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Grizz Debate Nova Scotia We affirm Resolved: The United States Federal Government should substantially increase its exploration and/or development of space beyond the Earth¶s mesosphere. 1 Contention 1 is the status quo: 1) The US has no SAR or AIS satellites in orbit. Only the following countries have a sateelite equipped with either one, but none have one equipped with both. Thomas, Guy. "Homeland Security Starts at Sea." Earth Imaging Journal. (2011): n. page. Web. 7 Jan. 2012. <http://eijournal.com/2011/homeland-security-starts-at-sea-2>.
The Canadian government currently operates two SARsats in a public-private partnership with McDonald, Dettwiler & Associates
(http://gs.mdacorporation.com/). It launched the first one, RADARSAT, in 1996. A more capable system, RADARSAT 2, was launched in late 2007.
Canada is expected to
launch an additional three to six radar satellites within the next decade. These systems operate in five basic modes and, at low resolution, have wide sensor swaths. Most, if not all, of the coming SARsats will be equipped with AIS receivers. Germany, Italy and Israel also have launched radar satellites, and several other countries are moving that way. On June 21, 2010, the Germans launched TanDEM-X, a second radar vehicle
to fly in formation with the first TerraSAR-X launched in June 2007. Italy¶s COSMO-SkyMed system has four operating satellites, launched between June 2007 and November 2010. TecSAR, the first Israeli satellite to feature SAR technology, was launched Jan. 21, 2008.
Each of these satellites carries a SAR sensor that can see through cloud cover and detect vessels and their wakes day or night. These commercial radar satellites represent a significant improvement over previous commercial radar systems, including images with resolutions as good as 1 meter and special collection methods that can vary the polarization of the energy their sensors transmit to the ground. This permits image collection in different polarizations simultaneously, which can characterize Earth¶s surface structure in interesting new ways.
The International Maritime Organization and the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities designed AIS to identify and locate vessels by electronically exchanging data with other nearby ships and vessel traffic service stations.
April 28, 2008, Canadian company COM DEV International (http://www.comdev.ca/) launched a space-based AIS nanosatellite designed to detect AIS signals from space.
onboard an ORBCOMM (http://www.orbcomm.com/) communications satellite. Prior to that, the U.S. Coast Guard funded the development of a capable AIS collector
SpaceQuest (http://www.spacequest.com/) also has launched
space-based AIS collectors. The initial results of these efforts are promising, and all three companies are planning additional capabilities. Currently there are eight AIS-equipped commercial satellites on orbit, with many more being planned.
Plank 2: USFG (Specifically.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia Thus. we present the following plan: Plank 1: The United States Coast Guard should launch satellites equipped with automatic 2 identification systems and synthetic aperture radar imaging. the Coast Guard) Plank 3: Telecom Tax Plank 4: We Claim all Forms of Fiat and the Right to Clarify .
"For the analyst looking at emerging threats. but in the meantime. but he turned it down. "I told them: 'Thank you very much. no drug submarines have been detected under the sea. it has us all going back to the textbooks and the drawing boards and figuring out what are we going to do about this. BBC Reporter Specializing In Colombian Affairs. What are we missing?" US and Colombian officials said they will seek to target the submarines. there's no shortage of people willing to risk their lives on board the drug subs. The captain said he was recently offered $500." he said. That could mean that traffickers have already made the switch to submarines . "Without question. who heads the US Drug Enforcement Administration's Andean division. 2k11 (John Otis. subs have created a whole new challenge in the battle against drug smuggling." Mr Bergman said. Otis. there's a concern that's raised. making it nearly impossible 3 to catch them. ³Drug submarines: Colombia's underwater cocaine traffic´ 4/26. But I'm not interested.000 to make another trip to Mexico. I wish you all the luck in the world. Mr Bergman pointed out that so far.and that they are evading detection.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia Contention 2 is the Cocaine Trade: 1) The Cocaine trade is increasingly moving to submarine.'" . "when they see this precipitous drop in semi-submersibles and then the advent of these two submarines. Online [FH]) According to Jay Bergman. but seizures of semi-submersibles have dropped dramatically in the past two years.
smugglers are moving tons of drugs towards the United States in so-called ³semisubmersibles. . BBC Colombia News Correspondent.´ homemade vessels that travel just below the ocean¶s surface and cover distances of up to 2. Online [HT]) Today. ³Drug traffickers move 4 underwater´ Global Post. and another six have been captured this year. But in 2006. Mario Rodriguez. Frank Lautenberg. 2k10 (John Otis.S. Because they leave tiny wakes.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 2) Narco-Subs Are the Method of Choice for Colombian Traffickers ± They Carry Seventy Percent of Cocaine Exports and Evade Detection By Status Quo Technology Otis. crew members quickly sink the vessels to get rid of the evidence and avoid being prosecuted for drug trafficking. Colombian authorities now believe that up to 70 percent of the cocaine leaving the country¶s Pacific coast is packed aboard semi-submersibles. police discovered a scuttled 33-foot-long semi-submersible off the northwest coast of Spain. according to Colombian Navy Capt. Authorities seized 14 semi-submersibles last year. U. the crude subs are extremely difficult to detect visually or by radar.000 miles. Even when they are spotted. a New Jersey Democrat. Published 4-15-2009 and Edited 5-30-2010. Sen. Most of the vessels move between Colombia and drop-off points in Mexico and Central America. estimated that the vessels this year would ship up to 480 metric tons of cocaine.
000 kilograms of cocaine to the former Soviet Union in return for large shipments of deadly weaponry. 2000 ² Russian crime syndicates and military officers are supplying sophisticated weapons to Colombian rebels in return for huge shipments of cocaine.S.-backed fight against the Colombia cocaine cartels into a losing proposition. U.com. Michael Moran. all of whom spoke to MSNBC. Field Experts. . 2k (Sue Lackey. April 9.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 3) Cocaine is Traded for Weapons Sold To Non-State Actors By the Russian Mafia Moran. intelligence officials.S. an alliance of corrupt Russian military figures. The Clinton administration is trying to escalate the long-running war on Colombia¶s cocaine cartels. intelligence officials told MSNBC. Online [FH]) WASHINGTON. MSNBC Analysts. diplomats and revolutionaries has been moving regular shipments of up to 40.7 billion aid package to the South American nation is under consideration in Congress. 5 In short. organized crime bosses.com on condition of anonymity. and a $1. U.S. A senior intelligence official described the smuggling ring as ³literally an industry´ that threatens to overwhelm the Colombian government and turn the U. said the scope of the Russia-to-Colombia smuggling ring took them by surprise and remains unknown to all but a few high-ranking figures in the American government. ³Russian mob trading arms for cocaine with Colombia rebels´ 4/9/09.
Al-Watan¶s sources say that bin Laden contacted these Central Asian mafias. worth $70 million. Middle Eastern news 6 sources.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 4) Weapons the Mafia has tried to sell include Nuclear Weapons and Active Uranium. These warheads have been delivered to bin Laden from the Ukraine. ³Bin Laden's Nuclear Weapons´ 12/27/01. Kazakh-stan and even Russia. Majalla et al. bin Laden decided to purchase ³ready-made´ weapons. Al-Watan¶s confidential source states. Al-Watan al-Arabi¶s report continues to that Western and Arab security agencies who have been following bin Laden¶s movements know the sources of these weapons. Bin Laden¶s attempts to purchase weapons-grade uranium from different areas failed. whose access and connection with the Russian mafia enabled them to purchase not only the warheads but the expertise to support a full nuclear weapons program. Mamduh Salim.´ . Turkmenistan. Online [FH]) Two years ago. backpack size or smaller nuclear devices easy to conceal and carry to any part of the world. Al-Watan¶s sources say that bin Laden was willing to pay any amount whatsoever in order to get his hands on nuclear technology. 2k1 (Al-Majalla. This proves they have them and are willing to sell. They vary in size and number over twenty. an expert in weapons electronics was recently captured in Munich and is being extradited to Washington where he has been indicted for conspiracy to purchase weapons-grade uranium in Eastern European countries for bin Laden. Al-Watan al-Arabi and Al-Wasat. His plan is to develop ³instant nukes´. They sold bin Laden over 20 atomic warheads in exchange for $30 million in cash and two tons of opium. bin Laden all along had been sending agents of these mafias to exSoviet republics to purchase ready-made atomic warheads. a group of these mafia in the former Soviet republics procured a number of nuclear warheads to be sold to bin Laden and his Afghan Arab underground. After bin Laden¶s assistants had tried repeatedly to hire nuclear scientists to develop the atomic bomb technology ³in-house´ and failed. ³All bin Laden¶s attempts to purchase nuclear grade uranium in Eastern Europe were only a cover to distract intelligence agencies from his real work.
staff writer for the Trumpet. 2k8 (Brad MacDonald. While many find assurance in the lack of answers. Hezbollah and Hamas. Even the weakest imagination ought to be able to conjure images of what the consequences for America could be! . Now we learn that uranium is being illegally traded in the region. Bolivia and Ecuador. Pockets of South America²including areas in Venezuela.²have become launching pads from which the world¶s most venomous anti-American entities. particularly radical Islam. I find them extremely disconcerting²especially when considered against the growth of the South American terrorist network.S. could strike the United States. Online [FH]) 7 Clearly. ³Is Chávez Helping Terrorists Go Nuclear?´ 5/2008. including al Qaeda. Mountains of evidence have arisen in recent years showing that South America is a hideout and breeding ground for the world¶s most dangerous terrorist organizations. all of which have governments hostile to the U. last week¶s seizure raises more questions than answers.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 5) South America Is the Biggest Internal Link to Non-State Actor Nuclear Proliferation MacDonald.
where Washington. the clandestine manufacture of Pakistan's nuclear bomb.S. Louis Freeh. Munir Ahmed Khan.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 6) Groups That Receive Weapons from the Russian Mafia Are the ONLY Nuclear Threats ± Makes Nuclear Use Inevitable and Causes Extinction Power.'' His view is contrary to statements made by Russian President Boris N. the International Atomic Energy Agency. ''The director of the FBI. has warned that Russian organized crime networks pose a menace to U. the former chairman of the world's nuclear watchdog body. Mr. commenting on the recent allegations made by the former Russian general and national security adviser. are both unlikely ever to use them. of which there are many out of work and in economic difficulties. partly prestige item. could be hired to keep them operational. Khan knows a thing or two about undercover bomb work. Mr. partly deterrent. determined to use blackmail to secure a particular objective 8 . the danger will not be with governments with a fixed address. against all the odds. Freeh's. confirms that opinion here is moving in the same direction as Mr. says that if this is true they would be usable: ''Competent nuclear scientists. ³Threat of the Russian nuclear mafia´ 10/14/97. Online [FH]) The real issue in terms of imminent danger. North Korea. that the mafia has stolen Soviet-era nuclear suitcase bombs. If they do trade in nuclear weapons. Yeltsin's government.and the people it does business with -. ''Rogues'' they may be. Both live in neighborhoods where a move to deploy such weapons would be met with a debilitating blitzkrieg. is the Russian mafia. if it has ever been.'' the Washington Post reported. national security and has asserted that there is now greater danger of a nuclear attack by some outlaw group than there was by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Moscow. Paris or even Beijing know where to retaliate It will be with a free-lance terrorist group of no fixed abode. London. staff writer for the Baltimore Sun. these countries would keep their nukes in the background.is another matter. Alexander Lebed. The Russian mafia -. He masterminded. Khan. 97 (Jonathan Power. Suicidal they are not. In conversation. As Pakistan does. both then and now. Iran. even if it is trying to develop a nuclear bomb.
Rome. for fear it could unnerve and alarm public opinion. Bonn. commenting on the statement that ''the U. the emergence of the mafia that now threatens us.'' said two words: ''Ha. for if they fail it will be the greatest tragedy to befall humanity since Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Freeh promised ''drastic steps to prevent and detect'' nuclear weapons falling into the hands of Russian criminal gangs. refused the Russian president. with former KGB officers in the hierarchy. Yeltsin. Deutch. Freeh have up his sleeve? Former CIA director John M. They repeated their mistake when they. something short of today's present Wild West capitalism. run 9 the most sophisticated criminal operations ever seen in the United States. ha. The officials' caution and reticence is understandable. What ''drastic steps'' does Mr. Mr. led by President George Bush. Paris. Yet at the same time he admitted that the Russian syndicates. All through the Cold War it paid little or no attention to the now-known dangers of atmospheric testing or to those who warned that nuclear weapons were a Faustian bargain and would inevitably fall into the wrong hands. No doubt Washington would like to deal with this grave crisis without having to throw into relief its past errors.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia It could be to force the withdrawal of the Turkish army from Kurdish areas or Israel from its settlements in the West Bank or to demand release of jailed Colombian drug barons.S. help in late 1991. Mr. One wishes the authorities well. Washington justified the possession of nuclear weapons as creating a stable balance of power. the White House is being very careful to keep the lid on the debate. Washington sent as the sole emissary a Treasury undersecretary whose job was to insist to the new Russian government that it honor the old Soviet debt. For decades. government is effectively organized to address the terrorist threat. Missed opportunity Washington. London.'' Every policy-maker should read his article in the latest issue of Foreign Policy. Common sense suggests the White House is working with Moscow to try quietly to buy off the would-be nuclear terrorists. Ottawa and Tokyo (the G-7) missed the historic opportunity of the century to put Russia the right way up when they refused to provide the financial wherewithal to enable Soviet President Mikhail S. Only 2 percent of NATO defense spending would have done the job and avoided nearly eight years of economic turmoil and. Its point is obvious: America is wide open to nuclear terrorist blackmail. Nevertheless. . not least. Gorbachev to make what could have been a relatively smooth transition from rigid communism to a more liberal set-up.
allies in Europe or East Asia. In fact. vice president for studies and director of the Nuclear10 Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 7) Only Non-State Actors Will Use Nuclear Weapons ± Nation-States Have a Nuclear Taboo Perkovich. or are perceived to be. They are self-deterring for actors who depend upon public support from their own populations. Online [FH]) The underlying difficulty is that nuclear weapons are. . and broader international society.S.S. inherently weapons of indiscriminate and disproportionate destruction. ³Extended Deterrence on the Way to a Nuclear-Free World´ International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament. 2k9(George Perkovich. member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. the taboo against using nuclear weapons has become so strong that the only threat against which it is justifiable and therefore credible to use these weapons is one where the survival of the U. or an ally is clearly jeopardized. their allies. Yet. with the possible exception of North Korea in relation to Japan or South Korea. May 2009. no state poses a realistic threat to the national survival of U.
2001. city by the national security apparatus and conservatives. 2k7(Hugh Gusterson. . We saw it starting on September 12. We will be told we were attacked because we have not militarized our society enough. expertise in nuclear culture. When you live so deep inside militarism that you cannot see outside it. ³Nuclear terrorism: Correcting the future´ 6/4/07. The poison becomes the cure.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 8) Non-State Actor Nuclear Use Shatters the Taboo Through Retaliation. military solutions become a reflex reaction--even to problems that militarism caused. wait 'til you see what happens after a city goes missing. new military actions abroad. and attacks on media and academic critics were bad. If you think the post-9/11 smorgasbord of Abu Ghraib. Gusterson. Online [FH]) We already know the narrative frame that will be put around the smoking ruins of a U. and further sacrifice of civil liberties at home. and the attack will be used to justify more military spending. professor of anthropology and sociology at George 11 Mason University. illegal domestic wiretapping.S.
what held through the Cold War. Mr. when the United States and Russia had thousands of nuclear weapons pointed at each other. November 1. should a terrorist organization be able to get a nuclear weapon into the United States or Western Europe. especially suicidal terrorists. in the current environment or anything like it.cnn.S. and blow up something and kill tens of thousands of people.html accessed 7/10/03) 12 GREENFIELD: Now. say.00. a hundred million Muslims would die as U. www. it would be this: that the search for terrorist atomic weapons would be of great benefit to the Muslim peoples of the world in addition to members.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 9) Retaliation Kills Hundreds of Millions Regardless of the Success of the Initial Attack Easterbrook 2k1 (Greg. they would be struck in turn. what held each side back was the fact that fundamentally they were rational. They knew that if they struck. . nuclear bombs rained down on every conceivable military target in a dozen Muslim countries. The new republic. of the kind that al Qaeda is attempting to cultivate. finally. What could we possibly do about that? EASTERBROOK: Well. what's the United States response? It's not like attacking a country that bombed us if we don't quite know who this is. if I could leave you with one message. Easterbrook. to people of the United States and Western Europe. speaking of ghastly. Eastern Europe. because if an atomic warhead goes off in Washington. in the 24 hours that followed. Terrorists may not be held by this.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0111/01/gal. But I think.
AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 10) Automatic Identification System Tech Exists. a constellation of 18 LEO satellites would be able to provide an update of every ship across the globe every 15 minutes. but would still not be able to provide continuous identification capability in time domain for establishing MST. Naval School Postgraduate. then these satellites can definitely provide near-real MST. if the same LEO satellites are fitted with both SAR and AIS. Online [FH]) Depending on traffic density. Singh. 2k10 (Jaswinder Singh. ³Countering Small Boat Terrorism in Territorial Sea´ 12/2010. lowering the height of the satellite. if the number of ships does not exceed its maximum capacity of target handling. Aerial based AIS is capable of providing ship detection capability of more than 99% at 1000 km. Therefore. But It Fails Because It Isn¶t Space Based ± AIS Satellites Integrated with Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Allows For Almost Perfect Accuracy in Real Time Monitoring Of All 13 Naval Vessels. However. . solving for our inability to find smugglers. increasing the reporting interval and / or increasing the observation time. the capability of the AIS-based satellite constellation to handle a larger number of ships can be increased by increasing the number of satellites.
the lack of effective global maritime surveillance was exploited by sea-based criminals and terrorists. Satellite based AIS is the technology that can change all this.AIS Sats Aff Grizz Debate Nova Scotia 11) The Plan Reinvigorates Overall Maritime Domain Awareness And Prevents Criminals From Exploiting Holes in Security ± Making the Technology Space Based Is Key Allan. . VP Global Sales & Marketing @ Exact Earth. Until Satellite based Automatic Identification System (S-AIS) became available. with recent events in Mumbai. In today¶s ³globalised. Many terrorist groups have demonstrated their ability to launch attacks in the maritime domain. 2k11 (John W. MDA is the fundamental basis for maritime intelligence. It is little wonder such events have created an uneasy international consensus that something needs to be done to address this deteriorating situation.´ (Nautical Institute ± Seaways July 2010 p23). who could thrive in these oceanic ³black holes´. Whether the concern is Port Security and administering the ISPS Code or enforcing national sovereignty over an Exclusive Economic Zone. Maritime traffic once out of range of land-based surveillance systems is largely invisible to shore-side authorities and ships can effectively disappear until they reappear shortly before the next µscheduled¶ port call.´ we believe location is ubiquitous and that everything is tracked. India showing the relative ease with which terrorists can deliver their particular brand of violence from the sea. that is far from the truth and vessels once they go over the horizon can essentially ³disappear´. 14 This issue was recently explored in depth by the Nautical Institute¶s Seaways magazine which spoke of: ³Despite the fact that today¶s sea lanes account for over 80 per cent of world trade by value and generate 100¶s of billions of dollars in service provisions there is still a creeping seablindness. Unfortunately from a maritime perspective. Online [FH]) Few security commentators would dispute the geospatial issue which dominates contemporary concern over maritime security ± the generation of a credible Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) picture which is both comprehensive and persistent. connected world. ³S-AIS Redefining maritime security´ 3/23. Th is absence of reliable domain awareness hamstrings many if not all aspects of maritime commerce and security. Allan.