rather, they mean everlasting "destruction" in the sense of being punished by God in a one-time act of being finally destroyed or annihilated for eternity. Not only do I think this lessens the biblical view of the gravity of sin and its consequences before a holy God, but, given the context of the statements made by Jesus and the Apostle Paul, it cannot mean this. If it did, then Jesus' promise of eternal "life" cannot mean everlasting, perpetual, or ceaseless "living" (cf. Matt. 19:29; 25:46; John 3:15-16,36; 5:24; 17:13; Acts 13:48; I John 5:11-13). In other words, the gift of "life" by God to believers would also be a one-time act and therefore, short-lived. After all, life also is sustained by God. Why then have a resurrection for either the wicked or the righteous? (Compare Matt. 22:30; John 5:29; Acts 24:15; Heb. 6:2.) In addition, God would be unjust if He did not punish the wicked, and it would be senseless if He raised the wicked dead in order to only annihilate them. God's just punishment on the ungodly is "eternal destruction" and separation from His presence. The Greek word for "destruction" in Second Thessalonians 1:9 is (olethron), and means to destroy, wreck, nullify, or ruin, not annihilate. The Greek word for "destruction" used by St. Paul in Romans 9:22 is (apoleian), and means ruin or loss, either physically, spiritually, or eternally. John Piper states that "destruction is not the opposite of existence; it is the opposite of glorious existence." According to the context, "the 'destruction' mentioned in 9:22 refers to eternal perdition, not historical defeat."9 In Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Oepke states that the term "destruction" or "perish" (Gr. apoleia) means: "not a simple extinction of existence, but an everlasting state of torment and death."10 In his A Critical Lexicon and Concordance To The English and Greek New Testament, E. W. Bullinger states that apollumi means "to destroy utterly... The fundamental thought is not annihilation, but ruin, loss."11 Those who hold to the view of the conditionality of the soul, however, actually change the biblical meaning of the word "destruction" by reading our modern understanding of the word into the texts, and try to make it mean: "to annihilate, obliterate, or to make extinct." Such a person is Edward William Fudge. In critiquing Fudge's book The Fire That Consumes, Kendall S. Harmon writes: In summary, then, Fudge's case is methodologically flawed since he fails to see the importance of the intertestamental literature for the New Testament texts, it is exegetically flawed since he introduces a lapse of time into texts which fails to let the texts speak for themselves, and it is hermeneutically flawed since he fails to treat apocalyptic images with a similar referent as having the same referent. More than anything else, conditionalism looks like an attempt to evade difficulties in the apostolic witness by wrapping up these problems in a neater package than that in which they came.12 Some annihilationists refer to Jude 5-7 and the example of Sodom and Gomorrah to prove that their view of the "punishment of eternal fire" means to be burned up and annihilated

forever. We know that the judgment of literal fire and brimstone upon Sodom and Gomorrah certainly had permanent physical effects (Gen. 19:24-29). However, the problem with their argument is fivefold: (i) As we have shown, the biblical meaning of "destruction" relating to persons is to nullify, ruin, or produce loss, not annihilate. (ii) Although the people of Sodom had been killed about nineteen hundred years earlier, according to Matthew 10:14-15, 11:20-24 and Luke 10:10-16, Jesus said that the people of Sodom were to undergo a future judgment along with Tyre, Sidon, Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum. That judgment will be at the Great White Throne, after which comes the conscious eternal punishment in the "lake of fire" which will not go out, and will not consume. (iii) If the souls of those from Sodom and Gomorrah had been annihilated, then God would have to re-create them, re-instill fear in them, and annihilate them again. That would be cruel. Why not leave them in their peaceful state of non-existence? (iv) If the unrighteous souls need to be re-created by God in order for them to be annihilated forever, it would invalidate or contradict the first annihilation as being eternal. Only the last age or final state can be truly called eternal. (v) The historical situation of Sodom and Gomorrah and its surrounding cities was a finite "example" of the "punishment of eternal fire", it was not the "eternal fire" itself. The kind of fire that produces the smoke in the present "bottomless pit" does not consume the devil and his fallen angels (cf. Rev. 9:1-11; 11:7; 20:1-3, 7). The future "lake of fire which burns with brimstone" likewise will not consume (cf. Rev. 14:9-11; 19:20; 20:10). In fact, Revelation 14:11 states: "the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever; and they have no rest day and night" According to Mark 9:43, Jesus said the fire is "unquenchable" (Gr. asbestos), which means that it cannot be extinguished or put out. (Why would God keep the fire of Hell going forever if, as some believe, all its contents are soon consumed or annihilated?) The devil will not be annihilated in the lake of fire, instead, he will be "tormented day and night forever and ever" with the beast, the false prophet, and all unregenerate human beings whose names are "not found written in the book of life" (cf. Matt. 25:30,41,46; Mark 9:42-48; Rev. 20:10-15). A person cannot continue to be in torment if he ceases to exist. Concerning those who believe in the annihilation of the soul, a tract entitled "Questions for Jehovah's Witnesses" asks: 1. If death is annihilation (non-existence) as the Watchtower teaches then how can there be degrees of punishment as Matthew 10:14,15, and 11:20-24, clearly show? It will be "more tolerable" for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for those who saw the mighty works of Jesus. Are there degrees of non-existence? Mustn't a man be conscious if there are degrees of punishment? 2. Again, if death is annihilation is it FAIR for someone who is an honorable and just man, but is not a Jehovah's Witness, to receive exactly the same punishment as Adolph Hitler, Judas, or some other great criminal? 3. If in the Old Testament the Jews believed that the dead ceased to exist consciously then why did God find it necessary to forbid them to practice necromancy (seeking after the dead)? Why would anyone try to make contact with the dead if they believed the dead had no conscious existence? 4. The Sadducees, like the Witnesses, believed in the annihilation of the soul at death. Therefore, Jehovah's Witnesses should answer the same question Jesus asked the Sadducees, namely, "... have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living" (Matthew 22:31,32).

Jesus is here quoting Exodus 3:6 which was spoken several hundred years after the death of these men. But, according to Jesus they are still living. 5. If the Watchtower is correct that death is non-existence then how is Judas' condition worse now than if he had never been born? (Mark 14:21) 6. If death is a cessation of existence then when Jesus died he ceased to exist. If he didn't exist then he, the person who died for our sins, didn't rise from the dead. Wouldn't the "Jesus" who appeared afterward be a facsimile, a clone, a perfect copy, but not the original?13 When we are dealing with the Bible and theological issues, we must be aware of progressive revelation. Except when referring to the Rephaim, the prophet Samuel, and the continued existence of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob beyond the grave, the Old Testament does not directly teach consciousness of the soul after death (cf. Exod. 3:6; I Sam. 28:3-25; Isa. 14:9-11; Ezek. 32:17-32; Luke 20:37-38). However, the New Testament not only teaches the separation of the soul from the body, but also consciousness and eternal torment of the soul in Hell. In fact, it is the soul of a person that will be judged because of evil deeds done in the body (cf. Matt. 10:28; 16:27; 25:41-46; Mark 9:42-50; Luke 10:15; 16:19-31; Rom. 2:3-8; II Cor. 5:10; Heb. 9:27-28). If God's punishment upon unregenerate souls is annihilation, as some aberrant groups believe, then logic dictates that all human beings were already separated from God and in a state of "punishment" before they were conceived in the womb, because they did not exist before that time. Besides the injustice of it, the annihilation view is illogical, and not in accord with the teachings of Scripture. In addition, Hebrews 9:27 states: "And inasmuch as it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment." I argue that if a person (i.e. human being) supposedly ceases to exist by being annihilated at the time when his or her body dies, then how can this passage teach that Gods judgment comes after death, since the person was supposedly already annihilated at death? Even William Shakespeare had a more correct understanding of this issue than modern-day annihilationists. In his To be, or not to be soliloquy in the play Hamlet, Shakespeare contemplated some kind of bad judgment that would occur to a person after he or she committed suicide. I quote: ... To die, to sleep, To sleep, perchance to Dream; Ay, there's the rub, For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come, When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause. Philosophically speaking, there is another reason why the unregenerate will be punished in Hell forever. Apart from the saving work of Christ on behalf of God's elect, mankind remains a selfish, rebellious and unrepentant bunch of sinners (cf. Jer. 17:9; Matt. 15:18-20; Mark 7:1823; Luke 13:3; John 5:40). Even in Hell, mankind will still hate God and not repent. Also, when judgment (Greek "krisis") is pronounced, there is no more opportunity for repentance. Since the absence of repentance is in itself a sin deserving punishment, and because that sin will continue forever, justice requires it to punish sin forever. Neither the passing of time, nor the amount of punishment suffered by the guilty, can ever convert guilt into innocence. When we die our bodies die, but our inner selves (i.e. immortal souls), neither die, sleep, nor cease to exist, rather, they continue on from time into eternity. Second Corinthians 4:18 declares: "... for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal." (Cf. II Cor.4:6-5:11; 12:1-4; Rom. 8:17-25; Heb. 11:1-6; 12:18-29.) First Corinthians 15:3-55 and Second Corinthians 5:1-11 are important texts relating to eternal things and

the future resurrection of our bodies. In Second Corinthians 5:1-4 the Apostle Paul refers to our temporal bodies as earthly tents or tabernacles, but we will be given glorified resurrected bodies or eternal "houses" in the likeness of Christ's when He returns (cf. Luke 24:36-43; Rom. 8:22-23; I Cor. 15:12-28,35-54; Phil. 3:20-23; I Thess. 4:13-18; I John 3:2).

The Bible clearly teaches a future resurrection of the body, and judgment of the soul (cf. Heb. 9:27; II Cor. 5:10; Matt. 10:28; Rev. 20:11-15). At times the Bible refers to the human soul as the whole person including a physical body, and at other times as just the inner spiritual part consisting of mind, will, and heart (incl. emotions). It is this inner spiritual part that survives death of the body (e.g. Genesis 35:18; Luke 16:19-31; Acts 7:59-60; 2 Cor. 4:16; Eph. 3:16-17; 4:22-24; Phil. 1:21-26; Rev. 6:9-11), else what would be left to be judged after the body decays? This stands in direct contrast to the views of both annihilation and reincarnation. Charles Taze Russell, for example, repudiated the biblical doctrine of Hell, and ended up teaching the doctrine of annihilation of the soul. He left the Presbyterian Church, joined the early Seventh-day Adventists, then left them and founded the Jehovah's Witnesses cult in the latter part of the nineteenth century. How do we know if Hell really exists? Because the Bible says so! In fact, Jesus spoke more of Hell than He did of Heaven. Because of His incarnation, His rising from the dead, and the fact that He is God, He knows more about it than anyone else. Although He used metaphorical language and associations that were familiar to His hearers in order to describe its affect, it nevertheless does not lessen Hell's reality. If Jesus was speaking the truth about Heaven, there is no reason to believe He was not speaking the truth about Hell. Hell was originally created for the devil and the fallen angels (Rev. 20:10). God Who is infinitely Righteous and Holy cannot tolerate sin in His presence. God Who is Just has to deal with sin and punish the sinner. That is why repentance of sin and trusting Christ as one's personal Saviour is of supreme importance. Natural mankind, however, continues to sin and make wilful choices against God and fellow mankind. Natural man not only repudiates any concept of Hell and judgment, but he also does not want to believe in God because he does not want to be accountable to his Creator. Not believing in God, however, does not lessen the fact of God's existence. Further, because unregenerate mankind will remain in a rebellious and unrepentant state after physical death, God has to separate them from Himself by sending them to Hell. Hell is a place of horrific loneliness and where the unregenerate will experience everlasting and unrelieved torment. It seems to me that the minority of Christians, who hold to annihilationism, do so against the biblical evidence about eternal Hell because they religiously hold to non-biblical presuppositions, and they either do not fully comprehend the seriousness and consequence of sin, or else the holiness and justice of God. If Satan, the fallen angels (or demons), all unbelievers, death, and Hades are going to be cast into Hell, or the lake of fire that lasts forever (Rev. 20:10-15), and if that supposedly constitutes annihilation (which means non-existence), then Satan (or Lucifer), the angels, and all human beings were already in Hell before they were created. But according to Matthew 25:31-46, especially verse 46, Jesus speaks about two groups of people; one group (i.e. the

unrighteous goats) will go to a continual existence of eternal punishment, while the other group (the righteous sheep) will go to a continual existence of eternal life. It is the quality of existence that is at stake; not a matter between existence verses non-existence. I end by quoting from Hank Hanegraaff's book titled Resurrection: ...the concept of choice demands that we believe in hell. Without hell, there is no choice. And without choice, heaven would not be heaven; heaven would be hell. The righteous would inherit a counterfeit heaven, and the unrighteous would be incarcerated in heaven against their wills, which would be torture worse than hell. Imagine spending a lifetime voluntarily distanced from God only to find yourself involuntarily dragged into his presence for all eternity... Like choice, common sense dictates that there must be a hell. Without hell, the wrongs of Hitler's holocaust will never be righted... Finally, and most importantly, common sense dictates that without a hell there is no need for a Savior.14

In their book Beyond Death, Gary Habermas and J.P. Moreland explore the evidence for immortality. They give a shorter presentation on the biblical teaching of Hell. I quote: Two New Testament passages provide the clearest definition of hell we have. Second Thessalonians 1:9 says, "And these [who do not know God or obey the gospel] will pay the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power" (NASB). The other passage, Matthew 25:41 and 46 states: "Then He will also say to those on His left, `Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels'; ...And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life" (NASB). From these (and other) verses we see that the essence of hell is the end of a road away from God, love, and anything of real value. It is banishment from the very presence of God and from the type of life we are made to live. Heaven, which is full of God's presence, is a place of supreme happiness, where we can cultivate our freely chosen friendship with God and others who love him, where we can grow in our knowledge of and intimacy with God and others who love him, where we can serve God and others who love him. Hell is the opposite of all this. The Bible describes hell primarily in relational terms -- it is "away from" God. Therefore, it involves banishment from his presence, his purposes, and his followers. Like heaven, hell is a freely chosen destination. What we decide to believe and do in this life sets us on a road leading to a final destination in the next. Hell is also a place of shame, sorrow, regret, and anguish. This intense pain is not actively produced by God; he is not a cosmic torturer. Undoubtedly, anguish and torment will exist in hell. And because we will have both body and soul in the resurrected state, the anguish experienced can be both mental and physical. But the pain suffered will be due to the shame and sorrow resulting from the

punishment of final, ultimate, unending banishment from God, his kingdom, and the good life for which we were created in the first place. Hell's occupants will deeply and tragically regret all they lost. As Jesus said, "For what profit is it to a man if he gains the whole world, and loses his own soul? (Matt. 16:26). Finally, hell was not part of the original creation. It was not part of what God made and declared "good" (Gen. 1). Hell is a later addition meant to accommodate the banishment of the Evil One and his rule over fallen angels and people who have rebelled against God. The Bible uses several words to describe this place of pain. In the Old Testament, Sheol is the main word used. It sometimes means the grave itself, but more often it refers to the nether [or lower] world, the realm of the dead. Sheol was seen as a shadowy, dark mode of existence (Job 10:21-22; Ps. 143:3) and a place where one could talk with others (Isa. 14:9-20) and be reunited with friends (Gen. 15:15; 37:35). It was pictured with two compartments (Gen. 37:35; Deut. 32:22) -- the lowest part and the highest one (also called, prior to Christ's resurrection, "Abraham's bosom" in Luke 16:22 and "paradise" in Luke 23:43). Thus Sheol contained both unbelievers and believers, and therefore, cannot be identified as the place of the wicked's final punishment. In the New Testament, Hades takes the place of Sheol, and it appears that Christ's resurrection changed the nature of Hades (Eph. 4:8-9; 1 Peter 3:18-22). Before Christ's resurrection, Hades is used as a synonym for Sheol as a whole, including the lowest and highest components. However, after Christ's resurrection, Hades becomes identified with the lowest part of Sheol only (Luke 16:23). Hades, then, becomes viewed as a temporary place of banishment during the unbeliever's intermediate state (2 Peter 2:9), which will be done away with at the final judgment (Rev. 20:13-15). During the intermediate state, people remain conscious and disembodied, as they await the final resurrection of their bodies and the final judgment. The New Testament also uses tartarus (only in 2 Peter 2:4), Gehenna, and the lake of fire to stand interchange-ably for the final state of the banished brought about at the final judgment at the end of the world (Matt. 23:3; Rev. 20:1-15). In Gehenna people will have bodies as well as souls (Matt. 5:22: 10:28), and they will experience conscious, everlasting banishment from heaven. Finally, the Bible describes hell's occupants as experiencing different degrees of punishment. Just as there are different degrees of rewards for believers in heaven (2 Cor. 5:10), so there are different degrees of judgment and shame for unbelievers "according to the works" that have been done in this life (Matt. 11:2124; Luke 12:47-48; Matt. 23:23; and, perhaps, James 3:1; Rev. 20:12-13).15

1. This essay concerning Hell is mainly taken from my larger essay entitled "The Soul, The Body, and The Future State," dated November, 1998. 2. Francis A. Schaeffer. death in the city. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1969, pages 79-107. 3. Francis A. Schaeffer. death in the city. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1969, page 98.

4. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Editors. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Volume 2. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980. #1395a, p. 858. 5. Edward J. Young. The Book of Isaiah, A commentary, Volume 1, NICOT, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1965, p. 438. 6. Leon Morris. The Gospel According to St. Luke. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1974, pp. 292-293. 7. R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, Editors. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Volume 1. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980. #194e, p. 88. 8. Joachim Jeremias. " " (Gehenna), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. [TDNT]. Vol. 1. Gerhard Kittel, Editor. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1978, p. 658. 9. John Piper. The Justification of God. An Exegetical & Theological Study of Romans 9:1-23. Second Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1993, pp.200-203. [Compare with, The First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians, by Leon Morris, NICNT, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1959, pp.205-206. Compare also with R.C.H. Lenski on II Thess. 1:9; and The Pauline Eschatology, by Geerhardus Vos, Baker Book House, 1979, pp.261-319.] 10. Oepke. " " (apoleia), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. [TDNT]. Vol. 1. Gerhard Kittel, Editor. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1978, pp. 396-397. 11. Ethelbert W. Bullinger. A Critical Lexicon and Concordance To The Greek New Testament, Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publ., Reprint 1975, "Destroy", p. 220. 12. Kendall S. Harmon. "The case Against Conditionalism: A response to Edward William Fudge", in Universalism and the Doctrine of Hell,, edited by Nigel M. de S. Cameron. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992, p. 215. 13. DWH. "Questions for Jehovah's Witnesses", (tract), Saint Louis, MO 63136: Watchman Fellowship, P.O. Box 26062. 14. Hank Hanegraaff. Resurrection. Nashville: Word Publishing, 2000, pp. 79-83 15. Habermas, Gary R. & Moreland, J.P. Beyond Death: Exploring the Evidence for Immortality. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1998, pp. 288-290.

Abanes, Richard. Defending the Faith. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1997, pp. 153-171. Bacchiocchi, Samuele. Immortality or Resurrection? Berrien Springs, MI: Biblical Perspectives, 1997. [SDA] Boettner, Loraine. Immortality. Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1956. (Also published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.) Brown, Colin. General Editor. The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978. Vol. 1, "Body", pp. 232-236; Vol. 2, "Hell", pp. 205-210; "Paradise", pp. 760-764; Vol. 3, "Soul", pp. 676-689; "Spirit", pp. 693-694. Buis, Harry. "Everlasting Punishment", in The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Merrill C. Tenney, Editor. Grand Rapids, 1976, Vol. 4, pp. 954-957. Bullinger, Ethelbert W. A Critical Lexicon and Concordance To The English and Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publ., Reprint 1975. Buswell, J. Oliver. A Systematic Theology of the Christian Religion. Two volumes in one. Grand

Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1962. Vol. 1, pp. 232-254, 344-345; Vol. 2, pp 301323, 510. Cairns, Alan. Dictionary of Theological Terms. Greenville, S.C.: Faith Free Presbyterian Church, 1982, pp. 54,58-60,76,156-158, 162-163. Cameron, Nigel M. de. S. Universalism and the Doctrine of Hell. Papers Presented at the Fourth Edinburgh Conference on Christian Dogmatics. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992. Canright, D. M. Seventh-Day Adventism Renounced. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1961 (Reprint from 1914) pp. 395-409. Carson, D.A. The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1996, Ch. 13, "On Banishing The Lake Of Fire", pp. 515-536. Crockett, William. Editor. Four Views on Hell. Zondervan Publ., 1996. (190 pages.) Dixon, Larry. The Other Side of the Good News. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1992, 216 pp. Douglas, J. D. Editor. New Bible Dictionary. Second Edition. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, 1982. Edwards, David L., with Stott, John. Essentials. A liberal-evangelical dialogue. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988, 1992, pp. 306-331. Edwards, Jonathan. The Wrath Of Almighty God: Jonathan Edwards on God's Judgment Against Sinners. Edited by Rev. Don Kistler, Morgan, PA.: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1996. Erickson, Millard J. Christian Theology. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998, pp. 496-557, 1232-1248. Fudge, Edward William. The Fire That Consumes. A Biblical and Historical Study of Final Punishment. Houston: Providential Press, 1982. [A conditional immortality position] Gerstner, John. Jonathan Edwards on Heaven and Hell. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1980. Greene, Oliver B. HELL. Greenville, S.C.: The Gospel Hour, Inc., 1969. Gundry, Robert H. Soma in Biblical Theology. With Emphasis on Pauline Anthropology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publ., 1987. (Previously published by Cambridge University 1976) Habermas, Gary R. and Moreland, J. P. Beyond Death: Exploring the Evidence for Immortality. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1998. Hanegraaff, Hank. Resurrection. Nashville, TN: Word Publishing, 2000. Harris, Murray J. Raised Immortal. Resurrection and Immortality in the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1985. Harris, R. Laird/ Archer, Gleason L. Jr./ Waltke, Bruce K., Editors. Theological Word-book of the Old Testament. Two Volumes. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980. Volume Two, #1395a, pp. 587-591; #1433a, p. 605; and #2303c, pp. 891-893. Harrison, Everett F. Editor. Baker's Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1975, "Soul", pp.491-492, and "Soul Sleep", p.492. Helm, Paul. The Last Things: Death, Judgment, Heaven and Hell. Edinburgh: The Banner Of Truth Trust, 1989. Hendriksen, William. The Bible on the Life Hereafter. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1959, 1977. Hendriksen, William. The Gospel Of Matthew. New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1973, pp.885-892. Heppe, Heinrich. Reformed Dogmatics. English translation by G.T. Thomson. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1978, pp. 220-250. Hoekema, Anthony A. The Bible And The Future. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1979. Hoekema, Anthony A. The Four Major Cults. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1963, 1988.

Jacob, Edmond. in Kittel. TDNT. Vol. IX, Eerdmans Publ., 1974. Jeremias, Joachim. " " (Gehenna), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. [TDNT]. Vol. 1. Gerhard Kittel, Editor. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., 1978, pp. 146-149, 657-658. Josephus, Flavius. Josephus: Complete Works. Translated by William Whiston, Grand Rapids: Kregel Publ., 1960, "Josephus' Discourse To The Greeks Concerning Hades: An Extract." pp.637-638, 709. Kennedy, James D. Truths That Transform. Old Tappan, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1974, pp. 121-126. Kreeft, Peter. Between Heaven and Hell. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1982. Kreeft, Peter. Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven...But Never Dreamed of Asking. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1990. LaHaye, Tim. Life in the Afterlife. Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, 1980. Lloyd-Jones, D. Martyn. The Church and The Last Things. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books, 1998. Lockyer, Dr. Herbert. Is There A Hell? Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publ. House, 1954. (Booklet). Lutzer, Erwin W. One Minute After You Die. A Preview of Your Final Destination. Chicago: Moody Press, 1997. Martin, Walter. The Kingdom of the Cults. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publ., 1965, 1977, pp. 89-97, 386-395. Milne, Bruce. Know The Truth. A Handbook of Christian Belief. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1982, pp. 93-98, 169, 264, 267-278. Moore, David George. The Battle For Hell. A Survey and Evaluation of Evangelical's Growing Attraction to the Doctrine of Annihilationism. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc., 1995. Moreland, J. P. Scaling the Secular City. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1987, chap. 3. Morey, Robert A. Death and the Afterlife. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publ., 1984. Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to St. Luke. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1974. Morris, Leon. The Biblical Doctrine of Judgment. London: Tyndale Press, 1960. Morris, Dr. Leon. "Eternal Punishment", article in Elwell's Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1984, pp. 369f. Myers, Allen C. Editor. The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1987, pp.964-967. New Geneva Study Bible (NKJV). R.C. Sproul, Editor. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995, pp. 9-10,1580,1834,1876,2032. Oepke. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. [TDNT]. Vol. 1. Gerhard Kittel, Editor. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. Co., 1978, " " (apoleia), pp. 396-397. Packer, J. I. "The Problem of Eternal Punishment." Crux, September, 1990, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, pp. 18-25. Vancouver, B.C.: Regent College. Peterson, Robert A. Hell On Trial. The Case for Eternal Punishment. Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publ. Co., 1995. Pink, Arthur W. Eternal Punishment. Petersburg, OH: Pilgrim Brethren Press, Reprinted 1994. (Booklet) Piper, John. The Justification of God. An Exegetical & Theological Study of Romans 9:1-23. Second Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1993. Schaeffer, Francis A. death in the city. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1969).

Strong, Augustus H. Systematic Theology. Old Tappan, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1979, pp. 92, 483-497, 528, 550, 820, 982-1003. Strong, James. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. Iowa Falls: World Bible Publishers. Summers, Ray. The Life Beyond. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1959. Thomas, F. W. What Happens After Death...? Vancouver, B. C., 1978. Toon, Peter. Heaven and Hell. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1986. Vincent, Thomas. Fire and Brimstone. Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1999, (Reprint from 1670). Vine, W. E. Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. Vos, Geerhardus. The Pauline Eschatology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, Reprint 1979. Webb, Gerry W. "The Soul, The Body, and The Future State". An Essay. Nov., 1998. Wells, David. "Everlasting Punishment", article in Christianity Today, October 20, 1987, p. 41. Wuest, Kenneth S. Treasures from the Greek New Testament for The English Reader. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publ., Co., 1945, pp. 34-49. Young, Edward J. The Book of Isaiah. A commentary. Volume 1, NICOT. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1965.

See the following for further reading related to Hell and the afterlife:
Blanchard, John. Whatever Happened to Hell? Wheaton: Crossway Books, 1995. Bolton, Robert. The Four Last Things: Death, Judgment, Hell, and Heaven. Pittsburgh: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1994. (Originally published in 1633 A.D.) Boa, Kenneth D. & Bowman, Robert M. Jr. Sense & Nonsense About Heaven & Hell. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2007.) Bryson, Harold T. The Reality of Hell and the Goodness of God. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1984. Cohen, Abraham. Everyman's Talmud. The Major Teachings of the Rabbinic Sages. New York: Schocken Books, 1949, 1995. Cooper, John W. Body, Soul, & Life Everlasting: Biblical Anthropology and the MonismDualism Debate. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989. Fernando, Ajith. Crucial Questions About Hell. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway Books, 1991. Hamilton, Gavin. Where Are The Dead? New York: Loizeaux Brothers. Lowry, Oscar. Where Are the Dead? Chicago: The Bible Institute Colportage Ass'n, 1930. (Booklet). Morgan, Christopher W. and Peterson, Robert, A. General Editors. Hell Under Fire. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2004.) Powys, David. `Hell': A Hard Look at a Hard Question. The Fate of the Unrighteous in New Testament Thought. Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Paternoster Press, 1998. Rawlings, Maurace S. To Hell and Back. Life after death - startling new evidence. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1993. Sabiers, Karl. Where Are The Dead? Los Angeles, CA: Christian Pocket Books, 1959. Shedd, William G.T. The Doctrine of Endless Punishment. Minneapolis: Klock & Klock Christian Publishers, 1980 Reprint. (Original 1886) Smith, Wilbur M. The Biblical Doctrine of Heaven. Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 1980. Spurgeon, Charles H. "The Great Assize, or The Great and Universal Final Judgment For All Mankind". (Sermon preached in London on August 25, 1872.) Stover, Ross H. What Do We Know About Life After Death? Grand Rapids: Zondervan

Publishing House, 1941, 1969. Strauss, Lehman. Life after Death. What the Bible Really Teaches. Westchester, IL: Good News Publishers, 1979. Woodson, Leslie. What the Bible Says About Hell. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1976.

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