o.

A Treatise on the Differential Calculus.
With numerous Examples.
1

Fourth Edition.

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EUCLID
FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.

V u
\

\

^

Q

:

THE ELEMENTS

Or.

EUCLID
FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES;
COMPRISIXG THE FIRST SIX BOOKS AND PORTIONS OF THE ELEVENTH

AND TWELFTH BOOKS;

WITH

NOTES,

AN APPENDIX, AND EXERCISES

BY
I.

TODHUNTEE,

M.A., F.E.S.

NEW EDITION.

Sontion ant CTambritige

MACMILLAN AND
1869.
[All Bights reserved.]

CO.
CO.

TORONTO: COPP, CLARK, AND

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY. 31. A. AT THE UMVE&SITY PKJiSS.

345(^7

PEEFACE.
In offering to students and teachers a new edition of it will be proper to give some account of the plan on which it has been arranged, and of the advantages which it hopes to present. Geometry may be considered to form the real foundation of mathematical instruction. It is true that some acquaintance with Arithmetic and Algebra usually precedes the study of Geometry; but in the former subjects a beginner spends much of his time in gaining a practical facility
the Elements of Euclid,
in the application of rules to

examples, while in the latter

subject he
fiiculties.

is

wholly occupied in exercising his reasoning

In England the text-book of Geometry- consists of the

Elements of Euclid
of this work.

;

for nearly every official

instruction or examination explicitly includes

programme of some portion
;

Numerous attempts have been made to find an appropriate substitute for the Elements of Euclid but
such attempts, fortunately, have hitherto been
vain.

made

in

The advantages attending a common standard
;

of

reference in such an important subject, can hardly be over-

estimated

and

it is

extremely improbable,
It cannot

if

Euclid were

once abandoned, that any agreement would exist as to the

author who should replace him.

be denied that

vm
defects

PREFACE.
and difficulties occur in the Elements of Euclid, and become more obvious as we examine the work
;

that these

but probably during such examination the grow deeper that these defects and difficulties are due in a great measure to the nature of the
closely

more

conviction will

and to the place which it occupies in a course and it may be readily believed that an equally minute criticism of any other work on Geometry would reveal more and graver blemishes.
subject
itself,
;

of education

the editions of Euclid that of Robert Simson has been the most extensively used in England, and the preall

Of

reproduces Simson's; but his compared with the original, and some alterations have been made, which it is hoped
sent edition substantially
translation has been carefully

be found to be improvements. These alterations, however, are of no great importance most of them have been introduced with the view of rendering the language more uniform, by constantly using the same words when the same meaning is to be expressed. As the Elements of Euclid are usually placed in the
will
;

hands of yomig students, it is important to exhibit the work in such a form as will assist them in overcoming the difficulties which they experience on their first introduction to
processes of continuous argument.

Xo method

appears to

be so useful as that of breaking up the demonstrations into their constituent parts; this was strongly recommended by Professor De Morgan more than thirty years ago as a
suitable exercise for students, and the plan has been adopted more or less closely in some modern editions. An excellent example of this method of exhibiting the Elements

of Euclid will be found in an edition in quarto, published at the Hague, in the French language, in 17(j2. Two persons are named in the title-page as concerned in the work,

;

PREFACE.

IX

Koenig and Blassicrc. This edition has served as the model for that which is now offered to the student: some slight modifications have necessarily been made, owing to
the ditlerence in the size of the pages.
It will be perceived then, that in the present edition each distinct assertion in the argument begins a new line and at the ends of the lines are placed the necessary references to the preceding principles on which the assertions

depend.

into subordinate parts,

Moreover, the longer propositions are distributed which are distinguished by breaks
the propositions which are After the text will be

at the beginning of the lines.

This edition contains

all

usually read in the Universities.

found a selection of notes

;

these are intended to indicate
difficulties

and explain the principal

which

have been

noticed in the Elements of Euclid, and to supply the most

important inferences which can be drawn from the propo-

The notes relate to Geometry exclusively; they sitions. do not introduce developments involving Arithmetic and
Algebra, because these latter subjects are always studied
in special works,
ficient

and because Geometry alone presents

suf-

After some hesitation on the point, Logic have also been excluded.

matter to occupy the attention of early students. all remarks relating to

Although the study of

Logic ai)pears to be reviving in this country, and may eventiually obtain a more assured position than it now
holds in a course of liberal education, yet at present few

persons take up Logic before Geometry

;

and

it

seems

therefore premature to devote space to a subject which will

be altogether unsuitable to the majority of those who use a

work

like the present.

After the notes will be found an Appendix, consisting of
propositions

Euclid;

it is

supplemental to those in the Elements of hoped that a judicious choice has been made

X

PREFACE,

from the abundant materials which exist for such an Appendix. The propositions selected are worthy of notice on
various grounds
;

some

for their simplicity,

some

for their

value as geometrical facts, and some as being problems

which may naturally suggest themselves, but of which the
solutions are not very obvious.

The work

finishes with a collection of exercises.

Geo-

metrical deductions afford a most valuable discipline for a student of mathematics, especially in the earher period of
his course
;

the numerous departments of analysis which

demand his attention will leave him but little time then for pure Geometry. It seems however that the habits of mind which the study of pure Geometry tends to form, furnish an advantageous corrective for some of the evils resulting from an exclusive devotion to Analysis, and
subsequently
it is

therefore desirable to engage the attention of beginduties have rendered

ners with geometrical exercises.

Many persons whose

them

familiar

with the examination of

large numbers

of students in

elementary mathematics have noticed with regret the frequent failures in geometrical deductions. Several collections of exercises already exist, but the general complaint
is

that they are too

difficult.

Those in the present
;

volume may be divided into two parts tains 440 exercises, which it is hoped
;

the
will

first

part con-

not be found

beyond the power of early students the second part consists of the remainder, which may be reserved for pi-actice at a These exercises have been principally selected later stage. from College and Univei-sity examination papers, and have been tested by long experience with pupils. It svill be seen
that they are distributed into sections according to the propositions in the Elements of Euclid on which they chiefly

depend.
difficulty,

As
but

far as possible they are
it

must sometimes happen, as

arranged in order of is the case

PREFACE.

XI

in the Elements of Euclid, that one example prepares the way for a set of others which are much easier than

be observed that the exercises relate to all examples which would find a more suitable place in works on Trigonometry or Algebraical Geometry have been carefully rejected. It only remains to advert to the mechanical execution of the volume, to which great attention has been devoted.
itself.

It should

pure Geometry;

be found to be unusually large and dishave been repeated when necessary, so that tinct, and they they always occur in immediate connexion with the corresponding text. The type and paper have bev.n chosen so as to render the volume as clear and attractive as possible. The design of the editor and of the pultlishers has been to

The

figures will

produce a practically useful edition of the Elements of and they trust that the design Euclid, at a moderate cost
;

has been

fairly realised.

Any
will

suggestions or corrections relating to the

work

be most thankfully received.

I.

TODIIUNTER.

St John's College,
October 1862.

CONTENTS.
PAGE
Introductory Remarks

xv
I

Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V
Book VI
Book XI

52
71
,

113 134
173

220
244
2

Book XII
Notes on Euclid's Elements

50

Appendix
Exercises in Euclid

292

340

INTRODUCTOHY REMAKES.
The
subject of Plane Geometry
is

here presented to the
is

student arranged in six books, and each book
into propositions.

subdivided
required

The

propositions are of two kinds, prois

hlems and theorems.
to be done; in a

In a problem something
is

theorem some new principle

asserted to

be

true.

"We have first the general enunciation of the problem or theorem; as for
proposition consists of various parts.

A

example, To describe an equilateral triangle on a given
finite straight line, or

Any

tico

together less than two right angles.

angles of a triangle are After the general

enunciation follows the discussion of the proposition. First,

the enunciation
figure

is

repeated and applied to the particular
;

which is to be considered as for example. Let he the given straight line : it is required to describe an equilateral triangle on AB. The construction then usually follows, which states the necessary straight lines and circles which must be drawn in order to constitute the solution of the problem, or to furnish assistance in the demonstration Lastly, we have the demonstration itself, of the theorem. which shews that the problem has been solved, or that tho

AB

theorem is true. Sometimes, however, no construction is required and sometimes the construction and demonstration are com;

bhied.

xvi

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

The demonstration is a process of reasoning in which we draw inferences from results ah*eady obtained. These
results consist partly of truths established in former propo-

or admitted as obvious in commencing the subject, and partly of truths which follow from the construction that has been made, or which are given in the S7q')2')osition of the proposition itself The word hj/pothesis is used in the same sense as siqjposition. To assist the student in following the steps of the
sitions,

reasoning, references are given to the results already ob-

tained which are required in the demonstration.
indicates that
fifth

Thus

I.

5

we appeal

to the result established in the

proposition of the First Book; Constr. is sometimes used as an abbreviation of Construction, and Hyp. as an

abbreviation of Hypothesis.
It is usual to place the letters q.e.f. at the

discussion of a problem, and the letters q.e.d.

end of the at the end of

the discussion of a theorem,

quod erat faciendum,
Q.E.D. is

an abbreviation for to he done; and an abbreviation for quod erat demonstranduin,
q.e.f. is

that

is,

ichich

was

that

is,

which was

to he

proved.

EUCLID'S

ELEMENTS.

BOOK

I.

DEFINITIONS.
1.

A

POi^'T is that -which

has no parts, or which has no

magnitude.
2.

A
A A

line is length

without breadth.
of a line are points.
is

3.

The extremities
straight line
points.
is

4.

that which hes evenly between

its

extreme
5.

superficies

that which has only length and

breadth.
6.

The extremities of a

superficies arc lines.

A plane superficies is that in which any two j^.oints 7. being taken, the straight line between them lies wholly in
that superficies.
8. A plane angle is the inclination of two lines to one another in a plane, which meet together, but are not in the

snnio dircr-tiou.
1

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
9.

A

straight lines to

plane rectilineal angle is the inclination of two one another, which meet together, but are
line.

not in the same straight
Note.

"When several angles are at one point B, any one of them is expressed by three letters, of which the at the letter which is at the vertex of the angle, that is, point at which the straight lines that contain the angle meet one another, is put between the other two letters, and one of these two letters is somewhere on one of otlier those straight lines, and the other letter on the by the straight line. Thus, the angle which is coutamed

E^
straight lines AB, CB is named the angle ABC, or CBA the angle which is contained by the straight lines AB, and the angle which is named the angle ABD, or is contained by the straight lines DB, CB is named the angle DBC, or but if there be only one angle at a point, it may be expressed by a letter placed at that point; as the angle at E.

DB

;

DBA

;

CBD

;

10. "When a straight line standing on another straight line, makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of the angles is called a right angle and the straight line which stands on the
;

other

is

called a perpendicular to

it.

is

11. An obtuse angle is that which greater than a right angle.

12.
is less

An

acute angle

is

that which

than a right angle.

:

:

::

:

DEFINITIONS.
13.
14.

3

A A
A

term or boundary
figure
is

is

the extremity of any thing.
is

that which

enclosed by one or more

boundaries.
15. circle is a plane figure contained by one line, which is called the circumference, and is such, that all straight lines drawn from a certain point within the fig'ure to the circumference are equal to one another

16.

And

this

pomt

is

called the centre of the circle.

17. A diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through the centre, and terminated both ways by the cir-

cumference.

[A radius of a circle is a straight line di-awn from the centre to the circumference.]
18.

A
A

semicircle

is

and the part of the circimiference cut
19.

the figure contained by a diameter off by the diameter.

straight line
20.

segment of a circle is the figure contained by a and the circumference which it cuts off.
lines

Rectilineal figures are those which are contained

by straight
21.

Trilateral figures, or triangles,

by three straight

lines
22.

Quadrilateral figures by four straight lines

23. Multilateral figiires, or polygons, four straight lines. 24.

by more than

Of three-sided

figures,

equilateral triangle is that wliich has three equal sides

An

1—2

;

:

:

,

:

4
25.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
An
isosceles

triangle is that

which has two sides equal

A

26.

A

scalene

triangle

is

that

which has three unequal sides

27.

A

right-angled triangle

is

that

\vhich has a right angle

[The side opposite to the right
angle in a right-angled triangle quently called the hj-potenuse.]
is fre-

/

An obtuse-angled triangle 28. that which has an obtuse angle
:

is

An acute-angled triangle 29. that which has three acute angles.
Of four-sided
30.
all its

is

figures,
is

A

square
:

sides equal,

and

that which has all its angles

a

right anglefe

,^

/
A

all its

its

An oblong is that which lias angles right angles,4>ut n^t all sides equal ^y pa^tAliiC ^^ ^
31.

32.
all its

A

rhombus

is

that which has

sides equal, but its angles are not right angles

z.

:

:

DEFINITION'S.
its

rhomboid is that which has opposite sides equal to one another, but all its sides are not equal, nor its angles right angles
33. 34.

A

All

other four-sided figures

besides these

are

called trapeziums.
35. Parallel straight lines are such as are in the same plane, and -which being produced ever so far both ways

_.

^


A

do not meet.
[Note. The terms oblong and rhomboid are not often used. Practically the following definitions are used. Any line joining four-sided figure is called a quadrilateral. two opposite angles of a quadrilateral is called a diagonal. quadrilateral which has its opposite sides parallel is called a iiarallelogram. The words square and rhonibus are used in the sense defined by Euclid and the word rectangle is used instead of the word ohlong*

A

;

Some writers propose to restrict the word trapezium to a quadrilateral which has two of its sides parallel ; and it would certainly be convenient if this restriction were universally adopted.]

POSTULATES.
Let
it

be granted,

1. That a straight line point to any other pomt

may be drawn from any one

2. That a terminated straight line may be produced to any length in a straight line
:

And that a circle may be described from any centre, 3. at any distance from that centre.
(.^n.

u j. .c„

^i-<^,|
I

^^

6

EUCLWS ELEMENTS,
AXIOMS.

Tilings which are equal to the 1. to one another.
2.
3.

same thing are equal

If equals If equals

be added to equals the wholes are equal be taken from equals the remainders are be added to unequals the wholes are

equal.
4.

If equals

unequal.
If equals be taken from unequals the remainders 5. are unequal.

Things which are double of the same thmg are 6. equal to one another.
7.

Things which are halves of the same thing are

equal to one another.
8.
is,

w^hich

Magnitudes which coincide with one another, that exactly fill the same space, are equal to one
greater than

another.
9.

The whole

is

its part.

10.

Two

straight lines cannot enclose a space.

11.

All right angles are equal to one another.

make the two

If a straight line meet two straight lines, so as to interior angles on the same side of it taken together less than two right angles, these straight lines, being continually produced, shall at length meet on that side on which are the angles which are loss than two right
12.

anjrlos.

PROPOSITION
To dcsrribe straight line.

1.

PROBLEM.
triangle on

an equilateral

a given

finite

Let be the given straiglit line: describe an equilateral triangle on AB,

AB

it is

required to

From
circle

the centre A, at the distance

AB,

describe the
[Postulate 3.

BCD.
the centre B, at the distance

From
circle

BA,

describe the
[Postulate
3.

ACE.

C, at the straight lines

From the point

which the circles cut one another, draw CA and CB to the points A and B. [Post. 1.

ABC shall be an equilateral triangle.
Because the point

A

is

the centre of the circle
is

BCD,
ACE,

ACis equal to AB. And because the point BCis equal to BA.
But
it

[Definition 15.

B

the centre of the circle
is

[Definition 15.

has been shewn that

CA

equal to

AB;
to
1.

therefore

CA and CB are each of them equal to AB. But things which are equal to the same thing are equal
[Axiom
is

one another.
Tliercfore

CA

equal to CB.
triangle

Therefore CA,

AB,
t/ie

Wherefore

BC arc equal to one another. ABC is equilateral,
AB.

[Def. 24.
q.e,f.

and

it is

described on the given straight line

;

8

EUOLIU^ ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
2.

PROBLEM.
to

From
Let
line
:

a given 2^oint
line.

to

draio a straight line equal

a

given straight

A

it is

bo the given point, and BC the given straight required to draw from the point A a straight

line equal to

BC.

From the point the straight line
and on
it

AB

A
;

to

-Bdraw
[Post. 1.

describe

the equi[I. 1.

lateral triangle

DAB,

and produce the straight lines \PoU. 2. L>A, to E and F. From the centre B, at the dis-

DB

tance

BC,

describe the circle
[Post. 3.

CGH, meeting i>i^at G.
From

the centre D, at tlio distance DG, describe the circle GKL, meeting DEai L. [Post. 3.

^

AL

shall be equal to BC. Because the point B is the centre of the

circle

CGH,

BCis Gqiial to BG. And because the point
;

[Definition 15.

Z>

is

DL is equal to DG and DA, DB parts of them are equal therefore the remainder AL \% equal
BG.
But
it

the centre of the circle

GKL^

[Definition 15.

[Definition 24.

to

the remauider [Axiom 3.
;

has been shewn that

therefore

BC is equal to BG AL and BC are each of them equal to BG.
C(iual to the

But things which arc
one
anothci*.

same thing are equal
[Axiom

to
1.

Therefore

^X is equal to BC.
PROPOSITION
3.

"Wherefore

has

hee?i

from the given point A a straight line AL drawn equal to the given straight line BC. q.e.f.

PROBLEM.

From
a part Let

the greater of two given straight lines to cut off equal to the less.

AB and Cbc the two given straight lines,

of which

BOOK I.

3,

4.

AB

is

the greater

:

it is

greater, a part equal to

6'

required to cut off from the less.

ABy

tho

From the point the straight line
to (7;

AD

A

draw
equal
LIi^.

and from the centre A, at the distance AD^ describe the circle meeting at E. [Postulate 3.

DEF

AB
is

AE shall be equal to C.
AE is equal to AD.
But
Because the point

A

the centre of the circle

DEF,

[Definition 15.

C is

equal to

AD.

[Construction.

AE and 6' are each of them equal to AD. Therefore AE [Axiom equal to C. Wherefore fro?n AB the giyater of two given straight lines ajyart AE has been cut oj" equal to C the q.e.f.
Therefore
is
1.

less,

PEOPOSITION

4.

THEOREM.

If two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and have also the angles contained hg those sides equal to one another, thcg shall also have their bases or third sides equal; and (he two triangles shall be equal, and their other angles shall be equal, each to each,namclg those to ichich the equal sides
are
opjjosite.

Let ABC, DEFhc two triangles which have the two sides AB,ACcqv[al to the two aidcsDE, DF, each to cacli, nauiclv, to DE, and to DF, and the angle

AB

AC BAO

equal to the angle EDF: the base -C6' shall be equal to the base EF, and tho triangle to the triangle DEF, and the other angles shall be equal, cacli to each, to which the equal sides are opposite, namelv. the angle DEF, and the angle to the angle

ABC

AOB

ABC
DFE.

to the angle

10

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

For if the triangle may so that the point on the straight line straight line DE, the

ABC be applied to the triangle DEF,
be on the point
Z>,
-^

AB

A

anil

the

^
f\
/

will coincide with point the point E, because [Hyp. is equal to DE.

B

/\
' "^

AB
^

\
\

/

AB coinciding with fall on Z>i^, because the angle BAG
And,

DE,AGvd\\
is

{Ilypotliesis. equal to the angle EDF. Therefore also the point G will coincide with the point F, [Hypothesis. because AGi^ equal to DF. was shewn to coincide with the point E, But the point will coincide with the base therefore the base ; and G with F, if the base coinciding with because, does not coincide with the base EF, two straight lines will [Axiom 10. enclose a space ; which is impossible.

B

BG

EF

B

E

BG
is
8.

Therefore the base equal to it.
triangle

BG coincides with

the base

EF, and
[Axiom

Therefore the whole triangle yl^S 67 coincides with the whole [Axiom 8. DEF, and is equal to it.

And the other angles of the one coincide with the other angles of the other, and are equal to them, namely, the to tho angle io the angle DEF, and the angle angle DFE.

ABC

AGB

"Wherefore, if two triangles &c.

q.e.p.

PEOPOSITION
The angles
to

5.

THEOREM.

at the base of an isosceles triangle are equal one another; and if the equal sides be j^i'odticed the angles on the other side of the base shall be equal to one

another.

Let be an isosceles triangle, having tho side equal to the side AG, and let the straight Hues AB, shall be equal to and E: the angle be produced to to the angle BCE. the angle AGB, and the angle

ABC

AB

D

CBD

ABC

AC

In

BD take any point F,
AG equal toyl^the less, [1.3.

and fromyl^the greater cwioS

;

;

BOOK L
andjoini^C, G^^. Because -4i^is equal to ylG^,

5.

11

[Constr.

and

AB to AC^

[Hi/pothesis.

FA, AC arc equal to the two sides GA, AB, each to each and they contain the angle FAG common to the two triangles AFC, AGB
the two sides
;

;

therefore the base

FC is

equal to the

to base GB, and the triangle the triangle ylG'i?, and the remaining angles of the one to the remaining angles of the other, each to each, to which the equal sides are opposite, to the angle namely the angle to the angle AGB.

AFC

ACF
AB,

ABG,

and the angle
[I. 4.

AFC

And

because the whole

AF

is

equal to the whole

AG,

of which the parts

AC nvo equal,

[Hypothesis.

BF is equal to the remainder CG. [Axiom 3. was shewn to be equal to GB And FC therefore the two sides BF, FC are equal to the two sides CG, GB, each to each and the angle ^i^C was shewn to be equal to the angle CGB therefore the triangles BFC, CGB are equal, and their
the remainder
;

other angles are equal, each to each, to wiiich the equal to the angle sides are opposite, namely the angle [I. 4, to the angle CBG, GCB, and the angle

FBC

BCF

And
is cr|ual

and

since it has been sliewn that the whole angle ^i?^' to the whole angle ACF, are also that the parts of these, the angles CBG,

BCF

equal

;

therefore the remaining angle ABCis equal to the remaining angle ACB, which are the angles at the base of the
triangle

ABC.
it

[Axiom

3.

is has also been she^vn that the angle e<iual to the angle GCB, which are the angles on the other side of the base.

And

FBC

Wherefore, the angles &c. q.k.d. Hence every equilateral triangle Corollai7.
equiangular.

is

also

12

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
6.

THEOREM.
to

If itco angles of a triangle he equal sides also which suhtend, or are opposite to, the equal angles, shall be equal to one another.

one another, the

ABC be a triangle, Laving tlio ABC equal to the angle A CB the side AG shall bo equal to the side AB.
Let
angle
:

For if ^(7 bo not equal to AB, one of them must be greater than the otlicr. Let AB\>Q the greater, and from it
cut
oflf

DB equal to AC the less,

[I.

and join DC.
Then, because in the triangles

DBC, ACB,
[Construction.

DB is equal to AC,
BC is common to both, the two sides DB, BC are equal
and
each to each
;

to the

two sides AC, CB,
;

and the angle

is equal to the base therefore the base triangle DBCifi equal to the triangle ACB,

DBC is equal to the angle A CB [Ili/pothesis. AB, and the DC
[I. 4.
;

the less to the greater

which is absurd. is not unequal to AC, that Therefore AVherefore, if two angles &c. q.e.d.

[Axiom
is, it is

9.
it.

AB

equal to

Corollary.
equilateral.

Uenco every equiangular

triangle

is

also

PROPOSITION

7.

THEOREM.
same
side of
it,

On

the

same

hase,

and on

the

there can-

not he two triangles having their sides which are terminated at one extremity of the hase equal to one another, and likewise those which are terminated at the other extremity.
If
it

be

possible,

base
it,

AB, and

on the same on the same side of

let

there be two triangles

ACB,

ADB,

having their sides CA, DA, which are terminated at the extremity

A

of the base, equal

BOOK I.

7,8.

13

to one another, and likewise their sides CB^ terminated at B.

DB,

wliich arc

Join CD. In the case in which the vertex of each angle is without the other triangle
;

tri-

because ylCis equal to
the angle

AD,

[Hypothesis.
[I. 6.

But the angle

ACD is equal to the angle ADC. ACD is greater than the angle BCD,

[Ax.

9.

therefore the angle

ADC

is also

greater than the angle

BCD', much more then

is

the angle

BDG greater than
BD,
BCD.
is

the angle

BCD.
Again, because
the angle

BC is

equal to

[IFypothc-us.
[I. 5.

BDCis

equal to the angle

But it has been shewn to be greater ; which But if one of the vertices as
be within the other triangle produce AC, to B, F. Then because \% equal to ^Z), in the triangle ^Ci>, \Hyp.
Z>,

impossible.

ACn,

AD

AC

the angles BCD, FDC, on the other side of the base CD, are equal to one another. [I. 5.

But the angle than the angle BCD,
therefore the angle

BCD

is

gi'cator

[Axiom
is also

9.

BCD;
much more then
is

FDC

greater than the angle

the angle

BDC gi'eater
BD,
BCD.
;

than the angle
[Hiipot'hesis.
[I. 5.

BCD.
Again, because i?Cis equal to

the angle

BDC

is

equal to the angle

But it has been shewn to be greater which is impossible. The case in which the vertex of one triangle is on a side
of
tlic

other needs no demonstration.

AVherefore, on the

same base &c.
8.

q.e.d,

PROPOSITION
If
sides
ttco triangles

THEOREM.

hare two sides of the one equal to two of the other, each to eadi,^ and have liketcise their

14

EUGLIUi^ ELEMENTS.

bases equalf the angle which is contained by the two sides of the one shall be equal to the angle which is contained by the two sides, equal to thein, of the other.

Let

ABC,

DEF be two triangles,

having the two sides

AB,

AC equal to the two sides DE, DF, each to each, namely ^^ to DE, and AC to DF, and also the base BC be equal to the equal to the base EF: the angle BAC
sl\2ill

angle

EDF.

he applied to the triangle DEF, For if the triangle may be on the point E, and the straight so that the point will also coinon the straight line EF, the point line [Hyp. is equal to EF. cide with the point F, because

BC

B

ABC

C

BC

BC coinciding mth EF, BA and AC will coinED and DF. For if the base BC coincides with the base EF, but the sides BA, CA do not coincide with the sides ED, FD, but have a different situation as EG, FG then on the same
Therefore, cide with
;

base and on the same side of it there will be two triangles having their sides which are terminated at one extremity of the base equal to one another, and likewise their sides which are terminated at the other extremity.

But

this is impossible.

[I. 7.

coincides M-ith the base EF, Therefore since the base must coincide with the sides ED, DF. the sides BA, coincides with the angle Therefore also the angle [Axiom 8. EDF, and is equal to it.

AC

BC BAC

"Wherefore, if two triangles &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

9.

PROBLEM.
it

To bisect a given rectilineal angle, that is to divide into two equal angles.

;

BOOK I.
Let
angle
;

9,

10.

15

BACho the given rectilineal
it is

required to bisect
in

it.

Take any point I> from AC cut off

AB
join

AB

AB, and
equal
to
[I. 3.

;

BE, and on BE, on the side remote from A, describe the equi-

lateral triangle

BEF.
straight line
is

[1. 1.

Join

AF. The

AF shall bisect the angle BAG.
AE,
[Construction.

Because

AB

equal to

and

the each to each and the base

AFis common to the two triangles BAF, EAF, two sides BA, AF Si,Ye equal to the two sides EA, AF,

BF

is

equal to the base

EF;

[Definition 24.

therefore the angle

BAF

is

equal to the angle

EAF.

[I. 8.

AVherefore the given rectilineal angle hg the straight line AF. q.e.f.

BAG

is bisected

PEOPOSITION
To
bisect

10.

PROBLEM.
line, tJiat is to divide it

a given finite straight

into tico equal parts.

Let -^^ be the given straight
line
:

it is

required to divide
parts.
it

it

into

two equal
triangle

Describe on

an equilateral
[I. 1.

ABG,

and bisect the angle
straight line

AGB

CB, meeting

AB

by the
at
[r. 9.

B.
is

AB shall be cut into two equal parts at the point B. Because AG equal to GB, [Definition 24.
and

GB is common to the two triangles AGB, BGB, the two sides AG, GB are equal to the two sides BC,
each to each
;

CB,

and the angle

AGB is equal to

the angle

BGB
BB.
is

;

[Comtr.
[T. 4.

therefore the base

AB

is

equal to the base

"Wherefore tJie given straight line q.e.f. tico equcd parts at the point B.

AB

divided into

;

16

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
PROPOSITION n.
To draw

PROBLEM.
to

a straight line at right angles

a gicen

straight line, from a gieen point in the same. be the given Let straight line, and C tiio given point in it it is required to draw from the point C a straight line at right angles

F

AB
:

\.oAB. Take any point I>

^

.

--^

,,-^

^

^

,^

m

AC, and make

CE equal

to

^ CD.

-^

^

[I. 3,

On

DE describe the equilateral triangle DFE,

[I. 1.

and join CF. The straiglit line CF drawn from the given point be at right angles to the given straight line AB.

C shall

[Construction. Because EC is equal to CE, and CF\^ common to the two triangles DCF, ECF the two sides DC^ CF are ecpial to the two sides EC, CF,
\

each to each and the base

DFh equal to the base EF-,
is

[Definition 24.

therefore the angle DCF

equal to the angle

ECF;

[I. 8.

and they are adjacent angles. But when a straight line, standing on another straight
line,

makes the adjacent angles
is

ctjual to
;

one another, each
[Definition 10.

of the angles

called a right angle

therefore each of the angles

DCF,

ECF is a right angle.
may be shewn

line

Whereforey5'0?M the gicen 2'>oint C in tlie given straight AB, CF has been drawn at right angles to AB. q.e.f.
it

By the help of this problem Corollary. that two straiglit lines cannot have a common segment.
1
'

E

If it be possible, let the two straight lines ABC,

have the segment mon to both of them.

AB
B

ABD
com-

D
draw
is

From

BE

the point at right angles to

AB.
a straight line,

B

C
[Ilnpotlicsis.

Then, because
the angle

ABC

CBE is

equal to the angle

EBA.

[Definition 10.

17 BOOK I. 11, 12. a straight line, [ffijpothe^is. AlsOj because ABD the angle DBE is equal to the angle EBA. Therefore the angle DBE equal to the angle CBE, [Ax.
is is
1.

the less to the greater; which

is

impossible.

[Axiom

9'.

Wherefore
segment.

t2co straight lines

cannot have, a

common

PKOPOSITION

12.

PROBLEM.

To draio a straight line /?^>7?<^w^iV?<for to a gieen straight line of an unlimited length, from a given point
without it. Let ^i? be the given straight line, which may be produced to any length both ways, and let C be the given jwint without it it is required to draw from the point C a straight line perpendicular to AB,
:

on Take any point the other side of AB., and from the centre G, at the distance (7i>, describe the
circle

D

F and
Bisect

EGF^
G.

meeting

AB

at
3.

[Postulate

FG at //,

[I. 10.

and join Off.

The
shall

drawn from the given pomt straight line be perpendicular to the given straight line AB.

CH

C

Join CF, CG.
[Consimction. is equal to HG, Because and HC is common to the two triangles FITC, GHO; the two sides FH, HG are equal to the two sides GH, HG,

FH
;

each to each [Pcfinkion 15. and the base GF is equal to the base GG [1. 8. is equal to the angle therefore the angle and they are adjacent angles. But when a straight line, standing on another straight lino, makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of the angles is called a right angle, and the straight line which stands on the other is called a perpendicular to it. [D^f. 10.
;

GHF

GHG

\

Wherefore a perpendicular
the given straight line

AB from

GH

has been drawn

to

the given point

G

icith-

OUt

it.

Q.E.F.

;

18

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
13.

THEOREM.

The angles which one straight line makes with another straight line on one side of it, either are two right angles, or are together equal to two right angles.
Let the straight

CD, on one
are two
angles.

make with the straight line line : these either side of it, the angles CBA, right angles, or are together equal to two right

AB

ABD

D
For
of tliem
if
is

B
the angle CBA a right angle.
is

D

B

equal to the angle

ABD,

each

[Definition 10.

But

if not,

from the point

B draw BE

at right angles to
[I. 11.

CDtherefore the angles

Now the angle

CBE, EBD are two right angles. [Dr/lO. CBE is equal to the two angles CBA, ABE;
add the angle

to each of these equals

EBD

;

therefore the angles CBE, angles CBA, ABE, EBD.

EBD

are equal to the three [Axiom 2.

Again, the angle

EBA;

DBA

is

equal to the two angles

DBE,

to each of these equals

add the angle

ABC;
2.

therefore the angles angles DBE, EBA,

But the angles CBE, to the same three angles.
Therefore the angles

ABC [Axiom EBD have been shewn to be equal
1.

DBA, ABC

are equal to the three

CBE, EBD are equal to the angles ABC [Axiom But CBE, EBD are two right angles therefore DBA, ABC are together equal to two right

DBA,

angles.

AVherefore,

t/ie

angles &c.

q.e.d.

BOOK L
PROPOSITION
14.

14, 15.

19

THEOREM.

Tj\ at a point in a straight line, ttco other straight lines, on the opposite sides of it, make the adjacent angles together equal to two right angles, these two straight lines shall he in one and the same straight line.

At the point straight lines BC,
the adjacent right angles
:

BD shall be in the same straight line with CB.
_/V.

in the straight line AB, let the two BD, on the opposite sides of AB, make angles ABC, ABD together equal to two

B

For if BD be not in the same straight line with CB, let BE be in the same
straight line with
it.

/

/

Then because the straight line AB makes with the
straight line CBE, on one side of it, the angles ABC, (3 ABE, these angles are together equal to two right angles.
_

B*''^'

D
[I. 13.

But the angles ABC,
right angles.

ABD are also
ABC,

together equal to two
[Hypothesis.

Therefore the angles

ABE

are equal to the angles

ABC, ABD.

ABC, and

of these equals take away the common angle is equal to the remainthe remaining angle {Axiom 3. ing angle ABD,

From each

ABE

the less to the greater

;

which
it

is

impossible.

Therefore

BE

is

not in the same straight line >vith CB.

And

in the

same manner

may be

she^^^l that

can be in the same straight line with
therefore

it

but

BD

no other

;

is in the same straight line with CB. Wherefore, if at a point &c. q.e.d.

BD

PROPOSITION

15.

THEOREM.

If ttco straight lines cut one another, the vertical, or opposite, angles shall be equal,

2—2

;

20

EUCLUJiS ELEMENTS.
AB,

Let the two straight lines the point i5J; the angle DEB, and the angle ED. to the angle

CEB

AEG

CD

shall

cut one another at be equal to the angle

A

Because the straight line

yl^ makes with the straight
line

A

E\^

13

the angles CEA, S -4jE'Z>,these angles are together equal to two right angles. [I. 1.3, Again, because the straight line makes with tiie straight the angles AED, DEB, these also are together line equal to two right angles. [1. 13. But the angles CEA, have been shewn to be together equal to two right angles. Therefore the angles CEA, are equal to the angles

CD

\

AB

DE

AED

AED

AED, DEB.
From

AED,

each of these equals take away the common angle and the remaining angle CEA is equal to the remaining angle DEB. [Axiom 3. In the same manner it may be shewn that the angle CEB is equal to the angle AED. Wherefore, if two straight lines &c. q.e.d.
1. From this it is manifest that, if two straight one another, the angles Avhich they make at the point where they cut, are together equal to four right angles.

Corollary

lines cut

Corollary

2.

And

consequently, that
lines

all

the angles made

by any number of straight

meeting at one point, are

together equal to four right angles.

PROPOSITION

16.

THEOREM.

If one side of a triangle be j^rodiiced, the exterior angle shall he greater than either of the interior oj)posite angles.
Let ABC be a triangle, and let one side the exterior angle A CD shall be duced to

D

BC be
gi'cater

pro-

:

than
10.

cither of the interior opposite angles

CBA, BAC.
[1.

Bisect
join

AC ^t E,
it

BE and produce

to F,

making

EF equal to EB,

[I. 3.

and join EC. Because is equal to EG, and to EF [Comtr. the two sides AE, EB are equal to the two sides CE, EF^

^^

BE

;

each to each

;

BOOK I.
and tho angle
because they are opposite vertical angles [I. 15.
is

16, 17.

21

AEB is equal to the angle AEB

CEF^
^

therefore the triangle equal to the triangle CEF^ and the remaining angles to the remaining angles, each to eacli, to Avhich tlie equal sides are opposite [I. 4,
;

/

/
//'
jj-

y

y^Y'
\ \

/
\
\

/
jj

therefore the angle equal to the angle EOF.

BAE

is

But the angle EGD is greater

\

G\ than the angle EOF. [.1 xiom 9. Therefore the angle xiCD is greater than the angle BAE. In the same manner if ^6' be bisected, and the side ylC be produced to G, it may be she^vn that the angle BCG^ that is the angle ACD, is greater than the angle ABC. [1. 15.

Wherefore, if one side &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

17.

THEOREM.
less

Any ttco angles
right angles.

of a triangle are together
:

than two

be a triangle any two of its angles are Let together less than two right angles.

ABC

Produce

i?(7 to

D.

Then because

A CD is the exte[I. 10.

rior angle of the triangle ABC, it is greater than the interior opposite

angle

ABC

To each of these add tlie angle^I CB
Therefore the angles ACD, are greater than the angles ABC, ACB. are together equal to two right But the angles ACD,

ACB

ACB

angles.

[I. 13.

Therefore the angles

ABC,

ACB

are together less than

two

riglit angles.

BAC, ACB,
less tlian

In the same manner it may be shewn that the angles as also the angles CAB, ABC, are together

two right angles.
q.e.d.

AVlierefore, a)ig tico angles &c.

; ;

22

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
18.

THEOREM.

The greater side of every triangle has the greater angle opposite to it.
Let
than the side angle ACB.

ABC he a triangle, of which the side ACh greater AB the angle ABC is also greater than the
:

AB, make AD equal to AB, and join BD.
terior

Because

^C

is

greater than
[I. 3.

Then, because -<4i>-5 is the exaii^'^lo of the triangle BDC, it is greater than the interior opposite angle DCB. [I. 16.

But the angle

ADB
^Z>

is is

equal to the angle
equal to the side
is

ABD,

[I. 5.

because the side

AB.

[Comtr.

Therefore the angle

ABD

also greater than the angle

ACB. Much more ACB.

then

is

the angle

ABO

greater than the angle {Axiom 9.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, the greater side &c.

PROPOSITION

19.

THEOREM.

is siibtended by the greater side, or has the greater side opposite to it.

The greater angle of every triangle

Let be a triangle, of which the angle is greater than the angle the side is also greater than the side AB.

ABC

ACB

:

AC

ABC

For if not,
equal to

^^ or less than AB.

A C must be

cither

But
for

AC ia not equal to AB, then the angle ABC would

be equal to the angle -4 (7^; [1.5. but it is not [H/pothesls.
therefore

AC is not equal to AB.
ylCless than
the angle

Neither

is

AB,
would be
less

for then

ACB;
but
it is

ABC

than the angle
[1.18.
[Hypothesis.

not

; ;

BOOK
And
it

I,

19, 20, 21.

23

therefore AG\$, not less than

has been shc>vn that

Therefore AC'\^ greater

AB, AG\% not than AB.

equal to

AB.

Wherefore, the greater angle &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

20.

THEOREM.

Any two sides of the third side.
Let
gi'eater

a triangle are together greater than
:

ABChevi
than the

triangle
tliird

any two sides of

it

are together

side

namely,

BA^

BC
AB.

AC greater
CA

than

;

AC;

and AB, and BC,

BC greater than
greater than

rroducc BA to Z>, making equal to AC, and join BC.

AD

Then, because
the angle

AD

is

equal to

AC,

[Construction.
[I. 5.

ADC

is

equal to the angle

ACD.

BCD is greater than the angle ACD. [Ax. 9. Therefore the angle BCD is greater than the angle BDC. And because the angle BCD of the triangle BCD is
But the angle
greater than
its

angle

BDC, and
is

that the greater angle

is

subtended by the greater side
therefore the side

[I. 19.

BD

greater than the side

BC.

But

BD

is

equal to

BA

and AC.

Therefore

BA,

AC are greater than BC
may be shewn

In the same manner it greater than AC, and BC,

CA

that AB, greater than AB.
q.e.d.

BC

are

Wherefore, any two sides &c.

PROPOSITION

21.

THEOREM.

Iffrom the ends of the side of a triangle there he draicn two straight liiies to a point within the triangle, these shall he less than the other two sides rf the triangle, hut shall contain a greater angle.

:

24

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

be a triangle, and from the points B^ C, Let the ends of the side BC, let the two straight lines BD, CD be drawn to the point witliin the triangle

ABG

BD,
than

BA,
but

D DC shall be less the other two sides AG of the triangle,
greater

shall contain

BDC
angle

an angle than the

BAC.

Produce

BD to meet AC ai E. AE ABE

Because two sides of a triangle are greater than the are of the triangle third side, the two sides Bxi, [I. 20. greater than the side BE.

To each
Again
;

of these

add EC.
greater than

Therefore

BA, ^(7 are

BE, EC.

the two sides CE,
of these

ED
CD.

of the triangle

CED

are

greater than the third side

[I. 20.

To each
But
it

add DB.

Therefore CE,

EB are greater than
BA,
are

CD, DB.

has been shewn that

AC

are gi-eater than

BE, EC', much more then
greater angle

BA, ^(7 greater

than

BD,

DC

Again, because the exterior angle of any triangle is than the interior opposite angle, the exterior is greater than the angle of the triangle

BDC

CDE

CED.

[I-

1<^'-

For the same reason, the exterior angle CEB of the triis greater than the angle BAE. angle is greater than But it has been shewn that the angle the angle CEB greater than the angle much more then is the angle

ABE

BDC

;

BDC

BAC.
Wherefore, iffrom the ends &c.
q.e.d.

BOOK I.
PROPOSITION
22.

22.

2j

PROBLEM.

To make a triangle of which the sides shall be equal to three given straight lines, but any two whatever ojf these 7nust be greater than the third.
Let A, B, Che the three given straight lines, of which any two whatever are greater than the third; namely, and A and greater than C A and C greater than and G greater than A it is required to make a triangle of which the sides shall be equal to A, B, C. each to each.

B

B

;

B

;

:

terminated at the point Z>, but unlimited towards B, and make £>F equal to A, equal to B, and [I. 3. equal to C.

DB

Take a

straight line

X

GH

FG

at

the centre F, the distance FD, describe circle the
{Po&t. 3.

From

DKL.
From

the centre G, at the distance GH, describe the circle HLK, cutting the former circle at K.
Join KF, KG. The triangle shall have equal to the three straight lines A, B, G.

KFG

its

sides

FD is equal to FK But FD is equal to A.
Therefore

Because the point

F

is

the centre of the circle

DKL,

[Dejiniiiun 15.

[Construction.

FK

is eiiual

to yl.

[Axiom
the centre of the circle

1.

Again, because the point is equal to

GH

GK

G

is

HLK,

[Definition 15.
[Constn(ctio)i.

But

GH

is

equal to G.

Therefore

GK

is

equal to G.

[Axiom

1.

And

FG is equal to B.
KF, FG,
hajf

[Construction.

Therefore the three straight lines
to the three

GK are

equal

A, B, G. Wherefore t/ie triangle

KF, FG, A,B,G.

GK equal

KFG

its

to

the three given

three sides straight line.-i

Q.E.F.

26

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
23.

PROBLEM.
a

At a given point

rectilineal aiigle equal to

in a given straight line, to make a given rectilineal angle.

be the given straight line, and Let the given the given rectilineal angle point in it, and it is required to make at the given point ^,in the given straight line AB, an angle equal to the given rectilineal angle

AB

DCE

A

:

DCE.
points

In CD, CE take any D, E, and join DE.

the the triangle sides of which shall be equal to the three straight lines CD, DE, EC', so that io shall be equal to CD, to DE. [I. 22. CE, and

Make

AFG

The angle

EG FAG

^F AG
be

shall

equal to the angle

DCE.
;

AG are equal to DC, CE, each to each, {Construction. EG equal to the base DE therefore the angle FAG is equal to the angle DCE.
Because FA,

and the base

[I. 8.

Wherefore at the given point A in the given straight line AB, the angle has been made equal to the given rectilineal angle DCE. q.e.f.

FAG

PROPOSITION

24.

THEOREM.

If two triangles liave tico sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, hut the angle contained hy the two sides of one of thcni greater than the angle contained hy the two sides equal to them, of the other, the base of that which has the greater angle shall be greater than the base of the other.
bo two triangles, which have the two Let ABC, sides AB, AC, equal to the two sides DE, DF, each to to DF, but the angle io DE, and each, namely,

DEF AB

AC

Z>^ (7 greater than the angle

EDF:

the base

BC

shall

be

BOOK I.
greater than the base

24, 25.

27

EF.
Of the two
sides
is

DE, DF,
At

let

DE be
not

the side which

gi'eater than the other.

the point in the straight line DE, make the angle equal to the angle

D EDG

BAC,

[I. 23.

and make equal to ^C or DF, and join EG, GF. Because is equal to DEj
2ind

DG

[1.3.

AB AC to DG;
;

[ITypothesM.
[Construction.

the two sides each to each

BA^

AC are equal to the two
the angle
to the base

sides

ED, DG,
[Constr.
[I. 4.

and the angle

therefore the base

BACis equal to ^Cis equal

EDG
EG.

;

And

because

DG

is

equal to

DF,

[Con^ruction.

the angle

DGFis

equal to the angle
is

DFG.
EGF.

[I. 5.

But the angle

DGF
is

greater than the angle

[Ax.

9.

Therefore the angle

Much

niore then

EGF. And

is greater than the angle EGF. greater than the angle the angle [Axiom 9.

DFG

EFG

because the angle

EFG

gi'eater than its angle

EGF, and
side,

of the triangle that the greater angle

EFG

is is

subtended by the greater
therefore the side

[I. 19.

EG is greater than
EF.

the side

EF.

But

EG

was shewn to be equal to

BC;
q.e.d.

therefore

BC is greater than

'Wherefore, if two triangles &c.

PROPOSITION
If two
sides of
t/ic

25.

THEOREM.

triangles hare two sides rf the one equal to two other, each to each, but the base of the o7i«

;

28

EUCLIirS ELEMENTS.

greater than the base of the other, the angle contained by the sides of that which has the greater base, shall be greater than the angle contained by the sides equal to them, of the other. be two triangles, which have the two Let ABC, equal to the two sides DE, DF, each to sides AB, to DF, but the base to DE, and each, namely, shall greater than the base EF\ the angle than the angle be greater

AG AB

DEF

AC

BC

BAG

EDF.
For
if not,

the angle

^^Cmust be either equal
to the angle

EDF or less
EDF.

than the angle

BAG \& not equal to the angle EDF, for then the base BG
But the angle
would be equal to the base
but
it is

EF;
EDF,
;

[!• 4.

not; the angle

[Hypothesis.

therefore the angle

BAG is not equal to the angle EDF.
BAGle^s
than the angle
[1. 24.

Neither
for

is

then the base
it is

^C would be less than the base EF
BAGis

but

not

{Hypothesis.

not less than the angle EDF. is not equal that the angle And it has been shoAvn to the angle EDF. is greater than the angle EDF. Therefore the angle
therefore the angle

BAG

BAG

Wherefore, if

tico tria)igles &c.

q.e.d.

PKOPOSITIOX

26.

THEOREM.

If two ij'iangles have two angles of the one equal to two angles cf the other, each to each, and one side equal to one side, namely, either the sides adjacent to the equal angles, or sides which are ojjj^osite to equal angles in each, then shall the other sides be equal, each to each, and also the third angle of the one equal to the third angle of the
other.

Let
angles

ABC,

DEF

be two

triangles,

which have the
each

ABC, BCA

equal to

tiie

angles

DEF, EFD,

;

BOOK
to
ciicli,

I.

2G.

2\)

AC

to and to JET/'Z) and also one side equal to one side and first let those sides be equal which are adjacent to the equal angles to in the two triangles, namely, the other sides shall be equal, each to each, namely, to DE, and to DF, and the third angle equal to the
iiaiiicly,
;

ADC

DEF,

BOA

let

them have

;

BC

EF:

AB

BAC
if

A

third angle

EDF.

For

AB

"

N

bo not

equal to DE, one of them must be greater than the
other. Let greater, and equal to DE,

AB

be the

make

BG
[I. 3.

and join

GC GB is equal
to £>E,

Then because
and

[Constmction.
VlypotTiesis.

BC to EF
;

;

the two sides each to each

GB,

BC are equal to tlie two sides DE, EF^
\

and the angle

therefore the triangle is equal to the triangle DEF, and the other angles to the other angles, each to each, to which the equal sides are opposite [I. 4.
;

GBC is equal to the angle BEF GBC
GCB is
GCB is
;

[Hypotliesis,

therefore the angle

equal to the angle

DFE.
ACB, [Ax. 1.

But the angle

DFE is equal to the angle ACB. [HypotTiesis.
equal to the angle
is

Therefore the angle

the less to the greater

which

impossible.

Therefore
that

AB \% not unequal to DE,
equal to
it

is, it is

and BCis, equal to

EF;
AB,
;

[IL/potJicsis.

therefore the two sides DE, EF, each to each

BC

arc equal to the two sides

and the angle

therefore the base \s equal to the base third angle to the third angle EDF.

ABC is equal to the angle DEF; [Hypothms. AC DF, and the BAC
[I. 4.

10

EUCLID'^ ELEMENTS.

Next, let sides which are opposite to equal angles in" each triangle be equal to one another, namely, to likewise in this case the other sides shall be equal, to EF, and each to each, namely, to DF, and also the third angle J5^C equal to the third angle EDF.

DE

AB

:

BG

AC

For
equal to

if

BC

be not

EF, one of them

must be greater than
the other.

Let BG be the greater, and make equal to

BH

EF,
and join ^i7. Then because and AB to the two sides AB,

[I. 3.

^

^
EF,

C
[Construction.
[ffypothesis.

BH

is

equal to

DE
;

;

BHare
is

equal to the two sides Z>^,

EF,

each to each

and the angle A

BH

equal to the angle Z>^i^ ^Hypothesis.
;

is equal to the triangle DEF, therefore the triangle and the other angles to the other angles, each to each, to {I. 4. which the equal sides are opposite
;

ABH

BHA is equal to the angle EFD. But the angle EFD equal to the angle BGA. [Hypothesis. Therefore the angle BHA is equal to the angle BGA;[Ax.l. the exterior angle BHA of the triangle AHG is that
therefore the angle
is
is,

equal to

its

interior opposite angle

BGA

;

which

is

impossible.

[!• 16.

Therefore
that

BG is not unequal to EF^
equal to
it
j

is, it is

and

AB\s

equal to

DE
;

;

[Hypothesis.

therefore the two sides

AB,

BG are equal to the two sides

DE, EF,

each to each

and the angle

ia equal to the base therefore the base to the third angle EDF, third angle

ABG is equal to the angle DEF; [Hypothesis, DF, and the AG 4. BAG
[I.

"Wherefore, iftico triangles &c.

q.e.d.

BOOK I.
PROPOSITION
make
27.

27, 28.

31

THEOREM.

ff a straight line falling on two otJier straight lines, the alternate angles equal to one another, the two straight lines shall he parallel to one another.

Let the straight
lines

line

AB^ CD, make
:

equal to one another

AB shall be parallel to

EF, which falls on the two straight the alternate angles AEF,

EFD

CD.

either towards B,

AB and CD, being produced, will meet D or towards A, C. Let them be produced and meet towards B, D at the point O.
For
if

not,

B D

is

is a triangle, and its exterior angle Therefore [1. 16, greater than the interior opposite angle [Hyp. is also equal to the angle But the angle ;

GEF

AEF

EFG EFG
;

AEF

which

is

impossible.

and CD being produced, do not meet toTherefore wards B, D. In the same manner, it may be shewn that they do not meet towards A, C. But those straight lines which being produced ever so far [Definition 35. both ways do not meet, are parallel.
Therefore

AB

^^

is

parallel to

CD.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

PROPOSITION
If a straight

28.

THEOREM.

line falling oii tico other straight lines, the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle on the same side of the line, or make the interior angles on the same side together equal to two right angles, the tico straight lines shall be 2)(fi'<^l^cl to one another.

make

;;

32

EUCLID'S ELEMEjSTi:^.

Let the straight lino EF, which falls on the two straight lines AB, CD, make the exterior angle on the same equal to the interior and opposite angle side, or make the interior angles on the same side shall be together equal to two right angles parallel to CD.

GHD

EGB GHD BGH, AB
:

Because the angle equal to the angle GHD,
to the angle

EGB

is

\_Hyp.

and the angle -E'(x^ is also equal

^G^^,

[1.15.

therefore the angle equal to the angle

GHD;

AGH

is

{Ax.l.

and they are alternate angles
therefore

AB

is

parallel

to
[I. 27.

CD.

are together Again; because the angles BGH, {Hijpothesis. equal to two right angles, and the angles A GH, are also together equal to two

GHD

BGH

right angles,

[1. 13.

therefore the angles

AGH,

BGH are

equal to the angles

BGH, GHD.
Take away the common angle
therefore the remaining angle yl(rZr is equal to the remaining angle GHD', {Axiom 3.
;

BGH

and they are alternate angles
therefore

A Bis parallel to

CD.
q.e.d.

[I. 27.

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

PROPOSITION
it

29.

THEOREM.

If a straight line fall on tico j(?«ra//(?^ straight lines, makes the alternate angles equal to one another, and the exterior angle equal to the interior and opposite angle on the same side; and also the two interior angles on the same side together equal to two right angles.
fall on the two parallel Let the straight line straight lines AB, the alternate angles shall be equal to one another, and the exterior angle shall be equal to the interior and opposite angle

EF

CD

:

AGH, GHD

EGB

BOOK I.
right angles.

29.

S3

On the same side, GHD, and the two interior angles on the same side, BGII, GIID, shall bo together equal to two

For if the angle not equal to the angle
;

AGH

bo

GIID,

A

one of them must be greater than the other let the angle Gil be the greater.

Then the angle than the angle
to each of

A Gil is greater
GIID
;

them add the angle

BGH',
therefore the angles angles BGH, GIID.

AGH,

BGH

are greater than the

But the angles right angles
;

AGH,

BGH are
GHD

together equal to two
[I. 13.

therefore the angles two right angles.

BGH,

are together less than

a straight line meet two straight lines, so as to the two interior angles on the same side of it, taken together, less than two right angles, these straight lines being continually produced, shall at length meet on that side on which are the angles which are less than two right angles. [Axiom 12.
if

But

make

Therefore the straight lines duced, will meet.

AB, CD,

if

continually pro-

But they never meet,
Therefore the angle
;

since they are parallel
is

by hypothesis.
angle
[I. 15.
1.

AGH not unequal to the GIID that equal to But the angle AGH equal to the angle EGB.
is, it is
it.

is

Therefore the angle

EGB is equal to the angle GHD. [Ax.
BGH.
EGB,

Add

to each of these the angle

Therefore the angles

BGH are equal
are

to the angles

BGH,

GIID.

[Axiom

2.

But the angles
right angles.

EGB,

BGH

together equal to two
[I. 13.

Therefore the angles

BGH,

GHD

arc together equal to

two right angles. Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

[Axiom
<^.^.i)*

1.

;

34

EUGLIUS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
30.

THEOREM.
to the

Straight

lijies

which arc parallel

same straight

line are parallel to each other.

shall

GHK Then, because GHK cuts the parallel straight lines AB, EF, the angle AGH equal 29. to the angle GHF. Again, because GK cuts
cut

Let AB, CD be each of them be parallel to CD. Let the straight line

parallel to

EF\

AB

AB, EF, CD.

is

[I.

the parallel straight lines EF, is equal CD, the angle [I. 29. to the angle GKD,

GHF

And
angle

it

AGK

was shewn that the
is

^

equal to the angle

GHF.
;

Therefore the angle
therefore

A GK is equal to the angle GKD
CD.
q.e.d.

[Ax.

1.

and they are alternate angles

AB i^ parallel to

[T. 27.

Wherefore, straight lines &c.

PROPOSITION
to

31.

PROBLEM.

To draw a straight line through a given point paralUl a given straight line.
Let

A
is

line

:

it

point

In
2),

A parallel to the straight line BG take any point

be the given point, and BG the given straiglit required to draw a straight line through the

BC*

and join

point
line

A

AD
the

\

in

at the straight

DAE

AD, make

the angle equal to the angle

ADC',

[L23.

and produce the straight line EF%\\'dS\ be parallel to BC.

EA

to F.

;

BOOK I.
ADC EF is parallel to BG,
gii'en

31, 32.

35

Because the straight line AD^ which meets the two straight lines BC^ EF^ makes the alternate angles BAD, \Comiruciion. equal to one another,
[I. 27.

is Wherefore the straight line point A, parallel to the given straight line BC.

EAF

drawn through the
q.e.f.

PROPOSITION
If a
side

32.

THEOREM.

of any triangle he ijroduced, the exterior to the two interior and opposite angles and the three interior angles of every triangle are together equal to two right angles.
angle
is

equal

be a triangle, and let one of its sides BG Let the exterior angle A CD shall be equal be produced to and to the two interior and opposite ^n^GsCAB,

ABC

D

:

ABC
*

;

the three interior angles of the triangle, namely, shall be equal to two right angles. BOA,

ABC,

CAB

Through the point (7draw [1.31. (7^ parallel to ^i?. Then, because A Bis parallel to

^i
^* *
^

//

"^

i

^

^-^

CE, and

AC

falls

on

them, the alternate angles

BAC,

ACE are equal. Again, because AB is
But the angle

B
CE, and

CD
^
[I.

29.

parallel to

them, the exterior angle opposite angle ABC.

ECD is equal
to

BD

falls

on

to the interior

and

[I. 29.

ACE

was shewn

be equal to the angle

BAC;
therefore the whole exterior angle two interior and opposite angles CAB,

ACD

is

ABC.

equal to the [Axiom 2.
;

To each

of these equals

add the angle

ACB

therefore the angles ACD, angles CBA, BAC, ACB.

ACB

are equal to the three [Axiom 2.
[I. 13.

But the angles angles
;

ACD, ACB

are together equal to two right

therefore also the angles equal to two right angles.

CBA, BAC,

ACB

are together [Axiom 1.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if a side of any triangle &c.

3—2

36

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

Corollary 1. All the interior angles of any rectilineal figure, together with four right angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides.
can be divided into For any rectilineal figure as many triangles as the figure has sides, by drawing straight lines from a point mtliin the figure to each of

ABODE

F

its angles.

the preceding proposition, the angles of these triangles are equal to twice as many right angles as there are triangles, that is, as the figure has sides.
all

And by

And the same angles are equal to the interior angles of the figure, together with the angles at the point F, which is the common vertex of the triangles,
that
is,

together with four right angles.

[I.

15. Corollary 2.

Therefore all the interior angles of the figure, together with four right angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides.

Corollary 2. All the exterior angles of any rectilineal figure are together equal tofmr right angles.
Because every interior angle

ABC,
angle

with

its

ABD,
;

is

adjacent exterior equal to two
[I. 13.

right angles

therefore all the interior angles of the figure, together with all its exterior angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as

the figure has sides.
But, by the foregoing Corollary all the interior angles of the figure, together with four right angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides.

Therefore
all its

all the interior angles of the figure, together with exterior angles, are equal to all the interior angles of the figure, together with four right angles.

Therefore
angles.

all

the exterior angles are equal to four right

;

BOOK

I.

33, 34.

37

PEOPOSITION

33.

THEOREM.

The straight lines which join the extremities of two equal and parallel straight lines totcards the same jmrts^ are also themselves equal and parallel.
and CD bo equal and parallel straight lines, Let and let them be joined towards the srno parts by the AC and shall be equal straight lines AC and and parallel.

AD

BD

:

BV

BC. Then because allel to CD,
Join

AB

h

par-

and
the

BC

[Hypothcm. meets them,

BCD
And
and

alternate angles are equal.

ABC,
[I. 29.

because

AB
AB,

is

equal to
to the

CD,

[Hypothesis,
;

BC

is

common

the two sides each to each

BC

two triangles ABC, DCB are equal to the two sides DC, CB,

and the angle

ABC was

shewn to be equal to the angle

BCD;
is equal to the base BD, and the therefore the base triangle to the triangle BCD, and the other angles to the other angles, each to each, to which the equal sides [I. 4. are opposite

ABC
;

AC

ACB is equal to the angle CBD. And because the straight line BC meets the two straight lines AC, BD, and makes the alternate angles ACB, CBD [I. 27. equal to one another, AC is parallel to BD,
therefore the angle

And

it

was shewn

to be equal to

it.

"Wherefore, the straight lines &c.

q.e.d.

PEOPOSITION U.
ojjposite sides

THEOREM.

The and angles of a parallelogram are equal to one another, and the diameter bisects the parallelogram, that is, divides it into two equal parts.
Note. parallelogram is a four- sided figure of which the opposite sides are parallel ; and a diameter ia the straight line joining two of its opposite angles.

A

;

38
Let diameter
sect
it.

EUCLID'^ ELEMENTS.

is -a be a parallelogram, of which the opposite sides and angles of the figure shall shall bibe equal to one another, and the diameter
;

AGDB

BC

BG

Because
to

CD, and

AB is parallel BG meets them,
[I. 29.

the alternate angles ABG, are equal to one an-

BGD

other.

And because AG i% parallel to BD, and BG meets them, the alternate angles AGB,
another.

GBD

are

equal

to

one

[I. 29.

Therefore the two triangles ABG, have two angles in the one, equal to two angles DGB, in the other, each to each, and one side is common to the two triangles, which is adjacent to their equal angles;

BGD
BG

ABG, BGA

GBD

therefore their other sides are equal, each to each, and the third angle of the one to the third angle of the other, equal to the side GD, and the side namely, the side equal to the side BD, and the angle equal to the angle GDB. . [1. 26.

AG

AB

BAG

And

because the angle

ABG is equal to the angle BGD,

and the angle GBD to the angle AGB, is equal to the whole angle A GD. \A x. 2. the whole angle BAG has been shewn to be equal to the And the angle

ABD

angle

GDB.

Therefore the opposite sides and angles of a ixirallelogram are equal to one another.

For

Also the diameter bisects the parallelogram. being equal to GD, and common,

AB

BG

the two each to each
angle

sides

AB,

BG

are equal to

tlie

two sides DG,

GB

and the angle xiBG has been shewn to be equal to the

BGD

;

therefore ihcirismgleABGis equal to the triangle i?CZ>, [1.

4.

and

diameter into two equal parts.
tlie

BG

divides the parallelogram
q.e.d.

AGDB

Wherefore, the op2)osite sides &c.

;

;

BOOK
PROPOSITION

I.

35.

^i)

35.

THEOREM.
and between
the

PayaUelograms on the same base, parallels, are equal to one another.

same

Let the parallelograms ABCD, be on the same base BC, and between the same parallels AF, the parallelogram shall be equal to the parallelogram EBCF.

EBCF
A

ABCD

BC

:

If the sides

AD,

DF

of

B

T

parallelograms ABCD, DBCF, opposite to the base BC, be terminated at the same point D, it is plain that each of the parallelograms is double of the triangle BDC;

the

B

C
[I. 34.

[Axiom 6. and they are therefore equal to one another, But if the sides AD, EF, opposite to the base BC
of the parallelo-

grams

be not terminated at the same point, because then,

EBCF

ABCD,

ABCD
for the

is

a par-

allelogram

AD

is

equal to

BC
to

[I. o\.

same reason

therefore

^Z>

is

EFis equal equal to EF]

BC

',

[Axiom

1.

therefore the whole, or the remainder, whole, or the remainder, DF.

AE

is

equal to the [Axioms 2, 3.
[I. 34.

And
FD,

AB

is

equal to Z>6'
sides
;

;

therefore the two

EA,

DC each to each
EAB
;

AB
is

are equal to the

two sides

and the exterior angle opposite angle
therefore the
triangle

FDC

equal to the interior and
[I. 20.

EAB

is

equal to the

FDC.

triangle [1.4.

Take the triangle FDC from the trapezium ABCF, and from the same trapezium take the triangle EAB, and the remainders are equal [Axiom 3.
that is, the parallelogram gi-am EBCF.

ABCD

is

equal to the parallelo-

^\\Qxc^QYC, parallelograms on the

same

base &c.

q.e.d.

40

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
36.

THEOREM.
and between
the

Parallelograms on equal
2Kirallels,

bases,

same

are equal

to

one another.

Let

ABCD, EFGH

be parallelograms on equal bases
parallels

BG, FG, and between the same
parallelogram

ABCD

AH,

BG

:

the

shall

be equal to the parallelogram

EFGH.
Join
is

BE, CH.

A
\

D

Y.

H
\

Then, because ^(7 equal to FG, {Hyi^.
is

\^\

2iXi^FGioEH,\l.Zi.

BG

equal

to

F C B G \^Axiom\. EH', [Hi/jwthesie. and they are parallels, and joined towards the same parts by the straight lines BE, CH. But straight lines Avhich join the extremities of equal and parallel straight lines towards the same parts are them[I. 33. selves equal and parallel. Therefore BE, CH are both equal and parallel.
Therefore

And

it is

EBCHis a parallelogram. equal to ABCD, because they are

[Definition.

on the same
[I.

base BG, and between the same parallels\5(7,.4Zr.
to

35.

For the same reason the parallelogram the same EBGH

EFGH

is

equal

Therefore the parallelogram
allelogi-am

ABCD

is

EFGH.
PROPOSITION
37.

equal to the par[Axiom 1.

Wherefore, parallelograms &c.

q.e.d.

THEOREM.
beticeen the

Triangles on the same base, allels, are equal.

and

same

2iar-

DBG be on
parallels

Let the triangles ABC, the same base BG, and between the same

AD,BG: the trishall be equal angle to the triangle DBG.

ABC

Produce

to the points E,

AD both ways F [Post.
;'

2.

BOOK
B

I.

37, 38.

41

parallel to CJ, and through G draw draw through C/^ parallel to ^Z>. [1.31. Then each of the figures EBGA, is a parallelo.

BE

DBCF

gram
and

;

[Dejinition.

EBCA is equal to DBCF, because they arc on the same [I. 35. base BC, and between the same parallels BC, EF.
And the triangle yl^Cishalf of the parallelogram EBCA, because the diameter J jB bisects the parallelogram; [I. 34.
and the
triangle

because the chametcr

DBC is half of the parallelogram DBCF, DC bisects the parallelogram. 34.
[I.

But the halves

of equal things are equal.

{Axiom

7.

Therefore the triangle

ABC

is

equal to the triangle

DBG,

AVherefore, triangles &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
allels,

38.

THEOREM.

Triangles on equal bases, and hetwcen the same parare equal to one another.

Let the triangles

ABC,

DEF

EF, and between

ABC

the same parallels ^i^, shall be equal to the triangle DEF,
^^

be on equal bases BG, the triangle

AD

:

Produce x4i> both ways to the points Cr,H; through B draw BG parallel to GA, and
through
draAv parallclto7:;i>.[I.31.

^

^

H

F

FH
is

Then each
figures

of the

GBGA,

DEF11

a parallelogram.

[Dcfiiiition.

And
equal

they are equal to one another because they are on bases BG, EF, and between the same parallels
[1. 36.

BF, GH.

And

the triangle

ABC is half of the parallelogram GBGA,
;

because the diameter u4i? bisects the parallelogram [I. 34. is half of the parallelogram DEFH, and the triangle bisects the parallelogram. because the diameter {Axiom 7. But the halves of equal things are equal.

DEF DF

Therefore the triangle

ABC is equal to the triangle DEF.
q.e.d.

"Wherefore, triangles &c.

42

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PEOPOSITION
39.

THEOREM.
the

Equal
side of

it,

triangles on the are between the

same base, and on same parallels.

same

Let the equal triangles ABC, base BC, and on the same side of tween the same parallels.
Join

DBC
it
:

be on the same they shall be be-

AD.
if it is

AD shall be parallel to BC
AE
For
parallel

not, through to BC, meeting

A

draw

BD

at E.

[I. 31.

and join

^(7.

B

C

equal to the triangle EBC, because they are on the same base BC, and between the

Then the

triangle

ABC

is

same parallels BC, AE. But the triangle ABCis equal to the
Therefore also the triangle

[I. 37.

triangle i)^(7. [ffyp.

DBC
is

is

EBC,
the greater to the less
;

equal to the triangle [Axiom 1.

which

impossible.

Therefore

AE

is

not parallel to BC.

straight line through

In the same manner it can be shewn, that no other but is parallel to

A

therefore

AD

is

parallel to

AD BC

BC

;

Wherefore, equal triangles &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
Equal

40.

THEOREM.

and on

triangles, on equal bases, in the same straight line, the same side of it, arebelii'cen the same parallels.

BC, EF,
Join

be on equal bases Let the equal triangles ABC, in the same straiglit line BF, and on the same side of it they shall be between the same parallels.
:

DEF

AD.

^2) shall be parallel to BF.
For if it is not, through A draw AG parallel to BF,
meeting at and join GF.

ED

G

[I. 31.

_\.

;

BOOK I.
Then
tlie

40, 41.

4.S

triangle

ABC is equal to the triangle

GEF,
])ctwcen
[I. 38.

because they are on equal bases BC,
the same parallels.

EF, and

But the

triangle

Therefore also

tiie

ABC is equal to the triangle DEF. [IL/p. triangle DEF is equal to the triangle
[Axiom
;

GEF,
the greater to the less

].

which

is

impossil^le.

Therefore

AG

is

not parallel to

BF.

straight line through

In the same manner it can be shewn that no other A but ^i> is parallel to

BF

therefore

AD

is

parallel to

BF.
Q.e.d.

Wherefore, equal triangles &c.

PEOPOSITION

41.

THEOREM.

If a parallelogram and a triangle he on the same base and between the same parallels, the parallelogram shall be
double of the triangle.

and the triangle Let the parallelo^am be on the same base BC, and between the same parallels the parallelogram shall be double of the BC,

AE

:

ABCD ABCD

EBC

triangle

EEC.

Join
Tlien

A C.

A

the triangle is ecpial to the triangle EBCy because they are on the same base BC, and between the same
parallels i?(7,yl^.
[I. 37.

ABC

\~
\

U

K

^

\/

\ \

But the parallelogram
is

ABCD

V Nj B

/ /(

C

double of the triangle ABC, because the diameter yl (7 bisects the parallelogram.
Therefore the i^arallelogram
triangle

[!. 34.

ABCD

is

also double of the

EBC.
paralldogram &c.
q.k.d.

Vrhcrcfore, if a

;

44

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPCSITION
42.

PROBLEM.
to

To

describe a imrallelogram that shall he equal

a

given triangle,

and have one of its

angles equal to a given

rectilineal angle.

lineal angle

and the given rectirequired to describe a parallelogram that shall be equal to the given triangle ABC, and have one of its angles equal to D.
Let
:

ABC hQ the given triangle,
it is

D

Bisecti?(7at^:[1.10.
join

AE, and

at the point

E, in the straight line EC, make the angle C^i^ equal [1.23. ioD-y

through

A
CG

draw

AFG
[I. 31.

parallel to EC, and through parallel to draw

G

EF.
Therefore

FECG is a parallelogram.
BE, EC, and between

[Definition.

BE is equal to EC, [Construction. the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle AEC, because
And, because
they are on equal bases
parallels

the same
[I.

BC, AG.

38.

Therefore the triangle

ABC is double of the triangle ^jE'(7.
[I. 41.

But the parallelogram

AEC,

FECG is also double of the triangle because they are on the same base EC, and between
EC. AG.

the same parallels

Therefore the parallelogram

ABC
and D.
it

FECG is equal to the triangle
[Axiom
6.

has one of

its

angles

CEF

equal to the given angle
[Construction.

"Wherefore a parallelogra77i FECG has been described equal to the given triangle ABC, and having one of its angles CEF equal to the given angle D. q.e.f.

BOOK I,
PROPOSITION

43, 44.

45

43.

THEOREM.

tJie

The comjjlemcnts of the parallelograms which are ahout diameter of any parallelogram^ are equal to one

another.

Let A BCD be a parallelogram, of which the diameter isylC; and EH, G^i'^ i)arallelograms about AC, that is, through which A C passes and BK, the otI>er parallelograms which make up the whole figure A BCD, and which are therefore called the complements the compleshall be equal to the complement KD. ment Because ABCD is a parallelogram, and AC its
;

KD

BK

:

is

diameter, the triangle the triangle equal to

ABC

ADC.

[I. 34.

is Again, because a parallelogram, and its diameter, the triangle is equal to the triangle

AEKH

AK
triangle

AEK

AHK.
triangle

[I. 34.

For the same reason the

KFC
KGC

KGC

is

equal to the

is e(iual to the triTherefore, because the triangle angle AHK, and the triangle to the triangle is equal the triangle -4 jEJA" together with the triangle to the triangle yl//^ together with the triangle KFC. \_Ax.2.

AEK

KGC

KFC

;

But the whole triangle whole triangle ADC.

ABC was shewn to be equal to the
BK,
is

Therefore the remainder, the complement the remainder, the complement KD.
^Vhercfore, the complements &c.
q.e.d.

equal to [Axiom 3.

PROPOSITION

44.

PHOBLEM.

Yo a giveri straight line to apply a parallelogram, ichich shall he equal to a given triangle, and hare one of its angles equal to a given rectilineal angU.

46
Let

EUCLID'^ ELEMENTS.

AB

he the given straight

line,

and
:

the given rectilineal angle it is required triangle, and a parallelogram equal to to apply to the straight line the triangle C, and having an angle equal to D.

D

C

the given

AB

and having the angle EBG equal to the angle D, that BE may be in the same straight line with AB [1.
C,
j

Make

the parallelogi-am

BEFG

equal to the triangle
so
42.

produce
through

FG to H; A draw AH parallel to BG or EF,
HB.
the angles
angles.

[I. 31.

and join

Then, because the straight line

AH, EF,
two right two right

AHF,
BHF,

HFE

HF

falls on the parallels are together equal to
[I. 29.

Therefore the angles
angles.

HFE

are together less than

But straight lines Avhich with another straight line make the interior angles on the same side togetlier less than two right angles will meet on that side, if produced far enough, [^Ax. 12.
Therefore
let

HB and FE will meet
parallel to

if

produced
or

;

and produce HA, GB to the points L, M. is a parallelogram, of which the diameter Then are parallelograms about HK; and is HK; and AG,

them meet at K. draw KL Through

K

EA

FH

;

[I. 31.

HLKF
LB is

LB,
But

BF are the complements.
equal to

ME

Therefore Therefore

BF,

[I. 43.

BF is equal to the triangle C.
LB is equal to the triangle G

[Construction.

[Axiom

1.

BOOK

I.

44, 45.

47

And because tlic angle GBE is equal to the angle A BM, [1.15.
and likcmse to the angle the angle x\.BM\& equal to the angle D.
;

D

[Construction.

[Axiom

1.

the parallelo"Wherefore to the given straight line A gram is applied^ equal to the triangle C, and having equal to the angle D. q.e.f. the angle

B

LB

ABM

PROPOSITION
figure, angle.

45.

PROBLEM.
rectilineal rectilineal

To describe a parallelogram equal to a given and having an angle equal to a given

the be the given rectilineal figure, and Let given rectilineal angle: it is required to describe a parallelogram equal to ABCD, and having an angle equal to E.

ABCD

E

H
Join

Af

DB, and
;

the triangle angle

ADB,

describe the parallelogram and haviug the angle

FKH equal to the
[1. 42.

FLI

equal to

E

and

apply the parallelogram to the straight line equal to the triangle DBC, and having the angle [I. 44. equal to the angle E.
figure

GH

GM GHM

The

FKML shall be the parallelogram required.
E is equal to each of the angles FKH,
[Construction.

Because the angle

GHM,
the angle

FKH'\^

equal to the angle

GHM.

[Axiom
;

1.

Add

to

each of these equals the angle

KHG

therefore the angles

FKH, KHG are equal to the angles [Axiom 1. KHG, GLIM. But FKH, KHG are together equal to two right angles [1.29.
;

therefore A' ^(T,GZrJ/arc together equal to two right angles.

48

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

A

,

D

r

in the straight line GH, the because at the point two straight lines KH, HM, on the opposite sides of it, make the adjacent angles together equal to two right angles,

And

Be H
same straight

K

KH

is

in the

line

with

H3L
meets the

[I. 14.

And Add

KM, FG,

because the straight line the alternate angles MHG,

HG

parallels

HGFare equal. [1. 29.

to each of these equals the angle

HGL

;

therefore the angles

MHG, HGL,

HGF, HGL.

are equal to the angles [Axiom 2.
;

But MHG, HGL are together equal to two right angles [ 1. 29. therefore /r(?i^, HGL are together equal to two right angles. Therefore FG is in the same straight line with GL. [I. 14. And because KFi?> parallel to HG, and HG to ML,[ConsU\

KF
and

is

parallel to

3IL

;

[I. 30.
;

KM, FL

are parallels

[Construction.
[Definition.

therefore

KFL3Iis

a parallelogram.

And

because the triangle

ABD

is

equal to the parallelo[Construction.

gram HF,

and the triangle [Constr. to the parallelogram G3f the whole rectilineal figure ABCD is equal to the whole
;

DBG

parallelogram

KFLM.

[Axiom

2.

Wherefore, the parallelogram has heen described equal to the giren rectilineal figure ABCD, and having the angle equal to the given angle E. q.e.f.

KFLM

FKM

this it is manifest, how to a given straight line, to apply a parallelogram, which shall have an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle, and shall be equal to a given rectilineal figure namely, by applying to the given straight line a parallelogram equal to the first triangle and having an angle equal to the given angle ; [I. 44. and so on.

Corollary.

From

;

ABD,

;

BOOK I.
PROPOSITION
4G.

4G.

49

PROBLEM.
line.

To describe a square on a given straight
Let be the given straiglit line describe a square on AB.

AB

:

it is

required to

From
and make
through
;

tlic i)oint

A

draw
;

AC
[1. 3.

at right angles to

AB;

[1. 11.

AD equal to ^jS D draw DE parallel to AB and through B draw BE
parallel to

AD.
is

[I. 31.

ADEB shall be a square. For ADEB by construction
a parallelogram
therefore

and

AB h AD to BE.
A Bis

equal to

DE,
[I. 34.

But

equal to

AD.

[Construction.

Therefore the four straight lines BA, AD, DE, equal to one another, and the parallelogram
equilateral.

EB aro ADEB is
[Axiom
1.

Likewise

all its

angles are right angles.

For

since the straight line

the angles right angles
;

DE,

BAD,

AD meets the parallels AB, ADE are together equal to two
[I.
;

29.

but

BAD

is

a right angle

[Cmstruction.

therefore also

ADE

is

a right angle.

[Axiom
[T.

3,

But the opposite angles of
right angle.

parallelogi'ams are equal

34.

Therefore each of the opposite angles
Therefore the figure
it

ABE,

BED

is

a
I.

[Axiom

and

is rectangular; has been shewn to bo equilateral. Therefore it is a square.

ADEB

[Definition 30.

A7id

it is

described on the gieen straight line

AB.

q.e.p.

Corollary. From the demonstration it is manifest that every parallelogram which has one right angle has all its angles right angles.
4

60

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
PEOPOSITION
47.

THEOREM.

In any right-angled trimigle, the sq\iar6 which is do-' scribed on the side stihtending the right angle is equal to the squares described on the sides which contaiii the right angle. be a right-angled triangle, having the right Let shall be angle C the square described on the side equal to the squares described on the sides BA, AC.

BA

ABC
:

BC

On
the
scribe

BC
the

describe

square

BDEC,

and on BA,

AC

desquares

GB,HC;
through
parallel

U.

40.

A
to

draw

BD

AL
or

CE)
and join

[1.31.

AD, FC.
[Hypoth cs is.

Then, because the angle C is a right

BA
is

angle,

BAG

and that the
angle,

angle

also a right
[Definition 30.

the two straight lines AC, AG, on the opposite sides of AB, make with it at the point the adjacent angles equal to two right angles

A

;

therefore
line.

CA is in the same straight line with AG. [I. 14. For the same reason, AB and ^^are in the same straiglit
Now the
is

of them

angle a right angle.

DBC is equal to the angle FBA, for each
[Axiom
11.

Add And

to each the angle

ABC.

Therefore the whole angle

FBC
sides

DBA
;

is

equal to the whole angle [Axiom 2.

because the two sides AB, are equal to the two FB, BC, each to each [Definition 30. and the angle is equal to the angle therefore the triangle is equal to the triangle J^^O, [I. 4.

BD

DBA

FBC

;

ABD

;

BOOK L
Now

47, 48.

51

ABD,
the

is double of the triangle the parallelogi'am because they are on the same base BD, and between

BL

same

parallels

BD, AL,

[I. 41.

is double of the triangle FBC, because the square they are on the same base FB, and between the same

And

GB

parallels i^i?,

GC. But the doubles of equals are equal to one another.

[I.

4^

{Ax. 6.

Therefore the parallelogram

BL is equal

to the square

GB.

In the same manner, by joining AE., BK, it can be shewn, that the parallelogram CL is equal to the square CH.

Therefore the whole square squares GB, HC.

BDEC

is

equal to the two [Axiom 2.

And
GB,

the square

HC on BA, AG.

BBECis described

on BC, and the squares

Therefore the square described on the side the squares described on the sides BA, AC,

BC is equal
o.e.p,

to

Wherefore, in any right-angled triangle &e.

PROPOSITION
If
angle be equal

48.

THEOREM.

the square described on one of the sides of a trito the squares described on the other two sides of if, the angle contained by these two sides is a right angle.

Let the square described on BC, one of the sides of the triangle ABC, be equal to the squares described on the other sides BA, the angle shall be a right

AC

:

BAC

angle.

From the point right angles to

AC

A

draw

AD

at

[I. 11.

and make equal to BA; [T. 3. and join DC. Then because DA is equal to

AD

BA,

the square on the square on BA.

DA

is

equal to

To each on AC.

of these

add the square

Therefore the squares on on A, AC.

B

DA,

AC

are equal to the sauares

{Axiom

1.

4—2

;

52

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

But because the auglo
the square ou

DAG

is

a right angle,

[Constmction.
47.

DCia

equal to the squares on

DA, AC. [I.

And, by hypothesis, the square on BCis equal on B A, AC.
Therefore
tlie

to the squares

square on Z>Cis equal to thesquare on BC.[Ax.l.

Therefore also the side

And

because the side

to the side

AB

DC equal to the side BC. DA is equal
is

;

[Constr.

and the side A C is common to the two triangles DAC, BAC the two sides DA, AC are equal to the two sides BA, AC, each to each and the base has been shewn to be equal to the base BC;
;

DC

^
BAC.

^
[I. 8.

therefore the angle

DACis
;

equal to the angle

But

DACis a

right angle

[Construction.

therefore also

BAC

ia

a right angle.
q.e.p.

[Axiom

1.

Wherefore, if the square &c.

BOOK

II.

DEFINITIONS.
1. Every right-angled parallelogram, or rectangle, is said to be contained by any two of the straight lines which contain one of tiie right angles.
^

In every parallelogram, anv of the parallelograms 2. about a diameter, together with the two complements, is called a Gnomon.

BOOK
Thus the
together
-with

II.

1.

parallel ogram
tlie

HG^

complements AF, FG, is the gnomon, which is more briefly expressed by tlie letters A GK, or EHC, which are at
the oj^posite angles of the parallelograms which make the gnomon.

PROPOSITION
If there
into

1.

THEOREM.

he tico straight lines, one of 2chich is divided the rectangle contained hg the tico straight lines is equal to the rectangles contained by the undivided line, and the several 2)arts of the divided line.

any numher of jmrfs,

Let

A

and

BC be

two straight

lines

;

and

let

divided into any mimber of parts at the i)oints D, the rectangle contained by the straight lines A, BG, shall be equal to the rectangle contained by A, BD, together with that contained by A, DE, and that contained by A, EG.
:

E

BG

be

From
and make

the point

at right angles to

B BG

draw
;

BF

[1. 11.
;

BG equal to A
EL, GH,

[I. 3.

through G draw Gil parallel to BG', and through D, E, G
dra^v DK, to BG.
parallel
[I. 31.

Then
is

the
to

equal

rectangle BIl the rectangles
for

BK, DL, EIL
Ikit

BU is contained by A, BG, GB, BG, and GB is equal to A. And BJC is contained by yl, BD, GB, BD, and GB is equal to A
;

it is

contained by
[Const rKclion.

for it

is

contained by
is

and

DL

is

BG, which
and
in like

is

contained by A, equal to yl
;

DE,

because

DK

equal to
[I. 34.

manner EH\s> contained by A, EG. Therefore the rectangle contained by A, BG is equal
rectangles contauied by
,

to the

A BD, and by A,DE, and by A, EG.
q.e.d.

"Wherefore, if there he two straight lines &c.

O-i

EVVLIU^ ELEMENTS,
PROPOSITION

2.

THEOREM,

If a straight line he divided into any two j^arts, the rectangles contained by the whole and each of the j^^rts, are together equal to the square on the whole line.
Let the straight line he divided into any two parts at the point (7: the rectangle contained by AB, BGy together witli the rectangle AB, AC, shall be equal to the
square on
[Note.

AB

AB.

To avoid repeating the word contained too frequently, the rectangle contained by two straight lines AB, is sometimes simply called the rectangle

AC

AB,

AC]

A DEB
to

On

AB
;

describe

the

square
[I.

46.

AD or BE. [1.31. Then AE equal to the rectangles AF, CE. But AE is the square on AB. And AF the rectangle contained by BA, AC, for
is is

and through

C

draw

CF

parallel

contained by

DA, AC,

of which

DA

it is

is

equal to

BA
to

;

AB, BC, for BE is equal Therefore the rectangle AB, AC, together with angle AB, BC, is equal to the square on AB.
and

CE is

contained by

AB.

the rect-

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

3.

THEOREM.

If a straight line he divided into any two parts, the rectangle contained hy the whole and one of the parts, is equal to the rectangle contained by the tico p>(i^^ts, together with the square on the aforesaid part.
Let the straight line be- divided into any two parts at the point shall be equal to the rectangle AB,

AB

C

\

BC

the rectangle

AC, CB, together with

the square on

BC

;

BOUK
On

If.

3,

4.

bb
\

square produce JUD to F, and through A ^vay,- AF\}'AY^\\dioCDov BE.\l.?A.

BC describe the
tlie

CDEB

Then
But
by hy
to

rectangle

AE
CE.

is

equal

to the rectangles

AD,

AE

is

AB, BC, for it AB, BE, of which

the rectangle contained contained is is equal

BE

BC;

[^
-^

and and

AD

is

contained by

AC, CB,

for

CD

is

equal to

CB

;

CE is the

square on BC.

is equal to the rectangle Therefore the rectangle ^1 -5, AC, CB, together with the square on BC. Wherefore, if a straight line &c. q.e.d.

BC
4.

PROPOSITION
If a straight

THEOREM.

line he dicided into any two parts, the square on the whole line is equal to the squares on the two 2)arts, together with twice the rectangle contained hy the

two parts. Let the straight line ^i5 be divided into any two parts shall be equal to the at the point C\ the square on squares on AC, CB, together with twice the rectangle contained by AC, CB.

AB

ADEB
join

On

xiB

describe

the

square
[I. 40.

A^

parallel to

AD or BE, and through G 31. draw //A'parallcl to AB or DE.
[1.

BD;

through

C

draw

CGF
H
G

/
;

B
K

Then,
to

because

AD, and

BD

CF
falls

is

parallel

on them,
is

the
to gle

ADB

exterior angle the interior and
;

CGB

equal opposite an[I. 29.

//
E

[I. 5. is equal to the angle ABD, but the angle because BA is equal to AD, being sides of a square therefore the angle CGB is equal to the angle CBG ',[Ax.l.

ADB

and But

tlierefore the side

CG

is

equal to the side CB.

[I. 6.

CB is

also equal to GA',

and

CG

io

BK;

[I. Si.

therefore the figure

CGKB is equilateral.

56
It
is

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
likewise rectangular.

For

since

CG

is parallel

to

BK, and GB
But

meets them, the angles ther equal to two right angles.

KBGy GGB

are toge[I. 29.

KBG

is a right angle.

[I. Definition 30.

Therefore

GGB\s2i

right angle.

[Axiom

3.

And therefore also the angles these are right angles.

GGKj

GKB
[I. 3^.
'

oppo^site

to

and

'Ixioni 1.

rectangular; is Therefore and it has been shewn to be equilateral therefore it is a square^ and it is on the side CB.
;

CGKB

c
'

tj

\\\

G '^

/

^

K

is also a For the same reason square, and it is on the side HG^ [I. 34. which is equal to AG.

HF

^

.

Therefore

HF,

GK are the

squares

^
is

on AG, GB. And because the complement plement G^JE';

AG

equal to the com[1.43.

and that

AG

\%

the rectangle contained by ^(7, GB, for
;

GG is

equal to

GB

therefore

GE is also equal to the rectangle AG, GB.

\Ax.

1.

Therefore ^G', GE^cve equal to tmce the rectangle -4(7, GB.

And HF,

GK are the squares on A G,

GB.

Therefore the four figures HF, GK, A G, are equal to the squares on AG, GB, together with twice the rectangle

GE

AG, CB. But HF, GK, AG,
which
is

GE

make up the whole

figure

ADEB,

the square on

AB.

AC, CB, together with

Therefore the square on is equal to the squares on twice the rectangle AC, GB. Wherefore, if a straight line &c. q.e.d.

AB

Corollary. From the demonstration it is manifest, that parallellograms about the diameter of a square are likewise squares.

PEOPOSITION

5.

THEOREM.

If a straight line he divided into two equal j^ftrfs and also into tico uneqiuil j^ciyts, the rectangle contained hy the

;

;

BOOK II.
AB

0.

57

unequal 2)arts, together icith the square on the line hetween the jfoiuts of section, is equal to the square on Jialf the line. Let the straight line be divided into two equal parts at tlie point C, and into two uncqunl parts at the
point

D

:

the rectangle

AD^DB,
the

together -with the square

on CD, shall be equal to the square on CB.

On
square
join

CB

describe

CEFB

[I. 46.

A
i

C
L Li.

D B

DHG parallel to CB or BF;
through
to

BE;

through Z> draw

K

h/,
iiiz

tm;

^draw A'ZJf paral-

lel

CB or EF;

A

draw

AK

and through

parallel to

CL

1]

a

¥

or B3f.

[I. 31.

Then the complement CII is equal to the complement IIF; [I. 43. to each of these add D3f; therefore the whole CM is equal
to the whole

BF.
AL,
is

[Axiom

2.

But

(73/ is equal to

[I. 36.

because .^1 6'

equal to CB.

[Hypothesis.

Therefore also

AL is equal to

BF.

[Axioiyi 1.

To each of these add CII; therefore the whole ^i:? is equal to and CH. [Axiom 2. But AHis the rectangle contained by AB, BB, for BII is

BF

equal to

and

BB BF together with CH
of these

[II. 4, Coi-oUary.
is

the

gnomon

CMG

;

therefore the gnomon (73i 6^ isequal to the rectangle.4 Z>, 2)^.

To each CD.

add LG, which

is

equal to the square on

[II. 4, Corollary,

and

I. 34.

Therefore the gnomon CMG, together with LG, is equal to the rectangle AD,DB, together with the square on CD. [Ax.^l.

But the gnomon

CMG and LG make
the square on CB.

up the whole

figure

CEFB,

which

is

Therefore the rectangle AD,DB, together with the square on CB, is equal to the square on CB.
"Wherefore, if a straight line &c.
q.e.d.

this proposition it is manifest that the difference of the squares on two unequal straight lines AC, CD, is equal

From

to the rectangle contained by their

sum and

difference.

;

58

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
6.

THEOREM.

If a straight li?ie be bisected, and produced to any point, the rectangle contained hg the whole line thus ^.)roduced, and the part of it produced, together with the square on half the line bisected, is equal to the square on the straight line ichich is made up of the half and the
part produced.
bisected at the point G, the rectangle AD, DB, together with the square on CB, shall be equal to the square on CD.
:

Let the straight line and produced to the point

AB hQ D

On
square
join

CD describe the CEFD [I. 46.
;

^

f.

...

B

.

D

/
K
L

DE;

through
to

B

draw
or

M

BIIG

parallel

DF; through // draw IsTLAI parallel to or and through A draw I: (j parallel to CL or DM. [r. 31 Then, because ACis equal to CB, [Ili/pothcsis. the rectangle is equal to the rectangle CH-, [I. 36. but is equal to HF-, [I, 43^

CE

AK

EF

AD

/

;

AL

CH

therefore also

AL is equal to HF.
add

To each
But
for

of these

CM
to the

[Axiom

1.

therefore the whole

D3Ih

AM

A Mis equal
rectangle

the equal to
is

contained
is

DB.

gnomon CMG. by yiD

[Ax.2.

DB
1.

[II. 4^ Corollary.

Therefore the rectangle

AD,

DB

^'^^-

equal to the

gnomon
[Axiom

To each ^^on CB,

of these

add LG, which

equal to the square on [n. 4, Corollary, and I. 34.
is

Therefore the rectangle AD, DB, together with the square is e(iual to the gnomon and the figure LG. But the gnomon CMG^nH make up the whole figure CEFD, which is the square on CD. Therefore the rectangle ^Z),Z>i?, together with the square on CB, is equal to the square on CD.

CMG

LG

"Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

q.e.p.

BOOK
PUO POSITION

II.

7.

59

7.

THEOREM.

If a straight line he divided into any two parts, the squares on the whole line, and o?i one of the parts, are equal to ticice tlie rectangle contained hy the ichole and that part, together with the square on the other part.
Let the straight line be divided, into any two parts at the point C the squares on AB, shall be equal to twice the rectangle AB, BC^ together witii the
:

AB

BG

square on AG.

On

AB

describe the

square

ADEB,

and construct the figure
;

as in the preceding propositions.

to each of these

Then AG\s equal to GE add GIC
;

[I.

43.

therefore the whole the whole

AK

is

equal to

GE

;

therefore

AK, GE

are double of

yiK.

But

square

AK, GE GK;

are the

gnomon

AKF,

together with the

therefore the gnomon is double of ^A".
for

AKF,

together with the square

GK,

But t\^ice the rectangle AB, ^A'is equal to BG.

BG

is

double of
[II. 4,

AK,
GK,

CoroUimj.

is

Therefore the gnomon AKF, together with the square equal to twice the rectangle AB, BG.

To each

of these equals add square on AG.
Tlierefore

HF,

which

is

equal to the

[II. 4, Corollari/,

and

I. 34.

the gnomon AKF, together with the S(]uares GK, HF, is equal to twice the rectangle AB, BG, together with the square on AG.

But the gnomon ylA'i^ together with the squares GK, IFF, make up the whole figure ADEB and GK, which are the squares on AB and BG. Therefore the squares on AB, BG, arc equal to twice the rectangle AB, BG, together with the square on AG.
Wherefore, if a straight line &c.
q.kd.

60

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PEOPOSITION
8.

THEOREM.

If a straight line he divided into any two parts, four times the rectangle contained hy the ichole line and one of tlie parts, together with the square on the other part, is equal to the square on the straight line which is made up of the whole and that part.
Let the straight line be divided into any two parts at tlie point 6': four times the rectangle AB, BC, together with the square on AC, shall be equal to the square on the straight line made up oi and ^6' together.

AB

AB

Produce
that
to

BD

AB
may

to

D,
and

so
^^

be

equal
I. 3.

^
G ?

^>

CB

;

[Post. 2.

on

AD

describe the

square

M
X

K

AEFD',
construct two figures such as in the preceding propositions.

and

A

/

/

^

M

Then, because
to

CB

is

equal

BD,

e

/

^

L

J*'

[Construction.

and that
therefore

CB is

equal to GIT, and
equal to A7V.

BD to KN,
BO.

[I. 34.

GK

is

[Axiom

1.

For the same reason

PR

is

equal to

to KN, the rectAnd because CB is equal to BD, and is equal to the rectangle ^iV', and the rectangle angle [I. 36. Gli to the rectangle RN.

CK

GK

6'A'is equal to BN, because they are the of the parallelogram CO

But

complements
[I. 43.

;

therefore also

BNis

equal to

GB.

[Axiom

1.

are equal Tlierefore the four rectangles BN, CK, GR, to one another, and so the four arc quadruple of one of

RN

them CK.
Again, because CB is equal to is equal to BK^

BD,
[n.

[Construction.
4, Corollary. [I. 34.

and that
that
is

BD
CB

to

CG,
is

and that

equal to

GK,

[I.

34.

BOOK II.
that
is

b.

61
[II. 4, Corollary,

to

GP
CG

;

therefore

is

equal to

GP.

\Axiom

1.

to RO, tho is equal to GP^ and And because rectangle yl6^ is equal to the rectangle MP, and the rect[I. 36. to the rectangle RF. angle

CG

PR

PL

is e(|ual to PL, because they arc the But of the parallelogram ;

MP

complements
[I. 43.

ML

therefore also

AGSs, equal
and

Therefore the four
to one another,

\_Axio))i 1. RF. rectangles AG, MP, PL, RF are equal

to

so the four are quadruple of one of

them AG.

And
And
for

it

was shewn that the four CK,
of

BN,

GR and RN
rectangles

arc quadruple

CK;
is

therefore the

which make up the gnomon

AOH

eight

iixo

quadruple

BK

because is equal to

AK

the rectangle contained
;

oiAK. by AB, BO,
quadruple

BC

therefore four times the rectangle of.lA".

AB,

BC
to

is

But the gnomon

AOH

was

shewn

be quadruple
is

oiAK.
Therefore four times the rectangle

AB,

BO

gnomon AOH. To each of these add AO.

equal to the [Axiom 1.

XH,

which

is

equal to the square on

[II. 4, Corollary,

and

I. 34.

Therefore four times the rectangle the square on AC, is ecpial to the square XH.

AB, BC,
gnomon

AOH

together with and the

But the gnomon
figure

AOH and
is

AEFD,

which

the square XII the square on AD.

make up the

Therefore four times the rectangle AB, BC, together with the square on AC, is equal to the square on AD, that is to and BC together. the square on the line made of

AB

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

q.e.d.

;

(j2

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
9.

TUEOREM.

If a straight line he divided into two equals and also into ttco ttJiequal parts, the squares on the two unequal parts are together double of the square on half the line and of the square on tlie line heticeen the points of section.
l)arts at

be divided into two equal Let the straight Ime the point C, and into two unequal parts at tlie the squares on AD,DB shall be together double point of the squares on AC, CD.

AB

D

:

From the point C CE at right angles to AB,

draw
[1. 11.

and make it equal to AC or [I. 3. CB, through and join EA, EB parallel to CE, and draw draw FG parallel through
;

D
to

BA

DF F

[I. 31.
;

and join AF.
Then, because
the angle

ACis

equal to CE,

[Construction.
[I. 5.

EAC is equal to the angle AEC. And because the angle ACE is a right angle,
AEC, EAGhyq
;

[Construction.

the two other angles right angle

together equal to one
[I.

32.

and they are equal to one another
therefore each of

them

is

half a right angle.

For the same reason each of the angles a right angle.
Therefore the whole angle

CEB,

EBC

is

half

because tlie angle a right angle, for the angle

And

EGF

AEB GEF

is

a right angle.
half a right an^le, and equal to the interior
[I. 29.

is

it is

and opposite angle

ECB

;

therefore the remaining angle

EFG is half a riglit angle.
EFG, and
[I. 6.

is equal to the angle Therefore the angle the side is equal to the side

GEF

EG

GF

Again, because the angle at

B is

half a right angle, and the

;

BOOK
a right angle, for angle opposite angle

II.

}).

(33

FDB

it is

equal to the interior and
[I. 29.

ECB

;

is half a right angle. therefore the remaining angle Therefore the angle at is equal to the angle BFD, and the side is equal to the side DB. [I. 6.

DF

B

BFD

And

because

AGi^
is

equal to CEy

[Construction.

the square on ^-IC

equal to the square on

OF

;

therefore the squares on

AC, CFu.ro double

of the square

on AC.

But the square on because the angle
Again, because

A F in equal to the squares on ACF is a right angle

AC, CF,
[I.

47.

therefore the square on

AE is
EG,

double of the square on AC.

[Construction. EG is equal to GF, the square on EG is equal to the square on GF;

therefore the squares on

GF are double of
;

the square

on GF.
47. EGF is a right angle double of the square on GF. therefore the square on EF is 34. And GF equal to CD therefore the square on EF is double of the square on CD. But has been shewn that the square on AE is also
[I.

But the square on because the angle
is

EFis

equal to the squares on

EG, GF,

;

[I.

it

double of the square on AC. Therefore the squares on AE, squares on AC, CD.

EF

are double of the

But the square on ^i^

is

EF, because the angle
Therefore the square

AEF is a right angle. on AF double of the
is

equal to the squares on

AE,
47.

[I.

squares on

AC, CD.
But the squares on AD,

AF, because

the angle

ADF

DF are
is

equal to the square on [I. 47. a right angle.

Therefore the squares on squares on A C, CD.

AD,

DF
DB

are

double of

tlie

And

DF

is

equal to

DB

;

therefore the

squares on

AD,

arc double of the

squares on

AC, CD.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

64

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
10.

THEOREM.

If a straight line he bisected^ and produced to any 2)oint, the square on the whole line thus produced, and the square on the part of it produced, are together double of the square on half the line bisected and of the square on the line made up of the half and the part produced.
Let the straight hue duced to the squares on

D

AB

ho^

:

AD,
CD,

bisected at C, and proshall be together

DB

double of the squares on

^4 C,

From the
and make
or
it

point Cdraw (7^ at right angles to equal io

AC

AB,

[I. 11.

CB;
;

[1.3.

andjoin^^, EB through E draw EF parallel to AB, and through D draw Z>i^ parallel to CE. [1.31. Then because the straight line ^i^meets the parallels EC, FD, the angles CEF^
right angles
;

EFD
BEF,

are together equal to two
[I. 29.

and therefore the angles than two right angles.

EFD

are together less

Therefore the straight lines EB, towards B, D.

FD will meet, if produced,
[Axiom
12.

Let them meet at G, and join AG. Then because AC\^ equal to CE,
the angle

[Construction.
[I. 5.

CEA

is

equal to the angle
;

EAG;

and the angle
angle.

ACE is a right angle

[Construction.

therefore each of the angles

CEA,

EAC

is

half a right
[1.

32.

For the same reason each of the angles CEB,
a right angle.

EBC

is

half

Therefore the angle

And

because the angle

the angle cally opposite;

DBG is also half a right angle, for they are verti[I.

AEB is a right angle. EBC is half
is

a right angle,
15.

but the angle

BDG

a right angle, because
;

it is

equal to
[I. '29. [1. 32.

the alternate angle

DCE

therefore the remaining angle

DGB ishalf a right angle,

;

BOOK 11.
and
is

10.

0,5

therefore equal to the angle

DBG

;

therefore also the side

BD

is

equal to the side

DG.

[i. g.

is half a right angle Again, because the angle and the angle at a right angle, for it is equal to the opposite angle [I. 34. ;

ECD

F

EGF

and

therefore theremaining angle i^^(yishalf aright angle, [L 32. is therefore equal to the angle

EGF;

therefore also the side

GF is equal to the side FE.
EC,

'[I. 6.

because EG is equal to CA, the square on equal to the square on CA ;

And

EC

is

therefore the squares on

CA

are double of the square
47.

on CA.

But the square on ^^ is equal tothesquares onEC,CA.[1.
Therefore the square on ^-l-E^
Again, because is equal to the square on
is

GF

FE

double of the square on AC. equal to FE, the square on is

GF

therefore the squares on

GF, FE

are double of the square

on FE.

But the square on is equal to the squares on GF, FE.[l. 47. Therefore the square on is double of the square on FE.

EG

EG

And
But

therefore the square on
it

FE is equal to CD EG is double of the square on
;

[1. 34,

CD.

has been shewn that the square on of the square on A C.

AE

is

double

Therefore the squares on squares on A C, CD.

AE,

EG

are double of the

But the square on

AG

is

equal to the squares on
is

AE^

EG.
Therefore the square on

[I. 47.

AG

double of the squares on

AC, CD.
But the squares on AD,

DG

are equal to the square on
[I. 47.

AG.
Therefore
scjuares

the squares on

AD,

DG

are double of the

on

A C,

CD.

And

DG is

equal to

DB

;

therefore the squares on

AD, DB

are double of the squares
q.e.d.
.5

on AC, CD.
Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

66

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
11.

PROBLEM.

To divide a gicen straight line into two parts, so that the rectangle contained hy the whole and one of tlie j>arts may he equal to the square on the other part.
he the given straight line it is required to Let divide it into two parts, so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one of the parts may be equal to the scjuare on the other part.
:

AB

On
bisect

AB
;

describe the square
[I. 46.
J5^; [1. 10.

ABDC;
^(7 at
join

BE produce CA to F, and make EF equal to EB and on AF describe the square
;

[I. 3.

AFGII.

'

[I. 46.

AB

shall

be divided

at

that the rectangle AB, equal to the square on AH.

BH

II

so
is

Produce

GHtoK.

AC

Then, because the straight line 19. bisected at E, and produced to F, the rectangle CF, FA, together with the [II. 6. square on AE, is equal to the square on EF.

But

EF

is

equal to

EB,

[Constrvdion.

Therefore the rectangle CF, FA, together with the square on AE, is equal to the square on EB.
is equal to the squares on AE,AB, [I. 47. because the angle is a right angle. Therefore the rectangle CF, FA, together with the square on AE, is equal to the squares on AE, AB.

But the square on

EB EAB

Take away the square on AE, which is common to both ; therefore the remainder, the rectangle CF,FA, is equal to the square on AB. {AxiQm 3.

But the
for

figure

EG is equal to FA
AD\%

FK

is

the rectangle contained by CF,
;

FA^

and

the square on

AB

;

therefore FK'is equal to

Take away the
is

AD. common part AK, and

equal to the remainder IID,

the remainder FII {Axiom 3.

BOOK II.
I3iit

11,12.

67
BII^ for

HD

is

equal to

BD
is

the rectangle contained by
\

AB^

AB is
AH.

and Fll

the square on

AH;

therefore the rectangle ^-li?.i5Zris equal to the squareon

Wherefore
the rectangle

AB, BH is

t/ie

straight line

AB is divided at H, so that
to

equal

the square on

AH.

q.e.f.

PKOPOSITION
from

12.

THEOREM.

In oUusc-angled triangles, if a i^ey^pendicular he drawn either of the acute angles to the opposite side pro-

duced, the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle, bij twice the rectangle contained by the side on which, when produced, the perpendicular falls, and the straight line intercepted icithout the triangle, between the

perpendicular and the obtuse angle. Let be an obtuse-angled triangle, having the obtuse angle ACB, and from the point A let ADhe drawn perpendicular to i?(7 produced the square on shall be greater than the squares on AC, CB, by twice the rectangle

ABC

:

AB

BC, CD.
Because
the
straight
line

BD is divided into two parts at the point C, the square on BD is equal to the squares on
BC, CD, and twice the rectangle BC, CD. [II. 4. To each of these equals add the
square on

DA.

Therefore the squares on BD, are equal to the squares on BC, CD, DA, and twice the rectangle BC, CD. [Axiom 2. is equal to the squares on BD, DA, But the square on is a right angle because the angle at [I. 47,

DA

BA
is

D

;

and the square on CA

equal to the squareson

CD,DA. [1. 47.

Therefore the square on is equal to the squares on BC, CA, and twice the rectangle BC,

BA

CD

;

that

the square on is greater than the squares on BC, CA by twice the rectangle BC, CD.
is,

BA

Wherefore, in obtuse-angled triangles kc.

q.e.p.

68

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
j

13.

THEOREM.

In every triangle, the square on the side subtending an acute angle is less than the squares on the sides containing that angle, by twice the rectangle contained by
eitlier of these sides, and the straight line intercepted heticeen the perpendicular let fall on it from the opposite angle, and the acute angle.

Let an acute be any triangle, and the angle at angle; and on one of the sides containing it, let fall the perpendicular from the opposite angle: the square on AC, opposite to the angle B, shall be less than the squares on CB, BA, by twice the rectangle CB, BD.

ABC

BC

B

AD

First, let

AD

fall

within the

triangle

ABC,

Then, because the straight line CB is divided into two parts at the pomt D, the squares on are equal to twice the CB, rectangle contained by CB, and the square on CD. [II. 7.

BD

BD

To each

of these equals

add the

square on

DA.

Therefore the squares on CB, BD, are equal to twice the rectangle CB, and the squares on CD, DA. [Ax. 2. But the square on is equal to the squares on BD, DA, [I. 47. because the angle is a right angle

BD ^^ BDA

DA

;

and the square on -4 C is equal to the squares on C7>, Z>^. [1. 47. Therefore the squares on CB, BA are equal to the scjuare on ^C and t\vice the rectangle CB,

BD

;

that

is,

CB,

BA

the square on A C alone is less than the squares on by twice the rectangle CB, BD.

Secondly, let ylZ> fall without the triangle ABC*

Then because the angle at is a right angle, {Comtruction.
tlie

D

angle

ACB
;

is

greater than
[I. 16.

a Tight angle

BOOK 11.

13, 14.

GO

and therefore the scjuare (m AB is equal to the squares on AC^ CB, and twice the rectangle BC, CD. [11. 12. To each of these equals add the square on BG.
Therefore the squares on AB, BC are equal to the square on AC, and twice the square on BC, and twice the rectangle

BC, CD.
(7,

{Axiom

2.

But because
angle square on

BD is divided into two parts at the rectDB, BC is equal to the rectangle BC, CD and the
BC;
[II. 3,

and the doubles of these are equal,
is equal to twice the tliat is, twice the rectangle DB, and twice the square on BC. rectangle BC,

BC

CD

Therefore the squares on AB, BC are equal to the square on AC, and twice the rectangle DB, BC alone is less than the squares on that is. the square on AB, BC by twice the rectangle DB, BC. Lastly, let the side -4 (7 be perpendicular
;

AC

to

is the straight line between the perpendicular and the acute angle at ;

Then

BC BC
it

B

and

AB,

manifest, that the squares on are equal to the square on AC, and twice the square on BC. [I. 47 and Ax. 2.
is

BC

Wherefore, in every triangle &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

14.

PROBLEM.

To describe a square that shall he equal to a given rectilineal figure.
Let be the given rectilineal figure it describe a square that shall be equal to A.
:

A

is

required to

Describe the rectangular parallelogram i?6'/)is equal tothc rectilineal figure A. [1.4.5.

Then if the

sides of

/
B^
V,

/

it,

BE,

are equal to one another, it is a square, and what was required is now done.

ED

70
But
to
at
if

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
they are not equal, produce one of them equal

make

EF

BE to F,

ED,
bisect
;

[I. 3.

and

BF
10.

G

[I.

from

the centre G, at the distance GB, or GF, describe the semi-

circle BHF, and produce DEtoH. shall be equal to the given The square described on rectilineal figure A. is divided Join GH. Then, because the straight line into two equal parts at the point (x, and into two miequal parts at the point E, the rectangle BE, EF, together with [II. 5. the square on GE, is equal to the square on

EH

BF

GF

But

GF is equal to

together with the square Therefore the is equal to the square on GH. But the square on GHis equal to the squares on GE, EH;[IA7.

GH. rectangle BE, EF,

on GE,

therefore the rectangle BE, EF, together with the square on GE, is equal to the squares on GE, EH.

Take away the square on GE,
therefore the rectangle

M'hich
is

is

common

to both

;

BE,

EF

EH.

equal to the square on [Axiom 3.

But the rectangle contained by BE, gram BD,
because Therefore
is

EF is

the parallelo[Construction.

EF is equal to ED. BD equal to the square on EH.
is

But

BD
A.

equal to the rectilineal figure A.

[Construction.

Therefore the square on
figure

EH

is

equal to the rectilineal

"Wherefore a square has been made equal to the given rectilineal figure A, namely, the square described on

EH,

Q.E.F.

BOOK

III.

DEFINITIONS.
1. Equal circles are those of which the diameters are equal, or from the centres of which the straight Hues to the circumfcreuces are equal.

not a definition, but a theorem, the truth of for, if the circles be ap2)lied to one evident another, so that their centres coincide, the circles must like^vise coincide, since the straight lines from the centres are equal.

This

is

which

is

;

2.

A
to

straight line

is

touch a circle, when it meets the circle, and being produced does not cut it.
said
3.

to

touch

Circles are said one another,

which meet but do not cut one another.
4.

Straight lines are said to

be equally distant from the centre
of a circle,

when the perpendicu-

lars drawn to them from the centre

are equal.
5. And the straight line on which the greater perpendicular falls, is said to be farther from the

centre.

72
6.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

A

figure contained

segment of a circle is the by a straight line

and the circumference it cuts off. 7. The angle of a segment is that wliich is contained by the straight line and the circumference.
8. An angle in a segment is the angle contained by two straight lines drawn from any point in the circumference of the segment to the extremities of the straight line which is the base of the segment.

And an angle is said to inor stand on the circumference intercepted between the straight lines which contain the angle.
9.

sist

A sector of a circle is the contained by two straight lines drawn from the centre, and the circumference between them.
10.

figure

11. Similar segments of circles are those in which

the angles are equal, or which contain equal angles.
{Note. In the following propositions, whenever the expression ''straight lines from the centre," or ''drawn from the centre," occurs, it is to be understood that the hnea are drawn to the circiunference.

Any portion

of the circumference

is

called an arc.']

PROPOSITION
To find
Let
centre.

1.

PnOBLUM.
a given
:

the centre of
circle

circle.
its

ABC be the given

it is

required to find

BOOK ni.
Draw
line
Avithin it

1.

73

any straight
bisect

AB^
;

and
point

AB

at

B

[I. 10.

from

the

at right angles to

D AB

draw
;

DG

[I. 11.

prodnco CD to meet the circumference at E, and bisect

CE at

F.

[I.

10.

The point
For
if

F

shall

bo the centre

of the circle
if

ABO.

F be
G

possible, let

not the centre, be the centre and join Gxi,
;

GD, GB.
[Construction.
;

Then, because

DA

is

equal to

DB,

and

DG

is

common
;

to the two triangles

ADG, BDG

the two sides each to each

AD,DG

are equal to the two sides

BD, DG,

and the base GA is equal to the base GB, because they are fl. Definition 15. dra^m from the centre G
;

therefore the angle

ADG

is

equal to the angle

BDG.

[I. 8.

But when a straight line, standing on another straight line, makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
the angles
is

called a right angle
is

;

[I.

Definition 10.

J^r

therefore the angle

But the angle

BDG a right angle. BDF also a right angle,
is
;

{Construction.

Therefore the angle BDGis equal to the angle BDF, [Ax. 11. the less to the greater which is impossible. Therefore G is not the centre of the circle ABC. In the same manner it may be she^vn that no other point out of the line CE is the centre
;

bisected at F, any other point in and since divides it into unequal parts, and cannot be the centre. Therefore no point but Fis the centre
is
;

CE

CE

that

is,

F

is

the centre of the circle

ABC:

ichich 2cas to he found.

Corollary. From this it is manifest, that if in a circle a straight line bisect another at right angles, the centre of the circle is in the straight line which bisects the other.

;

74

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PEOPOSITION
2.

THEOREM.

If any
the circle.

ttco poitifs be

circle, the straight line ichich

taken in the circumference of a joins them shall fall within

any two points in and Let be a circle, and the circumference the straight line drawn from to shall fall within the circle.
:

ABC

A

B

A

B

For if it do not, let it possible, without, as
Find

fall, if

ABC

D the centre of the circle
;

AEB.

[III. 1.

and join

AB take any point F^ join DF, and produce it to meet the straight line AB at E. Then, because DA is equal
to

DA,

DB

;

in the arc

DB,

[I.

Definition 15.
[I. 5.

the angle

DAB is equal to the angle DBA.
DEB

because AE, a side of the triangle DAE, is prois greater than the duced to B, the exterior angle interior opposite angle DAE. [I. 16.

And

But the angle Z)^^wasshew^n to be equal
therefore the angle

to the angle

DBE;
;

DEB

is

greater than the angle

DBE.
[1. 19.

But the greater angle is subtended by the greater side
therefore

DB
is

is

greater than

DE.
[I.

But

DB

equal to DF-,

Definition 15.

therefore is greater than "which is impossible.
fall

DF

DE, the

less

than the greater

Therefore the straight line drawn from without the circle.

A

to

B
it

does not
does not

fall

In the same manner it on the circumference.
it falls

may be shewn

that

Therefore

within the circle.

"Wherefore, if

any two points
3.

&c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

If a straight line drawn throiigJt the centre of a circle^ bisect a straight line in it which does not pass through tlie

;

;

;

BOOK

III.

3.

75

centre, it shall cut it at right angles ; right angles it shall bisect it.
;

and

if

it

cut

it

at

Let ABC be a circle and let CD, a straigiit line drawn through the centre, bisect any straight line AB, which does not pass through the centre, at the point F\ CD shall cut

AB at right angles. Take E the centre
circle
;

of the
[III.l.

andjoin£L4,

EB.

Then, because ^li^ is equal
to

FB,

[Hypothesis.

and

FE is

common

to the
;

two
arc

triangles

AFE,

the two sides equal to the two sides each to each

BFE AF, FE
is

BF,FE,

and the base

EA

equal to the base

EB

;

[I. I>ef. 15.

therefore the angle

AFE is equal to the angle
[I.
;

BFE.

[I. 8.

But when a straight line, standing on another straight line, makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of
the angles
is

called a right angle

Definition 10.

therefore each of the angles

AFE,

BFE

is

a right angle.

Therefore the straight line CD, drawn through tlie centre, which does not pass through the bisecting another

'^

AB

centre, also cuts

it

at right angles.

But
bisect
dra^^^l

let

CD

AB;

at right angles cut that is, yli^ shall be equal to FB.
:

AB

CD

shall also

Tlie

same construction being made, because EA, EB, from the centre, are equal to one another, [I. Def. 15.

the angle

EAF

is eiiual

to the angle

EBF.

[L

5.

And the right angle AFE is equal to the right angle BFE. Therefore in the two triangles EAF, EBF, there are two
angles in the one eiiual to two angles in the other, each to

each;

and the side EF, which
angles in each,
is

is

opposite to ouo of the equal
[I. 20.

common
equal to

to both

therefore their other sides are equal therefore

AF

\^

FB.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

;

76

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
4.

THEOREM.

If in a
do not
another.

circle tico straight lines cut

2^ciss

one another, which through the centre^ they do not bisect one

Let ABCD be a circle, and AC, two straight lines which cut one another at the pomt E, and do not both pass through the centre: AC, shall not bisect one
in
it,

BD BD

another.
If one of the straight lines pass through the centre it is plain that it cannot be bisected by the other which does not pass through the centre.

But

if

neither of

them pass

through the centre, if possible, let yl^ be equal to EC, and
equal to

BE
[III. 1.

ED.
circle

Take the centre of the and join EF.

F

Then, because FE, a straight line drawn through the centre, bisects another straight line which does not pass

AC

through the centre
therefore the angle
line

;

[Hypothesis.
[III. 3.

FE cuts A C at right angles
FEA
is

a right angle.

Again, because the straight line bisects the straight {HypBD, which does not pass through the centre,

FE

FE cuts BD
But the angle

at right angles
is

;

[III.

3.

FEB a right angle. FEA was shewn to be a right angle therefore the angle FEA is equal to the angle FEB, [Ax. 11.
therefore the angle
;

the less to the greater

;

which

is

impossible.

Therefore

AC,

BD do not bisect each other.
q.e.d.
5.

Wherefore, if in a circle &c.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

If two circles cut one another, they shall not have the same centre. Let the two circles ABC, CDG cut one another at the

;

BOOK III.
l)oints

5,

6.

77

For,

B, C\ they shall not have the same centre if it be possible, let
;

be their centre join EG^ and draw any straight line meeting the circumferences at

E EFG

F and

G.

Then, because^ is the cenis tre of the circle ABC,

EC

equal to

EF.

[I.

Definition 15.
is

Again, because
of the circle to EG,

CDG, EG is
[I.

E

the centre equal
to

Definition 15.

But

therefore

EG was she\vn to be equal EF is equal to EG,
;

EF
[Axiom
1.

the less to the greater

which

is

impossible.

Therefore

E is not the centre of the circles ABC,
q.e.d.

CDG.

AVhcrefore, if two circles &c.

PROPOSITION
If
iico circles

6.

THEOREM.

touch one another internally^ they shall

not have the same centre.

touch one another interLet the two circles ABC, nally at the point they shall not have the same centre.

CDE

G
;

*

:

F

For, if it be possible, let be their centre join FC, and draw any straight line FEB, meeting the circumferences at

E and B.

FG

is the centre of the circle ABC, is equal to FB. [I. Dcf. 15.

Then, because

F

the is Again, because centre of the circle CDE,

F

FG \^ c(\\\^\io FE. But FG was shewn to be equal to FB therefore FE is equal to FB,
the less to the greater
;

[I. Definition 15.
;

[Axiom

1.

which

is

impossible.

Therefore

F

is

not the centre of the circles

ABC, CDE.

"Wlierefore, \f

two circles &c.

q.e.^.

;

;

78

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
7.

THEOREM.

"be taken in the diameter of a circle ichich not the centre, of all the straight lines tchich can he drawn from this point to the circumference, the greatest is that in ichich the centre is, and the other jyai^t of the diameter is the least; and, of any others, that ichich is nearer to the straight line which pfasscs through the centre, is cdicays greater than one more remote; and from the same point there can he drawn to the circumference two straight lines, and only two, ichich are equal to one another, 07ie on each side of the shortest line.

If any point

is

its diameter, in which not the centre let be the centre of all the straight lines FB, FC, FG, &c. that can be drawn from to the circnniference, FA, which passes through E, shall be the greatest, and FD, the other part of the diameter AD, shall be the least and of the than FG. others shall be greater than FC, and

let

Let A BCD be a circle and any point be taken which

F

AD
is

;

E

:

F

;

FB

FC

Join

BE, CE, GE.

Then, because any two sides of a triangle are greater than the
third side,
[I. 20.

therefore

BE,

EF

are greater

than

BF.

BEh equal to AE; [l.Def.W. therefore AE, EF are greater
But
than
that

BF,
is,

AFis

greater than

BF.
Definition 15.

[I. CE, two triangles ^£"7^, and ^i^is common to the

Again, because

BE is equal to

CEF;
CE, EF,

the two sides each to each

BE,

EF are equal to the two sides
is

BEF greater than the angle CEF therefore the base FB is greater than the base FC.
but the angle In the same manner than FG.
Again, because
it

[I. 24.

may be shewn

that

FC

is

greater
[I.

GF,

FE are greater than EG,

20.

;

BOOK III. 7, 8. equal to ED and that EG therefore GE, FE are greater than ED.
is
;

79
[I. Definition 15.

Take away the common part FE, and the remainder
greater than the remainder

GF is
all

ED.

the least of is the greatest, and Therefore and to the circumference the straight lines from i\\^\\ EG. greater than EC, and

FA

EC

F

ED

;

FB is

Also, there can be drawn two equal straight lines from to the circumference, one on each side of the the point shortest line ED.

E

For, at the point E, in the straight line equal to the angle EEG, angle

EE, make

the

FEH

[I. 23.

and join

EH.

Then, because

EG is equal to EH,

[I.

Definition 15.

and EE'is common to the two triangles
the two sides each to each

GEE, HEF;

EG,
;

EF are equal to the two sides EH, EF,
;

and the angle

therefore the base

GEE is equal to the angle HEF EG is equal to the base EH.
let

\Constr.
[I. 4.

But, besides FH, no other straight line can be dra^vn from to the circumference, equal to EG.

F

For,

if it

be possible,

EK be equal to EG.
EG,
[Hypothesis.

Then, because

EK

is

equal to

and

EH

is

also equal to

EG,

therefore

EHia

equal to

EK
;

[Axiom

1.

that is, a line nearer to that which passes through the centre is equal to a line which is more remote

which

is

impossible by what has been already shewn.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if ajiy point be taken &c.

PROPOSITION
If any jwint
he taken

8.

TUEOREM.

without a circUy and straight the circumference, one ofirhich passes through the centj^e ; of those which fail on the concave circumference, the greatest is that which 2^^^^cs through the centre, and of the rest, that which is nearer to the one passing through the centre is always greater than one more ronote; but of those which fall on the
lines be

drawn from

it to

;

:

80

EUGLIjyS ELEMENTS.

convex circumference, the least is that heiiceen the j^oint without the circle and the diameter; and of the rest, that which is nearer to the least is always less than one more remote ; and from the satne point there can he drawn to the circumference tico straight lines, and only t?co, ichich are equal to one another, one on each side of the shortest line. any point without it, and Let be a circle, and from let the straight lines DA, DE, DF, be drawn to the circumference, of which jD^ passes through the centre of those whicli fall on the concave circumference AEFC, the which passes through the centre, and greatest shall be the nearer to it shall be greater than the more remote, namely, Z)^ greater than DF, and greater than but of those which fall on the convex circumference GKLH, the least shall ho between the point and the diameter AG, and the nearer to it shall be less than the more remote, namely, less than DL, and less than DH.

D

ABC

D

DC

DA

DF

DC

\

DG

D

DK

DL

Take
circle

M, ABC,

the centre of the
[III. 1.

and join

ME, MF, MC, MH,

^

ML, MK.
Then, because any two sides of a triangle arc gi'eater than [I. 20. the third side,
therefore

EM, MD

are greater

than

ED.

But^3/is equal to AM; [I.De/. 15.
therefore

AM,

MD

are greater

than
that

ED,
is,

AD\^

greater than

ED.

Again, because

EM

is

equal

iQFM,
and

MD

is

common

triangles

EMD,
;

FMD
is

to the tvro

the two sides

EM,MD are equal to the two sides F3f, MD,

each to each

but the angle

EMD

greater than the angle
is

FMD
FD.
that

;

therefore the base

ED

greater than the base
it

[1. 24.

In the same manner gTeater than CD.

may be shewn

FD

is

;

BOOK III.
and and
is the greatest, and Therefore greater than DC.

8.

81
greater than

DF

DA

DE

DF^

Again, because MK, is equal to MG,

MK
is,

KD are greater than MD,
[\.

[T. 20.

Definition 15.

the remainder
that

KD

is

greater than the remainder

GD,

GD is less than KD.

ilf, Z>,

is a triangle, and from the points because the extremities of its side MD, the straight lines within the triangle, MK, arc drawn to the point [I. 21. are less than ML, therefore MK, ;

And

MLD

DK

KD

K

LD

and

MK\^

equal to

ML

;

[I.

Bcfinition 15.

therefore the remainder

KD
it

is less

than the remainder LD.
that

In the same manner than IID.
less

may be shewn

LD

is less

Therefore than DH.

DG

is

the least, and 2) A" less than

DL, and

DL

Also, there can be drawn two equal straight lines from the point to the circumference, one on each side of the

D

least line.

For, at the point M, in the straight lino angle equal to the angle

DMB
is

MD,

make the
[I. 23.

DMK^

and join

DB.

Then, because

and

MD

MK

is

equal to

MB,

common
;

to the

the two sides

KM, MD
»asc

two triangles KMD, are equal to the two sides B3I, MD,
;

BMD
;

each to each
therefore the

and the angle D]\[K\9, equal
1

to the angle

DMB
DB.

[Consir.
[T. 4.

DK

is

equal to the base

But, besides DB, no other straight line can be to the circumference, equal to DK. from

drawn

D

be possible, let is equal to Then, because is also equal to DK, and
For,
if it

DN be equal to DK
DK^

DN
is

DB
is,

tiierefore

DB

equal to

DN\
is

[Axiom
equal to one which

1.

that

a line nearer to the least

is

more remote
which
is

impossible by what has been already shewn.
q.e.d.

"therefore, if any point he taken &c,

G

;

;

;

82

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS,
PBOPOSITION

If d point he taken there fall more than two equal straight lines to the circumference^ that point is the centre of the circle.
be taken within the circle ABC, from Let the point which to Uie circumference there fall more than two equal straight lines, namely DA, DB, DC: the point shall be

THEOREM, within a circle, from which
9.

D

D

the centre of the circle.

be the centre For, if not, let join i)j&and produce it both ways to meet the circumference at i^ and (x ; is a diameter of the circle. then

E

FG

Then, because in FG, a diameter is of the circle ABC, the point taken, which is not the centre, is the greatest straight line from is greater than to the circumference, and

DB greater than Dii
E

D DG D DG

DB, and
[III.
;.

;

but they are likewise equal, by hypothesis which is impossible. is not the centre of the circle ABC. Therefore In the same manner it may bo shewn that any other is not the centre point than
therefore

D D

is

the centre of the circle

ABC.
q.e.d.

AYhcrefore, if a point he taJccn &c.

PROPOSITION
One circumference of a more than two points.

10.

THEOJtE}f.
at

circle cannot cut anotlic)

If it be possible, let the circumference at more circumference than two points, namely, at tho points B, G, F.

DEF

ABC cut

tho

Take K, the centre of tho
circle

and join

[HI. ABC, KB, KG, KF.

1.

Then,

because

K

is

the

centre of the circle

ABC,

;

2

;

BOOK
therefore

III.
all

10,

11.

83
[I.

KB, KG,

A'lFare

equal to each other.

Dcf. 15.

because Avithin the circle DBF, the point is taken, fall more than two from which to the circumference equal straight lines KB, KG, KF, therefore A" is the centre of the circle DEF. [III. 9.

And

DEF

K

But A" is

also the centre of the circle
is

ABC.

[Construction.

Therefore the same point which cut one another

the

centre of two

circles

which

is

impossible.

[III. 5.

"\^'herefore,

one circumference &c.
11.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

THEOREM.

If two circles touch one another internally, the straight line which joins their centres, being produced, shall pass through the point of contact.
Let the two
circles

nally at the point

A

ABC\ ADE touch
let

;

and

F

one another be the centre of the

intercircle

ABC, and G
For,

the centre of the circle the straight line which joins the centres F, G, being produced, shall . pass through the point
:

ADE

A

not, let if possible, as
if

pass otherwise, FGDH, and join
it

AF,AG.
Then, because greater than AF,

AG,

GF

are

[I. 20.

and AF'i?, equal to
therefore

HF, [I. Def. 15. AG, GF, are greater

than

HF.

Take away the common part
therefore the remainder

GF;
is

AG

greater than the remainder
[I.

HG.
But

AG is equal to DG.
is

Definition 15.

Therefore Z>^

greater than

HG, the less than the greater

which

is

impossible.

Therefore the straight line which joins the points F, (7, being produced, cannot pass otherwise than through the
point

A,
must pass through A.
q.e.d.

that

is, it

^Yherefore, if two circles kc.

C—

;

84

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
12.

THEOREM.

If two circles touch one another externally^ the straight line ichich joins their centres shall pass through the 2yoint of contact.
Let the two
circle

circles

ABC,
;

ternally at the point

A

and

the centre of the circle ABC, and the straight line which joins the points F, G, shall pass through the point A,
For, if not, let it pass otherwise, if possible,

G

ADE touch one another exlet F be the centre of the
ADE:

/fT

^"^^

E

as

FCDG,

and

join

FA, AG.

Then, because i^ is
the centre of the circle ABC, is equal ioFC', [l.Dcf.lb.

FA

and because is the centre of the circle ADE,
therefore

G

GA

is ecjual

to

GD

;

FA,

AG are equal to FC, DG.
FG is greater than
FA, AG.

[Axiom

2.

Therefore the whole

But

FG is also less than FA, AG-,
is

[I. 20.

which

impossible.

Therefore the straiglit line which joins the points F, G, cannot pass otherwise than through the point A,
that
is, it

must pass through A.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, iftico circles &c.

PROPOSITION
One
one,
circle

13.

THEOREM.

whether

it

cannot touch another at more points than touches it on the inside or outside.

if it be possible, let the circle EBF touch the ABC at more points than one; and first on the inside, at the points B, D. Join BD, and draw 6^// bisecting BD at right angles. 10, 11. Then, because the two points B, D arc in the circumference of each of the circles, the straight line BD falls

For,

circle

[I.

within each of them

[III. 2.

BOOK

111.

13.

85

H

—H

B'

and
line

tliereforo the centre of each circle is in the straight

67/ which bisects at right angles; \IU. 1, Coroh therefore (?// passes through the point of contact. [III. 11. But Gil docs not pass through the point of contact, because the points B^ are out of the line GH\

BD

D

which

is

absurd.

Therefore one circle cannot touch another on the inside at

more points than one. Xor can one circle touch another on the outside at more
points than one.
For,
circle
if it

A CK touch the circle yJi? 6^
A,
C.

be possible,

let

the

at the points

Join

AG.

Then, because the two points A^ G are in the circumference of the circle AGlv, the straight line which joins them, falls within the circle AGK; [III. 2.

AG

but the

circle

AGK is without the
-.16' is

circle

ABG]

[H)jputhcsis.

therefore the straight line
of the c\yq\o
circle

without the circle

ABG.
[III. 2.

But because the two points

ABG,

arc in the circumference the straight line ^-16' falls within the
xi,

G

.li^C
is

;

which

absurd.

Therefore one circle cannot touch another on the outside at more points than one.

And it has been shewn that one circle cannot touch another on the inside at more points than one.
Wherefore, one circle &c.
q.e.d.

;

;;

86

EUCLWS ELEMENTS,
PEOPOSITION
14.

THEOREM.

Equal straight lines in a circle are equally distant from the centime: and those 2chich are equally distant from, the centre are equal to one another.
Let the straight lines AB, CD in the circle ABDC, be equal to one another they shall bo equally distant from the centre.
:

Take E, the centre of the
circle

ABDC;

[III. 1.

and from

E

draw EF,

EG

per-

pendiculars to

AB, CD;

[I. 12.

and join EA^ EC.
Then, because the straight EF, passing through the centre, cuts the straight line AB, which does not pass through the
line

centre, at right angles,

it

also bisects

it

[III.
is

3.

therefore

AFh

equal to

FB, and

AB

double of

AF,

For the like reason But ABi?, equal to

CD is CD
;

double of CG.
[Hypothesis.

therefore yli^is equal to

CG.
[I.

[Axiom

7.

AE equal to CE, equal to the square on the square on AE
And
because
is is

Definition 15.

CE.
[J. 47.

But the squares on AF^
because the angle

AFE

FE are equal to the square on AE,
is

a right angle

and

for the like reason the squares

on CG,

GE are equal to

the square on

CE;
AF,

therefore the squares on

FE

on CG, GE,

are equal to the squares [Axiom 1.

But the square on ^i^ is equal to the square on CG, because AF'\s equal to CG
therefore tlie remaining square on maining square on GE;

FE is

equal to the re[Axiom 3.
straight

and therefore the straight
line

line

EF is equal to the

EG.
straiglit lines in

But

a circle are said to be equally distant

;

;

BOOK III.
ft'ora tlic

14, 15.

87
drawn
to

centre, wlien the perpendiculars

them

from the centre are equal
tJicrefore

[III. Dcfaiition 4.

AB, CD

are equally distant from the centre.

Next, let the straight lines from the centre, that is, let be equal to CD.
she^Mi, as before, that

BF be

AB, CD be
equal to

equally distant

BG:

AB shall

For, the same construction being made, it may be double is double of AF, and are equal to the of CG, and tliat the squares on BF, squares on BG, GO;

AB

CD

FA

is equal to the square on BG, but the square on [Hypothesis. is equal to because therefore the remaining square on FA is equal to the re[Axiom 3. maining square on GC, is equal to the straight and therefore the straight line

BF

BF

BG

AF

line

CG.
to

of

But AB was shewn CG.
Therefore

be double of

AF, and

CD

double
G.

AB

is

equal to

CD.
q.e.d.

[Axiom

"Wherefore, equal straight lines &c.

PROPOSITION

15.

THEOREM.

The diameter is the greatest straight line in a circle ; and, of all others, that which is iieai^er to the centre is always greater than one more remote; and the greater is 7iearer to the centre than the less.

B the centre and let BC be nearer to the centre than FG AD shall be gi-eater than -A B
;

Let

ABCD be a circle, of which yl2) is a diameter,
BC

and
;

any straight line which isnot a diameter, andi?(7 shall be greater than FG.

From

EH,

BK

draw the centre perpendiculars to
[I. 12.

B

BC, FG,

m^]o\\\BB,BC,BF.
to BB, and

AB is equal ED to BC, [l.Dcf. therefore AD is equal to BB, EC',
Then, because
1 5.

[Axiom

2.

;

88
but

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
BE,

EC are greater than BC
AD'ib greater than BC.

[I. 20.

therefore also

is nearer to And, because the centre than FG, {Hypothesis.

BC

EH

is less

than

EK.

[lll.Def.

5.

Now it may be shewn, as in the preceding proposition, that double is double of BH, and of FX, and that the squares on are equal to the squares EIT,

FG

BC

HB

on

EK, KF.

But the square on
because

EH

is less
;

than the square on
is

EK,

EH

is less

than

therefore the square on

EK HB

greater than the square

on

KF)

and therefore the straight line straight line ;

FK
BC

BH
:

is

greater than the

and therefore BCis greater than FG.
shall be nearer be greater than than FG, that is, the same construction shall be less than EK. being made, is greater is greater than FG, For, because than FK. are equal to the squares on But the squares on BH,

Next,

let

FG BC

to the centre

EH

BC

BH

HE

FK, KE;
is greater than the square on FK, greater than FK; therefore the square on is less than the square on and therefore the straight line is less than the straight

and the square on
because

BH

BH

is

HE

EH

KE

;

line

EK.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, the diameter &c.

PROPOSITION

IG.

THEOREM.

The straight line draicn at right angles to the diameter of a circle from the e.rtremity <f it, falls without the circle; and no straight line can he drawn from the
extremity, between that straight line ence, so as n>jt to cut the circle.

and

the circumfer-

;

;

;

BOOK III.
AB, from
sible,

16.

89

Let ABC be a circle, of which D is the centre and AB a diameter: the straight line drawn at right angles to
its

extremity A, shall

fiill

without the

circle.

For, if not, let it fall, if within the circle, as AG^ and draw io the point (7, where it meets the circumference.

pos-

DC

Then, because

DA
[I.

is

equal to

DC,
the angle angle DGA.

Definition 15.

DAG

is

equal to the
[I. 5.
is,

But the angle

DAG

a right angle
is

[Hypoifiesis.

therefore the angle

DGA

a right angle

and therefore the angles DAG, right angles; which is impossible.

DGA
A

are equal to two
[F. 17.

AB does not fall
And
not
fall

Therefore the straight line drawn from within the circle.
in the

at right angles to

same mamier
fall

it

may be shewn
circle, as

that

it

does

on the circumference.
it

Therefore

must

without the

AE.

and the circumferAlso between the straight line ence, no straight line can be drawn from the point A, which
does not cut the
For,
if

AE

circle.

possible,

\QiAFhQ between

them;

and from the centre

12. DG perpendicular to AF; let DG meet the circumference at //. Then, because the angle DGA is a
[I.

D

draw

right angle,

[Construction.
is less

the angle angle;
therefore

DAG

than a right
[I. IT.

DA is gi*eaterthanZ>G^. [1.19.
is

But

DA

equal to DII\

[I. Definition 15.

therefore DIl is greater than which is impossible.

DG, the less than the greater

Therefore no straight lino can bo drawn from the point between and the circumference, so as not to cut the

A

AE

circle.

;

;

90

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
Wherefore, the straight line &c.
q.e.d.

Corollary. From this it is manifest, that the straight line ^vllich is drawn at right angles to the diameter of a circle from the extremity of it, touches the circle {lll.Def.'l. and that it touches the circle at one point only, because if it did meet the circle at two points it would fall
;

within

it.

[HI.

2.

Also it is evident, that there can be but one straight which touches the circle at the same point.

line

PROPOSITION

17.

PROBLEM.

To draio a straight line from a given point, either without or in the circumference, ichich shall touch a gicen
circle.

BCD:
circle,

be without the given circle given point a straight line, which required to draw from shall touch the given circle.
First, let the
it is

A

A

Take E, the centre of the
[III.
-4 i5' cutting
1.

and join

the circum-

ference of the given circle at and from the centre E, at the distance EA, describe the circle AFG; from the jwint Z> draw at right angles to EA,il.ll.
;

D

DF

cutting the circumference of the given circle at shall touch the circle join AB.

and join

EF AB

B

;

BCD.

For, because equal to EF,

E
is

is

the centre of the circle

AFG, EA
BCD,

is

[I.

Definition 15.

And because equal to ED.
FE, ED,

E

the centre of the circle

EB

is

[I.

Definition 15.

Therefore the two sides each to each

AE, EB

arc equal to the two sides

and the angle at

FED)

E

is

common

to the

two triangles

AEB,

therefore the triangle is equal to the triangle FED, and the other angles to the other angles, each to each, to which the equal sides are opposite [I. 4.

AEB

;

;

BOOK in.
therefore the angle
is

17, 18.

91

ABE equal to the angle FDE. [Construction. But the angle FDE is a right angle [Axiom a right angle. therefore the angle ABE
is

1.

but the straight lino drawn at right angles to a diameter of a circle, from the
is
;

And

EB

drawn from the centre
it,

extremity of
therefore

touches the circle;

[III. 16, Corollary.

AB touches the circle.
is

And

^^

drawn from the given point A.

q.e.f.

the given point be in the circumference of the at to the centre E, and the point Z>, draw right angles to DE; then Z>>P touches the circle. [III. 16, Cor.

But

if

circle, as

DE

EF

PROPOSITION
If a straight

18.

THEOREM.

from

line touch a circle the straight line draicn the centre to the point of contact shallhe perpendicular to the line touching the circle.

at the touch the circle Let the straight line point C; take F^ the centre of the circle ABC, and draw shall be perpendicular to DE. the straight line EC:

DE

ABC

FC

be drawn For if not, let dicular to DE, meeting the circumference at B.
Then, because
angle,

EG

from the point

F perpen-

FGC is a right
[ITij2:>oth€sis.
;

FCG is an

acute angle

[I. 17.

and the greater angle of every triangle is subtended by the
greater side
therefore
;

[I.

19.

FC is greater than FG. FC is equal to FB DcfnHlon therefore FB is greater than FG, the less than the greater
But
;

[I.

ir>.

which

is

impossible.

Therefore

FG

is

not perpendicular to
it

DE.
that no other

In the same manner
straight line therefore

from

EC is

perpendicular to perpendicular to DE.
is

F

may be shewn

DE, but FC;

"Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

q.k.d.

.

92

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
19.

THEOREM.

If a straight line touch a circle, and from the point of contact a straight line he drawn at right angles to the touching line, the centre of the circle shall he in that line.
touch the circle ABC at C, Let the straight line let CA be drawn at right angles to DE: tlio and from G centre of the circle shall be in CA. be For, if not, if possible, let the centre, and join CF.

DE

F

Then, because

ABC, and

FC

DE touches the circle
is

drawn from the

centre to the point of contact, [III. is perpendicular to

DE

FC
18.

;

thereforethe anglei^C^is a right angle-

But the angle
angle;

ACE

is

also a right
[^Uonatruction.

is equal to the angle therefore the angle the less to the greater ; which is impossible.

FCE

ACE,

[Ax. 11

Tlierefore i^is not the centre of the circle

ABC.

In the same manner
out of

it
;

CA

is

the centre

that no other point therefore the centre is in CA.
q.e.d.

may be shewn

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

PROPOSITION
The
angle at the centre
at the circumference arc.

20.

THEOREM.
is

of a circle

double of the angle

on the same

base, that is,

on the same

Let ABC be a circle, and BEC an angle at the centre, and BAC an angle at the circumference, which have the same arc, BC, for their base the angle BEC shall be
:

double of the angle BAC. Join AE, and produce

it

to F.

First let the centre of the circle be witiiin the angle BAC. is equal to Then, because is equal to the EB, the angle [I. 5. angle

EBA

EA EAB

;

therefore the angles EAB, B. are double of the an"rle

EBA

EA

;

BOOK III.
therefore the angle

20, 21.

93
;

But the angle BEF\^ equal to the angles EAB, EBA

[1. 32.

BEFis

double of the angle

EAB.

For the same reason the angle angle ^^C'.
Therefore the whole angle angle i?ylC'.

FEC is

double of the

BEG

is

double of the whole

Next, let tlie centre of the be "without the angle BAG.
case, that the angle

circle

Then it maybe shewn, as inthe first

FEG is double of

the angle FAG, and that the angle FEB, a part of the first, is double of the angle FAB, a part of the other
therefore the remaining angle double of the remaining angle

BEG is
BAG.
q.e.d.

"Wliercfore, th^ angle at the centre Sec.

PROPOSITION
The angles in
one another.
the

21.

THEOREM.
circle

same segment of a

are equal

to

Let ABGD be a circle, and BAD, BED angles in the same segment BAED: the angles BAD, BED shall be
equal to one another.

Take

F

the centre of the circle
[til.
1.

ABGD.
First let the segment greater than a semicircle.

BAED be

Join

BF, DF.

Then, because the ^ugloBFD is is at the centre, and the angle at the circumference, and that they have the same arc for their base, namely,

BAD

BGD

;

therefore the angle

For the same reason the angle

BED is double of the angle BAD.[]U.20. BED is double of the anirle

BED.
Therefore the'angle

BAD

is

equal to the angle

BED. [Ax.

7.

9-1

EUGLIUS ELEMENTS.
Next, let the segment

BAED

be not greater than a

semicircle.

Draw ^i^
duce
C,
it

is the segment greater than a semicircle, and therein it, are fore the angles BAC, equal, by the first case.

and Then

to the centre, and proto meet the circmnference at join CE.

BAEC

BEG

For the same reason, because the segment CAED is greater than a
semicircle, the angles

CAD, CED

are equal.
is

Therefore the whole angle angle BED.

BAD

equal to the whole [Axiom 2.
q.e.d.

"Wherefore, the angles in the

same segment &c.

PROPOSITION

22.

THEOREM.

The opposite angles of any quadrilateral Jigure inscribed in a circle are together equal to tico right angles.
Let
circle

ABCD be a quadrilateral figure inscribed in the ABCD any two of its opposite angles shall be toge:

ther equal to two right angles.

Join^C, ^Z>.
Then, because the three angles
of every triangle are together equal to two right angles, [I. 32.

the three angles of the triangle CAB, namely, CAB, ACB, are together equal to two right
angles.

ABC
CDB,
because
[III. 21.

tlie angle / B is equal to the angle they are in the same segment CDAB;

But

C

and the angle

is equal to the angle they are in the same segment

ACB

therefore the two angles to the whole angle ADC.

ADCB CAB, ACB
;

ADB,

because

are together equal
[Axioin
2,

To each

of these equals

add the angle ABC-,

;

;

BOOK III.
therefore the three angles CAB^ the two angles ABO, ADC.

22,23.

95
are equal to

ACB, ABG,

But the angles two right angles

CAB, ACB,

ABC

arc together equal to
[I. 32.

therefore also the u,ug\es two right angles.

ABC,

ABC are together equal to

BAD, BCD

In the same manner it may bo shown that the angles are together equal to two right angles.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, the opposite angles &c.

PROPOSITION

23.

THEOREM.

On the same straight line, and on the same side of it, there cannot he two similar segments of circles, not coinciding with one another.
If
circles
it

the same side of

be possible, on tho same straight line AB, and on it, let there be two similar segments of ACB, ADB, not coinciding with one another.

Then, because the circle

at the two cuts the circle points A, B, they cannot cut one another at any other point; [III.IO.

ADB

A CB

therefore

one of the

segments

must

fall

ACB fall

within the other; let within ADB; draw the

straight line

BCD, and join AC, AD.

Then, because ACB, are, by hypothesis, similar segments of circles, and that similar segments of circles
contain equal angles,
therefore the angle
[III. Definition 11.

ADB

ACB is

equal to the angle

ADB
is

;

that is, the exterior angle of the triangle the interior and opposite angle

ACD

equal to
[I. 16.

which

is

impossible.
q.e.p.

Wherefore, on the same straight line &c.

96

EUGLinS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
24,

THEOREM.

Similar segments of
equal
to

circles

on equal straight lines arc
circles

one another.

Let

AEB, CFD

equal straight lines AB, equal to the segment CFD.

be similar segments of CD the segment
:

AEB

shall

on the be

For if the segment

AEB
the
C,

e
/_
n^

be applied to

segment

CFD,

so that the point

A

-^

B

may be on
point equal to
line

the point
lino on the straight line CD, the coincide with the point D, because is

and the straight

B

AB

will

AB

CD.

Therefore, the straight line vli? coinciding with the straight CD, the segment must coincide with the seg-

AEB
it.

ment
and
is

CFD

;

[III. 23.

therefore equal to

"Wherefore, similar segments

&;c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

25.

PROBLEM.

A segment of a circle being given, to describe the circle of which it is a segment. Let ABChQ the given segment of a circle it is required to describe the circle of which it is a segment.
:

//
A
Bisect

D
^(7 at

_\

D;
io

[T. 10.

from the point D draw DB at right angles

AC

\

[1. 11.

and join

AB.

First, let the angles ^i?i),

BAD, be equal to one another.
[I. 6.

DA but DA is equal to DC
Then
is

DB

equal to

;

;

[Cointruction.

therefore

DB

is

equal to

DC.

[Axiom,

1,

;

;

; ;

hOOK III.
and therefore

25.

97

Therefore the three straight lines DA,DB,DCsirQ all equal is the centre of the circle. [III. 9. From the centre D, at the distance of any of the three DA, DB, DC, describe a circle; this will pass through is a segment the other points, and the circle of which is described

D

ABC

is

And because the centre a semicircle.
Next,
let the angles

D

is

in

AC, the segment

ABC

ABD,

BAD
;

be not equal to one

another.

BAE equal to the angle ABD
produce

At

the point A, in the straight line

AB, make

the angle
[I. 23.

BD,

if

necessary, to

meet

AE at E, and join EC.
is

Then, because the angle

BAE
CD,

equal to the angle
[Construction.
[I. 6.

ABE,

EA
And
and

is

equal to because
is

EB.
is

AD

equal to
to the

[Construction.

DE

common

two triangles

ADE, CDE

;

are equal to the two sides CD, DE, the two sides AD, each to each and the angle is equal to the angle CDE, for each of them is a right angle [Construction. is equal to the base therefore the base [I. 4.
;

DE ADE
EA

EC

EA was shewn to be equal to EB therefore EB is equal to EC.
But
Therefore the three straight lines

[Axiom
all

1.

EA, EB,EC^rQ
circle.

equal
9.

and therefore

E is the

centre of the

[HE.

From the centre E, at the distance of any of the three EA, EB, EC, describe a circle this will pass through the
;

other points, and the circle of which
described.

ABC

is

a segment

is

bo greater evident, that if the angle falls without tlic segBAD, the centre ment ABC, which is therefore less than a semicircle ; but the centre be less than the angle if the angle fiills within the segment ABC, which is therefore gi'cater
it is

And

than the angle

E

A BD

E

ABD

BAD,

than a semicircle.
"Wherefore, a segment of a circle heing giten, the circle has been described of ichich it is a segment, q.e.f.
7

98

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
26.

THEOREM.
arcs,

In equal circles, equal angles stand on equal whether they he at the centres or circumferences.
be equal circles and let BGG, C, be equal angles in them at their centres, and equal angles at their circumferences the arc be equal to the arc ELF.
Let

ABC,

DBF

;

BA

:

EHF EDF BKC shall

Join

BC, EF.

Then, because the circles

ABC,

DEF are equal,
;

[Hyp.

the straight lines from their centres are equal [III. Def. 1. therefore the two sides BG, are equal to the two sides EH, HF, each to each

GC

;

and the angle

at

G

is

equal to the angle at

H

;

{Hypothesis.
[I. 4.

therefore the base

BC is equal to the base EF.
-L-l

Andbecause the angle at is equal to the angle at D, [Hyp. the segment i?yl(7is similar to the segment EDF; [III.Z></.11. and they are on equal straight lines BC, EF. But similar segments of circles on equal straight lines are
equal to one another;
therefore the segment
is,

[III- 24.

But the

\rhole circle

BAG equal to the segment EDF. ABC is equal to the whole circle
[Hypothesis.

DEF;
therefore the remaining segment

maining segment
therefore

ELF the arc BKC is equal
;

BKC is equal
to the arc
q.e.d.

to the re-

[Axiom

3.

ELF.

AVherefore, in equal circles &c.

BOOK III.
PKOPOSITIQN
2r.

27.

99

THEOREM.

In equal circles, the angles which stand on equal arcs are cqiud to one anotJier, \chether they he at the centres or circumferences.
bo equal circles, aiicl let the angles and the angles BAC, at their circumferences, stand on equal arcs BC, EF: the angle BGC shall be equal to the angle EHF, and the angle Let

BGC\

EHF at

ABC,

DEF

their centres,

EDF

BAC equal to the angle EDF.

be equal to the angle EHF, it is If the angle manifest that the angle is also equal to the angle

BGC

BAC

EDF.

[III. 20,

Axiom

7.

be But, if not, one of them must be the greater. Let the greater, and at the point G, in the straight line BG, [I. 23. make the angle equal to the angle EHF.

BGC

BGK

and that

Then, because the angle is, equal to the angle iS'i/jP, in equal circles equal angles stand on equal arcs, \lll. 26. "vvhen they are at the centres,
therefore the arc

BGK

BK
BK

is

equal to the arc
to the arc

EF.
[Jfi/pothcsis.

But the arc
.

EF is equal
is
;

BC;
BC,

therefore the arc

equal to the arc
'vvhieli is

[Axiom

1.

the less to the greater

impossible.

Therefore the angle that is, it is equal to

BGC is not unec^ual to the angle EHF,
it.

the angle at .1 is half of the angle angle at is half of the angle

And

D

BGC, and
D.

the
7.

EHF;

[III. 20.

therefore the angle at

A

is e<iual

to the angle at
Q.E.r.

[Ax.

"Wherefore, in equal circles &c.

100

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
28.

THEOREM.

In equal circles, equal
less.

the greater equal to the greater,

straight lines cut off equal arcs, and the less equal to the

Let

ABC,

DEF

be equal

circles,

and EC,

straight lines in them, which cut off the two greater arcs BAC, EDF, and the two less arcs BGC, the greater arc shall be equal to the greater arc EDF, and the less arc equal to the less arc EIIF.
\

BAG BGG

EF equal EHF

Take K, L, the centres of the

circles,

[III. i.

and join BK, KG, EL, LF.
Then, because the circles are equal,
the straight lines from their centres are equal
therefore the two sides
;

[Hypothesis.
[III. Def. 1.

BK,

KG are equal to the two sides
[I. 8.

EL, LF, each
and the base

to each

;

BG is equal to the base EF; [Hypothesis. therefore the angle BKG is equal to the angle ELF.
in equal circles equal angles stand they are at the centres,

But

on equal

arcs,

when

[III. 26.

therefore the arc

BGG is equal to the arc EHF. But the circumference ABGG is equal to the
DEHF',
is

ference

circum[HypothuU.

therefore the remaining arc i?^ (7
vccc

EDF.
"Wherefore, in equal circles &c.

equal to the remaining [Axiom 3.

Q

e.d.

;

;

BOOK in.
PROPOSITION
In equal
circles^
29.

29, 30.

101

THEOREM.

equal arcs are SKhtended by equal

straight lines.

BC

be equal circles, and let BGG, EIIF Let ABC, be equal ares in them, and join BC, EF\ the straight line shall be equal to the straight line EF.

DBF

Take
and join

A",

Z, the centres of the circles,

[III. 1.

BK, KG, EL, LF,
the
arc

Then, because

BGG

is

equal

to

the arc
[III. 27.

EHF,
tlie

[Hi/pothcsk.

angle

BKG is equal to the angle ELF.
ABC, DEFslvc
BK, AX' are
;

And

because the circles

equal, [Hypothesis.
[III. Def. 1.

the straight lines from their centres are equal
therefore
tlie

two sides
to each

equal to the two sides

EL, LF, each

and they contain equal angles
therefore the base i?(7is equal to the base
AVhcreforo, in equal circles &c.
q.e.d.

EF.

[T. 4.

PROPOSITION
To
bisect

30.

PROBLEM.
divide
it

a given arc, that

is, to

into two equal

parts.

;

102
Let
Join
bisect
it

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

ADB be the given arc
AB\
at (7;
[1. 10.

:

it is

required to bisect

it.

from the point

C

right angles to the arc at D.
at the point

draw CD at ^i? meeting
[1. 11.

D
B

The arc ADB shall be bisected
D.
Join

AD, DB.

Then, because

AC

is,

equal to CB,

[Construction.
;

CD is common to the two triangles ACD, BCD the two sides AC, CD are equal to the two sides BC,
and
each to each

CD,

and the angle is equal to the angle each of them is a right angle ;
therefore the base

ACD

BCD,
BD.

because

[Construction.
[I. 4.

AD

is

equal to the base

But equal straight lines cut off equal arcs, the greater equal to the greater, and the less equal to the less ; [III. 28.
and each of the arcs ference, because DC,
therefore the arc

AD,
if

DB
is

is less

produced,

is

than a semi-circuma diameter [III. 1. Cor.
;

AD h equal to the arc DB.
bisected at

Wherefore the given arc

D.

q.e.f.

PROPOSITION

31.

THEOREM.

In a circle the angle in a semicircle is a right angle; tut the angle in a segment greater than a semicircle is less tJmn a right angle ; and the angle in a segment less than a semicircle is greater than a right angle.
be a circle, of which is a diameter the centre; and draw <7J, dividing the circle into the segments ABC, ADC, and join BA, AD, DC: the angle in the semicircle sliall be a right angle; but the angle in the segment ABC, which is greater than a
Let

and

E

ABCD

BC

BAC

;

BOOK in.
semicircle, shall be less than a and the angle in right angle
;

31.

103

the segment ADC, which is less than a semicircle, shall be greater than a right angle.

Join A E, and produce

BA to F.
equal to

Then, because

EA
[I.

is

EB,
the angle angle ^5.4;
and, because the angle

Definition 15.

EAB

is

equal to the
[1.5.

EA is equal to EG, EAC is equal to the angle EGA

;

therefore the whole angle

BAG is equal to
;

ABG, AGB. But FAG, the
to the

the two angles, [Axiom 2.

exterior angle of the triangle

ABG, is
FAG,
[T.

equal
[I. 32.

two angles

ABG, A GB
is
is

therefore the angle i?.l(7

equal to the angle
a right angle.

[Ax.

1.

and therefore each qf^them

D(f. 10.

Therefore the angle in a semicircle

BAG\%

a right angle.
triangle
[I. 17.

And because the two angles ABG, BAG, of the ABG, are together less than two right angles,
and that BAGh^is been shewn to be a right angle,
therefore the angle

ABG is less than a right
ABG,

angle.

Therefore the angle in a segment semicircle, is less than a right angle.

greater than a

And because ABGD is a quadrilateral figure in a circle, any two of its opposite angles are together equal to two
right angles;
[111.22.

therefore the angles right angles.

^^C,

ADG

arc together equal to two
right

But the angle
angle

ABG has been shewn to be less than a

therefore the angle

ADG

is

greater than a right angle.

Therefore the angle in a segment ADG, less than a semicircle, is greater than a right angle.

Wherefore,

tite

angle &c.

q.e.d.

;

104

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

Corollary. From the demonstration it is manifest that if one angle of a triangle be equal to the other two, it is a right angle.

For the angle adjacent to angles
angles.

it is

equal to the same two
[I. 32.

and when the adjacent angles are

equal, they are right
[I.

Definition 10.

PROPOSITION

32.

THEOREM.

If a straight line touch a circle, and from the point of contact a straight line he drawn cutting the circle, the angles ichich this line makes with the line touching the circle shall he equal to the angles which are in the alternate
touch the circle at the point B, and from the point let the straight line be drawn, cutting the circle the angles which makes with the touching line EF, shall be equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle that is, the angle Z>^i^ shall be equal to the angle in the segment BAD, and the angle shall be equal to the angle in the seg-

segments of the circle. Let the straight line

EF
:

B

ABCD BD BD

;

DBE

ment BCD.
at right angles to

From the points draw BA EF, [1. 11.

and take any point C in the arc BDf and join AD, DC, CB.
line

is drawn at right angles to the touching line from the point of contact B,

EF ABCD and BA

Then, because the straight touches the circle at the point B, {Hyp.

[Comtruction.
is in

therefore the centre of the circle

BA.

[III. 19.
is

Therefore the angle
angle.

ADB,

being in a semicircle,

a right

[III. 31.

Therefore the other two angles
right angle.

BAD,

ABD are equal to a
[I. 32.

But

ABF

is

also a right angle.

[Construction.

Therefore the

BOOK III. 32,33. equal to the angle ABF
is

105
angles

BAD,
angle

ABD.
From
each of these equals take away the

common

ABD;
therefore the remaining angle ing angle BAD,

DBF

is

equal to the remain[Axiom 3.
circle.

which

is

in the alternate

segment of the
is

And

because

ABCD
DBF,

the opposite angles
right angles.

BAD, BCD

a quadrilateral figure in a circle, are together equal to two
[III. 22.

But the angles
right angles.

DBE

are together equal to two
[I. 13.

Therefore the angles angles BAD, BCD.

DBF,

DBE are together equal to the
been shewn equal to the angle

And

the angle

DBF has

BAD;
therefore the remaining angle maining angle BCD,

DBE

is

equal to the re[Axiom 3.

which

is

in the alternate

segment of the

circle.

"Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

q.e.d.

PKOPOSITION

33.
to

PROBLEM.
describe a segment of a
to

On
angle.

a given straight line

circle, contaiiiing

an angle equal

a given

rectilineal

rectilineal angle

the given straight line, and C the given it is required to describe, on the given straight line A /i, a segment of a circle containing an angle equal to the angle C.

Let

AB

hci

:

First, let the angle

C

be a right angle. Bisect at F, [1. 10. and from the centre F, at

AB

the distance FB, describe the semicircle AHB.

Then the angle

AHB
[111. 31.

in a semicircle is equal to the right angle C,

;

106

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

But if the angle C bo not a right angle, at the point A, in the straight line AB, make the angle equal to the angle C\ [I. 23.
from
jthe point A, draw at right angles to AD;\l.l\.

BAD
AE
FG

bisect

^i? at

i?';

[1. 10.

from the point F, draw
at right angles to

^^; [1. 11.

and join GB.
is, Then, because [Const. equal to BF, is common to the and

AF

two triangles ^i^(5^, BFG\ the two sides A F, FG are equal to the two sides

FG

BF, FG,
and the

each to each

angle equal to the angle
therefore the base

AFG is BFG
;

[I.

Definition 10.
;

AG\9, equal
circle

to the base

BG

[T. 4.

and therefore the
distance

GA, will

described from the centre G, at the pass through the point B.
let it

Let

this circle

be described; and

be AIIB.

The segment

AHB

shall

contain an angle equal to the

given rectilineal angle C. Because from the point A, the extremity of the diameter [Construction. is drawn at right angles to AE, A E,

AD

therefore

[III. 16. Corollary. AD touches the circle. drawn from the point of contact A, And because AB equal to the angle in the alternate the angle DAB
is,

is

segment AIIB.

[III. 32.
is

But the angle

DAB

equal to the angle C.

[Comt.r.

Therefore the angle in the segment angle G.

AIIB

is

equal to the [Axiom 1.

Wherefore, on Ihc given straight line AB, the segment of a circle has been described, containing an angle equal to the given angle G. q.e.f.

AIIB

BOOK III.

34,36.

107

PROPOSITION

34.

PBOBLEM.

From a given circle to cut off a segment containing an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle.
lineal angle

the given rectithe given circle, and required to cut off from the circle a segment containing an angle equal to the angle D.

Let

ABC be
:

D

it is

ABC

Draw
line circle

EF touching ABC at
FBC

the straight the the
[III. 17.

point i?;
straight line

and at the point i> ,in the

BF, make
equal
[T. 23.

the angle to the angle D.

The segment BA (7 shall
contain an angle equal to the angle D.

Because the straight line EF touches the and J56'is drawn from the point of contact B,
therefore the angle alternate segment

circle

ABC,

[Constr.

FBC is equal to the angle in the [III. 32. BAC of the circle. But the angle FBC is equal to the angle D. [Construction. Tlierefore the angle in the segment BAC is equal to the
angle
Z>.

[Axiom

1.

BAC

AVhcrcfore, froyn the given circle ABC, the segment has heen cut off, containing an angle equal to the
q.e.f.

giren angle D.

PROPOSITION

3."^.

THEOREM.

If tico straight lines cut one another within a circle, the rectangle contained hy the segments of one of them shall be equal to the rectangle contained bg the segments of the other.

108

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

Let the two straight lines AC, the point E, within the circle tained by AE, ^(7 shall be equal to the rectangle contained by BE, ED.

A BCD

BD
:

cut one another at the rectangle con-

liA (7and both pass through the centre, so that is the centre,

BD

E

it is

ED

evident, since EA, EB, EC^ are all equal, that the rectangle AE, is equal to the rect-

EC

angle

BE, ED.

But let one of them, BD, pass through the centre, and cut the other AC, which does not pass through the centre, at right angles, at the point E. Then, if be bisected at F, is the centre of the circle join AF.

BD

ABCD;

F

Then,
line

BD

because the straight which passes through

A C, which does not

AE

the centre, cuts the straight line pass through the centre, at right angles at the point E, {Hypothesis. is equal to EC. [III. 3.

And because the straight line is divided into two equal parts at the point F, and into two unequal parts at the point E, the rectangle BE, ED, together with the square on EF, is equal to the square on FB, [II. 5. that is, to the square on AF.
But the square on ^i^is equal to the squares onAE, EF.[J.'i7.
Therefore the rectangle

BD

BE, ED,

together with the square

on EF, is equal to the squares on AE, EF. [Axiom 1. Take away the common square on EF; then the remaining rectangle BE, ED, is equal to the remaining square on AE,
that
is,

to the rectangle

AE, EC.

Next, let BD, which passes through the centre, cut the other AC, which does not pass through the centre, at the point E, but not at right angles. Then, if be bisected at F, is the centre of the circle ^o'm AF, and from i^draw perpendicular to AC. [I. 12.

F

BD

ABCD;

FG

;

BOOK III.
Then

35.

109

AG\%

equal to

therefore the together with the square on EG, equal to the square on AG. [II.

GC] [III. 3. rectangle AE, EG,
is
5.

To each

of these equals

add the

square on then the rectangle AE, EC, together -with tlie squares on EG, GF, is equal to the squares on [Axiom 2. AG,GF.
;

GF

But the squares on EG,

GF
GF

arc equal to the square on

EF;
and the squares on AG,
are equal to the square on
[I.

AF.

47.

Therefore the rectangle AE, EC, together with the square on EF, is equal to the square on AF,
that
is,

to the square on

FB.

But the square on is equal to the rectangle BE, ED, together with the square on EF. [II. 5.
Therefore the rectangle

FB

AE, EC,

on EF, is equal to the rectangle the square on EF.

together with the square BE, ED, together with

Take away the common square on
then the remaining rectangle remaining rectangle BE, ED.

EF
EC
is

AE,

equal to the [Axiom 3.

Lastly, let neither of the straight lines

AC,

BD

pass

through the centre.

Take the centre F, and through E, the
of the draw the diameter

[III. 1.

intersection straight lines ylC, BD,

GEFH.

Then, as has been shewn, the rectangle GE, EH. is equal to the rectangle AE, EC, and also to the rectangle BE,

ED

;

therefore the rectangle AE, is equal to the rectangle BE,

EC
ED.
q.e.d.

[Axiom

1.

Wherefore, if two straight lines &c.

no

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
36.

THEOREM.

Tf from any point tcithout a circle tico straight lines he draicn, one of which cuts the circle, and the other touches it; the rectangle contained hif the ichole line which cuts the circle, and the imrt (f it without the circle, shall he equal to the square on the line ichich touches it.

D be any poiut witliout the circle ABC, and let DB be two straight Hues drawn from of whicli DCA cuts the circle aud DB touches it: the rectangle AD, DC shall be equal to the square on DB.
Let

DCA,

it,

First, let pass through the centre E, aud join EB.

DCA

Then

EBD is a right angle. [III.
EC

1 8.

because the straight line A C is bisected at E, aud produced to D, the rectangle AD, Z>6Hogether Avith the square on is equal to the square on ED. [II. 6.

And

But is equal to therefore the rectangle AD, together with the square on equal to tlie square on ED.
;

EC

EB

EB is

DC

But the square on is equal to the squares on EB, BD, because
on

ED

EBD is a right angle.
EB

[I. 47.

Therefore the rectangle AD, DC, together with the square is equal to the squares on EB^ BD.

EB

Take away the common square on
then the remaining rectangle square on DB.

;

AD,

DC

is

equal to the [Axiom 3.

Xext

ABC;
from

let not pass through the centre of the circle take the centre ^; [III. 1.
[T. 12.

DCA

E draw EF perpendicular to AC',

ixn(\}omEB,EC,ED.
Then, because the straight line EFyvlndi passes through the centre, cuts the straight line A C, which does not pass through the centre, at right angles, it also bisects it ; [III. 3.
therefore

AFis

equal to FC.

BOOK III.

3G.

Ill

is bisected at i^, and And because the straight line produced to Z>, the rectangle AD, DC, together with the square on FC, is equal to the square on FD. [11. G. To each of these equals add the square on FE,

AC

Therefore the rectangle AD, together with the squares on CF, FE, is equal to the squares on DF, FE. [Axiom 2.

DC

But the squares on CF,

are equal to the square on CE, because CFE is a right angle ; [I. 47.

FE

and the squares on DF,
equal to the square on

FE

arc

DE.

Therefore the rectangle AD, DC, together with the square on CE, is equal to the square on DE.

But

CE is

equal to

BE]
is equal to the squares on DB, [I. 47. a right angle.

therefore the rectangle AD, DC, together with the square on BE, is equal to tlie square on DE.

But the square on

BE,

because

EBD

DE

is

Therefore the rectangle AD, DC, together with the square on BE, is equal to the squares on DB, BE.

Take away the common square on then the remaining rectangle AD, square on DB.
"Wherefore, iffrom

BE

;

DC

is

equal to the [Axiom 3.

any 2)0 tut &c.

Q.E.D.

Corollary.
without a
circle,

If from any point

there be drawn two straight hues cutting it, as
the rectangles contained

AB, AC,

by the whole lines and the parts of them without the circles are equal to one another namely, the
;

rectangle BA, is equal to tlie rectangle CA, AF; for each of them is equal to the square on the straight line AD, which touches the circle.

AE

;

112

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
37.

THEOREM.

If from any point icithout a circle there he drawn two straight lines, one of which cuts the circle, and the other ineefs it, and if the rectangle contained by the whole line which aits the circh, and the ly art of it without the circle, he equal to the square 07i the line ichich meets the circle, the line which 'ineets the circle shall touch it.
be taken "without the circle ABC, Let any point be dra^^^l, and from it let two straight lines DCA, meets it; and let of which A cuts the circle, and

D

DC

the rectangle

DB

shall

Draw

he equal to the square on AD, touch the circle. the straight line DE,
[III. 17.

DC

DB

DB

DB:

touching the circle -4 jB (7;
find i^the centre,

[III. 1.

and join FB, FD, FE. Then the angle FED
right angle.

is

a

[III. 18.

And
circle

because

ABC, and DCA cuts it, the rectangle AD, DC is equal [III. 36. to the square on DE. But the rectangle AD, DC is equal to the square on DB. [Hyp. Therefore the square on DE\^ equal to the square owDB-^Ax.l.
therefore the straight line

DE

touches the

DE

is

equal to the straight liuo
[I. Definition 15.

DB. And EF\9,

equal to

BF;
DE,

therefore the two sides

DB,

BF each to each
is

EF are e(iual to the two sides
two triangles DEF, DBF',
equal to the angle

;

and the base DF'\?> common
therefore the angle

to the

DEF
is is

is
;

DBF.

[I. 8.

But

DEF
is

a right angle

[Construction.

therefore also

DBF

a right angle. a diameter
;

And BF,
which
therefore

if

produced,
it

drawn

at right angles to a diameter

and the straight line from the
[III. 16. CoroUari/.

extremity of

touches the circle

DB touches the circle ABC.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, iffrom a point &c.

BOOK

IV.

DEFINITIONS.
1. RECTILINEAL figure is said to be inscribed in another rectilineal figure, when all the angles of the inscribed figure are on the sides of the

A

figure in wliich each.

it is

inscribed, each on

In like manner, a figure is said 2. to be described about another figure, when all the sides of the circumscribed figure pass through the angular points of the figure about -which it is described, each through each.
3.

A

be inscribed

rectilineal figure is said to in a circle, when all the

angles of the inscribed figure are on the circumference of the circle.
4.

A

rectilineal figure is said to

be

described about a circle, when each side of the circumscribed figure touches the circumference of the circle.
5. In like manlier, a circle is said to be inscribed in a rectilineal figure, when the circumference of the circle touches each side of the figure.

114

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

6. A circle is said to be described about a rectilineal figure, when the circumference of the circle passes through all the angular points of the figure about

which
7.

it is

described.
straight
line
is

A

said to be

placed in a circle, when the extremities of it are in the circumference of the
circle.

PROPOSITION

].

PROBLEM.

In a given circle, to 2)l(ice a straight line, equal to a given straight line, which is not greater than the diameter of the
line,

circle.

the given straight be the given circle, and not greater than the diameter of the circle: it is rc(]uired to place in the circle ABC, a straight line equal toi>.

Let

ABC

D

Draw BC,
the circle

B.

diameter of

ABC.
;

is equal to Z>, Then, if the thing required is done for in the circle ABC, a straight line is placed equal to Z>.

BC

But, if it than D.

is not,

-BC is greater
[Hypothesis.

[T. 3. D, and from the centre C, at the distance CE, describe the circle AEF, and join CA.

Make

CE equal

to

Then, because

C

is

the centre of the circle
[I.

AEF,

CA
but

is

equal to

CE;

Definition 15.

CE is

equal to

D

[Construction.
;

therefore

CA

is

equal to D.

[Axiom

1.

Wherefore, in the circle ABC, a straight live placed equal to the given straight line D, tchich greater than the diameter of the circle, Qe.f.

CA
is

is

not

2

BOOK IV,
PROPOSITION
In a given circh, a given triangle.
Let
2.

2, 3.

115

PROBLEM.
a triangle equiangular
to

to inscribe

ABC

be the given

circle,

and

triangle: it is required to inscribe in the circle triangle equiangular to the triangle DEF.

DEF the given ABC a

the straight touching the circle at the point
line

Draw

GAH

A

;

[III. 17.

at the point A, in the straight line AH, make the angle jSL-i (7 equal to

the angle i)^/"; [1.23.
and, at the point A, in the straight line AG, make the angle equal to the angle

and join BC. shall be the triangle required. Because touches the circle ABC, and is drawn from the point of contact A, [Construction.

DFE ABC

GAB

;

GAH

AC

therefore the angle HACis equal to the angle alternate segment of the circle.

ABC in the
[III. 32.
1.

But the angle
For the
angle

Therefore the angle

HA C is equal to the angle DEF. [Constr. ABC is equal to the angle DEF. [Ax. same reason the angle ACB is equal to the
BAC
is
[I. 82,

DFE.
equal to the reAxioms 11 and 3.

Therefore the remaining angle maining angle EDF.

"Wherefore t/ie triangle is equiangular to the triangle DEF, and it is inscribed in the circle ABC. q.e.f.

ABC

PROPOSITION
Al)Out
to

3.

PROBLEM.
a triangU equiangular

a

a given circle, to describe (jicen triangle,

S—

116
Let
angle
:

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
the given trirequired to describe a triangle about the circle equiangular to the triangle DEF.
it is

ABC be the given circle, and DEF

ABC,

Produce ^ii^ both ways to the points
the G, H; take centre of the circle

K

ABC;
from
radius

[III. 1.

A' draw

any
/\
f

KB;
\

make the angle BKA
equal
to
tlie

at the point A", in the straight line KB,

angle

DEC,

and the angle i?A'(7 equal to the angle DFH; [I. 23. and through the points A, B, C, draw the straight lines

LAM, MBN, NCL,
Because
to

touching the circle

LMN shall be the triangle required.
LM, MN,

ABC.

[IH.

17.

NL

touch the circle

ABC

at the

points A, B, Cj

[Construction.

which from the centre are dravm

KA, KB, KC,

therefore the angles atthepoints J.i?,(7areriglitangles.[III.18.

AMBK are together equal to four right angles,
for it

And

because the four angles of the quadrilateral figure

can be divided into two triangles, and that two of them KAM, 31 are right angles, therefore the other two A KB, are together equal to two right angles. [Axiom 3. But the angles DEG, arc together equal to two

KB

AMB

DEF

right angles.

[I, 13.

Therefore the angles

DEG, DEF;
of which the angle

A KB, AMB
is

are equal to the angles

AKB

equal to the angle

DEG

;

[Constr.

therefore the remaining angle maining angle DEF.

AMB

is

equal to the re[Axiom 3.

In the same manner the angle equal to the angle DFE.
Therefore the remaining remaining angle EDF.

LNM may be shewn to be equal to the angle MLN
is

[I. 32,

Ao^iom 11 and

3.

;

;

;

BOOK IV.
Wherefore the triangle
angle

4.

117
tri-

LMN
4.

is

equiangular to the

DEF, and
To

it is

described about the circle

ABC.

q.e.f.

PROPOSITION

PROBLEM.
:

inscribe a circle in a given triangle.
it is

Let be the given triangle a circle in the triangle ABC.
Bisect the angles

ABC

required to inscribe

ABC. ACB,
[I. 9.

by the straight lines BD, CD, meeting one another at the point

D;
and from
pendiculars to
is

D draw DE, DF, DG perAB, EC, CA.
[1. 12.

Then, because the angle

EBD
B
[Axiom
11.

equal to the angle FBD, for the angle is bisected by

ABC

BD,

[Construction.

and that the right angle

BED

is

equal to the right angle

BED;

therefore the two triangles EBD, have two angles of the one equal to two angles of the other, each to each; and the side BD, which is opposite to one of the equal angles in each, is common to both
therefore their other sides are equal
therefore
[I. 26.

FED

DE DE

is

equal to
equal to

DF.
is

For the same reason
Therefore
is

DG

equal to

DF.

[Axiom 1. Therefore the three straight lines DE, DF, are equal to one another, and the circle described from the centre D, at the distance of any one of them, will pass through the extremities of the other two

DG.

DG

it will touch the straight lines AB, EC, CA, because the angles at the points E, F, are right angles, and the straight line which is drawn from the extremity of a diameter, at right angles to it, touches the circle. [HI. 16. Cor. Therefore the straight lines AB, EC, CA do each of them touch the circle, and therefore the circle is inscribed in the

and

G

triangle
triangle,

ABC.
q.ef.

Wherefore a circle has been inscribed in the given

:

;

118

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
To
5.

PROBLEM.
it is

describe a circle about a given triangle.

Let

ABC

be the given triangle:

required to de-

Bisect

AB,

AC

at the points

D, E;
at

[f. 10.

from these points draw

DF, EF,

right

angles

to

AB,AC;
DF, EF,
for if they

[I. 11.

produced, will meet one another do not meet they are parallel,
is

which are at right angles to them are absurd let them meet at F, and join FA also if the point be not in BC, join BF, CF. Then, because ^i> is equal to BD, [Construction.
therefore
parallel
;

AB, AC,

which

;

F

and

DF

is

common, and

at right angles to

AB,
FB.
[I. 4,

therefore the base

FA

is

equal to the base

In the same manner it may be 8he^^^l that

FC is equal to FA.
[Axiom
1.

Therefore

and FA,

FB is equal to FC; FB, FC are equal to one another.

Tlierefore the circle described from the centre F, at the distance of any one of them, will pass through the extremities of the other two, and will be described about the
triangle

ABC.
has
been
described about the

Wiierefore a circle given triangle, q.e.f.

CoROLL.uiY. And it is manifest, that when the centre of the circle falls within the triangle, each of its angles is less than a right angle, each of them being in a segment greater than a semicircle and when the centre is in one of the sides of the triangle, the angle opi)osite to this side, being in a semicircle, is a right angle ; and when the centra
;

;

;

BOOK IV.
falls -svithout tlio triangle,

5,6.

119

beyond which

the angle opposite to the side being in a segment loss than a semi[III. 31. circle, is greater than a right angle. Therefore, conversely, if the given triangle be acuteif it be a angled, the centre of the circle falls -within it right-angled triangle, the centre is in the side opposite to the right angle and if it be an obtuse-angled triangle, the centre falls without the triangle, beyond the side opposite to the obtuse angle.
it is,
;
;

PEOPOSITION
To
Let

6.

PROBLEM.
it

inscribe a square in a giccn circle.

ABCD

bo the given

circle

:

is

required to

in-

scribe a square in

ABCD.
[III. 1,
1.

Draw two diameters ^ (7, BD
of the circle gles to one another

ABCD, at right an;

11.

and join AB, BC, CD, DA. The figure ABCD shall be the
square required.

Because
for

E

BE is equal to DE,
is

is

the centre

and that

EA

right angles to

BD

common, and
;

at

therefore the base

BA

is

equal to the base

DA.

[I. 4,

And for the same to BA, or DA.
It
is

reason

BC,

DC are

each of them equal

Therefore the quadrilateral figure
also rectangular.

ABCD is equilateral.

line being a diameter of the circle a semicircle; [Construction. therefore the angle is a right angle. [III. 31. For the same reason each of the angles ABC, BCD, A is a right angle

For the straight

ABCD,

BAD

BD

is

BAD

CD

therefore the quadrilateral figure

ABCD is rectangular.
;

And

it

has been shewn to be equilateral

therefore

it is

a square.

Wherefore a square has been inscribed in the gicen
circle,
q.e.f.

;

120

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
To
7.

PROBLEM.
required to

describe a square about a given circle.
it
''

be the given circle: Let describe a square about it.
of gles to one another;

ABGD

is

Draw two diameters AC, BD the circle ABCZ>, at right an[III. 1,
I.

11.

and through the points A,B,C, D, draw FG, GH, HK, A'^F touching
the
circle.

1

E

l1

D

[III. 17.

The

figure square required.

GHKF
E

shall

be the

v^
li

C

X

Because FG touches the circle A BCD, and to the point of contact A, from the centre
therefore the angles at
right angles.

EA is drawn
[Construction.
[III. 18.

A

are right angles.

For the same reason the angles

at the points B, C,

D are

And
and

because the angle
also the angle

AEB is a right angle, EBG is a right angle,
AC.

[Construction.

therefore

GHis

parallel to

[I. 28.

For the same reason ACis parallel to FE". In the same manner it may be shewn that each of the
lines

GF,
;

HK

is

parallel to

Therefore the figures

BD. GK, GC, CF, FB,

BK are parallelo[I. 34.

grams and therefore GF\?> equal to

HK,

and

GHio FK.

And
and that and that

because

AC\^

equal to

BD,

AC'\s, equal to each of the

BD

is

two GH, FK, equal to each of the two GF, HK,
is

therefore

GH,

therefore the quadrilateral figure
It
is

FK are each of them equal to GF, or HK; FGHK equilateral.
is

also rectangular.

For since AEBG
therefore

a parallel ogi\am,

and

AEB a right angle,
[I. 34.

AGB is also a right angle.
it

In the same manner

H, K,

F are right angles

may be shewn

that the angles at

;

BOOK IV,
therefore the quadrilateral figure

8.

121
is

FGHK

rectangular.
;

And
is

it

has been shewn to be equilateral

therefore

it

a square.
AVherefore a square has been described about the given
q.e.f.

circle,

PROPOSITION
To inscribe a
Let

8.

PROBLEM.
a given square.
it is

circle in

A BCD

be the given square:

required to

in-

scribe a circle in

A BCD.
AB,
;

AD at the points F, E 10. through E draw EH parallel to AB or DC, and through F draw /:a: parallel to AD or BC. 31.
[I.
[I.

Bisect each of the sides

AK, KB, AH, HD, AG, GC, BG, GD
Then each
of the figures
is

a right-angled parallelogram
their opposite sides are equal.

13

n

C
[I,

and

34.

And

because

AD
is is

is

equal to

AB,

[I. Definition 30.

and that
therefore

AE AE

half of

AD, and
AF.

AF half of AB,

{Constr.

equal to

[Axiom

7.

FG

Therefore the sides opposite to these are equal, namely, equal to GE. [I. 34.

In the same manner it may be shewn that the straight GH, are each of them equal to FG or GE. Therefore the four straight lines GE, GF, GH, are C(pial to one another, and the circle described from the centre G, at the distance of any one of them, will pass through the extremities of the other three
lines

GK

GK

;

touch the straight lines AB, BC, CD, DA, because the angles at the points E, F, H, are right angles, and the straight line wliich is drawn from the extremity of a diameter, at right angles to it, touches [III. 16. Corollary. the circle.

and

it will

K

of

Therefore the straight lines AD, BC, CD, DA do each them touch the circle. Wherefore a circle has been inscribed in the given
q.e.f.

square,

;

122

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PKOPOSITION
To describe a
9.

PROBLEM.
a given square.
it

circle about

bo the given square: Let describe a circle about ABCD.
Join AC, other at E.

ABCD

is

required to

BDj

cutting one an-

Then, because

AB

\s

equal to

AD,
and

AC

\9.

common

to the

two

tri-

angles

the the two sides Z>-4, u4(7each to each

BAC, DAC; two sides BA, AC are equal to

and the base

BCh equal to the base DC;
BACis
equal to the angle

therefore the angle

DAC,

[I. 8.

is and the angle In the same manner

BAD

bisected by the straight line

AC.

ABC, BCD, CD A \mesBD,AC.

it may be shewn that the angles are severally bisected by the straight

Then, because the angle

DAB

is

equal to the angle ABC,

and that the angle EAB is half the angle DAB, and the angle EBA is half the angle ABC,
therefore the angle

EAB is equal to the angle EBA

;

[Ax.

7.

[I. 6. and therefore the side EA is equal to the side EB. In the same manner it may be shewn that the straight lines EC, ED are each of them equal to EA or EB. Wherefore the four straight lines EA, EB, EC, ED arc equal to one another, and the circle described from the

centre E, at the distance of any one of them, will pass through the extremities of the other three, and will 1)0 described about the square ABCD.

AVherefore a circle has been described about the gicen q.e.f. square,

PROPOSITION

10.

PROBLEM.

To describe an isosceles triangle, having each of the angles at the base double of the third angle.

;

BOOK IV.
Take any straight
lino

10.

123

AB^ and

divide it at the point C> so that the rectanmay be equal gle AB, to the square on yi C; [II. 11.

BC

from the centre A, at the
describe the which place equal the straight line to AC, which is not greater than the diameter of the
distance
circle

AB,

BDE,

in

BD

circle

BDE]

[IV.

1.

and join DA. The triangle shall be such as is required; that is, each of the angles double of the third angle

ABB

ABD,

ADB

shall

be

BAD.

Join
circle

DC) and ACD.

about the triangle

ACD

describe the [IV. 5.

Then, because the rectangle square on AC, and that ylCis equal to BD,
therefore the rectangle

AB,

BC is

equal to the
[Comtimction.
[Construction.

AB,

BC

is

equal to the square

onBD.
And, because from the point B, without the circle ACD, are drawn to the circumference, two straight lines BCA, one of which cuts the circle, and the other meets it, and that the rectangle AB, BC, contained by the whole of the cutting line, and the part of it without the circle, is which meets it C(iual to the siiuarc on

BD

BD therefore the straight line BD touches the circle A CD. [I II. 3 And, because BD touches the circle ACD, and DC is
7.

drawn from the

jioint of contact

D,

is equal to the angle therefore the angle alternate segment of the circle.

BDC

DAC'm

the

[III. 32.

To each

of these

add the angle

CD A
is

;

therefore the whole angle

BDA
is

CDA, DAC. But the exterior angle
DAC.

equal to the two angles [Axiom 2.

BCD

equal to the angles

CDA^
[I. 32.

124

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

Therefore the angle equalto the angle ^CZ>.

BDA
is

is

[.4^.1.

But the angle
to the angle

BDA

equal
[I. 5.

DBA,
is

because xiD

equal to

AB.

Therefore each of the angles is equal to the angle BCD. [Axiom 6.

BDA, DBA,

DBC
but

And, because the angle
is

BCD,

equal to the angle the side is equal

DB

to the side

DC;
is

[I. 6.
;

DB Avas made equal to CA
CA
equal to

therefore

CD,

{Axiom

6.

and therefore the angle
Tlierefore the angles the angle CAD.

CAD is equal to the angle CDA. CAD, CD A are together double

[1. 5.

of

But the angle BCD is equal to the angles
Therefore the angle

CAD, CDA. [1. 32.

BCD is double of the angle CAD. And the angle BCD has been shewn to be equal to each of the angles BDA, DBA therefore each of the angles BDA, DBA is double of the
;

angle

BAD.

Wherefore an isosceles triangle has teen described, having each of the angles at the base double of the third
angle,
q.e.f.

PROPOSITION

11.

PROBLEM.

To inscribe an equilateral in a given circle.
Let
circle

and equiangular pentagon

ABCDE

inscribe an equilateral

be the given circle: it is required to and equiangular pentagon in the

ABCDE.

Describe an isosceles triangle, FGH, having each of the angles at G, H, double of the angle at F; l\\. 10, in the circle ABCDE, inscribe the triangle ACD, equiangular to the triangle FGH^ so that the angle may

CAD

;

BOOK IV.

11.

125

be equal to the angle at F, and each of the angles

A CD,
[IV.
2.

ADC equal to the angle at G or //;
and
therefore each of the angles ACD, is double of the angle bisect the angles ACD, by the straight

ADC

CAD

;

ADC
lines

[I. 9. CH, and join AB, BC, AE,
;

DB

ED.

shall be pentagon required.

ABCDE

the

For because each of is double of the angle CAD, the angles ACD, and that thcv are bisected bv the straight lines CE, DB, therefore the five angles ADB, BDC, CAD, DCE, ECA are equal to one another.

ADC

But equal angles stand on equal arcs therefore the five arcs AB, BC, CD, DE,
one another.

[III. 26.

EA

are equal to
[III. 29.

And equal arcs are subtended by equal straight lines therefore the five straight lines AB, BC, CD, DE,
equal to one another
;

;

EA

are

and therefore the pentagon
It is also equiangular.

ABCDE

is

equilateral.

For, the arc to each of these

AB is

equal to the arc
;

add the arc

therefore the whole arc arc BCDE.

BCD ABCD is

DE

;

equal to the whole
[A.xiom
2.

And
angle

BAE on

the angle the arc

AED

stands on the arc

ABCD, and

the

BCDE.
ABC, BCD,

Therefore the angle

AED is equal to the angle BAE. [III. 27.
is

AED or BAE; equiangular. therefore the pentagon ABCDE
CDE is equal to
And
it

Far the same reason each of the angles
the angle

has been shewn to be equilateral.
circle,
q.e.f.

Wherefore an equilateral and equiawjular i^entaifon
has been inscribed in the given

126

EUCLinS ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
12.

PROBLEM.

To describe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon
about a given
circle.

Let be the given circle: it is required to describe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about the circle ABCDE.
Let the angles of a pentagon, inscribed in the circle, by the last proposition, be at the points A, B, 6', Z>, E, so that the arcs AB, BG, CD, DE, are equal; and through the points A,

ABCDE

EA

B,

a

D. E, draw GIL,

UK,

KL, LM, MG,
circle.

touching the
[III. 17.

The

figure

GLLKLM shall be the pentagon required.

Take the centre F, and join FB, FK, FC, FL, FD.

ABCDE
centre,

Then, because the straight line at the point C to which

KL touches the circle FC is drawn from the
[III. IS.

therefore

FC is perpendicular to KL,
C
is

therefore each of the angles at
right angles.

a right angle.

For the same reason the angles

at the points B,

D

arc

And because the angle FCK\^ a right angle, the square on i^A^is equal to the squares on FC, CK. [I. 47. For the same reason the square on is equal to the scjuarcs on FB, BK.

FK

Therefore the squares on FC,

on FB,

BK;
BK,

CK are equal to the squares
[Axiom
;

1.

of which the square on

therefore the

FC is equal to the square on FB remaining square on CK is equal to the
[Axiom
line
3.

remaining square on
line

and therefore the straight

BK

CK is

equal to the straight

;

;

;

;

BOOK IV.
And
because

12.

127

FB is equal to FC,
to the

and FK'is common the two sides BF,
each to each

two triangles

BFK, CFK;
FK,

FK

are equal to the two sides CF,
to the base

and the base ^ATwas shewn equal
therefore the angle

CK

-,

BFKis

equal to the angle

CFK,

[T.

8.

and the angle

BKF to the angle CKF.

[I. 4.

Therefore the angle and the angle
angle

BFC is double of the angle CFK, BKC is double of the angle CKF.

For the same reason the angle CFD is double of the CFL, and the angle CLD is double of the angle CLF.

BG is equal to the arc CD, [III. 27. the angle BFC is equal to the angle CFD and the angle BFC is double of the angle CFIl^ and the angle CFD is double of the angle CFL
And
because the arc
;

;

therefore the angle

CFICis equal

to the angle

CFL.

[Ax.

7.

And

the right angle

FCIC is

equal to the right angle

FCL.

two triangles FCK, FCL, there are two angles of the one equal to two angles of the other, each to
Therefore in the

each

and the side FC, which
each,
is

is

adjacent to the equal angles in

common

to both

therefore their other sides are equal, each to each, and the third angle of the one equal to the third angle of the other
is equal to the straight line therefore the straight line [I. 26. to the angle FLC. CL, and the angle

FKC

CK

And

because

CK is eciual to
it

CL,

LK

is

double of CK.
that

In the same manner double of BK.

may be shewn

HK

is

And
and that

because J^A'is equal to CK, as was she^vn, double of CK, is double of BK, and

HK

LK

therefore

HKis

equal to

LK.
it

[Axiom

6.

ML are each of them e<[ual to II K or LK; equilateral. therefore the pentagon GHKLM
GM,
is

In the

same manner

may be shewn

that

GH,

It

is

also equiangular,

;

128

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

For, since the angle

and that the angle

KLM

double of the angle FKC, aiid the angle double of the angle FLC^ as was shewn,
is

FKC HKL
IlKL

is

equal to the angle

FLO^

therefore the angle to the angle KLM,

is

equal
6.

\_Axiom

In the same manner it may be shewn that each of the angles is equal to KHG, HGM, or the angle

HKL

GML

KLM;

therefore the pentagon

GHKLM

is

equiangular.

And

it

has been shewn to be equilateral.

Wherefore an equilateral and equiangular ^x^ntagon has been described about the given circle, q.e.f.

PEOPOSITION

13.

PROBLEM,

To inscribe a circle in a given equilateral and equiangular 2Kntagon.
Let be the given equilateral and equiangular pentagon: it is required to inscribe a circle in the pentagon ABGDE.

ABGDE

CDE

Bisect the angles BCD, by the straight lines
[1.9.

CF,DF;
straight lines
to

and from the point F, at which they meet, draw the
Then, because

FB, FA, FE. BC\^ equal
[^Hypothesis.

DC,

and

CF is common to the two

triangles i?(7i^,i)(7i^;

the two sides BC, are equal to the two sides iXT, CF, each to each

CF

and the angle

BCF is equal

to the angle

DGF;

[Coyistr.

therefore the base

BF

is

equal to the base

DF, and

the

;

;

BOOK IV.
CBF

13.

129

other angles to the other angles to which the equal sides are opposite [I. 4. therefore the angle is equal to the angle CDF,

And because tlie angle CDE is double of the angle CDF, and that the angle CDE is equal to the angle CBA, and the angle CDF in equal to the angle CBF,
therefore the angle therefore the angle
therefore the angle

CBA

is

double of the angle
equal to the angle

ABF

is

CBF; CBF;

ABC is bisected by the straight line BF.

BAE, A ED

In the same manner it may be shewn that the angles are bisected by the straight lines AF, EF.

From the point draw FG, FH, FK, FL, diculars to the straight lines AB, BC, CD, DE,
Then, because the angle

F

FM perpenEA.
[1.

12.

FCH

is

equal to the angle

FCK,
and
tlic

right angle

FHC equal

to the right angle

FKC

;

therefore in the two triangles FHC, FKC, there are two angles of the one equal to two angles of the otRer, each to each
;

and the side FC, which
angles in each,
is

is

opposite to one of the equal

common

to

both

therefore their other sides arc equal, each to each, and therefore the perpendicular FIl is equal to the perpen[I. 26. dicular In the same manner it may be shewn that FL, FM, or FK. are each of them equal to

FK

FH

FG

are Therefore the five straight lines FG, FH. FK, equal to one another, and the circle described from the centre F, at the distance of any one of them will pass through the extremities of the other four;

FL.FM

and it will touch the straight lines AB, BC, CD, DE, EA, are right because the angles at the points G, H, K, L,

M

angles,

{Comtnici'wn.
line

and the straight

drawn from the extremity
it,

of a dia[III. 16.

meter, at right angles to

touches the circle

;

Therefore each of the straight lines AB, BC, CD, DE, touches the circle. Wherefore a circle has hccn inscribed in the given
equilateral

EA

and equiangular pentagon.

q.e.f.

9

130

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
li.

PROBLEM,

To describe a circle about a given equilateral and equiangular pentagon.
Let pentagon

ABODE
:

it is

be the given equilateral and equiangular required to describe a circle about it.

Bisect the angles

BCD,

CDE

by the straight lines CF, DF; [1.9. and from the point F, at which they meet, draw the straight lines
shewn, as in the preceding proposition, that are the angles CBA, BAE, bisected by the straight lines BF,

FB, FA, FE. Then it may be

AED

AF, EF.
And, because the angle BCD is equal to the angle CDEj and that the angle FCD is half of the angle BCD, and the angle FDC is half of the angle CDE,
therefore the angle

FCD is equal to the angle FDC;
equal to the side
it

[Ax. 7.

therefore the side
are each of

FCib

In the same manner

them equal

to

are therefore the five straight lines FB, FC, FD, equal to one another, and the circle described from the centre F, at the distance of any one of them, will pass through the extremities of the other four, and will be described about the equilateral and equiangular pentagon
,

FC or FD FA

FD. [I. 6. that FB, FA, FE may be shewn
;

FE

ABCDE.
Wherefore a
equilateral
circle

has been described about the given
q.e.f.

and equiangular pentago7i.

PROPOSITION
To
inscribe

15.

PROBLEM.

an

equilateral

and equiangular hexagon
circle
:

in a given

circle.
it is

Let

ABCDEFhe the given
G
of the circle

required to inin
it.

scribe an equilateral

and equiangular hexagon

Find the centre

ABCDEF,

[III. 1.

;

;

;

;

BOOK

IV.

15.

131

and draw the diameter AGD) from the centre D, at the distance

DG,

describe the circle

EGCH;
ioiwEG, C(y,aud produce them to thepointsi?, F\ and join^J^,

BC, CD, DE, EF, FA. The licxagon ABCDEF shall be equilateral and equiangular.
For, because of the circle equal to

GD

G is the centre ABCDEF, GE is
:

and because
of the circle equal to Z>6^

D

is

the centre

EGCII,

DE

is

therefore

and the triangle

GE is equal to DE, EGD is equilateral
EGD, GDE, DEG

\A.xiom

1.

therefore the three angles one another.

are equal to

[I. 5. Corollary.

But the three angles of a triangle are together equal
two right angles
therefore the angle
angles.

to

[I. 32.

EGD
it

is

the third part of two right

DGC is the third part of two right angles.
And because the straight line straight line the adjacent angles equal to two right angles,

In the same manner

may be shewn,

that the angle

EB

GC

makes

Avith

EGC, CGB

the together
[I. 13.

therefore the remaining angle right angles
therefore the angles another.

CGB

is

the third part of two

EGD, DGC, CGB

are equal to one

And to these are BGA, AGE, FGE.

equal the vertical opposite angles
[T. 15.

FGE are equal to one

Therefore the six angles

EGD, DGC, CGB, BGA, AGE,
9—2

another.

;

132

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
[III. 26.

therefore the six arcs equal to one another.

But equal angles stand on equal arcs AB, BC, CD, DE^ EF,

FA
;

are

And equal arcs are subtended by equal straight lines

[111.29.

therefore the six straight lines are equal to one another, and the hexagon is equilateral.
It is also equiangular.

For, the arc the arc

ED

AF\s equal
;

to

to each of these

add the

•^xcABCD^,
therefore

FABCD

is

the whole arc equnl to the

whole arc. 4 56"/)^; and the angle FED stands on the arc FABCD, and the angle ^i^^ stands
oji

the arc

ABCDE;

therefore the angle equal to the angle AFE.

FED is
[III. 27.
it

In the same manner angles of the hexagon or to the angle

AFE

ABCDEF are FED
;

may be shewn that the other
each of them equal

therefore the hexagon

is

equiangular.
it is

And

it

has been shewn to be equilateral ; and

inscribed

in the circle

ABCDEF.
circle,
q.e.f.

Wherefore an equilateral and equiangular hexagon
has been inscribed in the given

Corollary. From this it is manifest that the side of the hexagon is equal to the straight line from the centre, that is, to the seniidianieter of the circle. Also, if through the points A, B, C, D, E, F, there be drawn straight lines touching the circle, an equilateral and equiangular hexagon avIU be described about the circle, as may be shewn from what was said of the pentagon and a circle may be inscribed in a given equilateral and equiangular hexagon, and circumscribed about it, by a method like that used for the pentagon.
;

;

;

;

BOOK IV.
PROPOSITION
in a gicen
circle.

16.

133

Id.

PROBLEM.

To inscribe an equilateralandequiangularquiyidecagon
Let
circle

ABCD

be the given

circle:

it is

required to

in-

scribe an equilateral

and equiang'ular quindecagon

in the

ABCD.

be the side of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the circle [IV. 2.

Let

AC

and

let

AB

equilateral

be the side of an and equiangular
in the [IV. 11.

pentagon
circle.

inscribed

Then, of such equal parts the whole circumference contains fifteen, the arc ABC, which is the third part of the whole, contains five, and the arc AB, which is the fifth part of the whole, contains three
as

ABCDF

therefore their difierence, the arc

BC,

contains two of the
[III. 30.

same

parts.

Bisect the arc

BC
if

2ii

E
BE,

therefore each of the arcs

EG

is

the fifteenth part of

the whole circumference

ABCDF.

the straight lines BE^ be dra'SMi, and straight lines equal to them be placed round in the whole circle, [IV. 1.

Therefore

EC

an equilateral and equiangular quindecagon
scribed in
if
it.

will

be

in-

Q.E.F.

And, in the same manner as was done for the pentagon, through the points of division made by inscribing the quindecagon, straight lines be drawn touching the circle, an equilateral and equiangular quindecagon will be described about it; and also, as for the pentagon, a circle may be inscribed in a given equilateral and equiangular quindecagon, and circumscribed about it.

BOOK

V.

DEFmiTIONS.
1. A LESS magnitude is said to be a part of a greater magnitude, when the less measures the greater that is, when the less is contained a certain number of times ex;

actly in the greater.
2.

less,

when

when
3.

greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of a the greater is measured by the less; that is, the greater contains the less a certain number of

A

times exactly.

Ratio

same kind
4.

is a mutual relation of two magnitudes of the to one another in respect of quantity.

when the

Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to one another, less can be nniltiplied so as to exceed the other.

5. The first of four magnitudes is said to have the same ratio to the second, that the third has to the fourth, when any equinuiltiples whatever of the first and the third being taken, and any equimultiples whatever of the second and the fourth, if the multiple of the first be less than that

of tlie second, the multiple of the third is also less than that of the fourth, and if the multiple of the first be equal to that of the second, the multiple of the third is also equal to that of the fourth, and if the multiple of the first be gi-eater than that of the second, the multiple of the third is also greater than that of the fourth.
6.

Magnitudes which have the same

ratio are called

proportionals.

BOOK

V.

DEFINITIONS,

135

expressed by saying, the is to the fourth.

AVlien four magnitudes are proportionals it is usually first is to the second as the third

When of the equimultiples of four magnitudes, taken 7. as in the fifth definition, the multiple of the first is greater than the multiple of the second, but the multiple of the third is not greater than the multiple of the fourth, then the first is said to have to the second a greater ratio than the third has to the fourth and the third is said to have to the fourth a less ratio than the first has to the second.
;

8.
9.

Analogy, or proportion,

is

the similitude of
least.

ratios.

Proportion consists in three terms at

"When three magnitudes are proportionals, the first 10. said to have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it has to the second.
is

[The second magnitude is said to be a mean propor^ Uonal between the first and the third.]
11. When four magnitudes are continued proportionals, the first is said to have to the fourth, the triplicate ratio of that which it has to the second, and so on, quadruplicate, &c. increasing the denomination still by unity, in any number of proportionals. Definition of compound ratio. When there are any number of magnitudes of the same kind, the first is said to have to the last of them, the ratio which is compounded of the ratio which the first has to the second, and of the ratio which the second has to the third, and of the ratio which the third has to the fourth, and so on unto the last mag-

nitude.

be four magnitudes of the For example, if A, B, C, same kind, the first A is said to have to the last D, the ratio compounded of the ratio of A to B, and of the ratio of B to C, and of the ratio of (7 to 2) or, the ratio of A to D is said to be compounded of the ratios of A to B, B to C, and C to D. And if A has to B the same ratio that E has to F\ and B to C the same ratio that G has to // and C io has to L then, by this definition, the same ratio that A is said to have to D the ratio compounded of ratios whicli to F, G to H, and A' to L. are the same with the ratios of
;

D

K

;

D

;

i:.'

136

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

And the same thing is to be understood when it is more the ratio comlias to briefly expressed by saying, to L. to //, and poimded of the ratios of '^ to F^

A

D

G

K

In like manner, the same things being supposed, if then, for the the same ratio that A has to has to the ratio comis said to have to sake of shortness, to L. to F, G to //, and pounded of the ratios of

N

M

E

N

D

M

;

K

In proportionals, the antecedent terms are said to 12. be homologous to one another as also the consequents to one another.
;

Geometers make use of the following technical words, to signify certain ways of changing either the order or the magnitude of proportionals, so that they continue still to be proportionals.

Permufando, or alternanclo, by permutation or 13. alternately; when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred that the first is to the third, as the second is to the fourth. V. 16.
14.

Invertendo, by inversion;
it is is

when

proportionals, and first as the fourth

infen-ed, that the second V. B. to the third.
;

there are four is to the

Componendo, by composition when there are four 15. proportionals, and it is inferred, that the first together
with the second, is to the second, as the third together with the fourth, is to the fourth. Y. IS.
16.

portionals,

Dividendo, by division; when there are four proand it is inferred, that the excess of the first

above the second, is to the second, as the excess of the third above the fourth, is to the fourth. Y. 17.
Convcrtendo, by conversion; when there are four and it is inferred, that the first is to its excess above the second, as the third is to its excess above the fourth. Y. E.
17.

proportionals,

Ex wqiiali distantia, or ex ctqico, from equality of 18. distance when there is any number of magnitudes more than two, and as many others, such that they are proportionals wlien taken two and two of each rank, and it is inferred, that the first is to the last of the first rank of magnitudes, as the first is to the last of the others.
;

.

BOOK
two and two.

V,

DEFINITIONS,

137

Of this there are the two following kinds, which arise from the different order in which the magnitudes are taken,
This term is used simply by itself, is to the second of the first rank, as the first is to the second of the other rank; and the second is to the third of the first rank, as the second is to the third of the other and so on in order and the inference V. 22. is that mentioned in the preceding definition.
19.

Ex

cvqiuiU.

when the

first

magnitude

;

;

20. Ex a^quali in proportione jyerturhatdseu inordinatd, from equality in perturbate or disorderly proportion. This term is used when the first magnitude is to the second of the first rank, as the last but one is to the last of the second rank and the second is to the third of the first rank, as the and last but two is to the last but one of the second rank the third is to the fourth of the first rank, as the last but three is to the last but two of the second rank and so on in a cross order and the inference is that mentioned in the
; ;
; ;

eiirhteenth definition.

T.

2.3.

AXIOMS.
Equimultiples of the same, or of e(]ual magnitudes, 1 are equal to one another.

Those magnitudes, of which the same or equal mag2. nitudes are equimultiples, are equal to one another.
multiple of a greater magnitude 3. the same multiple of a less.
4.

A

is

greater than

That magnitude, of which a multiple
is

the same multiple of another,

is greater than greater than that otiier

magnitude.

;

,

138

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PEOPOSITION
1.

THEOREM.

If any number of magnitudes he equimultiples qf as many, each of each; whatever multiple any one of them is of its part, the same multiple shall all the first magnitudes he of all the other.

Let any number of magnitudes AB, CD be equimulmany others E, F, each of each: whatever and CD multiple yli? is of E, the same multiple shall together. and together, be of is the same multiple of E, that CD is For, because of F, as many magnitudes as there are in A equal to E, so many are there in CD
tiples of as

F E AB

AB

AB

equal to F.
into the magnitudes AG, GB, Divide each equal to E; and CD into the magnitudes CH, HD, each equal to F.

AB

q

Therefore the number of the magnitudes CII, HD, will be equal to the nmnber of the magnitudes AG, GB. is equal to E, and And, because and j-j. equal to F, therefore together and together are equal to is equal to E, and and because together and equal to F, therefore x) [Axioin 2. and i^ together. are equal to equal to Therefore as many magnitudes as there are in and CD together equal to E, so many are there in

CH

AG

GB

E

AG

E

GB

F HD

CH

HD

AB

and
is

F together.

AB

E

Therefore whatever multiple

AB is of E, the same multiple AB and CD together, of J5'and F together.
Wherefore, if any

number of magnitudes
2.

&c.

q.e.d.

PEOPOSITION

THEOREM.

If the first he the same multiple of the second that the third is of the fourth, and the fifth the same multiple of the second that the sixth is of the fourth; the first together with the fifth shall he the same multiple of the second that the third \ogetJier with the sixth is of the fourth.

BOOK
Let
that be the is of
is

V,

%

3.

139

AB the first be the same multiple of C the second, DE the third of F the fourtli, and let BG the fifth same multiple of G the second, that EH the sixth F the fourth A G^ the first together with the shall be the same multiple of C the second, that DH^ the of F the fourth. third together with the sixth, the same multiple of C that DE For, because AB of F, as many magnitudes as there are in AB equal to so "^ __ many are there in DE equal to F.
:

fifth,

is

is

is

6',

For the same

reason, as

many

magnitudes as there are in

BG
E
B

equal to 6', so many are there in ^// equal to/:

Therefore as many magnitudes as there are in the whole equal to C, so many are there in the whole DII equal to F.

AG

G

H
D
E

Therefore
ple of
(7

is the same multithat i>Zr is of i^.

AG

Wherefore, if the first he the isame multiple &c. q.e.d.

Corollary. From this it is any number of magnitudes AB, BG, Gil be multiples of another C and as many DE, EK, KL bo the same mulplain, that if
;

B

K
G

then tiples of F, each of each the whole of the first, namely, AH, is the same multiple of C, that the whole of the last, namelv,
;

DL,

H

C

I.

is

of /;

PROPOSITION
If

3.

THEOREM.

the first he the same multij>lc of the second that the is of the fourth, and if of the first and the third there he taken equimultiples, these shall he equimidtipleSy the one oj the second, and the other of tlie fourth.

third

;

140
Let

EUGLTjyS ELEMENTS.

the first be the same multiple of third is of the fourth ; and of the equimultiples and be taken the same multiple of that is of D.
that

A

EF GH B GH For, because EF the same multiple of A
:

C the

D

B the second, A and G let EF shall be
that

is

GH

is

of G,
as to
in

[Hypothesis.

many magnitudes

there are iu

EF

as

^, so many

GH equal to
EF

equal arc there
C.

^

H

Divide

into

the
Is}

magnitudes

EK, KF,
;

each equal to A and into the magnitudes GL, LHy each equal to G.

L

GH

Therefore the number of B G the magnitudes EK, KF, will be equal to the number of the magnitudes GL,

D
LH.

And
ofi>,

because

A

is

the same multiple of

B

that

G

is

[Hypothesis.

and that
therefore

EK\&

equal to A, and

GL is

equal to

G

;

[Constr.

EK

is

the same multiple of

For the same reason Z//isofi>.
Therefore because
of

KF

is

the

B that GL is of D. same multiple of B that

B the second,

EK
GL
is

that
is

the first is the same multiple the third is of the fourth,

D

and that
that

LH the sixth
is

KF the fifth

of

D tlie fourth

the same multiple of
fifth, is

B the second,

EF the first together with the of B the second, that GH the sixth, of D the fourth.

the same multiple third together with the
[Y.
2.

In the same manner, if there be more parts in ^i^ equal to A and in equal to G, it may be shewn that is the same nuiltiple of [V. 2, Cor. that is of D.

GH

B

GH
4.

EF

"Wherefore, if the first &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

THEORE'M.

If the first have the same ratio to the second that the third has to the fourth, and if there he taken any equi-

;

;

BOOK
any

V.

4.

141

and the third, and also cquijnidtijyles whatever of the second and the fourth^ then the multiple of the first shall hare the same ratio to the multij^le of the second, that the multiple of the third has to the multiple of the fourth.
multiples irhaterer of the first

the second, the same ratio the first liave to Let and let the fourth and of that C the third has to and F, and there be taken anv equimultiples whatever shall and H\ of any equimultiples whatever and has to H. that have the same ratio to

A

D

B

;

E

A

C

B

D

G

F

G

E

Take

multiples and of
tiples

any equiand and L, whatever any equimulG and and N. whatever
of

E

F

M

H

K

Then, because
multiple of

E

is is

A

that

F

the same
of C,

and of

E
A

and

F
is

have been taken

equimultiples A' and
therefore
tiple of

Z
[V.
3.

'
'

'

K
that

the same mulof C.

K
L

E

A
c

I

B

Z is

F

B

G H

For the same reason, 3/ is the is of D. same multiple of ^ that

N
to

And
is

because

yl

is

^

as

G

to i),

[HifpotJicsis.

of have been taken and and Z, certain equimultiples have been taken and and of certain equimultiples ]\f and therefore if A' be greater than

and

A

C

B

D

K

N

j
'

M, L

is

greater than

N

\

and

if

equal, equal;

and

if less, less.

\\

.

Iktinitl'm

5.

But A' and and 3f and

N
is

L

therefore Z^

and F, are any equimu]ti]>lcs whatever of and //; are any equimultiples whatever of [V. Definition 5. to G' as A' is to //.

E

G

Wherefore, if the first

Sec.

q.e.d.

Corollary. Also if the first have the same rntio to the second that the third has to the fourth, then any equinniltiples whatever of the first and third shall have the same ratio to the second and fourth; and the first and

\ ;

142

EUCLID'S ELEMENTiS.

third shall have the same ratio to any equimultiples whatever of the second and fourth.

the first have the same ratio to Let the fourth and of that C the third has to there be taken any equimultiples whatever shall be to jB as i*" is to D.

A

D

;

B the second, A and C let

E

and F:

E

'Take of

and

of

E and F any equimultiples whatever K and L, B and D any equimultiples whatever G and H.
it

Then

may be

shewn, as before, that
is

multiple of

A

that

L

K

is

the same

of C.

And

because

yl is to

^ as C is to Z>,

[Hypothesis.

and of A and C have been taken certain equimultiples and L, and of B and Z) have been taken certain equimultiples G and H;
if equal,

K
5.

be greater than G, therefore if equal and if less, less.
;

K

L

is

greater than

H\ and

[V. Definition

But and

G^

K and L are any equimultiples whatever of E and F, and H are any equimultiples whatever of B and Z>
Ehio B as
i^
is

therefore

to

D.

[V. Definition

5.

In the same way the other case may be demonstrated.

PROPOSITION

5.

THEOREM.

If one m.agnitude he the same multiple of another that a magnitude taken from, the first is of a magnitude taken from the other, the remainder shall he the same multiple of the remainder that the ichole is of the whole.
taken \)Q the same multiple of 6'Z>, that Let from the first, is of CF taken from the other the remainder EB shall be the same multiple of the remainder FD, that the whole AB\%Qi the whole CD.
:

AB

AE

Take
therefore of CD.

AG the same multiple

AE

is

of FD, that ^^E^ is of the same multiple of CF that

EG

CF
is
1.

[V.
\^

But

AE

the same multiple of
is

CF

that

AB

\^

of

CD\
'\%

therefore of CD;

EG

the same nmltiple of

CD

that

AB

therefore

EG is equal to AB.

[V. Axiom

1.

;

BOOK
From
magnitude
is

V.

5, 6.

143

each of these take the common AE\ then the remainder equal to the remainder EB.

AG

a

Then, because AE\s> the same multiple
of

CF that A G
is is is

is

of

FD,

[Constmction.
;

AG the same multiple of CF therefore AE of FD. that EB But AE is the same multiple of CF that
and that
equal to
u4-5
is

EB

A
C

of 6'/)

;

{Hypothesis.

FD

therefore that

EB is the same AB is of Ci).
PKOPOSITION

multiple of
q.e.d.

Wherefore, ifonemagnitudekc.
6.

D

THEOREM.

HD

If two magnitudes he equimultiples of two^ others, and if equimidtiples of these he taken from the first two, the remainders shall he either equal to these others, or equi771 ult iples of th em. be equimultiples of Let the two magnitudes AB, the two E, F; and let AG, CH, taken from the first two, the remainders GB, be equimultiples of the same E, shall be either equal to E, F, or equimultii^les of them.

CD
:

F

First, let

GB be equal to E HD
:

shall

be equal to F.

Make

Then, because that tiple of

and

CK is equal to F
is

CK equal to F. AG the same mulE CH of F, [Hup. that GB equal to E, and
is is

-^

K

is

;

therefore yl^ plo of that

E KH But AB is tlie

the same multiis of F.

G ^

11

same multiple

of^that
therefore

CZ>i3ofi^;[i/y^^o^Ac.-/;j.

B D E F

KH
KH

is
is

the same multiple of
equal to

F that CD
[V.

is

of

F
\

;

therefore

From each of tlicse then the remainder
But
CA^'is equal to

CK

Axiom CD. magnitude take the common is equal to the remainder HD.

1.

CH

therefore

HD

F

lOojistructioru

is

equal to F.

;

144

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
of

Next let GB be a multiple same multiple of F. Make CK the same multiple
of

E:

HD
K
C

shall

bo the

F that GB
GB

is

of E.
is

Then, because ^6^
multiple of F,

E

that

CH
;

the same
is

of

[Hypothesis.

and
of

is

E that CK is of F [Constr, therefore AB the same multiple of E that KH is of F. [V. But AB the same multiple of E that CZ> of i^; {Hyp.
\?,

the same multiple

G

H
D £

2.

is

B

F

is

therefore
therefore

A'^is the same multiple of F that CD. is of jP; KHis, equal to CD. [V. Aodom 1. From each of these take the common magnitude CH ^

then the remainder

And
of E,

because

CK is equal to the remainder HD. CK the same multiple of F that GB is
is

{Construction.

and that

CK

is

equal to

HD

;

therefore i/Z>

is

the same multiple of

F that GB
q.e.d.

is

of ^,

Wherefore, if two magnitudes &c.

PROPOSITION

A.

THEOREM.

Jf the first of four magnitudes have the same ratio to the second that the tJiird has to the fourth, then, if the first he greater than the second, the third shall also he greater than the fourth, and if equal equal, and if less less.
Take any equimultiples of each
of each.
of them, as the doubles

Then

if the double of the first be greater than the double of the second, the double of the third is greater than the [V. Definition 5. double of the fourth.

But
the

if

the

first is

first be greater than the second, the double of greater than the double of the second

; ;

;

BOOK

V.

A, B.
is

145

therefore the double of the third of the fourth,

greater than the double

and therefore the third

is

greater than the fourth.

In the s:i!nc mannvr, or less than it, the tliird fourth, or less than it.

if tlie first

may be shewn
q.e.d.

be equal to the second, to be equal to the

"Wherefore, if the first &c.

PROPOSITION

B.

THEOUEM.

If four magnitudes he projmrtioiials, they shall also be 2)ro2)ortionals ichen taken inversely.
Let A be to be to A as

shall

D

B

is

is to Z> as to C.

C

:

then

also, inversely,

B

Take of
tiples

B

whatever

and D any E and F

equimul-

and of

A

whatever
First, let

G

and C any equimultiples and //.

G
to

is less

be greater than G, then than E.

E

Then, because

D

^

is

to

i?

as

C

is

;

[Ili/potkesi^.

G

A
C

and of A and C the first and third, (r and //are equimultiples; and of B and D the second and and are equimultiples fourth, and that G is less than therefore // is less than F; [V. Def.5.

E

F

E

that

is,

F

is

greater than

If.

Therefore,

if

In the same manner, if shewn to be equal to //; and

E be greater than E

G,

F

is

greater than

IT.

be

e([ual to

G,

F may

be

if less, less.

But and are any equimultiples whatever of B and i), and G and // arc any equinuiltiples whatever of A and C; [Comtruction.
therefore

E

F

B

is

to

.^4

as Z>

is

to 0.

[V. Dffinitim 5.
q.k.p.

Wherefore, if fur mnriiiifurl'n kc.

10

;

;

;

;

: :

146

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
C.

THEOREM.

If the first he the same inultvple of the second, or the same part of it, that the third is of the fourth, the first
shall he to the second as the third is to the fourth.

A

A be the same multiple of be to i? as (7 is to D. Take of A and C any equimultiples any whatever and F; and of and equimultiples whatever G and H. Then, because A is the same multiple
First, let
shall

B

that

C is

of Z>

E

B

D

of

E is the same multiple of ^1 that [Comtruction. therefore E the same multiple of ^
and that i^isofC;
is

B that

(7 is

of Z>

{Ihipothesls.

A B

C

D

E G F H

that i^ is of Z); [V. 3. that is ,£'audi'^are equimultiplesof ^andZ). But and are equimultiples of

and

D

G

H

B

;

[Construction.

therefore if

B

than

ple of that is, greater than
(r,

D

G

be a gi-eater multiple of ^, jP is a gi'eater multithan // is of i> if is be greater than G,
is

^

of

E

F

H. In the same manner, if E be equal to F may be shewn to be equal to H; and

if less, less.

But

E

and

F are
D
(7,

any equimultiples

"whatever of "whatever of

B
is

A

and and
to

and

G

and

H are any equimultiples
[Construction.

therefore

A

B as
is

(7 is to L>.

[V. Definition

5.

^

Next, let shall be to

A

B as

be the same part of
(7 is to

B

that

C

is

of i>

B.

For, since -4 that C is of B,
therefore that I) is of
therefore,

the same part of

B
A
to

B

is

the same multiple of
case,

C

by the preceding

B

is

ylasZ>istoC;
therefore, inversely,

A

B

C

D

^

is

to

^ as C is to D,
q.hd.

[V. £.

"Wherefore, if the first &c.

.

BOOK
PROPOSITION
If the first

V.

D,

7.

147

D.

THEOREM.

he to the second as the third is to the fourth, if the first he a multiple, or a j^art, of the second, the third shall he the same multiple, or the same part, of tha

and

fourth.

Let

yl

be to

^ as C is
;

to

D.

And

first, let

C shall

A be a multiple of ^: be the same luiiltiple of D.

Take equal to A and whatever nuiltiple A or is of B, make /'' the same multiple of D.

E

E

Then, because
is

A

is

to

^

as

C
A
13

to

D,

[Hi/jiothests.

and of the second and the fourth have been taken equimultiples

B

D

c

D

E
F.

E

f

and F;
yl
is

[CcHJStruction.

therefore

to

Z^ as (7 is to [V. 4, Corollary.

But A
therefore

is

equal to

E;

[Comtruction.

C is
is

equal to F.

[V.

A

D tliat A
therefore

And

F
is

the same multiple of
;

of i^

[Construction.

D that A is of B. ^ be a part oi B: C shall be the same part of Z). For, because A is to B as C is to D [Hypothesis. therefore, inversely, i? is to ^ as 2> is to C. [V. B.
G is
the same multiple of

Xext,

let

;

But
that

yl is
is,

a part of
is

B

;

[Hypothesis.

i?

a multiple of

A

;

therefore, by the preceding case, Z>

is

the same multiple of C;
is

that

is,

C is

the same part of

D that A
q.e.d.
7.

of B.

Wherefore, if the first &c.

PROPOSITION

THEOBEM.

Equal magnitudes have the same ratio to the same magnitude ; and the same has the same ratio to equid
7rUignitudes,

10-2

148

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
:

Let A and B be equal magnitudes, and C any other magnitude each of the magnitudes A and B shall have the same ratio to C and C shall have the same ratio to each of the magnitudes A and B. Take of A and B any equimultiples "whatever and E and of C any multiijlc whatever i'^. Then, because is the same mul;

D

;

tiple of

A

that

E

D

is

of

i?,

{Construction.
;

and that
therefore

-4 is equal to

B

[Hypothesis.
1.

D

is

equal to E. [V. ^a;tom

D A
E B _ ~ C

Therefore if be greater than F, El's, greater than i^; and if equal, equal;

D

F

and if less, less. But and E are any equimultiples whatever of A and B, and is any

D

F

multiple "whatever of
therefore

C

;

[Construction.
5.

A is to Cas i? is to C. [V. i)f/.

Also

(7 shall

have the same ratio to

A

that
it

it

has to B.

For the same construction being made, as before, that is equal to E.

Therefore if greater than D, is greater than and if equal, equal and if less, less. But F is any multiple •whatever of C, and D and E are any equimultiples -whatever of A and B [Construction. therefore C is to ^ as (7 is to B. [V. Definition 5. Wherefore, eqtcal magnitudes &c. q.e.d.
; ;

D F be

may be shewn,

F

E

;

PEOPOSITION Of unequal
ratio to the

8.

THEOREM.

magnitudes^ the greater has a greater the less has; and the same magnitude has a greater ratio to the less than it has to tJie

same than

greater.

Let and be unequal magnitudes, of which be any other magnitude whatthe greater; and let than has ever shall have a greater ratio to than it to and shall have a greater ratio to
is

:

D

AB AB

BC

D

AB

;

D

D

BC

BG

lias to

AB.

;

BOOK
If tlic magiiitudo wliicli
is

V.

8.

110

AC, CB, be not less AG, GB (Figure 1).

tliau

B, take BF,

not the greater of tlie two the doubles of

FG
"F-

But if that -svhich is not the greater of the two AG, GB, be , Figures 2 and 3\ less than this magnitude can be multiplied, so as to become greater than i>, whether it be .ICor GB.

Fii

D

Let it be multiplied until it becomes greater than D, and let the other be multiplied as often.

G

B K
II

L

P

Let EFhe the multiple thus taken the same multiple of A G, and

FG

of

GB

and therefore of them greater than

EF

FG
D.

are each

And in all the cases, take // the double of D, A' its triple, and so on, until the multiple taken is the first which of is greater than FG. Let L be that multiple of D, namely, the first which is greater and let A' be the than which is next multiple of less than L.

Fig.

D

FG

;

D

Then, because L is the first multipleofA> which is greater [Construction. than FG,
the next preceding multiple A' is not greater than

B

K

II

D

B

D

FG

;

FG is not less than A". And because EF is the same multiple of AG that FG is
that is,
of

GB,

[Construction.

therefore of GB
;

EG

is

the same multiple oi
arc equimultiples of

AB

that

FG
[V

IS
1.

that

is,

EG and FG

AB and

GB.

;

150

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
it
is

And
and

was shewn that
greater than

FG is not less than Kj
;

EF

D
is

[Construction.

therefore the whole

EG

gi'eater

than
;

K

and

D together.
[Construction,
13

D together are equal to L therefore EG is greater than Z.
But A" and
But

FG is not greater than L. And EG and FG were shewn to be multiples of AB and BC
and

equi-

Z

is

a multiple of D,

[Construction.

has to Therefore than has to D.

BG

AB

D

a greater ratio
[A'.

F

Definition

7.

Also, Z> shall have to ratio than it has to AB.
it

BC

a greater

For, the snme construction being made, is greater than may be shewn, that

L

L

t)

FG but not greater than EG.
And Z
and
is

a multiple of

Z>,

[Construction.

EG and jP(y were shev\Ti multiples of AB and CB.
Therefore
to

to

be equiratio than it has [V. Definition 7.
q.e.d.

D

has to ^(7 a greater

AB.

"Wherefore, of unequal magnitudes &c.

PROPOSITION
Magnitudes which have
maffnitude, are equal
anotlier.
First, let
to o?ie

9.

THEOREM.
same
ratio
to

the

the

same

another ; and those to which the same magnitude has the same ratio, are equal to one

A
;

and

B

have the same ratio to G:

A

shall

bo equal to B.
For, if A is not equal to B, one of them must be greater than the other let A be the greater.

Then, by what was shewn in Proposition

8,

there are

;

BOOK
A

V.

9.

151

some equimultiples of A and B, and some multiple of C, such that the
multiple of is greater than the multiple of (7, but the multiple of is not greater thau the nmltiple of

B

D

a

Let such multiples be taken and let and be the equimultiples of A and B, and tlie multiple of so that is greater than is not greater than F. F, but
;

D
;

B

B

D

F

B
E

Then, because
to

^

is

C

;

and of

A

and

to as is i? are taken
(7

C

B

equimultiples JJ and B, and of is taken a multiple

F

and that

D therefore B
But
which
equal,
27
is is

is is

greater than

F;
[V. Definition
5.

also greater than F.

not greater than

F

;

[Construction.

impossible.

Therefore

A

and

B

are not unequal; that

is,

they are
shall

Xext, let G have the same ratio to be equal to B.
For,
if

A

and

B A
:

A

is
;

than the other

not equal to B, one of them must be greater let be the greater.

A

B

Then, by -what "was shewn in Proposition S, there is and Z> of of C, and some equimultiples some multiple is greater than £", but not greater and A, such that than B.

F

F

B

And, because Cis

to i5 as

Cis

to

A,

[Ilypothesis.

the nmltiple of the and that multiple of the second,

F

first is

greater than
is

B

the

[Constructio}i.

the multiple of the third therefore the multiple of the fourth,

F
is

greater than
[V, Definition

D
5.

But
which
equal.

F

not greater than

D

;

[Construction.

is

impossible.

Therefore

A

and

B

are not unequal

;

that

is,

they are

AYlicreforo,

magnitudes ichich &c.

q.e.d.

152

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
10.

THEOREM.

That magnitude irhich has a greater ratio than another has to the same magnitude is the greater of the two ; and that magnitude to which the same has a greater ratio tlmn it has to another magnitude is the less of the two.
have to has to C: greater than B.
First, let ratio than

B

A

(7

a greater
shall

A

be

has a greater ratio For, because has to C, there are some to C than and B, and some equimultiples of multiple of C, such that the multiple of is greater than the multiple of G, is not greater but the multiple of [V. Def. 7. than the multiple of C.

B

A

A

D

A

A

B

B

and Let such multiples be taken and be the equimultiples of let A and B, and the multiple of (7;
;

D

E
is

F

so that Z>
is

greater than E, but

E

not greater than

E;

therefore

And

and because are equimultiples of that is greater than E,

E

E is greater than E. D E
is

A

and B, and
[V. Axio7n
it
4.

therefore

A

greater than B.

Next, let

B shall be less than A.

C

have to

^
B

a greater ratio than

has to

A

:

of 0, and some equiFor there is some multiple is greater and of and A, such that multiples [V. Definition 7. than E, but not greater than

E

D

E

E

E

;

therefore

And
that

because
ii^

E is less than D. and D are
jE^

equimultiples of i? and A, and
[V. Axiom
q.e.d.
4.

is less

than D,

therefore

B is less than

A.

"Wherefore, ^Aaf

magnitude &c.

;;

BOOK
,

V.

11.

153

PROrOSITION

11.

THEOREM.
same
ratiOj

to

Ratios that are the same one another.

to the

are the same

to

F A
:

Let

A

1)0 to

B

as

shall

be to

B as E is
H
c

C

is

to 7), and let to F.

C
K-

be to i> as

E

is

G
A

EF_

B
L

D
m:

X-

Take of A, C, E any equimultiples whatever G, H, A'; and of B, D, any equimultiples whatever L, 31, N. Then, because yl is to ^ as Cis to D, [Jlnpothesis. and that G and are equimultiples of A and C, and L and are equimultiples of B and Z> [Co>?.<;??v/o/«'o)?.

F

M
if

H
;

therefore

if

G

be greater than L,

H

is

greater than

M

;

and

equal, equal

and

if less, less.

[V. Definition

5.

Again, because Cis to Z> as jE* is to F, [ITiipotlims. and that // and are equinuiltiplcs of C and E, and are equiraultiijles of D and i^ and [t'o?!it^rj<c.'io??. therefore if be gi-eater than M, is greater than N\ and if equal, equal and if less, less. [V. Definition 5.

N

K
;

M

H

K

is

But it has been shewn that if G bo greater than L, II greater than J/ and if equal, equal and if less, less.
;
;

Therefore

if

G

be greater than Z,
;

K

is

greater than

N;

and

if

equal, equal

and

if less, less.

And G and
and

L

and

N are any equimultii)les whatever of B and F.
5 as ^ is to F.
same &c.
[V. Definition
q.e.d.

A' are any equimultiples whatever of

A

and E,
5.

Therefore

yl is to

"Wherefore, 7'atios that are the

;

;

154

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PEOPOSITION
12.

THEOREM.

If any numher of magnitudes he 2'>Toportlohals, as one of the antecedents is to its consequent, so shall all the antecedents be to all the consequents.

E

be Let any number of magnitudes A, B, C, D, E, is to B, so let C be to Z>, and proportionals namely, as together be to is to B, so shall A,' C\ to F: as together. B, D,
;

F

A

F

A

E

a

H

K

B

D-

Take oi A^ C, any equimultiples whatever Z, M, N. and of B, D, Then, because ^ is to ^ as C is to D and as E is to F, are equimultiples of A,C, E, and L, M, and that (r, //, [Construction. equimultiples oi B, i>, F) is greater than M, therefore if G be gi-eater than L, and if equal, equal and if less, is greater than and

F

M NE any equimultiples ^vhatever G, H, K\

K

N
5.

K

N

H
;

;

;

less.

[V. Definition

be greater than L, then G, Therefore, if together and are greater than Z, il/,
if less, less.

G

and are any equimultiples But G, and G, H, [V. 1. whatever of A, and A, C, E together together are any equimultiples whatand L, and L, M, [V. 1. ever of B, and B, L>, F together. together to Therefore as A is to B, so arc A, 0, [V. Definition 5. together. B, TJ,

N K together,

H,
if

K together

equal, equal

N

F

E

"Wherefore, if any

numher

&c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
If
third has

13.

THEOREM.

the first have the same ratio to tJie second ichich the to the four th^ hut the third to the fourth a greater

;

;

;

BOOK

V.

13.

155

ratio than theffth to the sLrth, thefirst shall hare to the second a greater ratio than the fifth has to the sixth.
tlie second tlie first liave the same ratio to Let the fourth, but C tlie tliird a that G the third has to the the fifth to the fourth than greater ratio to the second a greater the first shall have to sixth: the sixth. ratio than the fifth has to

A

D

D

B

A

E

F

B
.

E

F

H A
B
N
.

G
/-<

11

C/

E
F

D
jr

L

than has to F, For, because C lias a greater ratio to there are some equimultiples of C and E, and some equiand F, such that the multiple of C is greater multiples of is not greater than the nuiltiple of Z>, but the multiple of [V. Definition 7. than the multiple of F.

D

E

D

E

Let such multiples be taken, and let and multiples of C and E, and

D and F
so that

K

G and H be the equiL the equimultiples of

;

is not greater than L. is greater than A", but the same mulwhatever multiple G is of (7, take the is of Z), take and whatever multiple tiple of A same multiple of B. [HiipothesU. Then, because ^-i is to B as Cis to D, and il/ and G are equimultiples of A and C, and iV and [Construction. are equimultiples of B and Z> if iV be greater than iV, (? is greater than A"; therefore [V. Definition 5. and if equal, equal and if less, less. {Construction. But G is greater than

G

H

And

;

K

M

N

K

;

K

therefore j\[

is

greater than N.

But and

are equimultiples of are equimultiples of and /^

M and

H

is

not greater than
//"

L

;

[Construction.

B

A

and

A",

and ^V and
has to /T

L

[Construction.

therefore

A

has a greater ratio to

B than E

"Wherefore, if the first &c.

q.e.d.

;

156

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

Corollary. And if the first have a greater ratio to the second than the third has to the fourth, but the third the same ratio to the fourth that tlie fifth has to the sixth, it may be shewn, in the same manner, that the first has a greater ratio to the second tlian the fifth has to the sixth.

PROPOSITION

14.

THEOREM.

If the first have the same ratio to the second that the third has to the fourth, then if the first he greater than the third the second shall he greater than the fourth; and if equal, equal; and if less, less.
Let
that
(7,

B

C the

the first have the same ratio to tlie second third has to the fourth if be greater than shall be greater than ; if equal, equal ; and if less,

A

D

:

D

^

B

less.

1

3

3

A

B C D

A B

C

D

A

Ji

C

D

First, let

For, because

A be gi-eater than C: B shall be gi*eater than D. A is greater than C, [II>/pothcsis.
C has to B.
[V.
8.

and

B is any other magnitude
A
has to 7? a greater ratio than

therefore

But

A

is

to jS as

C is

to

D.

[Hypothesis.

Therefore

C has to Z> a greater ratio than C has to B.
is less

[V. 13.
[V. 10.

of two magnitudes, that to greater ratio is the less.

But

which the same has the

Therefore Z>
For, vl

than

B
D.

;

that

is.

Secondly, let
is

A

to Z? as C, that is

be equal to G: A, is to

B is greater than Z>. B shall be equal to Z>.
Z>.

[Uypoth&^is.

Therefore

B is equal to

[V.

9.

;

;

BOOK
Thirdly, let

V.

14, 15.

157
be
less

A

be

less

than

C B
:

shall

than D.

For,

C

is

greater than A.
is

And
and
that

G is to D as A C is greater than yl
because

to i?;

[Hypothesis.

therefore,
is,

by the
is

first case,

D

is

greater than

B;

B

less

than

i>.

Wherefore, if the first &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
Magnitudes have
Let
the

15.

THEOREM.
to

same ratio

one another that

their equimultiples have.

C shall
of
i*^,

be the same multiple of C that is to BB. be to as For, because ^J5 is the same multiple of

AB

F

AB

DB
C

is

of

F:
is

that

DB

[Ili/pothcsis.

therefore as many magnitudes as equal to C, so there are in many are there in JDB equal to F.

AB

A
q K u
B
C

Divide

AB

AG, GH,

into the magnitudes IIB, each equal to 6';

into the magnitudes and Die, KL, LB, each equal to F. Therefore the number of the magnitudes.! (9, (?//, //i? will be equal to the number of the magnitudes
I)A',

BE

K

KL, LB.
because

And
and that

AG, GH, IIB
to

are

all

equal;

{Cmslruction.

DK, KL, LB are

also all equal
is

therefore to BE.

AG

is

DK as GH
to
C,
is

to

KL, and

as

IIB
[V.

is
7.

as one of the antecedents is to its consequent, so are all the antecedents to all the consequents. [V. 12.

But

Therefore as ^G^

is

But

AG is equal to
C is

DK so A B to DF. and DK equal to F.
is

Therefore as

to i^ so is

AB to

DB.

"Wherefore, magnitudes &c.

q.e.d.

;

158

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
IG.

THEOREM.
he j)roportionals^

Tf four magnitudes of

the

same kind

they shall also he proportionals

when

taken alternately.

Let A, B, C, he four magnitudes of the same kind whicli are proportionals namely, as is to i? so let be to D: they shall also be proportionals when taken alternately, that is, shall be to as is to L>.
;

D

^

C

A

C

B

E

c
C

A
B
F

D

H

Take of A and B any equimultiples -whatever E and F, and of C and Z> any equimultijDles whatever G and II. Then, because E is the same multiple of A that is of B, and that magnitudes have the same ratio to one another

F

that their equimultiples have;

[V. 15.

therefore

A
to

But

A

is

is to B as E is to F. B as C is to Z>.

[Hypothesk.
[V. 11.

Therefore
therefore

C is
(7 is

to i> as

^ is to F.
H.

Again, because

G

and

H are equimultiples of C and D,
[V. 15.
is

to Z> as (? is to

But

it vras

shewn that Cisio

D as E

to F. [V. 11.

Therefore
first

if the be greater than the third, the second is greater than the fourth; and if equal, equal; and if less, less. [V. 14.

^ is to i^ as G is to H. But when four magnitudes are

proportionals,

Therefore if E be greater than G, is greater than // and if equal, equal and if less, less. But E and are any equimultiples whatever of A and B, and G and // are any equimultiples whatever of G and D. [Construction. Therefore A is to C as B is to D. [V. Definition 5. Wherefore^ iffour magnitudes &c. Q.E.D.
;

F

F

;

BOOK

V.

17.

159

PROPOSITION
If magyiitude^y taken
shiill
is,

17.

THEOREM.

jointly, he proportionals, they also he 2jroportionals ichen taken separately ; that

if two magnitudes taken together have to one of them same ratio which two others have to one of these, the remaining one of the first two shall have to the other the
the

same

ratio which the the other of these.

remaining one of the

last

two has

to

Let
is

AB, BE, CD,
:

DF be the magnitudes which, taken
;

jointly, are proportionals

that is, let ylZ? be to as CD they shall also be proportionals when taken separately; that is, shall be to as 6'i^is to FD.
to

DF

BE

AE

EB

Take of AE, EB, CF,
equinniltiples whatever

FD any

LM,MN-

GH, HK,
take any
the same
is
;

and, again, of EB, eixuimultiples whatever

FD
is

KX, NP.
K

multiple of

^^ that HK of EB therefore GH the same multiple
is

Then, because

GH

K
H "

of^^'that G^A'isof^l^. [V. 1. But is the same multiple of AE that is of CF, [Constr. therefore G^A^is the same multiple

B

LM of AB that LM
therefore of CD.

GH

D
E
F

11

is

of CF.

Again, because
multii)le of

LM

CF that MN is
is

LMh the same
of

G

A
[Construction.

FD,

the same multiple of
to be the

CF

that

LN
[V.

is
1.

But

LM was
is,

shewn

same multiple of

GKi^oiAB.
Therefore
of CZ)

CF

that
is

GK

is

the same multiiJe of
equimultiples of

AB

that

LN

that

CA'and ZiVare

.-li?

and CD.

;

160

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
is

MN
of

IlK is the same multiple of EB that FD^ and that KX is the same multiple of EB {Construction. that NP is of FD, tlierefore IIX is tlic same multiple
Again, because
of

EB that MP

is

of

i'7>>

;

[V.

2.

that is, ples of
is

HX and 3fP are equimultiEB and
FD.
is

x

to

And because yli> DF,

to

BE as CD
K

{Hypothesis.

MP

are equimuland that (tA' and tiples oiAB and (77), and //X and are equimultiples of EB and
therefore if GKho greater than HX, greater than JfP and if equal, equal and if less, less. [V. I)cf. 5.

LN

N
H

B

jr

LNh
But
then,

;

;

if

nitude

than

HK to both, GX HX
LN
is

be greater than XX, by adding the common magis

GH

G

A

C

greater

therefore also

greater than

MP

;

and, by taking away the common magnitude is greater than NP. both,
if
is

LM GH be greater than XX, LM greater than NP. Thus may bo shewn that, In like manner GH be equal equal to NP and to XX, LM But GH and L3T are any equimultiples whatever of AE and CF, and XX and NP arc any equimultiples
it

3IN

from

if

is

;

if less, less.

whatever of
therefore

EB and FD; ^^ to EB as CF is to FD.
is

[Construction.

[V. Definition 5.
q.b.d.

Wherefore, iffour magnitudes &c.

PROPOSITION

18.

THEOREM.

If magnitudes, taken scimrately, be proportionals, they shall also he proportionals when taken jointly ; that is, if the first he to the second as the third to the fourth, the first and second together shall he to the secoiid as the third and fourth together to the fourth.

IGl BOOK V. IS. Let AE, ED, CF, FD bo proportionals that let AE be to EB as CF is to FD: they shall also be pro]>ortionals when taken jointly that AB shall be to BE as
;

is,

;

is,

CD is

to

DF.

Take of

GH,HK,LM,MX;
and, again, of

A B, BE,
BE,

CD,

DF any equimultiples whatever
any equimultiples whatever
are equimultiples of also equimultiples of
[Coj^s^ri/c^ion.

DF take
and

KO, NP.
Then, because

KO

and DF, and that BE and

DF

KH and iVil/ are

NP

BE

;

therefore if KO, the multiple of j5^, be gi'eater than KH, is a multiple of the same BE, then the multiple of the multiple of the same is also greater than DF; andif A'(9 be equal to KH, is equal to \

which

DF

NM

NP

NP

NM

and

if less, less.

First, let

KO be not greater than KH\
is

NP not greater than NM. And because GH and HK H,
therefore

are

equimultiples

oi

AB

and BE, and that
than

\_Construcfion.

AB

O

is

gi-eater

BE,

therefore than

HK
KO.

GH
;

is

greater

F

[V.

Axiom

3.

K

but A'O is than KH;
therefore

not
is

greater

K

GH

greater

than

In like manner

it

may
is

be

shewn
if

that

L31

greater than

NP.
be not greater

Thus
than than

KO

a

KH,
KO,

then (77/, the multiple of the nuiltiple of

BE

AB,
is

is

always gi*eater

;

and likewise

the multiple of

LM, the DF,

multiple of C7>,

greater than
11

NP^

162
Next,
let

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

KO be greater than KH',
been shewn,

therefore, as has

NP
is

is

greater than

NM.

And because the whole whole that is of BE,

AB

HK

GH

the same multiple of the
[Construction.

remainder

therefore the remainder GK" is of that

AE

GH

is

AB

the same multiple of the
;

[V.

5.

which

is

the same that

L3I is

of CL>.

[Coyistruction.

In like manner, because the whole multiple of the Avholc CZ> that is of

MN

LM
DF,

is

the same

[Construction.

therefore the remainder is of that remainder

But

GK

it

LN the same multiple of the LM CD. [V. the same multiple of CD that w^as shewn that LM
is

CF

5.

is

is

of

AE.

Therefore

GK

is

the same multiple of

AE

that

LN

is

ofCF;
that

LN are equimultiples of AE and CF. And because KO and N^P are equimultiples of BE and
is,

GKand

DF;
therefore,
if

[Construction.

NM, which
DF,

and i\^P there be taken from and Z>i^, are also equimultiples of

KO

BE

KH and
[CoHs^r.

and il/P are either equal to the remainders or are equimultiples of them.

HO

BE and
[V.
6.

arc equal to
as

HO and MP BE and Z>i^. Then, because AE is to ^^
Suppose that

O

H

CF is to

jPZ>,

[Hypothesis.

P

and that

G^A''

cquimultiiiles of
is to

and XiV are and Ci^;

M
N

AE

therefore G^A'is to

EB as LN
[V.
4,

/Y>.
/?^(9 is

Cor.

But

equal to

BE, and
[JInp.

it//Ms equal to i>/^;
therefore
is to

GKis to /TO as LN

JfP.

G

;

;

BOOK

V.

IS.

163
is

MP
or

Therefore
;

if
if

GK be greater than HO, LN
equal, equal;

and

and

if less, less.

greater than [V. A.

EB and FI).
CF
is

Again, suppose that IIO and

3fP
O

are equimultiples

Then, because
as
to

FD

AE
;

is

to

BB

[II>/po(hesis.

and thnt
anil

GK
if

equimultiples of

and ZiV are £' and C/^, .
i

I/O and J/P are equimultiples o(BB and /TZ)
therefore
tliMu

H

HO,
;

GK be greater LN greater than
is
if
;

K

Ji/P

and

if less, less

equal, equal and [V. Definition 5.
;

\\hich

was likewise shewn on

the preceding supposition.

G
is

A

GH ho greater than KO, then by taking the comKH from both, GK greater than HO therefore also LN greater than 3fP
But
if

mon magnitude

is

;

and, by adding the common magnitude is greater than NP.

NM to
if

both,

LM

Thus
to

GH be greater than KO, LM\s greater than NP. In like manner may be shewn, that GH be equal
if
it

KO, LM'\s

equal to

NP;

and

if less, less.

And in the case in which is not greater than has been shewn that is always greater than and also greater than NP.
it

LM

GH

KO

KH,
Ko\

and But are any equimultiples whatever of and CD, and KO and are any equimultiples whatever of BE and DF, [Construction.

GH

LM

NP

AB
5.

therefore

AB is to BE as CD is to DF.
q.e.d.

\Y. Definition

AVherefore, (/magnitudes &c.

11—2

164

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

PROPOSITION
If a
taken

19.

THEOREM.

Tchole magnitude he to a ichole as a magnitude the first is to a magnitude taken from the other, the remainder shall he to the remainder as the whole is to the whole.

from

Let the whole be to the whole CD as AE,a magnitude taken from AB, is to CF, a magnitude taken from as CD the remainder shall be to the remainder the Avhole is to the whole CD.
:

AB

AB EB

FD

For, because

^5 is to CD AB
is

a.s

AEis

to

CF,
therefore, alternately, is to CF.

[Hypothesis.

A

to

CD

AE

as

[V. 16.

And

if

magnitudes taken jointly be prothey
are also separately;
is to

portionals,

proportionals
[V. 17.
is

when taken
tlierefore

EB
CF.
to

AE as FD
EB
is

to

CF

;

^^
But

therefore, is to

alternately, '

to

FD
;

as

B

b

[V. 16.

AE

is

CF as AB is

to

CD

[Hyp.

therefore ^i?

hto FD asvli?isto CD. [V.ll. Wherefore, if a whole &c. q.e.d.

Corollary. If the whole be to the whole as a magnitude taken from the first is to a magnitude taken from the other, the remainder shall be to the remainder as the magnitude taken from the first is to the magnitude taken from the other. The demonstration is contained in the preceding.

PROPOSITION
Iffour magnitudes
pi'ojyortiojials

E.

THEOREM.

he pi^oportionals, they shall also he

hy conversion ; that is, the first shall he to its e.vcess ahove the second as the third is to its excess above the fourth.

Let AB AE as CD

is

be to to CF.

BE

as

CD

is

to

DF: AB

shall

be to

]

BOOK
to

V.

E, 20.
as to

165
is

DF

For, because

yl^

is

to

BE
is

CD

[Jli/pothcsis.

therefore, is to

by

division,

AE
is

EB

CF

FD;

as [V. 17.

C F

and, by inversion,
is

EB

to

AE
is

to

CF.

as [V. B.

FD

Therefore, bv composition, as is to (7/:

AB

CD

to [V. 18.

AE
B
D

"Wherefore, if/our magn itudes &c. q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

20.

THEOREM.

If there he three magnitudes, and other three, 'which have the same ratio, taken tico and tico, then, if the first he greater than the third, the fourth shall he greater than
the sixth;

and

if equal, equal;

and

if less,

less.

Let A, B, C be three magnitudes, and D, E, other which have the same ratio taken two and two that is to E, and let B he to C ^s is, let Aheio B 2iS is shall be greater than F; to i^: if ^ be greater than C, and if equal, equal and if less, less. First, let A be greater than C shall be greater than F. For, because A is groat er than C, and B is any other magnitude,
three,
;

F

D

D

E

;

:

D

has to therefore (7 has to i?.

A

Ba
is

greater ratio than
[V.
8.

But

A

is

to

B as D
is

to

E;

[Ift/potlicsis.

therefore has to C has to B.

D

E

a greater ratio than
[V. 13.

And

because i?
^

therefore, to E.

C as l)v inversion, C
to

E is to F,
is

[Il>/p.

A
d

B

to i? as jP is [V. n.

E

And

it

was shewn that

D

has to
;

jE"

a

greater ratio than
therefore
therefore

C

has to

B

D has to ^ D
is

a greater ratio than
[V. 13, Cor. [V. 10.

iPhasto^;
greater than F.

IGG

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
:

Secondly, let A be equal to C be equal to F. For, because A is equal to C, and other magnitude, therefore yl is to i? as (7 is to B.

D shall
B is any
[V.
7.

ABC
D E F

But and

-4 is to

^ as i> is to E,
is

[Hypothesis.

C is

to i? as i^
is

to E,

[Hyp. V. B.
;

therefore I)

to

E as i^ is to ^
is

[V. 11.

and therefore Z>

equal to F.
:

[V.

9.

Lastly, let A be less than C be less than F. For C is greater than A and, as was shewn in the first case,
;

D
C
as

shall

is

to

J5 as i^ is to

^

;

and, in the to Z>;
therefore,

same manner, B
by the

is

to

A
is

E

is

ABC
D
E F

first case,

than
that

D

F

greater

;

is,

D

is less

than F.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, // tlierG he three &c.

PROPOSITION

21.

THEOREM.

If there he three magnitudes, and other three, ichich have the same ratio, taken two and two, hut in a cross order, then if the frst he greater than the third, the fourth shall he greater than the sixth; and if equal, eqiud; and if less, less.
Let A,
7?,

C
;

be three magnitudes, and D, E,

F

other

three, which liave the same ratio, taken two and two, but tliat is, let be to in a cross order as is to F, and as Z> is to ii if be greater than C, let be to and if equal, equal ; and if less, shall be greater than ;

A
:

B

B

C

F

A

E

D

less.

First, let

A

be greater than C:

D

shall

bo greater

than F.

;

;

;

BOOK
For, because

V.

21.

1G7

and

A is greater tlian (7, any other magnitude, a greater ratio therefore A has to [V. 8. than C has to B.

B is
A
C

B

But

is

to

B as i^ is to -F;
is

[Iliipothcsis.

therefore

E

than

lias

has to i^ a greater ratio [V. 13. to B.
to

ABC
D
F>

And
to E,

because i?

C

as

Z>

is

[Hypothesis.

F

therefore, is to D.

by mversion,
that

(7 is to i? as

E

[V. B.

And
than

it

was shewn

E

has to

greater ratio than
therefore

C has

to

B

Fa

E lias to F a greater ratio [V. 13, C^r. E has to D [V. 10. therefore F is less than D D greater than F. that Secondly, let A be equal to C D
; ;

is,

is

:

shall

be equal to F.

is

For, because yl is equal to C, and any other magnitude,

B
7.

therefore

A

is

to 7? as
is

C is
to i^

to
;

i?.

[V.

But ^ is to i? as ^ and C is to ^ as ^ is
therefore

ABC
D
E
I^

[//yi'-

to

D

;

[Hyp. V. ^.
;

E is to /^ as E is to i> and therefore D is equal to F.
Lastly, let
shall

[V. 11.
[V.
9.

A

be

less

than C:

D

be

less

than F.

For

C is

greater than yl
first case,

and, as was shewn in the

C is

to i? as

^

is

to Z>

and, in the is to

same manner,

F

E
;

B is to A

as

A B D

C

F

;

therefore, by the first case, i^ is greater

than
that

D
is,

D is less than F.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if there he three &c.

;

168

EUCLID S ELEMENTS.
PEOPOSITION
22.

THEOREM.

If there he any nuniber of magnitudes, and as many others, ichich have the same ratio, taken tico and two in order, the first shall have to the last of the first magnitudes the same ratio which the first of the others has
to the last.

[This proposition

is

usually cited

by the words ex

CEquali.'\

First, let there be three magnitudes A, B, C, and other three D, E, F, ^vhich have the same ratio, taken two and as is to E, and let be to two in order that is, let
;

be to

(7

as

^

A

B

D

is

to i^

:

A

shall

be to

C as

D

B

is

to F.

and Take of multiples whatever

A

D
G

any equiand i/;

and of

B
C

and

E

tiples Avhatever

K and L

any equimul;

and of
tiples

and whatever

F any equimul-

M and N.
^

ABC
G

D

E

F

Then, because
is to Z";

yl is to

as Z>

K

INT

H L N

[Hypothesis.

and // are equimultiples of A and D,
and that

G

and

B and E

K and L
G
is

equimultiples of
[Construction.

therefore L.

to /sT as

//

is

to
4.

[V.

For the same reason, A' is

to

Jf as

X

is

to

N.

And because there are three magnitudes G, K, M, and other three H, L, N, which have the same ratio taken two and two,
therefore
if

G

and

if

equal, equal

be greater than 31, II and if less, less.
;

is

greater than

N

;

[V. 20.

But and

M and N
let

G

and // are any equimultiples whatever of A and D, are any equimultiples whatever of C and F.
is

Therefore yl

to (7 as Z> is to F.

[V. Hcfiniiion
(7,

5.

Next,

there be four magnitudes, Aj B,

D, and

;

BOOK
B E

V.

22, 23.

169

B to

other four E, F, G, H, which have the same ratio taken two and two in order is to F, and as namely, let A be to
(J

as

F

(r is to i/":

to as to G, and y1 shall be to Z) as i*7 is to ^.
is

C

D

For, because A, B,C are three magnitudes, and E, F, other three, which have the same ratio, taken two and two
in order,

G

{Hypothesis.

therefore, by the first case,

^

is

to

C as
is

^

is

to G.
{Hjipothcsis.

But

6' is to

Z> as

G

is

to

H;

therefore also, by the

first case,

A

to Z> as

^

is

to

H.

And

so on,

"NA'herefore,

whatever be the number of magnitudes. if there he any number &c. q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
If
there he anrj
others,

23.

THEOREM.

which hare

numher rf magnitudes, and as many the same ratio, taken two and two in

a cross order, the frst shall have to the last of the first magnitudes the same ratio ichich the first of the others has to the last.
First, let there be three magnitudes. A, B, C, and other three D, E, F, which have the same ratio, taken two and be to i> as iS* is to F, two in a cross order namelv, let is to F. shall be to C as and i? to a as i> is to
;

^ A
:

A

D

any equimultiples whatever G, H, K; and of C, E, /"any e(juimultiplcs whatever L,

Take of ^, B,

D

M, N.
Then because
equinuiltiplcs

G and H arc of A and B,
;

A B
G

C

H

L

D E K ^I N

and that magnitudes have the same ratio which their
equimultiples have
therefore to//.
[V. 15.
is

A

is

to

B as G

And,

Ei^io

for the as

F

M

same reason, is to N.

;

170
But
^.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

^

is

to

5

as
to

jE"

is

to

[Hypothesis.

Therefore
is

G is

// as

M
A
H
C
I.

to iV.

[V. 11.
to

as

D

And
is

because i? is to C {Hypothesis. E,

and that

H

equimulti[)lcs of

and A' aro B and D,

D E K N

and Z and J/ are equimultiples of C and E; [Constr. therefore // is to L as
is

K
4.
is

to A[.

[V.
it

And
tliat

has been shewn

G^ is to

ZT as

M

toiV.

Then since there are three magnitudes G, II, L, and other three K^ M, N, -which have the same ratio, taken two and two in a cross order
if equal,

therefore if be greater than L, equal ; and if less, less.

G

K

is

greater than N\ and
[V. 21.

G and A'' are any equimultiples whatever of ^ and 7), L and N are any equimultiples whatever of G and F [V. Definition 5. therefore ^ is to (7 as i> is to F.
But and
Next, let there be four magnitudes A, B, (7, Z>, and other four E, F, G, H, which have the same ratio, taken two and two in a cross order namely, let A be to ^ as G^ is to 77, and i? to G as is to G, and (7 to Z> as iS" is to F\
;

\

A. B.

C. D.

E. F. G. H.

A

F

shall

be to

D as E
;

is

to //.

For, because vl, ^, C are three magnitudes, and F^ G, II other three, which have the same ratio, taken two and two in a cross order [Hypothesis.
therefore, by the first case, -4 is to (7 as i^
is

to

H.
[Hypothesis.

But

(7 is

to i) as

^

is

to F',
first case, yl is to Z>

therefore also, by the

as Z"

is

to //.

And

so on,

whatever be the number of magnitudes.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if there he any number &c.

BOOK
PROPOSITION

V.

2Jt.

171

24.

THEOREM.

ratio which the If the first hai'e to the second the third has to the fourth, and the fifth have to the second the same ratio which the sixth has to the fourth, then the first and fifth t'^gether shall have to the second the same ratio irhich the third and sixth together have to the fourth.
first have to C the second the same ratio the the fourth and let third has to have to C the second the same ratio Avliich UJl the fifth the fourth AG, the first and fiftli togetlier, sixth has to shall have to C the second the same ratio which Ul/, the the fourth. third and sixth together, has to

mme

Let

AB the
F

wiiich

Di: the

F

;

BG

:

F

is

For, because to F,

BG

is to

C as
is

FH
G

[Ilyjiothesis.

therefore, is to as

F

by inversion.
is

C

And
to F,

F/I. because AB
to

to [V.

BG
i>'.

H
B
E-

to

C

as

DF

is

[Jlifpothasis.

and

a is

therefore, is to as

DF

BG as i^is to FH; ex a^quali, AB is to BG
FH.
[V. 22.
J^

And, because these magnitudes are
proportionals, they are also proper[V. 18. tionals when taken jointly
;

D

F

therefore

AG is to BG as DII is to FIT.
is

But

BG

to

C as FIT is
^6^

to i^;
is

[TlypotTiesis.

therefore, ex a^quali,

to

Cas Dllis
q.e.d.

to F.

[V. 22.

AVhcrcfore, if the first &c.

Corollary 1. If the same hypothesis be made as in the proposition, the excess of the first and fifth shall be to the second as the excess of the third and sixth is to the The demonstration of this is the same as that of fourth. the proposition, if division be used instead of composition.
Corollary 2. The proposition holds true of two ranks of magnitudes, whatever be their nundjcr, of which each of the first rank has to the second magnitude the same ratio that the corresponding one of tlie second rank hais to tho fourth magnitude ; as is manifest.

172

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
25.

THEOREM.

Tf four magnitudes of the same kind he proportionals^ the greatest and least of them together shall he greater than the other two together.
tionals; namely, let

AB

be proporLet the four magnitudes AB, CD, E, is to i^; and let be to CD as the \)Q the greatest of them, and consequently

AB

^

F

F

least:

[Y.A,Y.U.

AB

and

F

together shall be greater than
equal to E, and F.
r>

CD

and

E

together.

Take AG CH equal to

E

Then, because is to F,

AB
;

h

to

CD

as

[Ili/pothesis.

and that

AG is equal to E, and CH equal to F [Coiistruction. therefore AB is to CD AG
sis

D H

is

to

CH.

[V.

7,

V.
is

11.

And

because the whole yi^

to

A

C

E

F
as [V. 19.

the whole

CD as AG is

to

CH;
is

therefore the remainder the whole ^i? is to the whole

GB
;

to the remainder

HD

CD.

But

AB

is

greater than
is

CD

[Hypothesis.

therefore

BG

greater than
is

DH.

[V. A.
{Constr.

And

because

AG

equal to

therefore together.

AG

and

E and CH equal to F, F together are equal to CH
BG, DH,

and

E

BG is the greater, there be added equal magnitudes, namely, AG and F to BG, and CH and E to DH, then AB and F together are greater than CD and E together.
Wherefore, iffour magnitudes &c.
q.e.d.

And

if

to

the unequal magnitudes

of which

BOOK VL
DEFINITIONS.

1. Similar rectilineal figures are those which Jiave their several angles equal, each to each, and the sides about the equal angles proportionals.

2. Reciprocal figures, namely, triangles and parallelograms, are such as have their sides about two of their angles proportionals in such a manner, that a side of the first figure is to a side of the other, as the remaining side of this other is to the remaining side of the first.

3.

A

straight line
is

is

mean

ratio,

when the whole

said to be cut in extreme and is to the greater segment as

the greater segment

to the less.

4. The altitude of any figure is the straight line drawn from its vertex perpendicular to the base.

;

174

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
1.

THEOREM.

to

Triangles and parallelograms of the same altitude are one another as their bases.

Let the triangles ABC, A CD, and the parallelograms EC, CF have the same altitude, namely, the perpendicular drawn from the point A to BD as the base BC is to the base CD, so shall the triangle ABC be to the triangle A CD, and the parallelogram EC to the parallelogram CF,
:

Produce both ways take any number of
straight lines BG, GIL, each equal to BC, and any number of straight lines DK, KL, each equal to CD [I. 3.
;

BD

H G B

C

and j oin AG, AH, A K,

AL.
Then, because CB,
the triangles

BG, GH are all equal, [Construcaon, [I. 38. ABC, AGB, AUG are all equal.

Therefore whatever multiple the base IIC is of the base is the triangle AIIC of the triangle ABC.

BC, the same multiple

For the same reason, whatever multiple the base the base CD, the same multiple is the triangle the triangle ACD.

CL

is

ACL

of of

And if the base IIC be equal to the base CL, the triangle AIIC is equal to the triangle ACL; and if the base IIC
be greater than the base CL, the triangle than the triangle ACL; and if less, less.

AHC

is

greater
[I. 38.

Therefore, since there are four magnitudes, namelv, the

two bases BC, CD, and the two triangles ABC, ACD; and of the base BC, and the triangle ABC, the first and
the third, any equimultiples whatever have been taken, namely, the base IIC and the triangle and of the base and the triangle ACD, the second and the fourth, any equinmltiples whatever have been taken, namely, the base CL and the triangle CL

CD

AHC

;

A

;

;

;

;

;

BOOK
triangle

VI.

1, 2.

175

and since it has been shewn that if the base IFC be greater than the base CL, the triangle A I/O is grreater than the

A CL

;

and

if

equal, equal

;

and

if less, less

therefore as the base is to the base CD, so is the triangle to the triangle ACD. [V. Definition 5.

ABC

BC

And, because the parallelogram
triangle ABC, and the i^arallelogram triangle yICZ);

CE is CF is

double of the double of the
[I. 41.

nuiltiples

and that magnitudes have the same ratio Avhich their equihave [Y. 15.

therefore the parallelogram is to the parallelogram as the triangle ABCis to the triangle ACD.

EC

CE

But

it

BC therefore the parallelogram EC is to as the base BC is to the base CD.
triangle

has been shewn that the triangle as the base is to the base

ACD

ABC
CD

is

to the

the parallelogram

CF

[V. 11.

"Wherefore, triangles &c.

q.e.d.

Corollary.

From

parallelograms which other as their bases.
in the

this it is plain that triangles and have equal altitudes, are to one an-

For, let the figures be placed so as to have their bases same straight line, and to be on the same side of it; and having drawn perpendiculars from the vertices of the triangles to the bases, the straigiit line which joins the vertices is parallel to that in which their bases are [I. 33.

because the perpendiculars are both equal and parallel to one another. [I. 28.
Then,
if

position, the demonstration will

the same construction be made as in the probe the same.

PROPOSITION

2.

THEOREM.

If a straiffht lijie he drawn parallel to one of the sides of a triangle, it shall cut the other sides, or those sides produced, proportionalltj ; and if the sides, or the sides produced, he cut j^roportionallg, the straight line ichich joins the points of section, shall he jyarallel to the rcmaining side of the triangle.

176
Let

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.

DE be

drawn

parallel to

BC, one

the triangle

ABC:

BD shall be to DA as CE

of the sides of is to EA.

Join

BE, CD.
triangle

Then the
same

BDE

is

equal to the triangle

CDEy
[I. 37.

because thcv are on the same base
parallels

DE and

between the

DE, BO.
another triangle
;

And

ADE

is

and equal magnitudes have the same magnitude;

ratio to the

same
[^
.

7.

is to the triangle therefore the triangle is to the triangle ADE. triangle

BDE

ADE

as the

CDE
;

But the
is

triangle

BDE

is

to the triangle

ADE as BD

to

DA

because the triangles have the same altitude, namely, the to AB, and therefore they are perpendicular drawn from [VI. 1. to one another as their bases.

E

For the same reason the triangle

CDE
is

is

to the triangle

ADETis

6'^

is

to
is

EA.
is

Therefore

[V. 11. BD to DA as CE to EA. join DE: to EA, and Next, let BD be to DA as CE DE shall be parallel to BC.

For, the same construction

bemg made,
[Ilnpothesk.

because BD and as BD
triangle

is

to

DA

as

CE is to EA,
so is the triangle

is

to

DA,

BDE

and as

ADE;

ADE, CE is to EA

to the [VI. 1.

so is the triangle

CDE

to the triangle [VI. 1,

;

;

BOOK VL
CDE

2,3.

177

therefore the triangle is to the triangle triangle is to the triangle ADE-,
that is, the triangles to the triangle ADE.

BDE

ADE as the
[V. 11.

BDE

and

CDE
is

have the same ratio
to the triangle [V. 9.

Therefore the triangle

BDE

equal

CDE. And these
same
of
it,

triangles are side of it

on the same base

DE and

on the

but equal triangles on the same base, and on the same side
are between the same parallels
[I. 39.

therefore

DE

is

parallel to

BC.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

PROPOSITION
line

3.

THEOREM,

If the vertical angle of a triangle he bisected by a straight which also cuts the base, the segments of the base shall have the same ratio ichich the other sides of the triangle
have
the
to

and if the segments of the base have ratio which the other sides of the triangle have to one another, the straight line draicnfrom the vertex to the point of section shall bisect the vertical angle.
one another ;

same

Let

ABC

be a triangle, and

let the

angle

BAC

be

bisected bv the straight line

D:

BD shall be to DC as BA
C draw CE
[I. 31.

AD,
is

"which to ^6'.

meets the

ba.se at

Through
parallel to

DA,

and let BA produced meet C^ at ^.
Then,
straight line

the parallels AD, EC, is equal the angle to the alternate angle

AC ACE

because the meets

CAD

;

[I.

29.
is,

but the angle

CAD

by
is

hyi)othcsis, equal to the angle

BAD;
therefore the angle

BAD

equal to the angle ^6'^. [Ax.

1.

12

;

;

;

178

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

AD, EC,

Again, because the straight line the exterior angle

BAE meets the parallels BAD equal to the interior
is
[I. 29.

and opposite angle

AEC;

has but the angle been shewn equal to the
angle

BAD

ACE
[Axiom
1.

therefore the SLngleACE is equal to the angle

AEC;
and therefore
equal to

AC

is

AE.

[I. 6.

And, because AD is [Constr. parallel to EC,
one of the sides of the
triangle

BCE,

therefore

BD

is

to

DC as BA
AC;

is

to

AE

[VI.

2.

but

AE

is

equal to
is

BD to D Cob BA to AC. [V. Xext, let BD be to DC as BA to AC, and join AD: the angle ^^C shall be bisected by the straight line AD,
therefore
is
is

7.

For, let the same construction be made. Then BD is to Z> (7 as BA is to AC; and BD is to DC as BA is to AE,

[Hypothviis.

[YI.

2.

because

AD

is

parallel to

EC;
is

[Construction.

therefore i?^
therefore

is

to

^C as BA

to

AE;

[V. 11.
[V.
9.

^Cis

equal to

AE
;

and therefore the angle AEC is equal to the angle A CE. [1. 5. But the angle -4 ^C is equal to the exterior angle 5^ Z>; [1.29. andthe angle ^(7^ is equal to the alternate angle CJ Z> [1.29.
therefore the angle

BAD

is

equal to the angle

CAD

;

[Ax.

1.

that

is,

the angle

BA C is bisected by the straight line A D.
angU
&c.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if the vertical

;

;

;

BOOK
PROPOSITION
Jf
one of

VI.
A,

A.

179

THEOREM.

the exterior angle of a triangle, made by producing its sides, be bisected by a straight line which also cuts the base produced, the segmods between the dividing straight line and the extremities of the base shall have the same ratio which the other sides of the triangle have to one another ; and if the segments of the base 2)roduced hare the same ratio which the other sides qf the triangle have to one another, the straight line drawn from the vertex to the point of section shall bisect the exterior angle

of the triangle.
Let ABC be a triangle, and let one of its sides BA be and let the exterior angle CAE be Eroduccd to E wiiich meets the base isected by the straight line shall be to as BA is to ^ a produced at Through C draw CF
;

D BD
:

AD

DC

parallel to

AD,
because

[I. 31.

meeting Then,

AB at F.
the

straight line the parallels AD,

AC

meets

FC, the equal to the alternate angle C'^Z); [1.29.
angle

A CF is

but the angle

DAE;

CAD

is,

by hypothesis, equal
is

BCD
ACF.
[Ax.

to the angle

therefore the angle

DAE
AFC

equal to the angle

I.

Again, because the straight line AD, FC, the exterior angle and opjX)sitc angle

FAE meets the parallels DAE is equal to the interior
[I. 2t).

but the angle
therefore

DAEh^a been shewn equal to the angle ^Ci^; the angle ^Ci^is equal to the angle AFC; [Ax. 1.
[I. 6.

and therefore

Ada equal to AF. paralled to FCj And, because AD
is

[Construction.

one of the sides of the triangle
therefore

BCF
is

BD

is

to

DC as BA
^C;

to

AF
AC.

[VI.

2.

but

AFia

equal to

therefore

BD is to DC as BA

is

to

[V.

7.

12—2

;

.

180
Next,
let

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

BD be
AC
;

to

DC

AD

as

BA
:

is

to

and join
angle

the
shall

exterior

CAE

be bisected by

the straight line

AD.

For, let the same construction be made.

Then
is

BD

is

to

DC as BA
[Hypothesis.
is

to ^(7;

BD is to DC as i?^ therefore BA is to ^C as
and
therefore

to

AF
to

[VI.

2.

iJ.-l is

AF;

[V. 11.
9.

[V. ^C is equal to AF, and therefore the angle A CFis equal to the angle AFC.

[1. 5.

But the tmgleAFC is equal to the exterior angle DAE and the angle A CF is equal to the alternate angle CA D
therefore the angle

;

[1. 29.
[1.

;

29.
1

that

is,

the angle

CAD is equal to the angle DAE; CAE is bisected by the straight line AD.
[Ace.

"Wherefore, if the exterior angle &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

4.

THEOREM.

The sides about the equal angles of triangles which are equiangular to one another are proportionals ; and those which are opx)osite to the eciual angles are homologous sides, that is, are the antecedents or the conseciuents of the ratios.
Let the triangle ^5(7be equiangular to the triangle Z^C^, having the angle yli?(7 equal to the angle DCE, and the angle equal to the angle DEC, and consequently the anole J5^(7equal to the angle CDE\ the sides about the equal angles

ACB

.

of the triangles ABC, DCE, shall be proportionals ; and

those shall be the homologous sides, which are opposite to the equal angles.

Let the triangle DCE be placed so that its side CE may be contiguous to BC, and in the same straight
line ^vith
it.

[I. 22.

;

;

BOOK
\

VI,

4,

5.

181

Then the angle BCA is equal add to each the angle ABC
therefore the two angles angles ABC,

to the angle

CEB

;

{Hyix

ABGy BCA

CED

;

are equal to the two lAxiom 2.
[I. 17.

but the angles right angles;

ABC, BCA

are together less than two are together less than
\Axioni 12.

therefore the angles two right angles
;

ABC, CED

and ED, if produced, ^vill meet. Let them be produced and meet at the point F.
therefore

BA

Then, because the angle

ABC is

equal to the angle
[Hypothesis.
[I. 28.

DCE,

BF

is

parallel to

CD
FE.

;

and because the angle

ACB is equal to the angle DEC,

[Hyp.
[I. 28.

AC\^

parallel to

Therefore

FACD is a parallelogram;
[1.

and therefore ^^i^ is equal to CZ), and ^(7is equal to i!^Z>.

34.

A nd,
therefore

because

AC

is

parallel to

FE, one

of the sides of [VI.

the triangle

FBE,
is

BA BA

to

AF as BC
;

but xlF

is

equal to
is

therefore

to

is to CE CD CD as BCis to CE;
is

2.

[V.

7.

and, alternately,

AB
CD

to

BC as DC is to
BF,
;

CE,

\y. 16.

Again, because
therefore

is

parallel to

BC is to CE as FD is to DE is equal to AC but FD therefore BC is to CE as AC is to DE
and, alternately, i?Cis to

[VI.

2.

;

[V.

7.

CA
to

as

CE is

to

ED.
is

[V. 16.

Then, because
is

it

to

CE, and that

has been shewn that is to CA as 6'^

AB
is

to

^C

to
is

ED

BC as DC
;

therefore, ex a^quali,

^^1

is

AC as CD
5.

to />£'. [V. 22.

"Wherefore, the sides &c.

q.e.d.

PEOPOSITIOX

THEOREM.

about earJi of their angles, If the sides of two he proportionals, the triauijles shall be equiauffular to one another, and shall hare those angles equal which areopposite to the homologous sides.
triimr/Ies,

;

;

;

182

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
ABC,
to
;

tional, so that

EF; BO CA as EF is to FD and, consequently, ex ?equali, BA to ^Cas ED is to Z>i^: the triangle ABC shall be equiangular to the triangle DEF, and they shall have those angles

Let the triangles

AB

is

BC as DE

DEF have
is

their sides proporand to to

equal which are opposite to the homologous sides, namely, equal to the angle DEF, and the angle the angle equal to equal to the angle EFD, and the angle the angle EDF.

ABC

BCA

BAC

straight line

At the point E, in the EF, make the

angle

FEG equal to the angle

ABC;

and at the point F, in the straight line EF, make the equal to the angle angle

EFG
;

BCA

[I. 23.

therefore the remaining angle is equal to the remaining angle BAC.

EGF

Therefore the triangle

ABC

is

equiangular to the triangle
to the equal

GEF;
and therefore they have their sides opposite
angles proportionals
therefore ^i? is to BC as GE is to EF. But AB is to BC as DE is to EF: therefore DE is to EF as GE is to EF
[VI.
i.

{Hypothesis.

[V. 11.
;

therefore

DE

is

equal to

GE.
is

[V.

9.

For the same

reason,

DF

equal to

GF.

DE

Then, because in the is equal to GE, and

two
is

triangles

DEF, GEF,
GE, EF^

EF

commou

the two sides each to each

DE,

EF are

equal to the two sides

and the base

DF

is

equal to the base

GF

;

therefore the angle

DEF
DFE

is

equal to the angle

GEF,

[I. 8.

and the other angles to the other angles, each to each, to [1. 4. winch the equal sides are opposite. is equal to the angle GFE, and therefore the angle
the angle

EDF

is

equal to the angle

EGF.

BOOK VI
And, because the angle and the angle GEF is equal
therefore the angle

5,6.
is

183

DEF

equal to the angle

GEFy
1.

to the angle

ABC,

[Constr.

^J5 (7 is equal

to the angle Z>^i^. [^x.

For the same reason, the angle ACB is equal to the angle DFE, and the angle at A is equal to the angle at Z>.
Therefore the triangle

ABC

is

equiangular to the triangle
q.e.d.

DEF.
^YhcvGforc, if the sides &c.

PROPOSITION
If two
angle of the other,

0".

THEOREM.

triangles have one angle of the one equal to one and the sides about the equal angles proj)ortionals, the triangles shall be equiangular to one another, and shall have those angles equal which are opposite to the homologous sides.
in have the angle Let the triangles ABC, in the other, and the the one, equal to the angle to sides about those angles proportionals, namely, shall be equiangular to is to DF: the triangle as equal to the triangle DEF, and shall have the angle CB equal to the angle DFE. the angle DEF, and the angle

DEF EDF
A

ED

ABC

BAC BA AC ABC

At the point D. in the straight line DF, make the equal to cither angle

FDG

oftheanglcsiy.-l(;J^2>/^; and at the point F, in the
straight line

DF, make

equal to the angle [1.23. the angle ^C^;
therefore the remaining angle at ing angle at B.

DFG

G

is

equal to the remain-

Therefore the triangle

ABC
is

is

equiangular to the trianglo
[VT.
4.

DGF;
therefore

^C as GD to DF. to DF; ^(7 as ED to But BA to DF to DF as GD therefore ED equal to GD, therefore ED is
BA
is

to

is

is

[Hiipothesis.
\

is

is

[V. 11.
V"'- 3-

;

184

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

And

DF

is

common

therefore the two sides

ED, DF are

to the

two triangles

EDF, GDF\

equal to the two sides

GD, DF,

each to each

and the angle
to the angle

EDF
EDF

is

equal

GDF;

[Constr.

therefore the base is equal to the base GF, and the triangle to the triangle GDF, and the remaining angles to the remaining angles, each to each, to which the equal sides are opposite ;

EF

[1.4.

DFG ACB equal to the angle DFE. [Ax. 1. And the angle BA C equal to the angle EDF; [Hypothesis. therefore the remaining angle at B is equal to the remaintherefore the angle
is is

therefore the angle is equal to the angle DFE, and the angle at is equal to the angle at E. But the angle is equal to the angle ACB; [Constr.

G

DFG

ing angle at E.

Therefore the triangle

DEF.

ABC

is

equiangular to the triangle
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if two triangles &c.

PEOPOSITION

7.

THEOREM.

If two triangles have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, and the sides about ttco other angles proportionals; then, if each of the remaining angles be either less, or not less, than a right angle, or if one of them be a right angle, the triangles shall be equiangular to one another, and shall have those angles equal about which the sides are proiyortionals.
Let the triangles ABC, have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, namely, the angle BA C equal to the angle EDF, and the sides about two

DEF

BC

other angles ABC, DEF, pro])ortionals, so that is to as is to and, first, let each of the remaining angles at C and be less than a right angle the triangle shall be equiangular to the triangle DEF^ and shall

DE

ABC

EF F

AB

;

:

;

;

;

BOOK
have the angle
angle at
For,

VL

7.

185

C
if

equal to the angle equal to the angle at F.

ABC

DBF,

and the

the angles ^i? (7, not equal, one of them must be greater than the other.

DBF be

be the greater, Let and at the point B, in the
straight line

ABC

AB^ make

angle

ABG equal to the

the angle
is

DBF.

[I. 23.

Then, because the angle at A

equal to the angle at

Z>, \IIyi^.

and the angle

therefore the remaining angle maining angle

ABG is equal to the angle DBF, AGB is equal to
DFE;

[Constr.

the re-

therefore the triangle

ABG

is

equiangular to the triangle
4.

DBF.
[VI. is to BG as DE is to EF. [Hypotkesis. BC as DE is to EF; [V. 11. AB is to BG therefore A B is to BC [V. 9. therefore BC is equal to BG and therefore the angle BCG is equal to the angle BGC {Hyp. But the angle BCG is less than a right angle therefore the angle BGC is less than a right angle

Therefore

^^
to

But

AB

is

ViS

;

;

[I. 5.

;

and therefore the adjacent angle
tlian a right angle.

AGB

must be greater
[I. 13.

But the angle
ati^;

AGB

was shewn

to

be equal

to the angle

therefore the angle at

F

is

greater than a right angle.
[Hypothesis.

But the angle
which
that
is

at i^is less than a right angle;

absurd.

Therefore the angles is, they are equal.
the angle at

ABC and DEF are not unequal
D;
[Hyjiothc.^is.

And

A

is

equal to the angle at

therefore the remaining angle at ing angle at

F

C

is

equal to the remain-

therefore the triangle

ABC is

equiangular to the triangle

DEF,

;

186

EUCIIUS ELEMENTS.
:

Next, let each of the angles at than a right angle the triangle
to the triangle

ABC

C

and

shall

be not less be equiangular

F

DEF.

For, the same construction being made, it may be shewn in the same manner, that is equal to

BG

BG
E

/1

;

therefore

BCG
angle

is

the angle equal to the

BGO.
;

{I. 5.

BCG is not less than a right angle [Hyp. therefore the angle BGC is not less than a right angle; two angles of the triangle BCG are together not that
But the angle
is,

less

than two right angles; which

is

impossible.

[I. 17.

may be shewn to be equiTherefore the triangle angular to the triangle DEF, as in the first case.
and i^ be a right Lastly, let one of the angles at shall be angle, namely, the angle at C: the triangle equiangular to the triangle DEF.

ABC

C

ABC

For,

if the

triangle

ABC

be not equiangular to the triangle DEF, at the point B, in the straight line AB, equal make the angle [I. 23. to the angle DEF. Then it may be shewn, as in the first case, that is equal to

ABG

BG

BC

;

therefore the angle equal to the angle ^G^C

BCG is
[1. 5.

But the angle
right angle:

BCG

is

a

[Hypothesis.

therefore the angle is a right angle

BGC

that
to

is, two angles of the triangle BCG arc together equal [I. 17. two right angles; which is impossible.

Therefore the triangle

ABC

is

equiangular to the triangle
q.e.d.

DEF.
'V^hereiorc, if two triajigles &c.

BOOK
PROPOSITION
In a right-angled
triayigle,

VI.

8.

187

8.

THEOREM.

if a perpendicular he draion

from
of

the right angle to the base, the triangles on each side it are similar to the whole triangle, and to one anotlier.

be a right-angled triangle, having the right Let be drawn perangle BAC; and from the point A, let pendicular to the base BC\ the triangles DBA, shall be similar to the whole triangle ABC, and to one another. is equal For, the angle to the angle BDA, each of them \_Axiom 11. being a right angle, is common to and the angle at the two triangles xiBC, therefore the remaining angle is equal to the remaining angle DAB. is equiangular to the triangle Therefore the triangle DBA, and the sides about their equal angles are propor-

ABC

AD

DAG

BAC

B

DBA

;

ACB

ABC

tionals

[VI.
;

4.
1.

therefore the triangles are similar.

[VI. Definition

In the same manner it may be shewn that the triangle is similar to the triangle ABC. being both similar to the And the triangles DBA, triangle ABC^ are similar to each other.

DAC

DAC

Wherefore, in a right-angled triangle &c.

q.e.d.

Corollary. From this it is manifest, that the perpendicular drawn from the right angle of a right-angled triangle to the base, is a mean proportional between the segments of the base, and also that each of the sides is a mean proportional between the base and the segment of
the base adjacent to that side.

DBA, DAC, BD is to DA :is DA h to DC; and in the triangles ABC, DBA,
For, in the triangles

[VI.

4.

BC is to BA
and

as

BA
CA

is

to

BD
CD.

;

[VI.

4.

in the triangles

ABC, DAC,
is

BC is to CA

as

to

[VI.

4.

:

;

188

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
PROPOSITION
9.

PROBLEM.
any part required.

From
it is

a given straight line

to

cut off

Let AB\iQ the given straight line required to cut off any part from it. From the point A draw a straight line AC, making any angle with AB\ va.AC take any point Z>, and take A (7 the
of AD, that is of the be cut off from it ; join parallel to it. BC, and draw shall be the part required to be cut oflf.

same multiple

AB

part

"SYhich is to

DE

AE
[Construction.

For, because

EI>

is

parallel to

BC,

one of the sides of the triangle
therefore

ABC,
is

CD is to

I>A

as
is

BE
to
;

to

and, by composition,

CA

^Z>

as

EA BA
;

[VI.
is

2.

to

AE.

[V. 18.

But

CA

is

a multiple of
is

AD

[Construction.

therefore

BA

the same multiple of

that is, Avhatever part of AB.

AD

is

of

AE AC, AE

[V. D.
is

the same part

"Wherefore, /ro?w the given straight line required has been cut off. q.e.f.

AB,

the

part

PROPOSITION

10.

PROBLEM.

AB AC AB similarly to AC. Let AC ho divided at the points D, E; and let AB, AC ho placed so as to contain any angle, and join BC through the point D, draw DF parallel to BC, and through the point E draw EG parallel to BC. 31. AB shall be divided at the points
;

To divide a given straight line similarly to a given divided straight line, that is, into parts ichich shall have the same ratios to one another, that the parts of the given divided straight line have. Let ho the straight line given to be divided, and i\\o given divided straight line: it is required to divide

[I.

F, G, similarly io AC,

BOOK

VI.

10, 11.

189

[I. 31. Througli D draw i)//A" parallel to AB. is a parallelogram Then each of the figures FH, therefore DIlis equal to FG, and //A' is equal to GB. [1.34.

HB

;

is parallel to KG, Then, because one of the sides of the triangle DKG^

HF
is

[Construction.

therefore

KII

to

But

KH\%

equal to

HD as CE to ED. BG^ and HD equal to
is

[VI.

2.

is

GF\
[V.
7.

therefore

BG is to GF as CE is to ED. Again, because FD is parallel to GE^
AGE,

[Construction.

one of the sides of the triangle
therefore 6^i^is to
it

ED is to DA. [VI. And has been shewn that BG to GF as CJEJ is to FD. Therefore BG to GF as 6'^ is to ED, and (77^ is to FA
FA
as
2.

is

is

as £'i>

is

to

DA.
t/ie gicen straight line given divided straight line

Wherefore
larly
to the

AB

is

divided simiq.e.f.

AC.

PROPOSITION

11.
to

PROBLEM.
two given straight
lines.

To find a third proportional

be the two given straight lines: Let AB, quired to find a third proportional to A 13,

AC

it is

re-

AC

be placed so Let AB, as to contain any angle produce AB, AC, to the points D, E; and [I. 3. equal to make
;

AC

BD

AC

-,

join

BC, and through D parallel to BC.

dravi'

DE
D
[Construction.

[I. 31.

CE
to

shall

be a third proportional

AB, AC,
For, because

BC is parallel to DE,
ADE,
;

one of the sides of the triangle
therefore

AB is to BD as -^IC is to CE
CE.
to the

[VI.

2.

but

BD is equal to ^C; therefore AB is to ^C as ^C is to
Wherefore

[Construction,

[V.
line.^

7.

two given straight third proportional CE is/uund. q.k.f.

AB, AC, a

190

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
l^ROPOSITION

12.

THEOREM.
to three

To Jind a fourth proj)ortional
lines.

given straight
it is

Let A, B, (7 be the three given straight lines required to find a fourth proportional to -^, B, C.

:

Take two
gle

straight

lines,

EDF DG equal
B, and

DEy DF,

;

containing any anand in these make
to

DH equal to C;
through

A,

GE equal

to

[I. 3.

join

EF parallel to

GH, and
shall

E draw
[I. 31.

GH.

HF

tional

be a fourth proporto Aj B, C.

is parallel to EF, For, because one of the sides of the triangle DEF,

GH

[Construction.

therefore

But

DG is to GE as DH is to HF. DG is equal to A, GE equal to
is

[VI.

2.

By and

DH
[Y.
G,

is

equal to

C

;

[Construction.
is

therefore

^

to J? as
to the

C

is

to

HF.
q.e.f.

7.

"Wherefore

fourth proportional

HF

three given straight lines
is found,

A, B,

a

PROPOSITION
lines.

13.

PROBLEM.
tico

To Jind a mean proportional between
Let

given straight

AB,

BC

required to find a

mean

be the two given straight lines; proportional between them.

it

is

line,

Place ^-S,i?C in a straight describe the and on semicircle ADC; from the at right draw point [I. 11. angles to AG.

AG

B

BD

shall be a tional between

BD

mean

propor-

AB and BG.

;

;

BOOK
Join A£>,
angle

VI.

13, 14.

191

DC.

Then, the angle

ADC,

being in a semicircle,

is

a right
[III. 31.

and because in the right-angled triangle ADC, DB is drawn from the right angle perpendicular to the base, therefore DB is a mean proportional between AB, BC,
the segments of the base.
[VI.
8,

Corollary.

Wherefore, between the two given straight lines

AB,

BC, a mean proportional

DB is found,

q.e.f.

PROPOSITION

14.

THEOREM.

Equal parallelograms ichich have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, have their sides about the equal angles reciprocally proportional ; and parallelograms which have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, and their sides about the equal angles reciprocally proportional, are equal to one another.
Let AB. be equal parallelograms, which have the angle equal to the angle the sides of the parallelograms about the equal angles shall be reciprocally proportional, that is, as is to BF. shall be to

FBD

BC

EBG

:

DB

BE

GB

Let the parallelograms be
placed, so that the sides

BE

DB,
same

may be

in

the

straight line

therefore also FB, one straight line.

BG are in
[I. 14.

Complete the parallelogram

FE.
Tiien,

because the parallelogram

AB

is

equal to the
[Hypothesis.

parallelogram

BC,

and that

FE is another parallelogram, [V. 7. ^i? is to FE as BC is to FE. But ^i? is to FE as the base DB is to the base BE, [VI. and BC is to FE as the base GB is to the base BF; [VI. [V. 11. therefore DB is to BE ^ GB is to BF.
therefore
1.

1.

;

192

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

be equal to the angle EBG, Next, let the angle let the sides about the equal angles be reciprocally proportional, namely,

and
to

BE

FBD DB

as

GB

is

to

shall the parallelogram be equal to the parallelo-

AB

BF:

gram BG.
For, let the same construction be made.

Then, because
as

DB
is

is

to

BE
[Hypothesis.

GB is to BF,

and that
and that

DB

to

BE

as the parallelogram

AB

is

parallelogram

FE,
as the parallelogram

to the [VI. 1.
to the [VI. 1.

GB is to BF

BG is

parallelogram JIE'

is to the parallelogram therefore the parallelogram as the parallelogram 5(7 is to the parallelogram i^^; [V.ll. i^ equal to the parallelotherefore the parallelogram

J^

FE
^•

gram

BG

AB

Fq.e.d.

Wherefore, equal parallelograms &c.

PROPOSITION
Equal
to

15.

THEOREM.

triangles ichich have one angle of the one equal one angle of the other, have their sides about the equxil angles reciprocally proportional ; and triangles ichich have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, and their sides about the equal angles reciprocally propot^ional, are equal to one another.

Let

ABG,

triangles,

be equal which have the angle

ADE

BAG
shall

equal to the angle the sides of the triangles about the equal angles shall be reciprocally proportional that is, GA
;

DAE:

be

to

AD as EA

is

to

AB.

Let the triangles be placed so may bo that the sides GA, in the same straight line,

AD

BOOK
therefore also
join

VI.

15, 16.

103
[I. 14.

EA,

AB

are in one straight line;

BD.

Then, because the triangle
gle ylZ)i7,

ABC is

equal to the trian[Hypothesis.

ABD is another triangle, therefore the triangle ABC to the triangle ABD as the [V. triangle ADE to the triangle ABD. But the triangle ABC to the triangle ABD as the base
and that
is

is

7.

is

CA

is

to the base to the base

AD,
is

[VI.
to the triangle

1.

and the triangle

EA

ADE
AB;
to

ABD as the base
[VI.
1.

is

therefore

CA

is

AD as EA is to AB.
BAC

[V. 11.

let the angle be equal to the angle DAE, the sides about the equal angles be reciprocally is to AB: the proportional, namely, CA to as triangle shall be equal to the triangle ADE,

Next,
let

and

ABC

AD

EA

For, let the same construction be made.

Then, because

CA

is

and that
triangle

CA is ABD,

to to

AD as EA to AB, {HypotTicns. AD as the triangle ^i?C to the
to
is

is

[VI.

1.

and that
triangle

EA

is

AB

as the triangle

ADE

is

ABD,

to the [VI. 1.

therefore the triangle is to the triangle triangle is to the triangle ;

ADE

ABC

ABD

ABD

as the [V. 11.

therefore the triangle

ABC

is,

equal to the triangle -4 Z>^. [V. 9.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, equal triangles &c.

PROPOSITION

16.

THEOREM.

If four straight lines he proportionals, the rectangle contained hg the extremes is equal to the rectangle contained bg the means ; and if the rectangle contained by the extremes be eqwil to the rectangle contained bg the nieanSf the four straight lines are proportionals.
13

;

;

194

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

Let the four straight
tionals,

namely, let angle contained hy angle contained by

AB be to CD as ^ to i^: the rectAB and F shall be equal to the rectis

lines

AB, CD, E,

F, be propor-

CD

and E.

From the points A, C, draw yl(?,Ci7 at right anglesto.4i?, (7Z>;[I.ll.
make A G equal to F, and

H
G

CH equal to E

;

[I. 3.

and complete the parallelograms ^(?,i>i7.
[1.31.

Then, because yl^ is toC/>as^istoi^, [^^/ix and that E is equal to CH, and F is equal to

B

D

AG,
therefore

{Construction.

AB is to CD as

Ci7 is

to

^6^

[V.

7.

that is, the sides of the parallelograms BG, equal angles are reciprocally proportional
therefore the parallelogram

DH about the
[YL
14.

BG

is

equal to the parallelothe straight
{Construction.

gram Z>^.
But the
Imes
lines

parallelogi-am BG is contained by AB and F, because AG \% equal to F
;

contained by the straight equal to is equal and therefore the rectangle contained h^ and E. to the rectangle contained by

and the parallelogram CD and E, because

DH

is

CH

is

E AB

;

F

CD

and be Next, let the rectangle contained \>j and E\ these four equal to the rectangle contained by shall bo straight lines shall be proportional, namely, is to F. to CD as

CD

E

AB AB

F

For, let the same construction be made.
is equal Then, because the rectangle contained by ^i? and {Hypothesis. to the rectangle contained by CD and E, and F, is contained hy and that the rectangle {Construction. because is equal to F,

F

AG

BG

AB
CD

and that the rectangle
because

CH is equal to E,

DH

is

contained by

and E^

{Construction.

;

;

BOOK
And

VI.

IG,

17.

195

therefore the parallelogram lelogram DIL

equal to the parallAxiam 1. these parallelograms are equiangular to one another
is

BG

therefore the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional [VI. 1 4.

therefore

^^
^i?

is

to

CD

as

CTZis to

AG.
XComtr.
[V.
7.

But

CH is

equal to E, and
is

therefore

to

AG \% equal to F\ CD as E is to F.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, iffour straight lines &e.

PROPOSITIOX
If
three straight
liiics he

17.

THEOREM.

contained hy the extremes

is

proportionals, the rectangle equal to the square on the

mean ; and

if the rectangle contained hy the extremes he equal to the square on the mean, the three straight lines are proportionals.

Let the three straight lines A, B, (7 be proportionals, let A be to B as B is to C: the rectangle contamed by A and C shall be equal to the square on B.
namely,

Take

D equal to B.
A
to C,
is

~~
-B

"

B as B
is

Then, because
is

to [Hyp.
is

and that
to

B

equal to

Z>,

D
C

therefore

A

is

C
if

to i? as Z> [V. 7.

But

four straight lines

be proportionals, the rectangle contained by the extremes is equal to the
rectangle contained by the means; [VI. 16.

D

A

therefore the rectangle contained by the rectangle contained by and D.

B

A

and

C

is

equal to on
7?,

But the rectangle contained by because is equal to Z>;

B

B and D is the square
A
and

[Construction.

therefore the rectangle contained by the square on B.

C

is

equal to

13—2

;

196

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.
^ A
:

Next, let the rectangle contained by shall be to j5 as to the square on

A and C be equal ^ is to
(7.

For, let the same construction be made.

Then, because the rectanand gle contained by is ecjual to the square on

A

G

A——
Bj)

{^Hypothesis. B, and that the square on B
is

q

equal to the rectangle contained by and Z>, because is equal to

B

B

jD,

{^Construction.
'

C
'

therefore the rectangle -^ and C is contained by equal to the rectangle contained by

'

A

B

B and D.

But if the rectangle contained by the extremes be equal to the rectangle contained by the means, the four straight lines are proportionals [VI. 16.
therefore

^ is to i? as 2) is to G. B is equal to D Therefore yl is to ^ as i? is to G.
But
;

[Construction.

[V.
q.e.d.

7.

Wherefore, if three straight lines &c.

PROPOSITION

18.

PROBLEM.

On a given straight line to describe a rectilineal figure similar and similarly situated to a given rectilineal figure.
the he the given straight line, and Let given rectilineal figm-e of four sides it is required to describe on the given straight line AB./o. rectilineal figure,
:

AB

GDEF

similar

and

similarly situated to

GDEF,

Join
point A^
line

at the in the straight

DF\

AB, make the equal to angle the angle Z>(7F; and at the point B, in the straight line B, make the angle equal totheangleCZ>i^;[I.23.

BAG

ABG

A

D

BOOK
therefore the remaining angle ing angle CFD,

VI.

18.

197
equal to the remain-

^^i?

is

and the triangle

A GB is

equiangular to the triangle

CFD.

Again, at the point i?, in the straight line BG., make the angle (^/>7/ equal to the angle FDE; and at the point G^, equal to in the straight lino BG, make the angle [I. 23. the angle

DFE

BGH

;

therefore the remaining angle

BUG
is

is

equal to the re-

maining angle

DBF,

and the triangle and the angle

BHG

is

equiangular to the triangle

Then, because the angle

BGH

AGB

equal to
is

DBF. the angle CFD^
[Construction.

eq\\\x\

to the angle

DFE;
is

therefore the whole angle angle CFE.

AGH

equal to the uhole [Axiom 2.

For the same reason the angle angle CDE.

ABH

equal to the

And
angle

the angle

BHG

is

is equal to the angle equal to the angle DEF.

BA G

DCF, and

the

Therefore the rectilineal figure the rectilineal figure CDEF.

ABHG

is

equiangular to

Also these figin-es have their sides about the equal angles proportionals.

DCF,

For, because the triangle is equiangular to the triangle [VI. 4. therefore is to ^1 6^ as is to CF.

BA

BA G

DC
;

And, for the same reason, AG is to as and BG is to is to FE

GH

DF

GB

as

CF
to

is

to

FD^

therefore, ex a3quali,

AG
it

is

to G^//as

CF\^
that

FE.
is

[V. 22.

In the same manner
as

may be shewn
is

AB

to

BH
4.

CD

is

to
is

DE.
to

And

GH

HB as FE

to

ED.

[VI.

and Therefore, the rectilineal figures are equiangular to one another, and have their sides about the equal angles proportionals
;

ABHG

CDEF
1.

therefore they are similar to one another.

[VI. Definition

line

let it be required to describe on the given straight a rectilineal figure, similar, and similarly situated, of five sides. to the rectilineal figure

Next,

AB,

CD KEF

;

;

198

EUCLIUS ELEMENTS.

Join DE, and on the giyen straight line as in the former case, the rectilineal figure and similarly situated to the rectilineal figure four sides. At the point B^ in the straight line BH, make the angle equal to the angle and at the f)oint H, in the straight ine BH, make the angle equal to the

AB

describe,

ABHG, similar,

CDEF

of

HBL

EDK;

BHL

angle Z>^ir;

[1.23.

therefore the remaining angle at ing angle at K.

L is

equal to the remain-

the angle

Then, because the figures ABHG, is equal to the angle

CDEF Vire similar,
CDE;
[YI. Def.
1.

ABH

and the angle

HBL

is

equal to the angle

EDK;
is

{Constr.

therefore the whole angle angle CDK,

ABL

is

equal to the whole [Axiom 2.

For the same reason the whole angle
whole angle

GHL

equal to the

FEK.

Therefore the five-sided figures equiangular to one another.

ABLHG and CDKEF are
is

And, because the
therefore

figures

ABHG and CDEF are similar,
[VI. Definition [VI.
1.

BH as CD to DE\ to DK; but BH to BL as DE
^i?
is

to

is

is

4.

therefore, ex aequali,

AB\?,io
is

For the same reason,

BL as CD is to DK. [V. 22. GH is to HL as FE is to EK.
to

And BL

is

to

Therefore, the five-sided figures ABLHG and CD KEF

LH as DK

KE.

\Y1.

4.

are equiangular to one another, and have their sides about the equal angles proportionals therefore they are similar to one another. [VI. Definition 1.

may be
and so

In the same manner a rectilineal figure of six sides described on a given straight line, similar and similarly situated to a given rectilineal figure of six sides
on.
q.e.f.

;

;

BOOK
PROPOSITION

VI.
19.

19.

199

THEOREM.

Similar triangles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides.
Let
angle
is

ABC and DEF be similar triangles, having the B equal to the angle E, and let ^^ be to BO as DE
so that the

to

EF,

is homologous to the side EF:

side

BC
be

the
shall

triangle

ABC
tlie

angle in duplicate ratio of
to

DEF

to the tri-

BC
and EF,
;

EF.
so that [VI. 11.

Take BG a third proportional to BC BC may be to EF as EF is to BG

and join AG.

AB is to BC as Z>-£J is to EF, [Hypothesis. yl^ is to DE as BC is to EF\ [V. 16. but BC to Z"/^ as EF to ^(r; [Consfrwc^iW. therefore AB to Z>Z7 as EF to i?(? [V. 11. that the sides of the triangles ABG and DEF, about
Then, because
is

therefore, alternately,

is

is

is

is,

their equal angles, arc reciprocally proportional

but triangles which have their sides about two equal angles reciprocally proportional are equal to one another, [VI. 15.

ABG equal to the triangle DEF. And, because BC to EF as ^i^is to BG, therefore BC has to BG the duplicate ratio of that which
therefore the triangle
is is

BC
to

has to

EF.

[V. Definition 10.

But the

triangle

BG

ABC

is

to the triangle

ABG

as

BC
[VI.

is
1.

therefore the triangle has to tlie triangle duplicate ratio of that which has to EF.

ABC

BC

ABG

the

But the triangle ^4 2? (? was shewn equal

to the triangle

DEF;
[V.
7.

therefore the triangle has to the triangle duplicate ratio of that which has to EF.

ABC

BC

DEF the
if

AVherefore, similar triajigles &c.

q.e.d.

CoKOLL-iEY.

From

this it is

manifest, that

three

200

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

straight lines be proportionals, as the first is to the tliird, so is any triangle described on the first to a similar and similarly described triangle on the second.

PROPOSITION

20.

THEOREM.

Similar polygons maij he divided into the same number of similar triangles, having tlie same ratio to one another that the polygons have; and the i^olygons are to one another in the diqylicate ratio of their homologous sides.
Let ABODE, FGHKL be similar polygons, and let ^^ be the side homologous to the side FG: the polygons ABODE, FGHKL may be divided into the same nmnber
of similar triangles, of ^vhich each shall have to each the ratio which the polygons have; and the polygon shall be to the polygon in the duplicate ratio of to FG.

same

ABODE AB
gon
to

FGHKL
is

Jom BE, EO, GL, LH.
Then, because the polygon

FGHKL,

ABODE

similar to the poly[Hypothesis.

the angle

AE as

BAE
GFis

is

equal to the angle

GEL, and

BA

is
1.

to

FL.

[VI. Definition

And, because the triangles and have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, and the sides

ABE

FGL

about these equal angles proportionals,
therefore the triangle

ABE

is

equiangular to the triano-Ie
[VI.*6.

EGL,
and therefore these
therefore the angle
triangles are similar
;

[VI.

4.

ABE is equal to the angle FGL.

;

BOOK
therefore the >vhole angle

VI.

20.

201
[Hypothesis.

But, because the polygons arc similar,

ABC is equal to the -whole angle
[VI. Definition
1.

FGH',
therefore tlie remaining angle ing angle LGll.

EBC is equal to the remain[Axiom
3. is

ABE and FGL are similar, to GF to BA as LG therefore EB
And, because the
is

triangles

\

and

also,

because the polygons are similar,

[Hypothesis.

therefore

AB

is

to i?(7as

FG is to

GH-,

[VI. Definition

1.

therefore, ex sequali,

that is, the sides about the equal angles are proportionals

EB is to ^6'' as LG is to GH\ [V. 22. EBC and LGH

therefore the triangle

EBC is

equiangular to the triangle
[VI.
6. 4.

LGHand therefore these
triangle
triangles are similar.

[VI.
is

For the same reason the triangle

ECD

similar to the

LIIK.

Therefore the similar polygons ABODE, divided into the same number of similar triangles.

FGHKL

may be

Also these triangles shall have, each to each, the same ratio -sYhich the polygons haye, the antecedents being y^^jE?,

EBC, ECD, and

the consequents FGL, LGH, the polygon shall be to the polygon to FG. the duplicate ratio oi

ABODE

AB

FGHKL in

LHK-, and

For, because the triangle angle FGL,
therefore
to

ABE

is

similar to the tri-

ABE

is

to

FGL

in the duplicate ratio of

EB

LG.

[VI. 19.

LGH in the duplicate ratio of EB to LG. to the triangle FGL as the Therefore the triangle ABE
is

For the same reason the triangle

EBC is

to the trianglo

triangle

EBC

is,

to the triangle

LGH.

[V. 11.
is

Again, because the triangle angle LGH,
therefore to LH.

EBC
iu

similar to the tri^

EBC

is

to

LGH

the dufjlicate ratio of
[VI.

EC
19,

;

202

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
triangle

LHK in the duplicate ratio of EC to LH.
triangle

For the same reason the

ECD

is

to the triangle

Therefore the triangle is to the triangle is to the triangle LHK.

ECD

EBC

LGII

as the [V. ll.

ABE Therefore as the triangle ABE is to the triangle FGL, so is the triangle EBC to the triangle LGH, and the triangle [V. 11. ECD to the triangle LHK;
and therefore
so are
all

But it has been sheAvn that the triangle is to the triis to the triangle FGL. angle LGHsiii the triangle

EBC

as one of the antecedents is to its consequent the antecedents to all the consequents [V. 12.
;

is to the triangle that is, as the triangle to the polygon the polygon

But the

ABCDE triangle ABE is

ABE

FGHKL.

FGL

so is

duplicate ratio of the side

AB

to the triangle in the to the homologous side

FGL

FG;

[VI. 19.

therefore the polygon is to the polygon in the duplicate ratio of the side to the homologous side FG.

ABCDE

AB

FGHKL

Wherefore, similar polygons &c.

q.e.d.

Corollary

1.

In like manner

it

may be shewn

that

similar four-sided figures, or figures of any number of sides, are to one another in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides and it has already been shewn for triangles therefore universally, similar rectilineal figures are to one another in the dujilicate ratio of their homologous sides.
;

Corollary
sides,

2.

If to

a third proportional

yl^ and FG, two 31 be taken,

of the homologous [VI, li.

M

then A has to 3/ the duplicate ratio of that which [V. Definition has to FG.

B

AB
10.

;

BOOK
duplicate ratio
figure on
i^^C?

VI.

20, 21.

203

But any rectilineal figure described qvlABvs, to the similar and similarly described rectilineal figure on FG in the
<di

AB to FG,
is

[Corollary

1.

Therefore as ^i?

to J/, so is the figure on
for triangles.

AB

to the [V. 11.

and

this

was shewn before

[VI. 19, Corollary.

AVherefore, universally, if three straight lines be proportionals, as the first is to the third, so is any rectilineal figure described on the first to a similar and similarly described rectilineal figui*e on the second.

PROPOSITION

21.

THEOREM.
same
recti-

Rectilineal figures which are similar to the lineal figure, are also similar to each other.

Let each of the rectilineal figures the figure to the rectilineal figure to the figure B.

A

and

G

:

A

B

shall

be similar be similar

is For, because {Hijp. similar to (7,

A

A
C,

is

equiangular to

and

A

and

C have
1.

their sides about the

equal angles proportionals.

[VI. Def.

Again, because
similar to
6',

B

is

[//'//».

B

is equiangular to C, and and the equal angles proportionals.

B

C

have their sides about
[VI, Definition
1.

are each of them equianTherefore the figures A and gular to C, and have the sides about the equal angles of each of them and of C proportionals.

B

Therefore

and

A

and

A is equiangular to B, B have their sides about
A
is

[Axiom

1.

the equal angles pro[V. 11.
1.

portionals;

therefore the figure

similar to the figure B. [VI. Def.
q.e.d.

Wherefore, rectilineal figures &c.

;

204

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

PROPOSITION

22.

THEOREM.

If four straight lines be propoiHionals, the similar rectilineal figures similarly described on them shall also be proportionals ; and if the similar rectilineal figures similarly described on four straight lines be proportionals^ those straight lines shall be proportionals.
Let the four straight lines AB, CD, portionals, namely, Bio as is to let the similar rectilineal figures

A

CD

EF

EF,

GH be

pro-

CD

larly described

figures
shall

MF,

be

let the similar rectilineal similarly described: the figure to the figure as the figure is to the

NH be

;

and on EF,

GH

GH; and on AB, KAB, LCD be simi-

LCD

fiaure

NH.

MF

KAB

P
"To

R
to [VI. 11.

AB

and
and and

GH

and
2i

take a third proportional third proportional 0.

CD

X, and
.

EF

Then, because

AB is to CD as ^i^is to GH,
;

[Hypothesis.

therefore

CD is to X as GH is to 0. And AB is to CD as ^i^is to GH;
^i?
is

^5 is to CD as CD is to X; EF to GH as GH is to
is

[Construction.

[Construction.

[V. 11.

therefore, ex oequali,

to

X as EF

is

to 0.

[V. 22.

to X, so the rectilineal figure

But

as ylZ?

is

is
;

the rectilineal figure

KAB

to
2.

LCD
is

[VI. 20, Corollary

and as

to 0, so rectilineal figure
is

EF

NH

the rectilineal figure

MF to

the
2.

[VI. 20, Corollary

;

BOOK
therefore the figure
figure

VI.
is

22, 23.

205

KAD

to the figure

LCD

as the
[V. 11.

MF
CD

is

to the figure

NH.

Next,

let

the figure

as the figure as be to

EF is to GIL Make as AB is to CD so EF to PR and on PR describe tlic rectilineal figure SR^
:

MF

is

be to the similar figure to the similar figure Nil:

KAB

AB

LCD
shall

[VI. 12.
similar and [VI. 18.

similarly situated to either of tlie figures

MF^ NIL

AB\^to CD as EF is to PR, and that on AB^ CD are described tlie similar and larly situated rectilineal figures KAB, LCD,
Then, because

simi-

and on EF,
lineal figm-es

PR

the similar and similarly situated recti-

MF, SR

therefore, bv the former part of this proposition, is to SR. as to

LCD

MF
is

KAB

is

But, by hypothesis,
therefore

KAB
SR
as

is

to

iVF is

to

MF
GH.
as
;

LCD as MF is to NH;
is

to

NH

;

[V. 11.
[V.
9.

therefore

SR

equal to

NH.

But the
situated,

figures

SR
is

and

NH

are similar and similarly
[Construction.

therefore

PR

is

equal to
to

And

because

AB
is
is

CD

EF is to PR,
is

PR therefore AB
and that

equal to
to

GH

CZ) as

EF

to

G^/Z".

[V.
q.e.d.

7.

TMierefore, if/our straight lines &c.

PROPOSITION

23.

THEOREM.

Parallelngrama which are equiangxtlar to one another have to one another the ratio which is comjyounded of the ratios of their side^.

;

;

206

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

he equiangular to the paralLet the parallelogram equal to the angle lelogram CF, having the angle shall have to the paralleloECG\ the parallelogram gram CF the ratio which is compounded of the ratios of
their sides.

AC BCD AC

Let a straight

BC

and

CG

be placed in
are also in
[I.

line

therefore and a straight line;

DC

CE

14.
;

complete the parallelogram take any straight line A",

DG

make

Z to

&^ to iJfas Z>(7is to

K

L

BC is

and to CG, and
12.

CE; [VL

then the ratios of to L and are the same vpith the of L to ratios of the sides, namely, of

M

K

BC

K L M
is

to

C(^andofi)Cto(7£'.

But the ratio of A" to 3T pounded of the ratios of
therefore has to the ratios of the sides.

K

M the

K to L and of L io 31
ratio

is

that which

said to be com[V. Def. A. ;

which

is

compoimded of

Now
as

the parallelogram
;

AC \s
;

BC is to CG but BC is to CG as K is to Z
therefore the parallelogram

to the parallelogram CJI [VI. 1. ,
[Construction.
is

AC
is

CHusKiatoL.
Again, the parallelogram CII
SiS

to the parallelogram [V. 11.

to the parallelogi-am

CF
1.

DCis

to

CE;

[VL
iaio

but

DC

is

to

CE us L

M;

[Construction.
is

therefore the parallelogram is to 3/. Ci^ as

A

CH

to the parallelogram [V. 11.

is

Then, since it has been shewn that the parallelogram as is to A, to the parallelogram

CH

K

AC
CF

and that the parallelogram
as

CH

is

to the parallelogram

A

is

to i^,

lelogram

therefore, ex gcquali, the parallelogram as is to M.

But

K

CF

has to

M

K

^C

is

to the paral[V. 22.

the ratio which

is

compounded of the

ratios of the sides

BOOK
CF

VI.

23, 24.

207

has to tlic parallelotherefore also the parnllelogram the ratio which is compounded of the ratios of gram the sides.

AC

Wherefore, parallelograms &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
gram

24.

THEOREM.

Parallelograms about the diameter of any paralleloare similar to the tchole parallelogram and to one

another.
\s a be a parallelogram, of which Let A and be parallelograms about diameter and let shall be and the diameter: the parallelograms similar both to the whole parallelogram and to one another.
;

BCD

EG

HK

AC

EG

HK
E
7

For, because DC and GF are parallels, the angle ADC is equal
to the angle

A
r.

AGF.

[I. 29.

/ /

\

B
7

V
/

L

And

because i?(7and

EF

are parallels,
is equal the angle to the angle yi^i^. [1.29.

I /

1^

ABC

BCD and EFG

And

each of the angles is equal to the opposite angle
to one another.

BAD,

[1. 34.

and therefore they are equal
Therefore the parallelograms angular to one another.

ABCD and AEFG are equiequal to the angle
to the

And because the angle ABC is AEF, and the angle BAG is common

two triangles

BAC and EA F,
And

therefore these triangles are equiangular to one another; [VI. 4. and therefore is to EF. is to a.s

AB
is

BC

AE
is

the opposite sides of parallelograms are equal to one another; [I. 34.
therefore

AB
to

to

AD as AE

to

AG,
[V.
7.

and Z>C and CD
«

GF is to FE, is to DA as FG is to GA.
is

CB

as

208

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
and

Therefore the sides of the parallelograms A BCD AEFG about their equal angles are proportional,

and the parallelograms are therefore
other.

similar to one an[VI. Definition 1.

For the same reason the parallelogram is similar to the parallelogram

A BCD

A

_E

B

FHCK.
Therefore each of the parallelograms and is similar to

BD

EG

HK
q.e.d.

;

therefore the parallelogram

EG is similar to the parallelogram HK.
"Wherefore, parallelograms &c.

PEOPOSITION
To
to

25.

PROBLEM.

describe a rectilineal figure which shall he similar one given rectilineal figure and equal to another given

rectilineal figure.

Let

ABC be

figure to be described it is to be equal it figure similar to
:

ABC

the given rectilineal figure to which the is to be similar, and that to which is required to describe a rectilineal and equal to D.

D

On the straight line equal to the figure ABC.
On

BC describe the parallelogram BE
FCE

the straight line CE describe the parallelogram equal to Z>, and having the angle equal to the angle CBL\ [I. 45, Corollary.

CM

BOOK

VI.

25,26.

209

therefore BC and CF will be in one straight line, and LE will be in one straight line. and Between BC and CF find a mean proportional GH, [VI. 13. and on GIT describe the rectilineal figure KGH, similar and

EM

similarly situated to the rectilineal figure

ABC.

[VI. 18.

KGII shall
and that

be

the rectilineal figure required.

For, because
is

BC is to GH as GH is to CF,

[Consfrudion.

if three straight lines be proportionals, as the first to the third so is any figure on the first to a similar and [A^I. 20, Cor. 2. similarly described figure on the second,

therefore as
figure

BC

is

to

CF

so is the figure

ABC

to the

KGH.

is to so is the parallelogram But as parallelogi'am is to the figure therefore the figure rallclogi-am is to the parallelogram CM.

BC

CM ABC BE
\

CF

BE to the \y^KGH as the pa1-

[V. 11.

And

the figure

ABC

is,

therefore the rectilineal figure

equal to the parallelogram BE; is equal to the paral-

KGH

lelogram

CM.

[V. 14.

But the parallelogram
therefore the figure

CM

is

KGH

is

{CoTistr. equal to the figure equal to the figure D, [Axiom 1.
;

D

and it is similar to the figure ABC. Wherefore the rectilineal figure
scribed similar to the figure

{Construction.

KGH has
to

been de-

ABC, and equal
TFiEOHEM.

D.

q.e.f.

PROPOSITION

26.

and be similarly sitiMted, tlieyare about
Let the parallelograms

If two similar parallrJograms hare a common angle, the same diameter.

AEFG be similar and similarly situated, and have the common angle BAD: A BCD and AEFG shall
be about the same diameter.
For, if not, parallelogram
ter
line
let.
if

A BCD,

possible, the
its

AHC
from

BD

have

diame-

in a

AF,

straight the diameter of the
diff"erent

14

210
parallelogi'am at meet

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

GF H draw HK parallel to AD or

AHG

EG

;

let

H, and through
[I. 31.

BC.

Then the parallelogi'ams are about ABCD and the same diameter, and are

AKHG
to

therefore other;
therefore

similar to

one an[VI. 24.

DA

But because grams,
therefore

AB as GA is to AK. ABCD and AEFG are similar
is is

parallelo-

[Hypothesis.

DA

to

AB as GA

is

to ^ii^.

[VI. Definition

1.

Therefore
that
is,

AK and AE,
and therefore

[V. 11. GA is to ^A'as GA is to AE, GA has the same ratio to each of the straight lines

AKis

equal to
;

AE,
is

[V.

9.

the less to the gi-eater

which

impossible.

and Therefore the parallelograms have their diameters in the same straight line, that are about the same diameter.
Wherefore, if two similar paraUclojrams &c.

ABCD

AEFG
is,

must
they

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
To cut a given straight

30.

PROBLEM.
and mean
ratio.

line in extreme
line:

it in

Let be the given straight extreme and mean ratio.

^^

it is

required to cut

Divide at the point C, so the rectangle contained by may be C(pial to the square AB,
that

AB

BC

O

=^ ±J

[11.11. on AC. Then, because the rectangle AB, square on AC,

BC

is

equal to the
[Coiistrncliou.

therefore

^i? is to ylC as ^C is to CB. Wherefore AB is cut in extreme and mean
Q.E.F.

[VI.

17.

ratio at
d.

the lyoint C.

[VI. Definition

BOOK
PROPOSITION

VI.

31.

211

31.

TUEOREM.

In any right-angled triangle^ any rectilineal figure de~ scribed on the side subtending the right angle is equal to the similar and similarly described figures on the sides containing the right angle.
Let be a right-angled triangle, having the right angle C the rectilineal figure described on shall be equal to the similar and similarly described figures on

BA

ADC
:

BC

BA

and CA.

Draw

the perpendicular
[I. 12.

AD.

Then, because in the rightangled triangle ABC, is drawn from the right angle at A, perpendicular to the base BC, the triangles

AD

ABD, CAD
And

are similar to the whole triangle 6'^^, and [VI. 8. to one another.

because the triangle

CBA

is

similar to the triangle

ABD,
therefore
first is

CB

is

to

BA

as

BA

is

to

BD.

[VI. Def.

1.

three straight lines are proportionals, as the to the third so is the figure described on the first to the similar and similarly described figure on the second; [VI. 20, Corollary 2.
therefore as CB is to so is the figure described on to the similar and similarly described figure on

And when

BD

CB

BA

;

and inversely, as is to BC so is the figure described [V. B. on BA to tliat described on CB. In the same manner, as CD is to CB so is the figuro described on CA to the similar figure described on CB.

BD

and Therefore as figures described on described on CB.

BD

CD BA

and

together are to CB so are the CA together to the figure
[V. 2i.
;

But

BD and CD together are equal to CB
BA

therefore the figure described on and similarly described figures on

BC is equal

and CA.

to the similar [V. A.
q.e.d.

"Wherefore, in

any right-angled triangle

&c.

14—2

;

;

212

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

PROPOSITION

32.

THEOREM.

If two triangles^ which have two sides of the one proportional to two sides of the other, he joined at one angle so as to have their homologous sides parallel to one another, the remaining sides shall he in a straight line.
Let ABC and DCE be two triangles, which have the two sides BA, AG proportional to the two sides CD, DE, namely, BA to ^(7 as CD is to DE; and let AB be and AC parallel to DE: BC and CE shall parallel to be in one straight line.

DC

For, because
to

^^ is parallel
[Hypothesis.

DC,
^4

and
the

C meets

them,

ACD

alternate angles are equal;
Ci>i5; are equal

BAC,
[I. 29.

for the

same reason the angles

ACD,
And

therefore the angle

^^Cis

equal to the angle

CDE.

\_Ax. 1.

A

have the angle at because the triangles ABC, equal to the angle at D, and the sides about these angles [H>jp. to ^Cas is to DE, proportionals, namely,
therefore the triangle

DCE

BA ABC

CD

is

equiangular to the triangle

DCE;
therefore the angle

[VL

6.

ABC is equal to the angle DCE. BAC was shewn equal to the angle ACD equal to the two angles therefore the whole angle ACE [A xiom ABC and BA C. equals Add the angle ACB to each of these then the angles ACE and ACB are together equal to the
And
the angle
;

is

2.

angles

ABC, BAC, ACB. But the angles ABC, BAC,
;

ACB
ACB

are together equal to
[I.

two right angles

32.

tlierefore the angles two right angles.

ACE
CE

and

are together equal to

And

since at the point C, in the straight line
lines

AC, the

two straight

BO,

which are on the opposite sides

;

BOOK
of
to
it,

VI.

32, 33.

213
together equal
[I.

make

tlie

adjacent angles

ACE^

ACB

two right angles,

therefore

and GE are in one straight line. Wherefore, if two triangles &c. q.e.d.

BC

U.

PROPOSITION

33.

THEOREM.

In equal circles, angles, whether at the centres or at the circumferences, hace the same ratio which the arcs on which they stand have to one another; so also have the
sectors.

Let ABC^n^ DEF be equal circles, and let BGC and EHF be angles at their centres, and BAC and EDF angles at their circumferences as the arc BC to the arc EF so shall the angle BGC be to the angle EHF, and the
:

is

angle

BGC

BAC to the angle EDF;
be to the sector

and so

also shall the sector

EHF.

Take any number of arcs CK, KL, each equal to BC, each equal to EF and also anv number of arcs FM, and join GK, GL, IIM, UN.

MN

Then, because the arcs BC, CK,
the angles

KL, are all equal,
;

{Comtr.

KGL are also all equal [III. 27. and therefore whatever multiple the arc BL is of the arc 2JC, the same multiple is the angle BGL of the angle
BGC, CGK,
BGC.
For the same reason, whatever nuiltiple the arc the arc EF, the same multiple is the angle angle EHF.

EN of EHN of the
is

;

;

214

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

And
is

if the arc be equal to the arc equal to the angle

BL

EHN

EN,

the angle

BGL

[III. 27.

and if the arc BL be greater than the arc EN, the angle BGL is greater than the angle EHN; and if less, less.
arcs

Therefore since there are four magnitudes, the two BC\ EF, and the two angles BGC, EHF;

E—g
and that of the arc and of the angle have been taken any equimultiples whatever, namely, the arc and the angle

BC

BGC

BGL
;

BL

;

and of the arc and of the angle have been taken any equimultiples whatever, namely, the arc and the
angle

EF

EHF

EHN
it

EN

and since

than the arc

EHN;

has been shewn that if the arc be greater EN, the angle is gi-eater than the angle and if equal, equal and if less, less

BGL

BL

;

BGC
angle

tlierefore as the arc to the angle

BG

is

to the arc

EF,

EHF.
angle

so is the angle [V. Definition 5. so
is

But

as the angle BGC is to the BAG to the angle EBF,
;

EHF,

the

[V. 15.
[III. 20.

for each is double of each

therefore, as the arc to the angle

BGC

EDF.

EF so is EHF, and the angle BAG to
BC
is

to the arc

the angle the angle

Also as the arc BC is to the arc EF, so shall the sector BGC he to the sector EHF. Join BC, CA\ and in the arcs BC, CK take any points

X,

0, and join

BX, XC,

CO, OK.

;

;

.

BOOIZ
sides

VI.

33.

215

Then, because in the triangles BGC, CGK, the two BG, GO are equal to the two sides CG, GK, each to each [III. 27. and that they contain equal angles is equal to the base CK, and the the base therefore [I. 4. ti-iangle BGCis equal to the triangle CGK,

BC

ITX

BC is equal to the arc CIZ, [Constr. the remaining part when BC is taken from the circimiference is equal to the remaining part when CK is taken
And
because the arc

from the circumference
therefore the angle

;

^XCis equal to the angle COK.

[III. 27.

Therefore the segment

BXC

is

similar to the

segment

COK;

[III. I>€jin ition 1 1

and they are on equal straight lines BC, CK. But similar segments of circles on equal straight lines are [III. 24. equal to one another; therefore the segment BXC\b equal to the segment COK. And the triangle BGG was shewn to be equal to the
triangle

CGKf
BGC,
is

tlierefore the whole, the sector

the sector
tlie

CGK.

equal to the whole, [Axiom 2.
is

For the same reason the sector
sectors

KGL

equal to each of

BGC, CGK.

In the same manner the sectors EIIF, FIIM, MIIN may be shewn to be equal to one another. Therefore whatever muUi]>le the arc BL is of the arc
7>^, the

same multiple

is

the sector

BGL

of the sector

BGC;

;

216
and

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

for the same reason whatever multiple the arc of the arc EF, the same multiple is the sector sector EHF.

EN EHN of the
is

And

if
is

BGL

the arc be equal to the arc equal to the sector

BL

EHN

EN,

the sector

;

and if the arc BL be greater than the arc EN^ the sector BGL is greater than the sector EHN; and if less, less.
Therefore, since there are four magnitudes, the two arcs BC, EF, and the two sectors BGC.

EHF;

^X
BGL
;

c

have been and that of the arc and of the sector taken any equimultiples whatever, namely, the arc and the sector

BC

BGC

BL

and of the arc
sector ^i/A";

have been taken and of the sector and the any equimultiples whatever, namely, the arc

EF

EHF

EN

and since it has been shewn that than the arc EN, the sector
sector

if

EHN;

BGL
;

be greater the arc is greater than the
if less, less

BL

and

if

equal, equal

and

therefore as the arc is to the arc to the sector EHF.

BGC

BC

EF.

so is the sector [V. Dcfini'.ion 5.

\yhercfore, in equal circles &c.

q.e.d.

BOOK
PROPOSITION

VI.

B.

217

B.

THEOREM.

If the vortical angle of a triartglehe bisected hy a straight line ichirh likewise cuts the base, the rectangle contained by the sides of the triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the base, together tcith the square on the straight line which bisects the angle.
Let be a triangle, and let the angle be bisected by the straight lino the rectangle BA, shall be equal to the rectangle BDy i)6', together with the

ABC

AD

:

BAG AC

square on

AD.

Describe the circle about the triangle, [IV. 5. and produce to meet the circumference at E,

ACB
R^

AD

and join EC.
Then,

BAD
EA C,

is

because the angle equal to the angle
[IIyj)oth esis.

and the angle is equal to the angle A EC, for they are in the same segment of the circle,
therefore the triangle

ABD

vju

BAD
BA,

22

is

EAC.
Therefore

equiangular to the triangle
is

BA

is

to

AD as EA

to

^C;

[VI.

4.

therefore the rectangle

EA, AD,
that
is,

AC is equal

to the rectangle

to the rectangle

ED, DA,

on

AD.
rectangle

^yj ^g together with the square
^\j 3^

n7?''^^^^ ^^' ^^
5

ED,

DA
AC

is

equal to the rectangle
[III. 35.

equal to the rectangle HD. DC, together with the square on AD. Wherefore, if the vertical angle &c. q.e.d.
is

thprefore the rectangle

BA,

218

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
C.

THEOREM.

he

If from the vertical angle of a triangle a straight line dr axon perpendicular to the base, the rectangle contained

hy the sides of the triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the 2yer2?endicular and the diameter of the circle described about the triangle.

he the perpena triangle, and let the rectangle A to the base equal to the rectangle contained by and the diameter of the circle described about the triangle.
Let
dicular from the angle

ABC be BA, AC shall be

AD

BC

:

AD

Describe the circle [IV. 5. about the triangle diameter AE, and draw the
;

ACB

join

EC.

Then, because the right angle is equal to the angle ECA in a semi-

BDA

circle

;

[III. 31.

and the angle

ABD
A

is

equal

EC, for they to the angle are in the same segment of
the circle
;

[III. 21.

therefore the triangle

A EC
Therefore

ABD
BA,

is

equiangular to the triangle
ia

BA

ia

to

AD as EA

to

AC;

[VI;

4.

therefore the rectangle

AC ia

equal to the rectangle
[VI. 16.
q.e.d.

EA, AD.
AVhcrefore, iffrom the vertical angle &c.

PROPOSITION

D.

THEOREM.

The rectangle contained by the diagonals of a quadrilateral figure inscribed in a circle is equal to both the rectangles contained by its opposite sides.

;

BOOK
Let
a
circle,

VI.

D.

219

A BCD

A O, BD
AB, CD Make
add
to

bo any quadrilateral figure inscribed in and join AC,BD: the rectangle contained by shall be equal to the two rectangles contained by and by AD, BC.
the angle

ABE equal to the angle DBC

\

[I. 23.

each of these equals the angle EBD,
then the angle equal to the angle EBC. [Axiom 2.
is

ABD

And the angle is equal to the angle i?(7^, for they are in the same segment of the circle [III. 21.
;

BDA

ABD
as

therefore
is

the triangle equiangular to the

triangle

EBC.

Therefore

EC is to CB

AD

is
;

to

DB
[VI.
4.

therefore the rectangle

AD, CB

is

equal to the rectangle

DB, EC.
Again, because the angle

[VL

16.

ABE

is

equal to the angle
[Construction.

DBC,
and the angle BAE is equal to the angle are in the same segment of the circle
;

BDC,

for they
[III. 21.

therefore the triangle

ABE
BA,

is

equiangular to the triangle
is

DBC.
Therefore

BA

is

to

A E as BD
AD, CB
;

to
is

DC

;

[VI.

4.

thercfcu-e the rectangle

DC

equal to the rectangle
[VI. 16.

AE, BD.
But the rectangle
the rectangle

has been shewn equal to

DB, EC

therefore the rectangles AD, equal to the rectangles BD,

EC and BD, AE

CB and BA, DC are together

that

is,

to the rectangle

BD,

AC
q.e.d.

[II.

1.

"Wherefore; the rectangle contained &c.

BOOK XL
DEFINITIONS.
1.

A

SOLID

is

that which has length, breadth, and

thickness.
2.

That which bounds a

solid is a superficies.

straight line is perpendicular, or at right angles, 3. to a plane, when it makes right angles with every straight line meeting it in that plane.
4.

A

A

plane

straight lines

the common to the other plane.

perpendicular to a plane, when the one of the planes perpendicular to section of the two planes, are perpendicular
is

drawn

in

The inclination of a straight line to a plane is the 5. acute angle contained by that straight line, and another drawn from the point at which the first line meets the plane to the point at which a perpendicular to the plane drawn from any point of the first line above the plane, meets the same plane.

The inclination of a plane to 6. angle contained by two straight lines same point of their common section one in one plane, and the other in the

a plane

is

the acute
it,

drawn from any the
at right angles to other plane.

Two planes are said to have the same or a like 7. inclination to one another, which two other planes have, when the said angles of inclination are equal to one
another.
8.

Parallel planes are such as

do not meet one another

though produced.

BOOK XL DEFINITIONS.
9.

221

A

solid angle is that

which

is

made by more than
same
plane,

two plane angles, wliich are not
at one point.
10.

in the

meeting

Equal and similar
[See the Notes!]

solid figures are such

as are

contained by similar planes equal in
tude.

number and magni-

Similar solid figures are such as have all their solid 11. angles equal, each to each, and are contained by the same number of similar planes.
12. A pyramid is a solid figure contained by planes which are constructed between one plane and one point above it at which they meet.

13. prism is a solid figure contained by plane figures, of which two that are opposite are equal, similar, and parallel to one another and the others are parallelograms.
;

A

14.

tion

sphere is a solid figure described by the revoluof a semicircle about its diameter, which remains

A

fixed.
15. The axis of a sphere is the fixed straight line about which the semicircle revolves.
Ifi.

The centre

of a sphere

is

the same

wth

that of the

semicircle.
17. The diameter of a sphere is any straight line which passes through the centre, and is terminated both ways by the superficies of the sphere.
18. cone is a solid figure described by the revolution of a right-angled triangle about one of the sides containing the right angle, which side remains fixed.

A

If the fixed side be equal to the other side containing the right angle, the cone is called a right-angled cone if it be less than the other side, an obtuse-angled cone; and if greater, an acute-angled cone.
;

19.

The

axis of a cone

is

the fixed straight line about

which the triangle revolves.

222

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
by that

20. The base of a cone is the circle described side containing the right angle which revolves.

21. cylinder is a solid figure described by the revolution of a right-angled parallelogram about one of its sides "which remains fixed.
22. The axis of a cylinder is the fixed straight line about which the parallelogram revolves.
2.3. The bases of a cylinder are the circles described by the two revolving opposite sides of the parallelogram.

A

24.

their axes
25.

Similar cones and cylinders are those which have and the diameters of their bases proportionals.

A A

cube

is

a solid figure contained by six equal

squares.
26. tetrahedron is a solid figure contained by four equal and equilateral triangles.

An octahedron is a solid figure contained by eight 27. equal and equilateral triangles.

A dodecahedron is a solid figure contained by 28. twelve equal pentagons which are equilateral and equiangular.

An icosahedron is a solid figure contained by 29. twenty equal and equilateral triangles.
parallelepiped is a solid figure contained by six A. quadrilateral figures, of which every opposite two are
parallel.

A

PROPOSITION

1.

THEOREM.

One part of a straight line cannot he in a plane, and another part without it.
If
it

be

ABC^ be

possible, let AB, part of the straight lino without it. in a plane, and the part

BC

;;

BOOK XI.
since the straight in the plane, it can be produced in that plane let it be produced to D\ and
line

1, 2.

223

Then

AB

is

let

any plane pass through the

straight line^^Z>,and be turned about until it pass through the point C.

Then, because
straight line

tiio

points
it.

BC is in

B

and

C

are in this plane, the
[I,

Definition 7.

Therefore there are two straight lines ABC, same plane, tliat have a common segment AB)

ABD

in tho

but this

is

impossible.

[F. 11,

Corollary.

Wherefore, one 2)art of a straight line &c.

q.e.d.

PKOPOSITIOX

2.

THEOBEM.

Two straight lines ichich cut one another are in one plane; and three straight lines which meet one another are in one plane.
Let the two straight lines AB, CD cut one another at and CD shall be in one plane; and the three straight lines EC, CB, which meet one another, shall be in one plane.

E:

AB

BE

Let any plane pass through tho EB, and let the plane be turned about EB, produced if necessary, until it pass through the
straight line

point C.

Then, because

the

and
line

C are in this plane, the

points straight

E

EC is

in it

;

[I. Definition 7.

same reason, the straight line BC is in the same plane and, by hypothesis, EB is in it.
for the

Therefore the three straight lines EC, CB,
plane.

BE are
EB

in

one

But xLB and
are;

CD

are in

tlie i^lane in

which

and

EC
1.

[XI.

therefore

AB and CD are in

one plane.
q.e.d.

AVhereforo, two straight lines &c.

;

;

224

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
3.

THEOREM.
their

is

If two jylanes cut one another a straight line.
Let two planes

common

section

AB,

EG
:

cut one another, and let

BD

be their common section If it be not, from B to
in the plane

BD shall be a straight line.
Z),

draw

BED^

the straight line the and in the plane

AB

BG

straight line

BED.

[Postulate

1.

BED

Then the two

straight lines

BED,

have the same extremities,

and therefore include a space between them [Axiom 10. but this is impossible.
Therefore

BD,

the

common

section of the planes

AB

and

BG cannot but be a straight line.
Wherefore, if two planes &c.
q.e.d.

PROPOSITION

4.

THEOREM.

If a straight line stand at right angles to each of two straight lines at the point of their intersection, it shall also he at right angles to the plane ichich passes through them, that is, to the jjlane in which they are.
stand at right angles to each Let the straight line of the straight lines AB, CD, at E, the point of their intersection shall also be at right angles to the plane passing through AB, CD.
:

EF

EF

Take the straight lines AE, EB, CE, ED, all equal to one another join AD, CB\ through E draw in the plane in which are AB, CD,
at G, any straight line cutting and CB at // and from any point
:

AD

F in EF draw FA, EG, ED, EC,

FH, FB.

;

; ;

BOOK XL

4.

225

Then, because the two sides AE, are equal to the two sides BE, EC, each to eacli, [Construction. and that tlicy contain equal angles AED, BEG; [I. 15.
'\& equal therefore the base to the base angle is equal to the angle EBC.

ED

DAE

AD

BC, and the
[I. 4.
[I. 15.

And

the angle

AEG is equal to the angle BEH\
EB

therefore the triangles AEG, BEIl have two angles of the one equal to two angles of the other, each to each

and the sides EA, equal to one another;
therefore

adjacent to the equal angles are
[Constrin-tion.

EG

is

equal to
is

EIL and
EB^

AG

\&

equal
[1.

to
26.

J^H.

And
and

because
is

EA

equal to

[Construction.
[Jltjpothesis.
[I. 4.

EF

common and

at right angles to them,
is

therefore the base

AF

equal to the base

BF.

For the same reason

CF is
is

equal to

DF.

And

A F are

since it has been shewn that the two sides equal to the two sides CB, BF, each to each,

DA,

and that the base

therefore the angle

DF equal to the base CF; DAF equal to ihe angle CBF.
is

[T. 8.

AG

Again, since it has been shewn that the two sides are e<iual to the two sides FB, BH, each to each,

FA,

FAG is equal to the angle FBIl therefore the base FG is equal to the base FH. Lastly, since it has been shewn that GE is equal to HE, and EF common to the two triangles FEG, FEU
and that the angle
[T. 4.

is

and the base

FG

has been shewn

ecjual to the

base

FH;
[I. 8.

tlierefore the angle

FEG

is

e(]ual to
is

the angle FEII.

Therefore each of these angles

a right angle.
it

[I. Befin. 10.

In like manner it may be shewn that angles with every straight line which meets passing through AB, CD.
Therefore

EF makes
hi the

right

piano

EF

is

at right angles to the plane in

AB. CD.
^Vherefore, if a straight line &c.

which are [XI. IkfiHition 3.

q.e.d.

15

;

;

22G

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION

5.

THEOREM.

If three straight lines meet all at one point, and a straight line stand at right angles to each of them at that point, the three straight lines shall he in one and the saine plane.
Let the straight line of the straight lines BG,
they meet
plane.
:

BC, BD,

AB stand at right angles to each BD, BE, at B the point where BE shall be in one and the same

For,

if not, let, if

possible,

BD and BE be in one plane, let a plane and ^(7 without pass through AB and BG
it
;

-,

the common section of this plane with the plane in which and is a straight are [XI. 3. line

BD
;

BE

let this straight line

be BF.

Then the three

AB, BG,

BF

are

straight lines all in one plane, namely, the plane which
to each of the
[Hijpothesi<^.

passes through

And
them

because
it is

AB and BG. AB stands at right angles

straight lines

BD, BE,

therefore
;

at right angles to the plane passing through [XI. 4.
straight line [XI. Definition 3.

therefore

it

makes right angles with every
that plane.
it,

meeting

it in

But

BF meets

and
is,

is in

that plane

ABF a right angle. by hypothesis, a right angle But the angle ABG equal to the angle ABF therefore the angle ABG
therefore the angle
is
is
;

;

{Ax. 11.
9.

and they are
which are

in

one plane

which

is

impossible.

[Axiom

Therefore the straight line

BD and BE,

BC

is

not without the plane in

therefore the three straight lines BC, and the same plane.

BD,

BE
q.e.d.

arc in ono

Wherefore, if three straight lines &c.

;

BOOK XL
PROPOSITION
G.

G.

227

THEOREM.

If t ICO straight lines he at right angles to the same plane, they shall he jmrallel to one another.
same plane AB shall be parallel to CD. ^^ Let them meet the plane at the points B, D join BD and in the plane
: ;
;

Let the straight hues

AB, CD be

at right angles to the

drawD^'at right angles make DE equal to AB\ andjoin^^, .4^, yli>.
Then, because
to the plane,
it

to

BD

;

[1. 11.

[I. 3.

^^

is

perpendicular
{Hypothesis.

makes right angles with every straight
meeting
it in

line

that plane. [XI. Def.

3.

But

BD and BE meet AB, and are
ABD,

in that plane,

therefore each of the angles
right angle.

ABE

is

a right angle.

For the same reason each of the angles

CDB,

CDE

is

a

And

because

AB

is

equal to

ED,

[Comtructivn.

and BD is common to the two triangles ABD, EDB, the two sides AB, BD are equal to the two sides ED, DB,
each to each
;

and the angle

ABD

i.s

equal to the angle
;

EDB,

them being a

right angle
is

each of [Axiom 11.
[I. 4.

AD equal to the base EB. [Consti'uclion. AB h equal to ED, equal to DA has been shewn that BE and therefore the two sides AB, BE arc equal to the two sides
therefore the base

Again, because
it

is

;

ED, DA,

each to each

and the base

EDA

AE

is

common
is

to the

two triangles

ABE,
[I. 8.

;

therefore the angle

ABE equal to the angle EDA. But the angle ABE a right angle, a right angle, therefore the angle EDA that ED at right angles to AD.
is is
is,

is

;

228
But

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

ED

is

also at right angles

to each of the

two

BD, CD

;

therefore is at right angles to each of the three straight lines BD, AD, CD, at the point at which they meet

ED

therefore these three straight lines are all in the same plane. [XI. 5.

But
are

BD,

AB is in the plane in which DA [XI.
;

2.

therefore

AB, BD,

CD are in

one plane.
is

And

each of the angles

ABD, CDB
CD.

a right angle;
[I. 28.

therefore

^^

is

parallel to

\^\\QVQioxQ, if two straight lines

&C.,

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
If two straight

7.

THEOREM.

from any point
same plane
Let
point
line

lines he X)arallel, the straight line drawn to any jjoiut in the other, is in the icith the imrallels.

in one

E

AB, CD be
in

one and any point

which joins
For,
if

E

parallel straight lines, and take any in the other the straight shall be in the same plane witli and

F

F

:

the parallels.
not, let it be, if pos-

without the plane, as EGF\ and in the plane^ BCD, in which the parallels are, draw the straight line from to F.
sible,

B

E

EHF
also a

Then, since straight line,

EGF

is

C

D

[Hi/pothcsia.

the two straight lines EGF, them; which is impossible.

EHF include a space between
[Axlo77ilO.

Therefore the straight line joining the points not without the plane in which the jmrallels AB,
therefore
it is

E

and

F

is

CD

are;

in that plane.
q.e.d.

"Wherefore, if two straight lines &c.

;

;

;

BOOK XI.
PROPOSITION
8.

8.

229

THEOREM.

Iftico straight lines he parallel, and one of tliem he at right angles to a /ylane, the other also shall he at right angles to the same plane.

two parallel straight lines; and let one at right angles to a plane: the other CjL> shall be at right angles to the same plane.
Let
of tlieni

AB,

AB be

CD be

Let

AB,

CD

at the points B,

D

meet the plane
;

join

BD

therefore

AB, CD,

BD

one plane.
In the plane to which right angles, draw angles to i?i> ;

are in [XI. 7.
is

AB at DE at right
[I. 11. [I. 3.

make

DE equal to AB;
AD.

and join BE, A E, Then, because
it

AB is at right
[Hypothesis.

angles to the plane,
in that plane

makes right angles with every
;

straight line meeting

it
3.

[XI. Definition

therefore e?ich of the angles

ABD,
line

And

because

the

straight

ABE a right angle. BD meets the parallel
is

straight lines

AB, CD,
arc together e(pial to two right [L 29.
[Hi/2yotkesis.
;

the angles
angles.

ABD, CDB

But the angle
that
is,

ABD

is

a right angle,

therefore the angle

CDB is a right angle
BD. ED,
to the

CD
is

is

at right angles to

And
and

because

^^ is equal to

[Comtruction.

BD

common

two triangles

ABD, EDB
EDB,
each of [Axiom 11.
[I. 4.

the two sides each to each

AB,

BD are equal to the two sides ED, DB,
to the angle

and the angle A BD is equal them being a right angle
therefore the base

AD
AB

is

equal to the base
to

EB.

Again, because

is C(iual

and

BE has been shewn equal to

ED, DA,

[Comtruction.

;

:

;

;

230
the two sides each to each

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
AB,

BE are equal to the two
;

sides

ED, DA,

and the base
triangles

ABE,

therefore the angle

^^ common to the two EDA tlic angle ABE is equal to
is
[I. 8.

ADE.
is
is

ABE a right angle therefore the angle ADE a right angle that ED at right angles to AD. But ED at right angles to BD, [Comt. therefore ED at right angles to the
But the angle
is,

is

is

is

plane which passes through

BD, DA,

[XI.

4.

and therefore makes right angles with every straight
meeting
it

line
3.

in that plane.

[XI. Definition

in the plane passing through all three are in the plane in which are the parallels
is

But

CD

BD, DA, because AB, CD;

therefore

ED

is

at right angles to

CD,
;

and therefore CD is at right angles to ED. But CD was shewn to be at right angles to BD therefore CD is at right angles to the two straight lines BD, ED, at the point of their intersection D, and is therefore at right angles to the plane passing
through
that
is,

BD, ED,

[XI.

4.

to the plane to which

^^ is at right angles.
q.e.d.
9.

Wherefore, if two straight lines &c.

PROPOSITION

THEOTxEM.

straight lines which are each of them parallel to the same straight line, and not in the same i)lane with it, are parallel to one another.

Two

Let and CD be each of them parallel to not in the same plane with it

AB

EF, and

AB shall be parallel to CD. In EF take any point G
the plane passing through
line

;

in

EF

and A B, draw fi-om G the straight

GH at right angles

to

EF;

EF

and

in the plane passing

through and CD, draw from G the

BOOK XL
Then, because

9, 10.

231
[I. 11.

straight line (7 A' at right angles to

EF.
angles
to

EF

is

at

right

GIT and
tli

QJ^

[Cotulruction.
is

EF

at right angles to the plane
parallel to ^li?;
is

IIGK passing

rough
^^

them.

[^1-

And i?F is
therefore

[ffypotkesls.

AB

at right angles to the plane

HGX.

[XI.

8.

For the same reason

CD

is

at right angles to the plane

JIGK.
Therefore plane IIGK. Therefore

AB

and
is

CD

are both at right angles to the

^^

parallel to

CD.
Q.e.d.

[XI.

6.

Wherefore, if two straight lines &c.

PROPOSITION

10.

THEOREM.

If two straight lines meeting one another he parallel to two others that meet one another^ and are not in the same plane icith the first tico^ the first two arid the other tico shall contain equal angles.
Let the two straight lines AB, BC, which meet one another, be parallel to the two straiglit lines DE, EF, which meet one another, and are not in the same plane with shall be equal to the angle DEF. AB, BC\ the angle

ABC

Take BA, BC, ED,
one another, and join

EF^W equal to
AD, BE, CF,
is

AC, DF.
Then, because
parallel to

AB

equal and

DE,
is

therefore

xiD

equal and parallel to
[r.

BE.
For the same reason, and parallel to BE.

33.

CF

is

equal

and CF are each of Therefore them equal and i)arallel to BE.
Therefore

AD

AD

is

parallel to

CF,

[XI.

9.

.

232
and CF,

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

AD

is

also

equal
\_Axiom

to
1.

Therefore
parallel to

AG
DF.

ya

equal and
[I. 33.

And
to each,

because

are equal to

AB, DE, EF,

BV
each

and the base the base DF,

A G is

equal to

therefore the angle equal to the angle DEF.

ABC

is

[I. 8.

Wherefore, iftico straight lines &c.

Q.E.D.

PROPOSITIOX
To draio a straight

11.

PROBLEM.
a given plane,

line perpendicular to
it.

from a

given point without

Let A be the given point without the pjano BII: it is required to draw from the point a straight line perpendicular to the plane BH.

A

Draw any

straight line

the plane BH, and from the point draw perpendicular to BC. [I. 12.

BC in

A

AD

Then i^ be also perpendicular to the plane BH, the thing required is done. Eut, if not, from the point

AD

D draw,
AF
BC
and

in the plane BH, the straight line at right angles to BC, [I. 11.

DE

and from the point A draw yli^ perpendicular to shall be perpendicular to the plane BH. Through draw parallel to BC.

DE.

[1. 12.

F

GH

[I. 31

Then, because
is

BC is at right angles to ED and DA,
BC;

[Coiistr.

at right angles to the plane passing through
parallel to

ED
4.

DA.

[XI.

And GHis

[Construction.

BOOK XL
tliereforo

11,12.
to

20f>

through

ED and DA
Gil makes
it

GIT

is

at
;

right angles

the plane passing [XI. S.

therefore

meeting

in that plane.

right angles with every straight line [XI. Dcjinition 3,

But AFiwQGts, it, and is in the plane passing through and DA therefore GHis, at right angles to AF, and therefore ^i^is at right angles to GIT. But AF'is, also at right angles to DE; [Comtrucdon.
;

ED

therefore
lines

AF

is

Gil and

DE at the point of their intersection

at right

angles to each of the

straiglifc
;

therefore ^-li^is perpendicular to the plane passing through [XI. 4. Gllawd DE, that is, to the plane BH.

BH,

Wherefore, ./>v>/>i the giren jioint A, icithout the plane the straight line has been drawn 2yet'2)endicidar

AF

to the i)lane.

q.e.f.

PROPOSITION"
To

12.

PROBLEM.
a given plane,

from a g I ten point

erect a straight line at right angles to in the plane.

Let A be the given point in the given plane it is required to erect a straight line from the point A, at right angles to the plane.
:

From any
plane,

draw
;

point B without the BC perpendicular to
[XI.
11.

the plane

and from
parallel to

tlie

point

A

draw

AD

Di

iB

BC,
be the straight

[I. 31.

AD shall

line re-

quired. For, because ^JZ)and aro two parallel straight lines, [Cons'r.

BG

C

and that one of them

BC

is

at
[Coustmrfion.
8.

right angles to the given plane,

the other .1Z> is also at right angles to the given plane. [XI.

AVherefore a straight line has been erected at rigJd anq.e.f. gles to a gicen 2^l((fi'',Ji'om a given jyoint in it.

;

;

234

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
13.

THEOREM.

From the same point in a given plane^ there cannot he two straight lines at right angles to the plane, on the same side of it; and there can he hut one perpendicular to a plane from a point without the plane.
For, if it be possible, let the two straight lines AB,AC be at right angles to a given plane, from the same point A in the plane, and on the same side of it.

Let a plane pass through

BA,AC;
the common section of this with the given plane is a [XI. 3. straight line
;

let this straight line

be

DAE.
Hnes

all

Then the three straight in one i)lane.
because

AE, AC,

DAE

arc

CA is at right angles to the plane, [Ilypothesh^. right angles with every straight line meeting it it [XI. Definition 3. in the plane.
And
makes

But

DAE meets

CA, and

is in

that plane

therefore the angle

CAE is a right angle.

For the same reason the angle
Therefore the angle

BAE

is

a right angle.

CAE is

equal to the angle

BAE

;

{Ax.ll.

and they are
which
is

in

one plane
[Axiom
9.

impossible.

Also, from a point without the plane, there can be but

one perpendicular to the plane.

For if there could be two, they would be parallel to one [XI. 6. another,
which
is

absurd.

AYherefore, /rom the

same point &c.

q.e.d.

;

;

BOOK

XI.
14.

14, 15.

235

PROPOSITION
Planes
to

THEOREM.

which
to

the

same

straight line is perpendicular

are parallel

one another.

Let the straight line yfi? be perpendicular to each of these phines shall be parallel to the planes CD and

EF

:

one another.
For, if not, they ^vill meet one Smother when produced
let

them meet, then

mon
line
let
it

their comsection will be a straight
straiglit line
A",

GH be

tliis

;

in

take any point

and join
is,

AK, BK.
Then, because
it is

AB

perpen[Hyp.

dicular to the plane
line

EF^

perpendicular to the straight which is in that plane [XI. Definition 8.

BK

;

therefore the angle

^^A'is a

right ang^e.

ABK
which

For the same reason the angle Therefore the two angles ABK, 'AVQ equal to two right angles;
is

BAK a right angle. BAK of the triangle
is
[I. 17,

impossible.

Therefore the planes not meet one another
that
is,

CD
;

and EF^ though produced, do
[XI. Definition
q.e.d.
8.

they are parallel.

Wherefore; jjlancs &c.

PROPOSITION
to

15.

THEOREM.

Iftrco straight lines irhich meet one another, he parallel two other straight lines irhich meet one another, but are not in the same plane irith the first ttco, the plane passing through these is jmrallel to the plane jmssing through
the others.

236

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

Let xiB, BC, two straight lines "which meet one another, be parallel to two other straight lines DE, KF^ which meet one another, but arc not in the same plane with AB^ BC\ the plane passing tlirough AB, BG, shall be parallel to the plane passing through DE, EF.

draw From the point perpendicular to the plane passing through DE, EF, [XI. 11.
meet that plane at G parallel to through G draw ED, and (? A^parallel to EF. [1.31.
and let
it
;

B

BG

GH

is perThen, because pendicular to the plane passing

BG

through
it

DE, EF,
;

[Comtimction.

makes right angles with every

in that plane

straight line meeting [XI. Definition
it,

it
3.

but the straight lines
plane
;

GH and GK meet

and are
is

in that

therefore each of the angles
angle.

BGH and BGK
ED,

a right

Now because BA
and Gllis
therefore
parallel to
is

is

parallel to

[Hypothesis.
[Construction.

ED,

BA

parallel to

GH
and

;

[XI.

9.

therefore the angles to two right angles.

ABG
is

BGH are

together equal
[I. 29.

And

the angle

BGH has been shewn to be a right angle;
ABG
a right angle.

therefore the angle

For the same reason the angle

CBG

is

a right angle.

Then, because the straight line angles to the two straight lines BA,
intersection B,

GB
BO,

stands at right at their point of

therefore

GB is perpendicular to the plane passing through
[XI.
4.

BA, BG. And GB is DE, EF.

also perpendicular to the plane passing through [Constructiuu.

;

BOOK XL
But planes
to
-vvhicli tlic

15, IG.

237
[XI. 14.

same straight

line is perpendicular

are parallel to one another;
therefore the plane passing through the plane passing through DE, EF.

AD,

BC
q

is

parallel to

Wherefore, if two straight lines &c.

e.p.

PEOPOSITION
If two ]iaraUel planes

16.

THEOREM.

Common

he cut hy another jylane^ their sections icith it are j^cii^allel.

EFHG,
For

Let the parallel planes AB, CD be cut by the j^lane and let their common sections with it be EF, shall be parallel to GH. Gil:

EF

if not,

EF

and

GH,

being produced,

-vyIII

meet

either towards F, II, or towards E, G. Let them be produced and meet towards F, II at the point K.
is in the Then, since plane xiB, every point in [XI. 1. is in that plane

EFK
;

EFK

therefore

K

is

in

the plane

AB.
For the same reason the plane CD.

K

is

in

Therefore the planes AB, CD, being produced, meet one another.

But they do not meet,
Therefore

since they are parallel

by hypothesis.

EF
II.

and Gil, being produced, do not meet toit

wards F,

In the same manner meet towards E, G.

may be shewn

that they do not

But straight lines which are in tlic same plane, and which being produced ever so far both ways do not meet are
parallel

therefore

EF

is

parallel to

GIL
q.e.d.

"Wherefore, if two parallel planes &c.

238

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
17.

THEOREM.

If hco straight
shall he cut in the

lines be cut hy parallel planes, they same ratio.
lines

Let the straight
rallel

AB

and

CD

planes

C,F,D\

AE shall be to EB
let

GH, KL, MN,

at the points A, E, as is to FD.

be cut by the paB, and

CF

AD

Join

at the point

meet the plane KL X; and join

AC,BD,AD;

EX, XF.
Then, because the two

KL, are cut by the plane the common sections EX, [XI. 16. are parallel
parallel planes

EBDX,
pa-

MN

BD

;

and because the two
rallel

are planes Gil, cut by the plane AXFC, the common sections AC, [XI. 16. are parallel.

KL

XF

And, because
triangle

EX

is

parallel

to

BD,

a side of the
{Yl.
2.

ABD,

therefore

AE
ylX

is

to

EB as AX is
is

to

XD.

Again, because

XFi^
to

parallel to ^(7, a side of the triangle

ADC,
therefore

And

it

XD as CF to FD. to XD as AE was shewn that AX
is
is

[VI.
is

2.

to

EB

;

therefore

^^ is to EB as CF
PROPOSITION

is

to

FD.
q.e.d.

[V. 11.

Wherefore, if two st?^aight lines &c.
18.

THEOREM.

If a straight

plane which passes through that plane.

line he at rigJit angles to a plane, every it shall he at right angles to

be at right angles to the straight line shall be every ])lane which passes through angles to the plane CK. at right
Let
tlie

AB

plane

CK\

AB

;

BOOK XL
Let any plane pass tln-ough AB, and let CE be tlie common section of the planes

IS,

19.

239

DE
3.

DE, CK;
FG,
at

[XL

take any point

F

in

CE, from which draw
in the plane DE, right angles to
[I. 11.

B
is

E

CE.

Then, because

^^

at

right

angles to the plane
[Hypothesis.

CK,
therefore
it

makes
it,

right angles with
;

meeting
but

it

in that plane

every straight line [XI. Definition 3.

CB

meets

and

is in

that plane
is

therefore the angle

ABF

a right angle.
;

But the angle
therefore

GFB is

also a riglit angle

[Construction.
[I. 28.

FG is parallel
is

to

AB.

And

AB

at right angles to the plane

CK

;

[Hypothesis.

therefore

FG is also at right angles to the same plane.
is

[XI. 8.

at right angles to another plane, when the straight lines drawn in one of the planes at right angles to their common section, are also at right angles to the other plane [XI. Definition 4.
;

But one plane

has been shewTi that any straight line drawn in the plane DE, at right angles to CE, tlie common section of the planes, is at right angles to the other plane CK;
it

and

FG

therefore the plane

DE

is

at right angles to the plane

CK.

In the same manner it plane which passes through plane CK.

may be shewn

AB

is

that any other at right angles to the
q.e.d.

Wherefore, if a straight line &c.

PROPOSITION

19.

THEOHEAf.

If two planes whirh cut one another he each of them perpendicular to a third plane, th^ir common section shall he perpendicular to the same plane.

;

;

240

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

be each of them perpenLet the two planes BA, be the common sect'on dicular to a third plane, and let shall be perpendicular to the of the planes BA, third plane.

BC

BC BD
:

BD

if not, from the point D, the plane BA, the straight line at right angles to AD, the common section of the plane with the third plane; [1. 11.

Fur,
in

draw

DE

BA

Z>, draw" in tlie the straight line at right angles to CD, the common section of the plane with the third plane. [I. 11.

and from the point

j)lane

BC,

DF

BC

Then, because the plane

BA

is

perjjendicular to the third plane,

[Hypotliesis.

and

DE

is

drawn
is

in the plane

BA

at right angles to

^i>
4.

their

common

section

{Construction.

therefore

DE

perpendicular to the third plane. [XI. Bef.

In the same manner it may be shcAvn that pendicular to the third plane.

DE

is

per-

two straight lines are at Therefore from the point right angles to the third plane, on the same side of it; which is impossible. [XI. 13.
Tlierefore
line at right angles to the third plane,

D

from the point D, there cannot be any straight except the com-

mon

section of the planes

BA,

BC
q.e.d.

BD

therefore

BD

is

perpendicular to the third plane.
ttco jylit'ies &ic.

Wherefore, if

PROPOSITION

20.

TUEOREM.

If a solid angle he contained by three plane angles, any two of them are together greater than the third. Let the solid angle at A be contained by the tlireo plane angles BAC, CAD, DAB: any two of them shall be
together greater than the third.
If the angles BAC, CAD, be all equal, it evident that any two of them are greater than the third.

DAB

is

;

;

BOOK XL
If they arc

20.

241

not

all

equal, let

BAG
less
is

is not than cither of the other two, and greater than one of thcnij BAD.

be that angle which

At

the point A, in the straight line

BA, make, in the plane which passes through BA, AC, the angle ^.4^
equal to the angle

BAD)

[I. 23.

make

AE equal to ^i> through E draw BEG cutting AB, AC ^i the points B,
andjoinX>i?,
i>6^.

C;

Then, because

AD

i?,

equal to

AE,

^Construction.

and

AB

is

common

to the

two triangles

BAD, BAE,

the two sides each to each

BA,

AD are equal to the two sides BA, AE,
is

and the angle

therefore the base

And
BC,

BAD equal to the angle BAE; [Constr. BD equal U) the base BE. because BD, DC are together greater than
is
[I. 4. [I. 20.

and one of them

BD

has been shewn

equal to

BE

a part

ofBG,
therefore the other part EG.

DC

is

greater than the remaining

And
and

because

AG is

[Construction. ^2> is equal to AE, common to the twd triangles DAG, EAGj

but the base
therefore

DC is greater than the base EG; the angle DAG is greater than

the

angle
[I. 25.

EAG.
And, by construction, the angle
nuglc

BAD
is,

is

equal to the

BAE;

therefore the angles BAD, than the angles BAE, EAG, that

DAG

tlian

are together greater the angle BAG.

But the angle

BAG is not less BAG

than cither of the angles

BAD, DAG;
together with either of the other therefore the angle angles is greater than the third.

Wherefore, (fa solid angle &c.

q.e.d.

16

;

242

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
PROPOSITION
21.

THEOREM.
which

Every

are together

solid angle is contained hy plane angles, less than four right angles.

be contained by three First let the solid angle at plane angles BAG, CAD, DAB: these three shall be together less than four right angles.
In the straight lines AB,AC,AD take any points B, C, D, and join BCj

A

CD, DB.

B

Then, because the solid angle at contained by the three plane angles CBA, ABD, DBC, any two of them are together greater than the
is

third,

[XI. 20.

therefore the angles CBA, together greater than the angle

ABD aro
ACD
are together

DBC. For the same reason, the angles BCA, greater than the angle DCB,
and the angles angle BDC.

CDA, ADB

are together greater than the

ADB

Therefore the six angles CBA, ABD, BCA, ACD, are together greater than the three angles

CDA, DBC,

DCB,BDC;
DBC, DCB,

but the three angles to two right angles.

BDC are together equal
[I. 32.

ADB

Therefore the six angles CBA, ABD, BCA, ACD, are together greater than two right angles.

CDA,

ABC, ACD,
angles,

And, because the three angles of each of the triangles are together equal to two right

ADB

[I. 32.

therefore the nine angles of these triangles, namely, the angles CBA, BAC, ACB, ACD, CDA, CAD, ADB, are equal to six right angles DBA,

DAB

and of

these, the six

ADB, DBA

angles CBA, ACB, ACD, are greater than two right angles,

CDA,

therefore the remaining three angles BAC, CAD, DAB, which contain the solid angle at A, are together less thau

four right angles.

;

BOOK XL
Next,
let

21.

243

the solid angle at

A

be contained by any

number

of plane angles

BAC, CAD, DAE, EAF, FAB:

these shall be together less than four right angles.

Let the planes in which the angles are, be cut by a plane, and let the common sections of it Avith those
planes be

BC, CD, DE, EF, FB.

Then, because the solid angle at is contained by the three plane angles CBA, ABF, FBC, any two of them are together greater than

B

the third,

[XI.

20.

therefore the angles CBA, are together greater than the angle

ABF

FBC.
For the same reason, at each of the points C, D, E, F, the two plane angles which are at the bases of the triangles having the common vertex A, are together greater than the third angle at the same point, which is one of the
angles of the polygon

BCDEF.

Therefore all the angles at the bases of the triangles arc together greater than all the angles of the polygon.

Now all the angles of the triangles are together equal to twice as many right angles as there are triangles, that is, as there are sides in the polygon [I. 32.

BCDEF

;

the angles of the polygon, together with four right angles, are also equal to twice as many right angles as [I. 32, Corollary 1. there are sides in the polygon;
all

and

therefore all the angles of the triangles are equal to nil the angles of the polygon, together with four right angles. {Ax. 1.

But it has been shewn that all the angles at the bases of the triangles are together greater than all the angles of
the polygon
therefore the remaining angles of the triangles, namely, those at the vertex, which contain the solid angle at A, are together less than four right angles.

^Vherefore, every solid angle &c.

q.e.d.

16-2

BOOK XIL
LEMMA.
Tf from the greater of tico unequal magnitudes there more than its half, and fro^n the remainder m,ore than its half and so on, there shall at length remain a magnitude less than the smaller of the proposed
he taken

C be two unequal magnitudes, of which the greater: if from there be taken more than its half, and from the remainder more than its half, and so on, there shall at length remain a magnitude less than C.

AB

magnitudes. and Let

AB

is

AB

to

For C may be multiplied so become greater than AB.

as at length

A

D

Let it be so multiplied, and let its multiple be greater than AB, and let be divided into DF, FG, GE, each equal
to

DE

DE K
H C

a
From

take BH, greater than its half, and from the remainder take greater than its half, and so on, until there

AB

AH

HK

in ^^ as in DE and AB be AK, KH, HB, B C E and the divisions in DE be DF, FG, GE. Then, because DE greater than AB not greater than its half; and that EG taken from DE but ^/f taken from AB greater than its half; therefore the remainder DG is greater than the remainder

be as many divisions
let the divisions in

;

is

;

is

\^

AH.

;

BOOK XII.
Again, because

1.

245

and that
is

DG is greater than AH; GF is not greater than the half
AH;
is

of

DG,

but //AT

greater than the half of

therefore the remainder

DF
C;

greater than the remainder

AA'.

But Z)i^ is equal
therefore (7
is

to

greater than

AJC;
q.e.d.

that

is,

yl A' is less

than

(7.

And

if

only the halves be taken away, the

same thing may

in the

same way be demonstrated.

PROPOSITION

1.

THEOREM.
circles

Similar pohjgons inscrihed in
Let

are

to

one another
in

a^ the squares on their diameters.

ABCDE, FGHKL

be two

circles,

and

them

and let the similar polygons ABCDE, ho the diameters of the circles: the polygon as the square on shall be to the polygon to the square on GM.

GN

FGHKL;

FGHKL

ABCDE

BM,

BM

is

Join

AM BE, IW, GL.
is

Then, because the polygons are similar,
therefore the angle

and

BAE equal to the angle GFL, [VI. Definition AE as GF to FL. equiangular to the triangle Therefore the triangle BAE
BA
\%io
is

1.

is

GFL
therefore the angle

[VI.

6.

AEB is equal
is

to the angle

FLG.
and the
[III. 21.

But the angle
angle

AEB

FLG

is

equal to the angle equal to the angle

FNG

A MB,

;

therefore the angle

AMB

is

equal to the angle

FNG.

;

;

246

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
the angle is equal to the angle is a right angle.
'

And
'

BAM

GFN,

' each of them

for [III. 31.

Therefore the remaining angles in the triangles A MB, are equal, and the triangles are equiangular to one another

FNG

therefore

BA

is

to

5Jf as
is

6^i^is to

GN,

[VI.

4.

GF as BMi?, to GN-, therefore the duplicate ratio of BA to GF is the
and, alternately,

BA

to

[V. 16.

the duplicate ratio of

BM to GN.
is

same as [V. Definition 10, V. 22.

But the polygon

ABODE
BA
to
is
;

in the duplicate ratio of

GF

to the polygon "

FGHKL
[VI. 20.

and the square on B3I
plicate ratio of

BM to GN

to the square on

GN in

the du[VI. 20.
[V. 11.

therefore the polygon is to the polygon as the square on BMis to the square on GN.

ABODE

FGHKL

Wherefore, shnUar x)ohjgons &c.

q.e.d.

PROPOSITION
diameters.

2.

THEOREM.
on their

Circles are to one another as the squares

Let

A BOD, EFGII
:

diameters the circle as the square on

For, is to some space either less as the circle than the circle EFGH, or greater than it.

FR

if

and BD, their be to the circle is to the square on FIT. must be to the square on not, the square on
be two
circles,

BD

ABOD

shall

FH EFGH

ABOD

BD

First, if possible, let it

space

S

less

be as the circle than the circle EFGH.

ABOD

is

to a

;

;

BOOK XII.
In the
circle JEJ/'G^/iT inscribe the

2.

247

square

EFGII

[TV.

6.

This square shall be greater than half of the circle

EFGH,

For the square

EFGH

is

be formed by drawing straight the points E, F, G,

H

half of the square which can lines to touch the circle at

;

and the square thus formed
therefore the square
circle.

is

gi'cater
is

than the

circle

EFGII

greater than half of the

Bisect the arcs

EF, FG, Gil,

HE

at the points

K,

L,3I,N; and join EK, KF, FL, LG, GM, MH, HN, NE. Then each of the triangles EKF, FLG, GMH, HNE shall
be greater than half of the segment of the
it

circle in

which

stands.

is half of the parallelogram For the triangle which can bo formed by drawing a straight line to touch the and F, circle at A', and parallel straight lines through

EKF

E

and the parallelogram thus formed segment FEK therefore the triangle
;

is

EKF

greater than the is greater than

half of the segment.

And

similarly for the other triangles.

Therefore the sum of all these triangles is together greater than half of the sum of the segments of the circle in which they stand. Again, bisect EK, KF, &c. and form triangles as before

then the sum of these triangles is greater than half of the sum of the segments of the circle in which they stand.

;

;

248

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

If this process be continued, and the triangles be supposed to be taken away, there will at length remain segments of circles which are together less than the excess of the circle above the space S, by the preceding

EFGH

Lemma.

HNj

Let then the segments EK, KF, FL, LG, GM, MH, be those which remain, and which are together less than the excess of the circle above S

NE

therefore the rest

EKFLGMHN,

is

of the circle, namely the greater than the space S.

polygon

In the (ArdQABCD describe the polygon ^A'i?OCP2>i2
similar to the polygon

EKFLGMHN.

EKFLGMHN as
FH,
that
is,

Then the polygon

the square on

AXBOCPDR BD

is

is

to the polygon to the square on

[XIL
as the circle
in

1.

ABCD
space

But the polygon
which

ABCD is to the space S. {Hyp., Y. 11. AXBOCPDR is less than the circle
inscribed,

it is

therefore the polygon '
/S';

EKFLGMHN
BD

is

less

than the
[V. 14.

but it which

is also is

greater, as has been shewTi

impossible.

FH

Therefore the square on is not to the square on as the circle is to any space less than the

circle

EFGH

ABCD

In the same way it may be shewn that the square on is not to the square on as the circle is to any space less than the circle ABCD.

FH

BD

EFGH

Nor

is

the square on

the circle

ABCD

is

to the square on as to any sjDace gi-eater than the circle

BD

FH

EFGH.
For, if possible, let it be as the circle 7^ greater than the circle EFGH.

ABCD

is

to a space

is to the square on Then, inversely, the square on as the space T is to the circle ABCD.

FH

BD

EFGH to

But

ns the space

some

is to the circle so is the circle space, which must be less than the circle

T

ABCD

BOOK XIL
ABCD,
than the circle

2.

249

because, by hypothesis, the space '

T

is

greater
[V.

EFGIL

U.

is to the square on as Therefore the square on is to some space less than the circle the circle

EFGH

FH

BD

ABCDwhich has been shewn to be impossible.
Therefore the S(|uare on
as the circle

ABCD

BD

is

to

is not to the square on FIT any space greater than the circle

EFGH.
And
it

to the square on less than the circle

is not has been shewn that the square on as the circle is to any space

FH

ABCD

BD

EFGH.

circle

Therefore the square on is to the circle

BD

is

to the square

on

FH as tho

ABCD

EFGH.

Wherefore, circles &c.

q.e.d.

NOTES ON EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
The article Eucleides in Dr Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography was written by Professor De Morgan it
;

contains an account of the works of Euclid, and of the various

them which have been published. To that article we who desires full information on these subjects. Perhaps the only work of importance relating to Euclid which has been published since the date of that article is a work on the
editions of
refer the student

Paris, i860. of Euclid by Chasles Euclid appears to have lived in the time of the first Ptolemy, B.C. 323 283, and to have been the founder of the Alexandrian mathematical school. The work on Geometry known as The Elements of Euclid consists of thirteen books two other books have sometimes been added, of which it is supposed that Hypsicles was the author. Besides the Elements, Euclid was the author of other works, some of which have been preserved and some lost. will now mention the three editions which are the most valuable for those who wish to read the Elements of Euchd in the original Greek. (i) The Oxford edition in folio, published in 1703 by Da^ad Gregory, under the title EvVXei'Sou to. aoj^ofMeva. "As an edition of the whole of Euclid's works, this stands alone, there being no other in Greek." De Morgan. Euclidis Elementorum Lihri sex prior€S...edidit Joannes (2) Gulielmus Camerer. This edition was published at Berlin in two volumes octavo, the first volume in 1824 and the second in 1825. It contains the first six books of the Elements in Greek with a Latin Translation, and very good notes which form a mathematical commentary on the subject. Euclidis Elementa ex optimis lihris in usum tironum (3)
;

Porisms

;

We

Grace edita ah Ernesto Ferdinando August. This edition was published at Berlin in two volumes octavo, the first volume in 1826 and the second in 1829. It contains the thirteen books of the Elements in Greek, with a collection of various readings.

s

NO TES ON E VVLIUS ELEMENTS.
A

251

third volume, which was to have contained the remaining "To the scholar who wants works of Euclid, never appeared. one edition of the Elements we should decidedly recommend this, as bringing together all that has been done for the text of Euclid's greatest work." Dc Morgan. An edition of the whole of Euclitl's works in the original has long been promised by Teubner the well-known German publisher, as one of his series of compact editions of Greek and Latin authors but we believe there is no hope of its early appearance. Eobert Simson's edition of the Elemenis of Euclid, which we have in substance adopted in the present work, differs considerably from the original. The English reader may ascertain 'the contents of the original by consulting the work entitled The Ekments of Euclid with dissertations... hy James Williamson. This work consists of two volumes quarto the first volume was published at Oxford m 1781, and the second at London in 1788. Williamson gives a close translation of the thirteen books of the Elements into English, and he indicates by the use of Italics the words which are not in the original but which are required by
;

;

our language. Among the numerous works which contain notes on the Elements of Euclid we will mention four by which we have been aided in drawing up the selection given in this volume.

An Examination of the first six Books of Euclid's Elements by William Austin... Oxford, 1781. Euclid's Elements of Plane Geometry with copious notes. ..hy John Walker. London, 1827. The first six hooks of the Elements of Euclid with, a Commentary. ..hy Dionysius Lardner, fourth edition. London, 1834.
Shoi't

Elements,

supplementary remarks on the first six Books of Euclid^ by Professor De Morgan, in the Companion to the
for 1S49.

Almanac

We may

also notice the following works:

and Spherical,... London 1830; this fonus part of the Library of L^seful Knowledge. Theoremes et Problemes de Gcomctrie Elemintaire par Eugene
Geometry, Plane, Solid,
Catalan... Troisieme edition.

Paris, 1858.

For the History of Geometry the student is referred to Montucla's Ilistoire des Mathemati'iues, and to Chasles's AjJcrcu
historique sur rorigine et
vxctrie...
le

devCloppement des Mithodes en Geo-

252

NOTES ON
TPIE FIRST BOOK.

seven definitions have given rise to conon which however we do not propose to enter. Such a discussion would consist mainly of two subjects, both of which are unsuitable to an elementary work, namely, an examination of the origin and nature of some of our elementary ideas, and a comparison of the original text of Euclid with the substitutions for it proposed by Simson and other editors. For the former subject the student may hereafter consult Whewell's Histoi'y of Scientific Ideas and Mill's Logic, and for the latter the notes in
Definitions.
first

The

siderable discussion,

Camerer's edition of the Elements of Euclid. will only obsers'e that the ideas which correspond to the words foint, line, and surface, do not admit of such definitions as will really supply the ideas to a person who is destitute of them. The so-called definitions may be regarded as cautions or restrictions. Thus a point is not to be supposed to have any size, but only 2'>ositio7i; a line is not to be supposed to have d^^ny breadth or thickness, but only length ; a surface is not to be supposed to have any thickness, but only length and breadth. The eighth definition seems intended to include the cases in which an angle is formed by the meeting of two curved lines, or this definition however is of of a straight line and a curved line no importance, as the only angles ever considered are such as are formed by straight lines. The definition of a plane rectilineal angle is important the beginner must carefully observe that no change is made in an angle by prolonging the lines which fonn it, aw^ay from the angular point. Some Avriters object to such definitions as those of an equilateral triangle, or of a square, in which the existence of the They object defined is assumed when it ought to be demonstrated. would present them in such a form as the following: if there be

We

;

;

a triangle having three equal
triangle.

sides, let it

be called an equilateral

Moreover, some of the definitions are introduced prematurely. Thus, for example, take the definitions of a right-angled triangle and an obtuse-angled triangle ; it is not shewn until I. 17, that a triangle cannot have both a right angle and an obtuse angle, and so cannot be at the same time right-angled and obtuseangled. And before Axiom 1 1 has been given, it is conceivable

; ;

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,

253

that the same angle may be greater than one right angle, and less than another right angle, that is, obtuse and acute at the

same time. The definition of a square assumes more than is necessary. For if a four-sided figure have all its sides equal and one angle a right angle, it may be shewn that all its angles are right angles or if a four-sided figure have all its angles equal, it may be shewn
that they are all right angles.
Postulates.

The
effect,

postulates state

what processes we assume
a straight line

that

we can

namely, that

we can draw

between two given points, that we can produce a straight line to any length, and that we can describe a circle from a given centre with a given distance as radius. It is sometimes stated that the postulates amount to requiring the use of a rider and compasses. It must however be obsei-ved that the ruler is not supposed to be a graduated ruler, so that we cannot use it to measure oflF And we do not require the compasses for any assigned lengths. other process than describing a circle from a given point with a given distance as radius in other words, the compasses may be supposed to close of tliemselves, as soon as one of their points is removed from the paper. The axioms are called in the original Common Axioms. It is supposed by some writers that Euclid intended Notions. his postulates to include all demands which are peculiarly geometrical, and his common notions to include only such notions as are applicable to all kinds of magnitude as well as to space Accordingly, these writers remove the last three magnitudes. axioms from their place and put tliem among the postulates and this transposition is supported by some manuscripts and
;

some versions of the Elements. The fourth axiom is sometimes referred to in editions of Euclid when in reahty more is required than this axiom exEuclid says, that if A and B be unequal, and C and D presses. equal, the sum of A and C is unequal to the sum of B and B.

What Euclid often requires is something more, namely, that if A be greater than B, and C and D be equal, the sum of A and

C \s greater than the sum of and D. Such an axiom as this is similar remark appUea to the required, for example, in I. 17.

B

A

fifth

axiom. In the eighth axiom the words "that is, which exactly fill the same space," have been introduced without the authority of

;

254

NOTES ON

the original Greek. They are objectionable, because lines and angles are magnitudes to which the axiom may be applied, but

they cannot be said to fill space. On the method of superposition we may refer to papers by Professor Kelland in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vols. xxi. and xxiil. The eleventh axiom is not required before T. 14, and the we shall not consider twelfth axiom is not required before I. 79 these axioms until we arrive at the propositions in which they are
;

respectively requii-ed for the

first

tune.

The first book is and parallelograms.

chiefly

devoted to the properties of triangles
distinguish

We may
respectively.

observe that Euclid himself does not

between problems and theorems except by using at the end of the investigation phrases which correspond to Q.E.F. and Q.E.D.
This problem admits of eight cases in its figure. For found that the given point may be joined with either end of the given straight line, then the equilateral triangle may be described on either side of the straight line which is drawn, and the side of the equilateral tiiangle which is produced may be produced through either extremity. These various cases may be left for the exercise of the student, as they present no difficulty. There will not however always be eight different straight hues obtained which solve the problem. For example, if the point A falls on BC produced, some of the solutions obtained coincide this depends on the fact which follows from I. 32, that the angles
I. 2.
it

will be

of all equilateral triangles are equal.

1.5.
for "join

''Joini^C."

pression as an abbreviation for

Custom seems to allow this singular ex"draw the straight line i^C," or

F io C

hy the

straight line

FC'

In comparing the triangles BFC, CGB, the words ''and the base BC is common to the two triangles BFC, CGB" are usually As however these inserted, with the authority of the original. words are of no use, and tend to perplex a beginner, we have followed the example of some editors and omitted them. corollary to a proposition is an inference which may be deduced immediately from that proposition. Many of the corollaries in the Elements are not in the original text, but introduced by the editors.

A

; ;

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

255

It ha^ been suggested to demonstrate I. 5 by svperposid'on. Conceive the isosceles triangle A BC to be taken up, and then replaced so that AB falls on the old position of AC, and ACf-ills on the old position of A B. Thus, in the manner of I. 4, we can shew that the angle ABC is equal to the angle ACB.
I.

6

is

the converse of part of

I,

5.

One

proposition

is

said to

be the converse of another when the conclusion of each is the hypothesis of the other. Thus in I. 5 the hypothesis is the equality of the sides, and one conclusion is the equality of the angles in I. 6 the hypothesis is the equality of the angles and the conclusion is the equality of the sides. When there is more than one hypothesis or more than one conclusion to a proposition, we can form more than one converse proposition. For example, as another converse of I. 5 we have the following: if the angles formed by the base of a triangle and the sides produced be equal, the sides of the triangle are equal; this proposition is true and will serve as an exercise for the student. The converse of a true proposition is not necessarily true the student however will see, as he proceeds, that Euclid shews that the converses of many geometrical propositions are true. I. 6 is an example of the indirect mode of demonstration, in which a result is established by shewing that some absurdity follows from supposing the required result to be untrue. Hence this mode of demonstration is called the reductio ad absurdum. Indirect demonstrations are often less esteemed than direct demonstrations they are said to shew that a theorem is true rather than to shew why it is true. Euclid uses the reductio ad ahsurdum chiefly when he is demonstrating the converse of some former theorem; see I. 14, 19, 15,40. Some remarks on indirect demonstration by Professor Sylvester, Professor De Morgan, and Dr Adamson will be found in the volumes of the Philosophical Magazine for 1852 and 1853.
;

;

not required by Euclid before he reaches TI. 4 so that its present place and demonstrated For example, I. 6 might be hereafter in other ways if we please. placed after I. 18 and demonstrated thus. Let the angle A BC be shall be equal to the equal to the angle ACB: then the side side A C. For if not, one of them must be greater than the other Then the angle A CB is greater suppose A B greater than .4 C. than the angle ABC, by I. 18. But this is impossible, because
I.

6

is

;

I.

6 might be removed from

AB

25Q

NOTES ON
ACB

Or the angle ia equal to the angle ABC, by hjrpothesis. I. 6 might be placed after I. 26 and demonstrated thus. Bisect the Then the angle BA (7 by a straight line meeting the base at D. triangles ABI) and A CD are equal in all respects, by I. 26. The two might I. 7 is only required in order to lead to I. 8. be superseded by another demonstration of I. 8, which has been

recommended by many
Let ABC,

writers.

be two triangles, having the sides AB, AC equal to the sides DE, DF, each to each, and the base BC equal to the base EF\ the angle BAC shall be equal to the angle

DBF

EBF.

A

D

For, let the triangle
BO that the bases

DEF be

applied to the triangle
sides of the base.

ABC^

may

coincide, the equal sides be conterminous,

and the
to

vertices fall

on opposite

Let

GBC

represent the tiiangle

BEF thus

applied, so that

G

corresponds

Join AG. Since, by hypothesis, BA is equal to BG, the In the same is equal to the angle BGA, by I. 5. manner the angle CAG is equal to the angle CGA. Therefore the whole angle BAC\s, equal to the whole angle BGC, that is, to the angle EDF.

D.

angle

BAG

There are two other cases for the straight line A G may pass through B or G, or it may fall outside BC'. these cases may be treated in the same manner as that which we have considered. I. 8. It may be observed that the two triangles in I. 8 are equal in all respects; Euclid however does not assert more than the equality of the angles opposite to the bases, and when ho requires more than this result he obtains it by using I. 4. Here the equilateral triangle DEF is to be described I. 9. on the side remote from A, because if it were described on the same side, its vertex, F, might coincide with A, and then the construction would fail.
;

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
I.

257

was added by Simson. It is liable to For we do not know how the perpendicular JiE is to be drawn. If we are to use I. 1 1 we must produce AB, and then we must assume that there is only one way of proII.

The

corollary

serious objection.

ducing AB, for otherwise we shall not know that there is only one perpendicular; and thus we assume what we have to demonstrate. Simson's corollary might come after I. 13 and be demonstrated thus. If possible let the two straight lines ABC, ABD have the segment A B common to both. From the point B draw any straight line BE. Then the angles ABE and EBC are equal to two right angles, by I. 13, and the angles ^^^and EBD are Therefore the analso equal to two right angles, by I. 13. gles ABE and EBC are equal to the angles ABE and EBD. Therefore the angle EBC is equal to the angle EBD; which is

absurd.

But if the question whether two straight

lines

mon segment

is

to be considered at all in the

can have a comElements, it might

occur at an earlier place than Simson has assigned to it. For example, in the figure to I. 5, if two straight lines could have a common segment A B, and then separate at B, we should obtain two different angles formed on the other side of by these produced parts, and each of them would be equal to the angle BCG. The opinion has been maintained that even in I. i, it is tacitly assumed that the straight lines A C and BC cannot have a common segment at C where they meet ; see Camerer's Euclid, pages 30 and 36. Simson never formally refers to his corollary until XI. i. The corollary should be omitted, and the tenth axiom should be extended so as to amount to the following if two straight lines coincide in two points they must coincide both beyond and

BC

;

between those points.
I.
I •2.

Here the

straight line

is

said to be of unlimited length,

in order that

shall meet the circle. Euclid distinguishes between the terms at right amjlcs and
it

we may

ensure that

jierpcndicular.
line
is

He

uses the term at right angles

when

the straight

drawn from a point in another, as the term perpendicular when the straight
point without another, as in
is I.

12.

and he uses line is drawn from a This distinction however
in I. 11;

often disregarded by
I. 14.
lli-'ro

modern
first

writers.

Euclid

requires his eleventh axiom.

For

17

258
in the demonstration

NOTES ON

we have the angles ABO and ABE equal to two right angles, and also the angles ABC and ABD equal to two right angles and then the former two right angles are equal to the latter two right angles by the aid of the eleventh axiom. Many modern editions oi Euclid however refer only to the first axiom, as if that alone were sufficient; a similar remark applies to the demonstrations of I, 15, and I. 24. In these cases we have omitted the reference purposely, in order to avoid perplexing a beginner; but when his attention is thus drawn to the circumstance he will see that the first and eleventh axioms are
;

both used.

may observe that errors, in the references with respect to the eleventh axiom, occur in other places in many modern editions of Euclid. Thus for example in III. 1, at the step "thereis equal to the angle GDB,'" a reference is fore the angle

We

FDB

given to the first axiom instead of to the eleventh. There seems no objection on Euchd's principles to the following demonstration of his eleventh axiom. be at right angles to Let at the point A, and EF at right angles to at the point E: then shall the angles BA C and PEG be equal.

AB

DAC

HEG

P

D
Take any length
apply

C

H

E

G

A C, and make^D, EH, EG all equal to AC. HEG to DA C, so that H may be on Z>, and HG on I)C, and B and F on the same side oi DC then G will coincide and E with A. Also EF shall coincide with AB; for if with

Now

;

(7,

not, suppose, if possible, that

it

Then

the angle

DAK is equal to

takes a different position as AK. the angle HEF, and the angle

CAK to the angle GEF; but the angles HEF and GEF are equal, by hypothesis; therefore the angles DAK and CAK are equal. But the angles DAB and CAB are also equal, by hypothesis; and the angle CAB is greater than the angle CAK; there-

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
fore the aiigle
is

259

Much the angle CAK. than the angle CAK. But was shewn to be equal to the angle CAK; the angle which is absurd. Therefore EF must coincide with A B and therefore the angle FFG coincides with the angle BAC, and is
is

DAB

greater than

more then

the angle

DAK greater

DAK

;

equal to
I.
1

it.

In order to assist the student in remembering I. 19. which of these two propositions is demonstrated directly and which
8,

indirectly,

it

may

be observed that the order

is

similar to that

in I. 5
I.

and
20.

I. 6.

''Proclus, in his commentary, relates, that the Epicureans derided Prop. 20, as being manifest even to asses, and needing no demonstration and his answer is, that though the truth of it be manifest to our senses, yet it is science which must give the reason why two sides of a triangle are greater than the third: but the right answer to this objection against this and the 21st, and some other plain propositions, is, that the
;

number
sity,

of
it

axioms ought not to be increased without neces-

as

must be

if

these propositions be not demonstrated."

Simson.
I.

11.

Here
If this

straight lines are to be
triangle.

must be carefully observed that the two drawn from the ends of the side of the condition be omitted the two straight lines will
it

not necessarily be less than two sides of the triangle. "Some authors blame Euclid because he does not I. 22. demonstrate that the two circles made use of in the construction of this problem must cut one another but this is very plain from the detennination he has given, namely, that any two of the
:

straight

lines
is

DF, FG,

Gil,

must be greater than the

third.

For who

so dull,

though only beginning

to learn the Elements,

as not to perceive that the circle described

the distance
is

FD, must meet

FH
at

betwi.xt

F

from the centre F, at and //, because FD
the
circle

less

than

FH
D

;

and that
centre G,

for the like reason,

de-

scribed from the

the distance

GH...invist

DG

betwixt

and

G

another, because

FD
that

and that these circles and GH are together greater than
;

meet must meet one

FG V

Simson.

The condition

B

and

C

are greater than A, ensures that

the circle described from the centre

G shall not fall entirely within the circle described from the centre F: the condition that A and are greater than C, ensures that the circle descriljod

B

17—2

2G0

NOTES ON

from the centre F shall not fall entirely within the circle described from the centre G; the condition that A and C are
greater than B, ensm-es that one of these circles shall not fall entirely without the other. Hence the circles must meet. It is easy to see this as Simson says, but there is something arbitrary in EucHd's selection of what is to be demonstrated and what is to be seen, and Simson's language suggests that he was really

conscious of this.
I. 24. In the construction, the condition that is to be the side which is not greater than the other, was added by Simson unless this condition be added there will be three cases to consider, for may fall on EG, or above EG, or heloio EG. It
;

DE

F

be objected that even if >Simson's condition be added, it ought to be shewn that wiU fall heloxv EG. Simson accordingly says "...it is very easy to perceive, that DG being equal to DF, the point G is in the circumference of a circle described from the centre at the distance BF, and must be in that part of it which is above the straight line EF, because falls above DF, the angle EDG being greater than the angle EDF:' Or we may shew it in the following manner. Let denote the point of

may

F

D

DG

and EG. Then, the angle DHG is greater than the angle DEG, by I. 16; the angle DEG is not less than the angle DGE, by I. 19; therefore the angle DHG is greater than the angle DGH. Therefore is less than DG, by I. 20. Therefore is less than DF. If Simson's condition be omitted, we shall have two other cases to consider besides that in Euclid. If F falls on EG, it is obvious that EF is less than EG. If F falls above EG, the sura of DF and EF is less than the sum of DG and EG, by I. 21 and
intersection of

DF

H

DH

DH

;

therefore

EF is

less

than EG.

I. 26. It wiU appear after I. 32 that two triangles which have two angles of the one equal to two angles of the other, each to each, have also their third angles equal. Hence we are able

two cases of I. 26 in one enunciation thus ; if two triangles have all the angles of the one respectively equal to all the angles of the other, each to each, and have also a side of the one,
to include the
opposite to

any

angle, equal to the side opposite to the equal angle

in the

otJier, the

triangles shall be equal in all respects.

The

first

twenty-six propositions constitute a distinct section

;

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
of the first Bo(.k
;

*

261

Tlie principal results nro of tlie Elements. those contained in Propositions 4, 8, and 26 in each of these Propositions it is shewn that two triangles which agree in three

respects agree entirely. There are two other cases which will naturally occur to a student to consider besides those in Euclid

namely,

(i)

when two

triangles

have the three angles of the one

respectively equal to the three angles of the other, (2) when two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other,

each to each, and an angle opposite to one side of one triangle equal to the angle o])posite to the equal side of the other triangle.

In the

first
I.

of these two cases the student will easily see, after
-29,

that the two triangles are not necessarily equal. In the second case also the triangles are not necessarily equal, as may he shewn by an example; in the figure of I. 11, suppose the straight line FB drawn; then in the two triangles FBE, FBD, the side FD and the angle FBC are common, and the side

reading

the triangles are not equal in however, the triangles will be equal in all respects, as will be seen from a proposition which we shall now demonstrate. If tico triangles have iivo sides of the one equal to two sides of ike other, each to each, and the angles opposite to a pair of equal sides equal; then if the angles ojiposite to the other pair of equal sides be both a^ute, or both obtuse, or if one of them he a right
is

FE

equal to the side

FD, but
cases,

all respects.

In certain

angle, the tico triangles are equal in all respects.

Let

two
to

triangles

A BC and DEF let A B
;

equal to

DE, and

BC

be be equal

EF, and the angle

A

equal to the angle D. First, suppose the angles

C and F acute

angles.

be equal to the angle E, the triangles A BC, by I. 4. If the angle B be not equal to the angle E, one of them must be greater than the other suppose the angle B greater than the angle E, and make the angle A BG equal to the angle E. Then the triangles A BG, are equal in all respects, by I. 26; therefore BG is equal to EF, and the angle BGA is equal to the angle EFD. But the angle EFD is acute, by hypothesis ; therefore the angle BGA is acute. Therefore the angle BGC is obtuse, by I. 13. But it has
If the angle

B

DEF

are equal in

all respects,

;

DEF

262
been shewn that

NOTES ON
BG is EF
;

EF; and

is

equal to equal to BO,

by hypothesis therefore BG is equal to BC. Therefore the angle

BGC
is

is

BCG, by

I.

equal to the angle 5 ; and the angle

BCG
But
tuse;,

acute,

by hypothesis;

therefore the angle

BGC is acute.

BGC

was shewn to be obwhich is absurd. Therefore the angles ABC,

DEF

are

not unequal; that is, they are equal. Therefore the triangles are equal in all respects, by I. 4. A BC,

DEF

Next, suppose the angles at

C and F

obtuse angles.

The demonstration
angle C.

is

similar to the above.

Lastly, suppose one of the angles a right angle, namely, the be not equal to the angle E, make the If the angle

B

angle

equal to the angle E. Tlien it may be shewn, as is equal to BC, and therefore the angle BGC is equal to the angle BCG, that is, equal to a right angle. Therefore two angles of the triangle BGC are equal to two right angles which is impossible, by I. 17. Therefore the angles A BC Therefore and are not unequal ; that is, they are equal.
before, that

ABG

BG

;

DEF

the triangles

ABC, are equal in all respects, by I. 4. If the angles A and are both right angles, or both obtuse, is less the angles C and must be both acute, by I. 17. If must be than BC, and less than EF, the angles at C and

DEF D
and

F DE
I.

^^ F

both acute, by

18

I. 17.

The propositions from I. 27 to I. 34 inclusive may be said to constitute the second section of the first Book of the Elements.
They relate
In I. 29 Euclid time his twelfth axiom. The theoiy of parallel straight lines has always been considered the great difficulty of elementary geometry, and many attempts have been made
to the theory of parallel straight lines.
first

uses for the

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
to

263

way than Euclid has done. an account of these attempts. The student who wishes to examine them may consult Camerer's Euclid, Gergonne's Annalcs de Mathematiqiies, Volumes XV and xvi, the work by Colonel Peironet Thompson entitled Geometry xcithout Axioms, the article Parallel's in the English Cyclopoidia, a memoir by Professor Baden Powell in the second volume of the Memoirs of the Ashmolean Society, an article by M. Bouniakofsky in the Bidletin de V Academic Impcriale, Volume v, St P^tersbourg, 1863, articles in the volumes of the Philosophical Magazine for 1856 and 1857, and a dissertation entitled Sur
overcome
this diflSculty in a better

We

shall not give

un
4.

2>oi}it

de

Vhistoire

de la Geometrie

chez les

Grecs

par

J'

Paris, 1857. Speaking generally it may be said that the methods which
Vincent.

H.

differ

substantially from Euclid's involve, in the first place an
as difficult as his,

axiom
tions
;

and then an

intricate series of proposiis

while in Euclid's method after the axiom
is

once admitted

the remaining process

simple and clear.

One modification of Euclid's axiom has been proposed, which This consists appears to diminish the difficulty of the subject. in assuming instead of Euclid's axiom the following; two intersecting straight lines cannot he both parallel to a third straight line. The propositions in the Elements are then demonstrated as in Euclid up to I. 28, inclusive. Then, in I. 29, we proceed with
are Euclid up to the words, "therefore the angles BGJI, and than two right angles." We then infer that must meet: because if a straight line be dra'w-n through G so as to make the interior angles together equal to two right angles this straight line will be parallel to CD, by I. 28 and, by our axiom, there cannot be two parallels to CD, both passing through G. This form of making the necessary assumption has been recommended by various eminent mathematicians, among whom may be mentioned Playfair and De Morgan. By postponing the consideration of the axiom until it is wanted, that is, until after I. 28, and then presenting it in the form here given, the theory of parallel straight lines appears to be treated in the easiest manner that has hitherto been proposed.
less

BGH

GHD GHD

;

I. 30.

EF

are each of

Here we may in the same way shew that \{ them parallel to CD, they are parallel
no demonstration
;

AB
CD

and
is

to each

other.

It has been said that the case considered in the text
for
if

po obvious as to need

^4^ and

can

264
never meet EF, which
another.

NOTES ON
lies

between them, they cannot meet one

I. 32. The corollaries to I. 32 were added by Simson. In the second corollary it ought to be stated what is meant by an exterior angle of a rectilineal figure. At each angular point let one of the sides meeting at that point be produced; then tlie exterior angle at that point is the angle contained between this produced part and the side which is not produced. Either of the sides may be produced, for the two angles which can thus ba

obtained are equal, by

I.

15.

The
the

rectilineal figures to

which Eu;

clid confines himself are

those in which

angles

all

face

inwards

we may

however notice another class of figures. In the accompanying diagram the angle JT^Cfaces outwards, and it is an angle less than two right angles this angle however is not one of the interior
here
;

angles of the figure

AEDCF.

We may

consider the

corre-

sponding interior angle to be the excess of four right angles above the angle AFC; such an angle, greater than two right
angles,
is

called a re-entraM angle.

The
is

first

of the corollaries to

I.

32

is

true for a figure which
;

has a re-entrant angle or re-entrant angles
not.
I.

but the second

two angles

have two angles of the one equal to each to each they shall also have their This is a very important result, which is third angles equal. The student should notice how often required in the Elements.
32.

If

two

triangles

of the other

this result

is

established on Euclid's principles.

By Axioms

i r

one pair of right angles is equal to any other pair of right Then, by I. 32, the three angles of one triangle are angles. together equal to the three angles of any other triangle. Then, by Axiom 2, the sum of the two angles of one triangle is equal to

and

2

sum of the two equal angles of the other and then, by Axiom 3, the third angles are equal. After I. 32 we can draw a straight line at right angles to a given straight line from its extremity, without producing the
the
;

given straight line. Let he the given straight line. from A a straight line at right angles to

AB

It is required to

draw

A B.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS,
On A B describe the equilateral triangle ABC. Produce EC to D, so that CD may be equal to CB. Join A D. Then A D shall be at
A B. For, the angle CAD is equal to the angle CDA, and the angle CAB Thereis equal to the angle CBA, by I. 5. fore the angle BA D is equal to the two Therefore angles ABD, BDA, by Axiom 2.
right angles to

265

the angle

BAD

is

a right angle, by
I.

I.

32.

The
They

propositions from

35 to

I.

48 inclusive

may

be said

to constitute the third section of the first
relate to equality of area in figvures

Book

of the Elements.

which are not neces-

sarily identical in form.
I. 35.

Here Simson has

altered the demonstration given

by

Euclid, because, as he says, there would be three cases to conSimson however uses the sider in following Euclid's method.
third Axiom in a peculiar manner, when he first takes a triangle from a trapezium, and then another triangle from the same If the trapezium, and infers that the remainders are equal. demonstration is to be conducted strictly after Euclid's manner, three cases must be made, by dividing the latter part of the

In the left-hand figure we may suppose BE and to be denoted by G. Then, the triangle A BE is equal to the triangle DCF take is away the triangle DOE from each; then the figure equal to the figure EGCF\ add the triangle GBC to each; then the parallelogram A BCD is equal to the parallelogram EBCF. In the right-hand figure we have the triangle AEB equal to the to each then the paralleltriangle DEC add the figure BE ogram A BCD is equal to the parallelogram EBCF. The equality of the parallelograms in I. 35 is an equality of Legendre proposed to use area, and not an identity of figure.
demonstration into two.
the point of intersection of

DC

;

ABGD

\

DC

;

the

the word equivalent to express the equality of area, and to restrict word equal to the case in which magnitudes admit of superThis distinction, however, has not position and coincidence. been generally adopted, probably because there are few cases in
arise
;

which any ambiguity can

in such cases

we may say

es-

pecially, equal in area, to prevent misconception.

stration of I.

Cresswell, in his Treatise of Geometry, has given a 35 which shews that the parallelograms

demon-

may

b<3

.

266

NOTES ON
;

divided into pairs of pieces admitting of superposition and coincidence see also his Preface, page x. An important case of I. 38 is that in which the triI. 38.

angles are on equal bases and have a common vertex. may demonstrate, I. 40 without adopting the inI. 40.

We

direct

method.

Join

BD, CD.

The

triangles

ure and 38; the triangles and ABC&re therefore the triangles hypothesis; 13 parallel to BC, Therefore the first Axiom. Philosophical Magazine, October 1850. In I. 44, Euclid does not shew that I. 44. "I cannot help being of opinion that the will meet.
are equal,

by

I.

^^C DBC

DBC DEF

and

DEF
by by
39.

equal,

equal,

AD

by

I.

AH

and

FG

construc-

tion

would have been more in Euclid's manner if he had made Gil equal to BA and then joining HA had proved that HA was Williainson. parallel to GB by the thirty-third proposition."
goras.

Tradition ascribed the discovery of I. 47 to Pythademonstrations have been given of this celebrated proposition the following is one of the most interesting.
I.

47.

Many

;

Let A BCD, AEFG be any two squares, placed so that their bases may join and form
one straight line. Take and EK each equal to AB, and
join

GH

Then
all

HC, CK, KF, FII. it may be shewn

that

the triangle

BBC

is

equal in

respects to the triangle

FEK,

and the triangle KDC to the Therefore the triangle FGII. two squares are together equivaIt lent to the figure CKFJI.
then be shewn, with the aid of I. 32, that the figure is the hypotenuse of a right-angled a square. And the side are equal to the sides of the triangle of which the sides CB, Tliis demonstration requires no proposition squares. two given of Euclid after I. 32, and it shews how two given squares may be cut into pieces which will fit together so as to form a thnd

may
is

CKFH

CH

BH

square.

Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, Vol.

I.

A large number of demonstrations of this proposition are collected in a dissertation

by Joh. Jos. Ign. Hoffmann,
. .

entitled

Der

Pythagorische Lehrsatz,

Zweyte.

, .

A usgabe.

Mainz. 1S21,

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

267

THE SECOND BOOK.
The second book is devoted to the investigation of relations between the rectangles contained by straight lines divided into segments in various ways. When a straight line is divided into two parts, each part is called a segment by Euclid. It is found convenient to extend the meaning of the word segment, and to lay down the following defiWhen a point is taken in a straight line, or in the nition. straight line produced, the distances of the point from the ends of When the straight line are called segments of the straight line. it is necessary to distinguish them, such segments are called internal or external, according as the point is in the straight line, or in the straight line produced. The student cannot fail to notice that there is an analogy

between the
ary facts
in

first

ten propositions of this book and
is

some elementlong and

Arithmetic and Algebra. Let A BCD represent a rectangle which 3 inches broad. Tlien, by draw-

4 inches

ing straight lines parallel to the sides, the figure may be divided into 12 squares, each

D

c

square being described on a side which represents an inch
in length.

square described on a side measuring an inch is called, for shortness, a square B Thus if a rectangle is inch. inches long and 3 inches 4 broad it may be divided into 12 square inches; this is expressed by saying, that its area is equal to 1 2 square inches, or, more And a similar result briefly, that it contains 12 square inches. Suppose, for example, is easily sesn to hold in all similar cases. that a rectangle is 12 feet long and 7 feet broad; then its area is equal to 12 times 7 square feet, that is to 84 square feet; this may be expressed briefly in common language thus; if a It rectangle measures 12 feet by 7 it contains 84 square feet.
i

A

carefully observed that the sides of the rectangle are supposed to be measured by the same unit of length. Thus if a rectangle is a yard in length, and a foot and a half in breadth, we

must be

268
we may say

NOTES ON

must express each of these dimensions

in terms of the same unit; that the rectangle measures 36 inches by 18 inches, and contains 36 times 18 square inches, that is, 648 square inches. Thus universally, if one side of a rectangle contain a unit of

length an exact number of times, and if an adjacent side of the rectangle also contain the same unit of length an exact number of times, the product of these numbers will be the number of square
units contained in the rectangle.

and let its side be 5 inches in the area of the square is 5 times 5 square inches, that is 25 square inches. Now the number 25 is called in Arithmetic the square of the number 5. And universally, if a straight Hne contain a unit of length an exact number of times, the area of the square described on the straight
square,

Next suppose we have a
Then, by our

length.

rule,

is denoted by the square of the number which denotes the length of the straight line. Thus we see that there is in general a connexion between the product of two numbers and the rectangle contained by two

line

in particular a connexion between the square of the square on a straight line; and in consequence of this connexion the first ten propositions in Euclid's Second Book correspond to propositions in Arithmetic and Algebra. The student will perceive that we speak of the square de-

straight lines,

and

a

number and

scribed

07?

a straight

line,

when we

refer to the geometrical figure,

and of the square o/a number when we refer to Arithmetic. The editors of Euclid generally iise the words "square described npon''' in I. 47 and I. 48, and afterwards speak of the square of a straight line. Euclid himself retains throughout the same form of expression, and we have imitated him. Some editors of Euclid have added Arithmetical or Algebraical demonstrations of the propositions in the second book, founded on the connexion we have explained. We have thouo-ht it unnecessary to do this, because the student who is acquainted with the elements of Arithmetic and Algebra will find no difficulty in supplying such demonstrations himself, so far as they are usually given. We say so far as they are usually given, because these demonstrations usually imply that the sides of rectangles can always be expressed exactly in terms of some unit of length; whereas the student will find hereafter that this is not

the case, owing to the existence of

what are

technically called
this subject.

incommensurable magnitudes.

We

do not enter on

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
as

269

it would lead us too far from Euclid's Elements of Geometry^ with which we are here occupied. The first ten propositions in the second book of Euclid may he arranged and enunciated in various ways ; we will briefly indicate this, but we do not consider it of any importance to distract the attention of a beginner with these diversities.

II. 2

and

II. 3 are particular cases of II.

r.

very important; the following particular case of it should be noticed the square described on a straight line made up
II. 4 is
;

of

tu-o

equal straight lines

is

equal

to

four times

the square described

on one of
II. 5

the tu-o equal straight lines.

and

II. 6

may

be included in one enunciation thus

;

the

rectangle under the
to the difference

sum and

difference of two straight lines is equal

of the squares described on those straight lines;

or thus, the rectangle contained by tu-o straight liyies together with the square described on half their difference, is equal to the square
described on half their sum.
II.
7

may

be enunciated thus;

tJie

square described on a

straight line which is the difference of two other straight lines is less than the sum of the squares described on those straight lines by
twice the rectangle contained by those straight lines.

Then from this

and

II. 4,

and the second Axiom, we
tico

infer tha,t the square described

and the square described on double of the sum of the squares described on the straight lines; and this enunciation includes both
on the sum of
straight lines,
their difference, are together

II. 9

and

II,

lo,

so that the demonstrations given of these pro-

positions

by Euclid might be superseded.

II. 8 coincides with the second form of enunciation which we have given to II. 5 and II. 6, bearing in mind the particular case of II. 4 which we have noticed. II. I r. When the student is acquainted with the elements of Algebra he should notice that II. 1 1 gives a geometrical con-

struction for the solution of a particular quadratic equation.
II. 12, II. 13.

These are interesting in connexion with

I.

47

;

and, as the student

may
;

see hereafter, they are of great import-

ance in Trigonometry
converse of

the parts of Euclid's

I. 47 is converses of II. 12 and II. 13 are true. Take the following, which is the converse of II. 12; if the square described on one side of a triangle be greater than t/ie sum

they are however not required in any of Elements which are usually read. The proved in I. 48; and we can easily shew that

;

270
of
the

NOTES ON
squares described on the other
tico

sides,

the angle opposite

to the first side is obtuse.

For the angle cannot be a right angle, since the square defirst side would then be equal to the sum of the squares described on the other two sides, by I. 47 and the angle
scribed on the
;

cannot be acute, since the square described on the first side would then be less than the sum of the squares described on the other two sides, by II. 13; therefore the angle must be obtuse. Similarly we may demonstrate the following, which is the converse of II. 13; (/^ the square described on one side of a tHangle he less than the sum of the squares described on the other two sides,
the angle opposite to the first side is acute. II. 13.

Euclid enunciates II. 13 thus; in acute-angled
;

tri-

and he gives only the first case in the demonstration. But, as Simson observes, the proposition holds for any triangle and accordingly Simson supplies the second and third cases. It has, however, been often noticed that the same demonstration is applicable to the first and second cases and it would be a great improvement as to brevity and clearness to take these tAvo cases Then the whole demonstration will be as follows. together. Let ABC be any triangle, and the angle at B one of its acute angles and, if AC he not perpendicular to BC, let fall on BC, produced if necessary, the perpendicular AD from the opposite angle: the square on AC opposite to the angle B, shall be less than the squares on CB, BA, by twice the rectangle CB, BD.
angles, &c.
; ;

A

A

First, suppose AC not perpendicular to BC. The squares on CB, BD are equal to twice the CB, BD, together with the square on CD. To each of these equals add the square on DA.

rectangle
[11. 7.

rectangle

Therefore the squares on CB, BD, DA are equal to twice the CB, BD, together with the squares on CD, DA. But the square on \s equal to the squares on BD, DA,

AB

;

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
and the square on

271
DA,

^C is

equal to the squares on CD,

[I. 47. because the angle BDA is a right angle. Therefore the squares on CB, BA are equal to the square on A C, together with twice the rectangle CB, alone is less than the squares on that is, the square on CB, BA by twice the rectangle CB, BD. perpendicular to BC. A Next, suppose

BD

AC

,

AC

Then
at B.

BC

is

the straight Hue

intercepted be-

tween the perpendicular and the acute angle
the square on A B is equal to the squares [I. 47on AC, CB. Therefore the square on AC is less than the " squares on A B, BC, by twice the square on BC. II. 14. This is not required in any of the parts of Euclid's Elements which are usually read; it is included in VI. 22.

And

THE THIRD BOOK.
The
circles.

third

book

of the

Elements

is

devoted to properties of

Different opinions have been held as to what is, or should be, One opinion included in the third definition of the third book. is that the definition only means that the circles do not cut in the neighbourhood of the point of contact, and that it must be shewn that they do not cut elsewhere. Another opinion is that the definition means that the circles do not cut at all and this seems the correct opinion. The definition may therefore be presented more distinctly thus. Two circles are said to touch inter;

nally

when

their

circumferences have one
in

or

more common
circles are said

points,
circle,

and when every point
except the
points,

one

circle is within the other

common

point or points.

Two

to touch externally

common

when their circumferences have one or more and when every point in each circle is without

the other circle, except the

common

point or points.

It

is

then

shewn in the tliird Book that the circumferences of two circles which touch can have only 07ie common point. A straight line which touches a circle is often called a tangent to the circle, or briefly, a tangent.
It is very convenient to

have a word to denote a portion of

272

NOTES ON

the boundary of a circle, and accordingly we use the word arc. Euclid himself uses circumference both for the whole boundary and for a portion of it. In the construction, III. I. is said to be produced to

DC

E

',

this

assumes that
3.

D is

within the

circle,

which Euclid demon-

strates in III. 1.

III.

verse of the other

This consists of two parts, each of which is the conand the whole proposition is the converse of
;

the corollary in III.

i.

III. 5 and III. 6 should have been taken together. They amount to this, if the circumferences of two circles meet at a point
they cannot have the same cent/)'e, so that circles which have the same centre and one point in their circumferences common, must coincide altogether. It would seem as if EucUd had made three cases, one in which the circles cut, one in which they touch internally, and one in which they touch externally, and had then

omitted the last case as evident. III. 7, III. 8. It is observed by Professor De Morgan that in III. 7 it is assumed that the angle FEB is greater than the angle FEC, the hypothesis being only that the angle is greater than the angle DFC; and that in III. 8 it is assumed that A" falls within the triangle DLM, and E without the triangle DMF. He intimates that these assumptions may be established by means of the following two propositions which may be given in order after I. -21. The perpendicular is the shortest straig?it line which can he draicn from a given point to a given straight line ; and of others that lohich is nearer to the perpendicular is less than the more remote, and the converse; and not more than two equal straight lines can be drawn from the given j)oint to the given straight line, one on each side of the perpendicular.

DFB

Every
hose

straight line

drawn from

the vertex

is less

than the greater of the two

sides, or

of a triangle to the than either of them

if they he equal. The following proposition

is analogous to III. 7 and III. 8. on the circumference of a circle, of all the straight lines which can he drawn from it to the circumference, the greatest is that in which the centre is ; and of any others, that which is nearer to the straight line xchich passes through the centre is always greater than one more remote; and from the same point there can he drawn to the circumference two straight lines, and

Jf any point

he taken

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
only Uco, which are equal
greatest line.
to

273

one another, one on each side of the
this

The
;

first

two parts of

proposition

are contained in

three parts might be demonstrated in the manner of III. 15 III. 7, and they should be demonstrated, for the third part is really required, as we shall see in the note on III. lo.
all

III. 9.

anole

ADC.
DB,

than

is or ing the proposition.

DA

E might be supposed to fall icitldn the is greater cannot then be shewn that greater than DA, but only that either DC and this however is sufficient for establishless than
The point
It

DC

DB

DB

;

Euclid has given two demonstrations of III. 9, of which Simson has chosen the second. Euclid's other demonstration is with the middle point of the straight line Join as follows. A B then it may be shewn that this straight line is at right and therefore the centre of the circle must lie in angles to .4 i? In the same manner it this straight line, by III. i, Corollary.

D

;

;

may

be shewn that the centre of the circle must lie in the with the middle point of the straight which joins The centre of the circle must therefore be at D, line BC. because two straight lines cannot have more than one common
straiizht line

D

point.

III. 10. Euclid has given two demonstrations of III. 10, of which Simson has chosen the second. Euclid's first demonstraHe shews that tion resembles his first demonstration of III. 9. the centre of each circle is on the straight line which joins with the middle point of the straight line BO, and also on the with the middle point of the straight straight line which joins

K

Une BII

;

therefore

K K must be the centre of

each

circle.

The demonstration which Simson has chosen requires some might be supFor the point additions to make it complete.

K

posed to
within it;

fall

the last.

without the circle DBF, or on its circumference, or and of these three suppositions Euclid only considers be supposed to fall without tlie circle If the point

K

DBF
DEF

which is absurd. If obtain a contradiction of III. 8 be supposed to fall on the circumference of the circU* the point we obtain a contradiction of the proposition which we have enunciated at the end of the note on III. 7 and III. S ;

we

;

K

which

is

absurd.
is

What
two

circles

demonstrated in III. 10 is that the circumferences of cannot have more than two common points there is 18
;

274

NOTES ON

nothing in the demonstration which assumes that the cu-cles cut one another, but the enunciation refers to this case only because it is shewn in III. 13 that if two circles touch one another,
their
point.

circumferences

cannot

have

more than one

common

The enunciations as given by Simson and III. II, III. \2. others speak of the point of contact it is however not shewn until III. 13 that there is only one point of contact. It should
;

be observed that the demonstration in III. 1 1 will hold even if be supposed to coincide, and that the demonstration and in III. 11 will hold even if C and D be supposed to coincide. may combine III. 11 and III. 12 in one enunciation thus. If two circles touch one another their circumferences cannot

D

^

We

have a common point out of the direction of the straight line ichich
joins the centres.

may be deduced from III. 7. For Gil is the least can be drawn from G to the circumference of the circle is less than GA, whose centre is F, by III. 7. Therefore Similarly III. i 2 may that is, less than GD which is absurd.
III. II
line that

GH

;

be deduced from III.
III. 13.

8.

Simson observes,

"As

it is

much

easier to imagine

touch one another within in more points one, upon the same side, than upon opposite sides, the than but the figure of that case ought not to have been omitted construction in the Greek text would not have suited with this figure so well, because the centres of the circles must have been placed near to the circumferences; on which account another construction and demonstration is given, which is the same with
that

two

circles

may

;

the second part of that which Campanus has translated from the Arabic, where, without any reason, the demonstration is divided into two parts." It would not be obvious from this note which figure Simson himself supplied, because it is uncertain what he means by the

side" and "opposite sides." It is the left-hand figure Euclid, however, set-ms in the first part of the demonsti-ation. to be quite correct in omitting this figure, because he has shewn in III. 1 1 that if two circles touch internally there cannot be a point of contact out of the direction of the straight line which Thus, in order to shew that there is only one joins the centres. point of contact, it is sufficient to put the second supposed point

"same

of contact

ou the direction

of the straight line

which joins the

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
centres.

275

lines liimself to the

own demonstration Euclid conright-hand figure and he shews that this case cannot exist, because the straight line would be a
Accordingly in his
;

BD

at two which is absurd. Euclid might have used a similar method for the second part of the proposition for as there cannot be a point of contact out

diameter of both
clifFerent points;

circles,

and would therefore be bisected

;

of the straight line joining the centres,

it is

obviously impossible

that there can be a second pctint of contact
toucli externally.

when the circles easy to see this but Euclid preferred a method in which there is moie formal reasoning. We may observe that Euclid's mode of dealing with the
It
is
;

contact of circles has often been censured by conimeutators, but

apparently not always with good reason. For example, Walker gives another demonstration of III. 13; and says that EucUd's is worth nothing, and that Simson fails for it is not proved that two circles which touch cannot have any arc common to both circumferences. But it is shewn in III. lo that this is impos;

sible Walker appears to have supposed that III. lo is limited to the case of circles which cat. See the note on III. 10. III. 17. It is obvious from the construction in III. 17 that tiL'o straight lines ^an be drawn from a given external point to
;

touch a given circle and these two straight lines are equal in length and equally inclined to the straight line which joins the given external point with the centre of the given circle. After l-eading III. 31 the student will see that the problem in III. 17 may be solved in another way, as follows: describe a circle on AE as diameter; then the points of intersection of this circle with the given circle will be tlie points of contact of the two straight lines which can be drawn from ..l to tuuch the given
;

circle.

III.
to
is

iS.

It

does

not appear that HI.
in 111. i6.

18 adds anything

what we have already obtained

For

in 111. 16

it

shewn, that there is only one straight line which touches a given circle at a given point, and that the angle between this straight line and the radius drawn to the point of contact is a
right angle.

There are two assumptions in the demonstration of Suppose that -1 is double of B and C «louble of I>\ then in the first part it is assumed that the sum of A and C id double of the suni of B and i>, and in the second part it is as111. 20.
10.

HI.

16—2

276

NOTES ON

sumed that the difference of A and C is double of the difference of B and D. The fomier assumption ia a particular case of V. i, and the latter is a particular case of V. 5. An important extension may be given to III. ^o by introducing angles greater than two right angles. For, in the first figure, suppose we draw the straight lines BF and CF. Then, the angle BEA is double of the angle BFA, and the angle CEA is double of the angle CFA therefore the sum of the angles BEA and CEA is double of the angle BFC. The sum of the angles BEA and CEA is greater than two right angles we will call the .sum, the re-entrant angle BEC. Thus the re-entrant angle BEC is double of the angle BFC. (See note on I. 3-2). If this extension be used some of the demonstrations in the third book maybe abbreviated. Thus III. 21 maybe demonstrated without making two cases III. 22 will follow immediately from
; ;
;

the fact that the sum of the angles at the centre is equal to four right angles; and III. 31 will follow immediately from III. 20.
III. 21.

In III. 21 Euclid himself has given only the

first

case;

the second case has been added by Simson and others. In either of the figures of III. 2 1 if a point be taken on the same
side of

BD as A

,

join this point to the extremities of

the angle contained by the straight lines which is greater or less than the

BD
is

angle

BAD,

according as the point

xcWdn or without the angle

BAD;

this follows

from

I.

21.

"We shall have occasion to refer to IV. 5 in some of the remaining notes to the third Book and the student is accordingly recommended to read that proposition at the present
;

stage.

The following proposition is very important. If any numlcr of triangles be constructed on the same base and on the same side of it, with equal vertical angles, the vertices will all lie on the cIt' cumference of a segment of a circle. For take any one of these triangles, and describe a circle round it, by IV. 5 then the vertex of any other of the triangles must be on the circumference of the segment containing the assumed vertex, since, by the former part of this note, the vertex cannot be without the circle or within the circle. The converse of III. 22 is true and very imIII. 22. namely, if two opposite angles of a quadrilateral be portant together equal to two right angles, a circle may be circumscribed about the quadrilateral. For, let A BCD denote the quadrila; ;

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
teral.

277
5.
oflF

Describe a circle round the triangle

A BC, by IV.

Take any point F, on the circumference by A C, and on the same side of J C as
at

of the st^gm&iit cut

D

is.

Then, the angles
-22
;

B

and

F

are together equal to two right angles, by III.

and the angles at B and D are together equal to two right angles, by hypothesis. Therefore the angle at E is equal to the angle at D. Therefore, by the preceding note D is on the circumference of the same segment as L\ III. 32. Tlie converse of III. 32 is true and important; namely, if a strai(/ht line meet a circle, and from the jyoint of
meeting a straight line be draxcii cutting ike circle, and the angle between the tico straight lines be equal to the angle in the alternate segment of the circle, the straight line ichich meets the circle shall
touch the
circle.

For, if possible, supThis may be demonstrated indirectly. pose that the straight line which meets the circle does not touch Draw through the point of meeting a straight line to touch it. the circle. Then, by III. 32 and the hypothesis, it will follow that two different straight lines pass through the same point, and make the same angle, on the same side, with a third straight line which also passes through that point ; but this is impossible.

III. 35, III. 36.

The following

proposition constitutes a

large part of the demonstrations of III. 35 and III. 36. // any point be taken in the base, or the base produced, of an isosceles
tinangle, the

rectangle contained by the segments of the base

is

equal

the difference of the square on the straight line joining this point to the vertex and the square on the side of the triangle.
to

demonstrated by Euclid, without if it were enunciated and demonstrated before III. 35 and III. 36 the demonstrations of these two propositions might be shortened and simplified. The following converse of III. 35 and tlie Corollary of III. 36 may be noticed. If two straight lines AB, CD intersect at 0, and
This proposition
is

in fact

using any property of the circle

;

the rectangle

AO,

OB be

equal

to the

rectangle

CO, OD,

the circum-

ference of a circle vAll pass through the four points A, B, C, D. For a circle may be described round the triangle ABC, by IV. 5 and then it may be sliewn indirectly, by the aid of
;

III. 35 or the Corollary of III. 36 that the circumference of this circle will also pass through Z>.

;

278

NOTES OY
THE FOURTH BOOK.

The
The

fourth

Book

of the Elements consists entirely of problems.
;

AB

any kind the remaining propositions relate to polygons which have all tht-ir polygon w hich has all its sides equal and all their angles equal. sides equal and all its angles equal is called a regular polygon. IV. 4. By a process similar to that in IV. 4 we can describe a circle which shall touch one side of a triangle and the other two sides produced. Suppose, for example, that we wish to describe a circle which shall touch the side BC, and the sides produced and AC produced: bisect the angle between and BC, and bisect the angle between AC produced and BC then the point at which the bisecting straight lines meet will be the The demonstration will be .similar centre of the required circle.
first five

propositions I'elate to triangles of

A

AB

to that in

A
two

circle

sides

IV. 4. which touches one produced, is called an

side of a triangle

and the other

escribed circle of the triangle.

can also describe a triangle equiangular to a given trisuch that one of its sides and the other two sides produced shall touch a given circle. For, in the figure of IV. 3 suppose produced to meet the circle again and at the point of intersection draw a straight line touching the circle; this straight line with parts of and NC, Avill form a tiiangle, which will be eq\iiangular to the triangle MLN, and therefore equiangular to
angle, and

We

AK

;

XB

the triangle EDF; and one of the sides of this triangle, and the other two sides produced, will touch the given circle. IV. 5. Simson introduced into the demonstration of IV. 5 It has also will meet. and the part which shews that been proposed to shew this in the following way: join DE; then

DP

EF

the angles

ADF

EDF and DEF are together less than the angles and AEF, that is, they are together less than two right angles; and therefore Z)F and EF will meet, by Axiom 12. This assumes that ADE and A ED are acute angles it may however be easily shewn that DE is parallel to BC, so that the triangle A DE is equiangular to the triangle ABC and we must therefore select the two sides AB and AC such that ABC and
; ;

A CB may
IV.

be acute angles.

10.

The

vertical angle

easily seen to be the fifth part of

of the triangle in IV. 10 two right angles ; and as

is

it

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
may
be Ms^cted,

27D

we can thus

divido a right angle geometrically

uito tive equal parts.

It follows from what is given in the fourth Book of the Elements that the circumference of a circle can be divided into and also into 4, 8, 16, 32, .... 3, 6, 12, 24, .... ecjual parts equal parts and also into 5, 10, 20, 40, .... equal parts; and
; ;

also into

15,

30, 60,

120,

regular polygons having as

many

may

be inscribed in a

circle,

equal parts. Hence also any of these nmnbers or described about a circle. Tliis
sides as

however does not enable us
assigned

to describe a regular

polygon of any

know how to describe geometrically a regular polygon of 7 sides. It WHS first demonstrated by Gauss in iSor, in his Disquinumber of
sides
;

for example,

we do

not

that it is possible to describe geometrically a regular polygon of 2"+ i sides, provided 2"+ i be a prime number the demonstration is not of an elementary character. Aa an example, it follows that a regular polygon of 17 sides can be
sitioncs Arithmcticce,
;

described geometrically

this example is discussed in Catalan's Theorcmes ct Prohlemcs cle Geometric Elemcntaire. For an approximate construction of a regular heptagon see the Philosophical Magazine for February and for April, 1864.
;

THE FIFTH BOOK.
The fifth Book of the Elements is on Proportion. Much has been written respecting Euclid's treatment of this subject; besides the Commentaries on the Elements to which we have already referred, the student may consult the articles Ratio and Proportion in the English Cijdopa;dia, and the tract on the Connexion of Number and Magnitude by Professor De Morgan. The fifth Book relates not merely to length and space, but to any kind of magnitude of which we can form multiples. V. Dcf. r. The word part is used in two senses in Geometry. Sometimes the word denotes any magnitude which is less than another of the same kind, as in the axiom, the u-hole is greater than its part. In this sense the word has been used up to tho present point, but in the fifth Book Euclid confines the word to a more restricted sense. This restricted senee agrees with that which is given in Arithmetic and Algebra to the term aliquot partf or to the term submultipU,

280
V. Def.
3.

NOTES ON
SImson considers that the definitions 3 and 8 are added by some unskilful editor." Other comhave rejected these definitions as useless. The
third definition should be
quantxiplicity,

*'not Euclid's, but

inentators also
last

word of the

not

quantity ; so that the definition indicates that ratio refers to the

number of times which one magnitude contains another. See De Morgan's Differential and Integral Calculus, page iS. V. Def. 4. This definition amounts to saying that the quantities must be of the same kind. V. Def. 5. The fifth definition is the foundation of Euclid's The student will find in works on Algedoctrine of proportion.
bra a comparison of Euclid's definition of proportion with the simpler definitions which are employed in Arithmetic and Algebra. Euclid's definition is applicable to incommensurable quantities, as
well as to commensurable quantities. should recommend the student to read the

We

first

propo-

sition of the sixth

Book immediately

after the fifth definition of

the fifth
nition,

Book

;

he will there see

how Euclid

applies his defi-

and

will thus obtain a betternotion of its

meaning and im-

portance.

Compound
tion of

Ratio.

supplied by Simson.

The definition of compound ratio was The Greek text does not give any definiSimson
rejects as absurd

compound

ratio here, but gives one as the fifth definition

of the sixth Book, which

and

useless.

The definitions 18, 19, 20 are not preDefs. 18, 19, 20. The sented by Simson precisely as they stand in the original.
V.
last sentence in definition 18

was supplied by Simson.

Euclid

does not connect definitions 19 and 20 with definition 18. In 19 he defines ordinate proportion, and in 10 he defines pcrturhate
proportion.

Nothing would be lost if Euclid's definition 18 were and the term ex oEfj'ifa^i never employed. Euclid employs such a term in the enunciations of V. 20, 11, 12, 23; but it seems quite useless, and is accordingly neglected by Simson and others in their translations. The axioms given after the definitions of the fifth Book are npt in Euclid ; they were supplied by Simson.
entirely omitted,

The

propositions of the fifth

Book

miglit be divided into four

sections.

Propositions

i

to 6 relate to the properties of equi-

Propositions 7 to 10 and 13 and 14 connect the notion of the ratio of magnitudes with the ordinary notions of
multiples.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
ffreata'y

281

equal, and less. Propositions i r, i?, 15 and 16 may be considered as introduced to shew that, if four quantities of the sa7nc kiyid be j>roportionals they will also be proportionals when taken alternately. The remaining propositions shew that magnitudes are proportional by composition, by division, and ex cequo.

In this division of the fifth Book propositions 13 and 14 are supposed to be placed immediately after proposition 10; and they might be taken in this order without any change in Euclid's
demonstrations.

The
Simson.

propositions headed A, B, C, D,

E

were supplied by

V. I, 1, 3, 5, 6. These are simple propositions of Arithmetic, though they are here expressed in terms which make them appear less familiar than they really are. For example, V. i "states no more than that ten acres and ten roods make ten times as much as one acre and one rood." Dc Morgan. In V. 5 Simson has substituted another construction for that given by Euclid, because Euclid's construction assumes that we can divide a given straight line into any assigned number of equal parts, and this problem is not solved until VI. 9. V.
Let
be to
For,
18.

This demonstration

is

Simson's.

We will
shall

give here

Euclid's demonstration.

AE he to EB as CF \h io FD: AB BE as CD is to DF. if not, .4 B will be to BE as CD is to
less

^

some
is

magnitude

than DF, or greater than First, suppose that AB is to BE as
is

DF.

CD

to

DG, which
therefore

less

than

DF.
is
1

AB is to BE as CD is to DG, AE is to EB as CG to GD. [V. 7. But AE is to EB as CF to FD, [Hypothesis. therefore CG is to GD as CF is to FD. [V.
Then, because
is
1 r.

q
[V.

j.

But
But
as

CG

is

greater than
is

CF; FD.
is
;

[Hypothesis.
1

therefore

GD

greater than

4.

GD is

less

than

FD

which

impossible.

CD

In the same manner it may be shewn that is to a magnitude greater than DF,

AB

is

not to

BE

Therefore

J5

is

to

BE as CD

is

to

DF.

by Simson against Euclid's demonstration is that "it depends upon this hypothesis, that to any three magnitudes, two of which, at least, are of the same kind, there
objection urged

The

282
may

NOTES ON
be a fourtli proportional Euclid does not d.-^mnnit, nor does he sliew how to find the fourth proportional,
:

strate

before the 12th Proposition of the 6th

Book

"

The following dexnonstration
nation of the first Let be to

given by Austin in his Examisix bools of Euclid's Elements.
is

AE EB as CF ia BE as CD is to DF. For, because AE is to EB therefore, alternately, AE ia
be to
to

to

FD AB
:

shall

A
as
to

CF CF

is

to

FD,
is

as

EB

C

FD.

[V. 16.

And

as one of the antecedents is to its consequent so is the sum of the antecedents to the sum of the consequents [V. 12.
;

EB is to FD so are A E and EB together to CF and FD together, that is, ^5 is to CD as EB is to FD. Therefore, alternately, AB is to EB as CD is to FD.
th«refore
as

J3

D
[V. 16.
refer-

V.
is

25.

The

first

step in the demonstration of this proposition

ence

"take AG equal to E and is sometimes given to
I. 3

CH
I.

equal to F''
3,

;

and here a

But the magnitudes
lines,
it

in the

proposition are not necessarily straight

so that this refer-

ence to
that

should not be given
is

;

must however be assumed

similar to that which

considered, an operation performed on straight lines in I. 3. Since the fifth Book of the Elements treats of magnitudes generally, and not merely of lengths, areas, and angles, there is no reference made in it to any proposition of the first four Books. Simson adds four propositions relating to compound ratio, which he distinguishes by the letters F, 0, II, it seems however unnecessary to reproduce them as they are now rarely read and never required.

we can perform on the magnitudes

K

;

THE SIXTH BOOK.
The sixth Book of the Elements consists of the application of the theory of proportion to establish properties of geometrical
figures.

For an important remark bearing on the first on VI. 5. VI. Def. 1. The second definition is useless, for Euclid makes no mention of reciprocal figures.
VI. Def.
t.

definition, see the note

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

283

VI. Dcf. 4. The fourth definition is strictly only applicable to a triangle, because no other figure has a point which can be

The altitude of a parallelogram is exckisively called its vertex. the perpendicular drawn to the base from any point in the opposite side.

VI.

2.

to objection, for the
sufficiently limited.

The enunciation of this important proposition is open manner in which the sides may be cut is not

is double of Suppose, for example, that double of EA the sides are then cut proportionally, for each side is divided into two parts, one of which is double of It should therefore is not parallel to £0. the other; but be stated in the enunciation that the segments terminated at the vertex of the triangle are to be homologous terms in the ratios, that

AD

DB, and CE

;

DE

is,

are

to be

the antecedents or the consequents of the ratios.

It will be obser\^ed that there are three figures corresponding

to three cases
rallel to

which

may

exist

;

for the straight line

drawn pa-

one side may cut the other sides, or may cut the other sides when they are produced through the extremities of the base, or may cut the other sides when they are produced through the vertex. In all these cases the triangles which are shewn to be equal have their vertices at the extremities of the base of the given triangle, and have for their common base the straight line which is, either by hypothesis or by demonstration, parallel to
the base of the triangle.
triangles are
its

The triangle \\dth which these two compared has the same base as they have, and has

vertex coinciding with the vertex of the given triangle. VI. A. This proposition was supplied by Simson.

VI. 4. "We have preferred to adopt the term "triangles which are equiangular to one another," instead of "equiangular triangles," when the words are used in the sense they bear in tliis proposition. Euclid himself does not use the term cqiiiau' gnlar triangle in the sense in which the modem editors use it in the Corollary to I. 5, so that he is not prevented from using the term in the sense it bears in the enunciation of VI. 4 and elsewhere but modern editors, having already employed the term in one sense ought to keep to that sense. In the demonstrations, where Euclid uses such language as "the triangle ABC is equiangular to the triangle DEF,'^ the modern editors sometimes adopt it, and sometimes change it to "the triangles ABC and
;

DE F

are equiangular."
in

In VI. 4 the manner

which the two triangles are

to be

284
placed
is

NOTES ON
straight line
their bases are to be in the very imperfectly described and contiguous, their vertices are to be on the side of the base, and each of the two angles which have a
;

same same

common
triangle.

vertex

is

to be equal to the

remote angle of the other

By
VI.
2.

superposition

we might deduce VI. 4 immediately from

VI.

5,

The hypothesis
;

rectly asserted

in VI. 5 involves more than is dithe enunciation shovdd be, "if the sides of two

;" about each of their angles words takxn in order It is quite possible that there should be should be introduced. two triangles ABO, DEF, such that AB is to i?C as DE is to EF, and BC to CA as DF is to ED, and therefore, by V. 23,

triangles, tahen in order,
is,

that

some

restriction equivalent to the

AB

io

AC

Si^

DF is to EF

]

in this case the sides of the triangles

about each of their angles are proportionals, but not in the same order, and the triangles are not necessarily equiangular to one another. For a numerical illustration we may suppose the sides of one triangle to be 3, 4 and 5 feet respectively, and those of ^yall:er. another to be 12, 15 and 20 feet respectively, Each of the two propositions VI. 4 and VI. 5 is the converse They shew that if two triangles have either of the of the other. two properties involved in the definition of similar figures they This is a special property of triangles. will have the other also.

In other

figures either of the properties

may

exist alone.

For

example, any rectangle and a square have their angles equal, but not their sides proportional while a square and any rhombus have their sides proportional, but not their angles equal. VI. 7. In VI. 7 the enunciation is imperfect it should be, " if two triangles have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, and the sides about two other angles proportionals, so thai the sides suhtending the equal angles are homologous ; then if " each The imperfection is of the same nature as that Wallccr. wliich is pointed out in the note on VI. 5. The proposition might be conveniently broken up and the essential part of it presented thus if two triangles have two sides of the one proportional to two sides of the other, and the angles opposite to one peiir of homologous sides equal, the angles which are opposite to the other pair of homologous sides shaU either be equal,
;

;

:

or he together equal

to two right angles. For, the angles included by the proportional sides must be

6'

'

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
either equal or unequal.

285

If they are equal, then since the triangles have two angles of the one equal to two angles of the other, each to each, tliey are equiangular to one another. have therefore only to consider the case in which the angles in-

We

cluded by the proportional sides are unequal. have the angle at ^ equal to Let the triangles ABC, as DE is to EF, but the angle the angle at D, and A B to ABC wot equal to the angle DEF: tlie angles id CjB and !>/'£'

DEF BC

shall be together equal to

two right angles.

For, one of the angles

A BC,
the

DEF

must be greater than
;

the other
greater
;

suppose

A BC

and make the angle

ABG equal to the angle DEF.
Then
VI.
be shewn, as in is equal to BC, and the angle BGA equal to the angle EFD. Therefore the angles ACB and DFE are together equal to the angles BGC and A GB, that is, to two right angles.
it
7,

may

that

BG

if

the results enunciated in VI. 7 will readily follow. For A CB and are both greater than a right angle, or both less than a right angle, or if one of them be a right the angles

Then

DFE

angle, they

VI.
it
is

must be equal. In the demonstration of VI, 8, as given by Simson, inferred that two triangles which are similar to a third
8.
is

triangle are shuilar to each other; this

VI.

21,

which the student should consult,
9.

a particular case of in order to see the

validity of the inference.

VI.
the
first

The word

'part is

definition of the fifth

here used in the restricted sense of Book. VI. 9 is a p.articular case

of VI. 10.

VI. 10. The most important case of this proposition is that which a straight line is to be divided either internally or externally into two parts which shall be in a given ratio. Tlie case in which the straight line is to be divided infernally is given in the text suppose, for example, that the given ratio is
in
;

is divided at G in the given ratio. Suppose, however, that is to be divided externally in a given ratio ; that is, suppose that is to be produced so that the whole straight line made up of A B and the part produced may be to the part produced in a given ratio. Let the given ratio

that of

AE to

EC; then

AB AB

AB

;

.

283
be that of
parallel io

NOTES ON
^C to
EB]
CE. Join EB\ through C draw a straight line then this straight line will meet ^ fi, produced

c

/6,

through B, at the required point. VI, I r. This is a particular case of VI. 12. VI. 14. The following is a full exhibition of the steps which If ad to the result that FB and BQ are in one straight line.

The angle
add

DBF is

equal to the angle

GBE;

[Hypothesis.

to each the angle

therefore the augles

FBE DBF, FBE

are together equal to the angles

GBE, FBE. But the angles DBF,
angles;
therefore the angles

FBE

are

together equal to

[Axiom 2. two right
[T.

13.

GBE,

FBE

are together equal to

angles;
therefore

two right [Axiom i.

and BG are in one straight line. [I. 14. This may be inferred from VI. 14, since a triangle is half of a parallelogram with the same base and altitude. It is not difficult to establish a third proposition conversely connected with the two involved in VI. 14, and a third proposition similarly conversely connected with the two involved in VI. 15. These propositions are the following. Equal parallelograms which have their sides reciprocally pro-

FB

VI.

15.

portional, have their an[/les equal, each to each.

Equal
to

trianrjlcs

which have

the sides about

a pair of angles

reciprocally proportional, have those angles equal or together equal

two right angles.

We will take the latter proposition. ADE be equal triangles; and lot CA be to AD as AE is to AB: either the angle BAC shall be equal to the angle DAE, or the angles BAC and DAE shall be together equal
Let ABC,
to

two

ri''ht angles.

[The student can construct the figure for himself.] may be in one straight Place the triangles so that CA and then if EA and A B i\xe in one straight line the angle BA C line

AD

;

is

If

A

equal to the angle DAE. are not in one straight EA and to F, so that may be equal to

[I. 15.

AB

line,
;

produce

BA

through

AF
io

Then because CA is to and AFis equal to AE,
therefore

j4Z) as

AE join DF and EF. AE is to AB, [Hypothesis.
[Construction.
1 1

[V. 9, V. AD as A F to A B. Therefore the triangle DAF is equal to the triangle BA C. [VI.

CA

is

is

15.

.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
But
tlie

2S7

triangle

DAE

is

"J'herefin-e

the triangle D-d ii'

equal to the triangle BA C. [Ili/pothesis. is equal to the triangle T^^l /'. [.lac. i.

Tlitreforo

£F is

parallel to

AD.

[I.

39.

Suppose now that the angle

DAE

is

greater than the an^le

DAF.
Then the angle

CAE is

and therefore the angle and therefore the angle
Therefore the angles
right angles.

BAC

equal to the angle AEF, [1. 29. CAE is equal to the angle AFE, [I. 5. [I. 29. C^-lA'is equal to the angle BAC. are together equal to two and

DAE

may be demonstrated if the angle than the angle DAF". VI. 16. This is a particular case of YI. 14. YI. 17. This is a particular case of YI. 16. YI. 22. There is a step in the second part of YI, 22 which After it has been shewn that the figure requires examination. SR is equal to the similar and similarly situated figure Nil, it In the Greek text is added "therefore PR is equal to Gil.'''' reference is here made to a lemma which follows the proposition. The word lemma is occasionally used in mathematics to denote an auxiliary proposition. From the unusual circumstance of a reference to something following, Simson pi-obably concluded that the lemma could not be Euclid's, and accordingly he takes uo notice of it. The following is the substance of the lemma. If PR be not equal to GIT, one of them must be greater than the other; suppose PR greater than Gil. Then, because SR and NJJ are similar figures, PR is to PS
Similarly the proposition
is less

DAE

as

G/l 'm to GX. Hut PR is greater than Gil,

[\'I. Dcfinit'um

r.

{Hypothesis.

therefore

PS

is

greater than
triangle

GN.
is

[Y.
greater

14.

Therefore

the

RPS

than

the

triangle'

IIGX.

[I. 4,

Axiom

9.

But, because SR and XII are similar figures, the triangle RPS '\4 equal to the triangle IIGX; iY^' "^O-

which

is

imp
23.

issible.
is

Therefore

PR

equal to

GH.

YI.

In the figure of YI. 23 suppose

BD

and

G^J?

drawn.

Then gram

the triangle

BCD

is

to the triangle

GCE

as

tlie

parallelo-

AC is to the parallelogram CF. Hence the result may bo extended to triangles, and wo have the following theorem.

2^88

NOTES ON

other,

tHangles which have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the have to one another the ratio which is compounded of tlie

ratios of their sides.

Then VI. 19 is an immediate consequence of this theorem. For let ABC and DEF be similar triangles, so that AB is to BC as DE is to EF; and therefore, alternately, AB is to DE as BO is to EF. Then, by the theorem, the triangle ABC has to the triangle DEF the ratio which is compounded of the ratios of AB to DE and of BC to EF, that is, the ratio which is compounded of the ratios of BC to EF and of BC to EF. And, from the definitions of duplicate ratio and of compound ratio, it follows that the ratio compounded of the ratios of BC to EF and of BC to EF is the duplicate ratio of BC to EF.
VI. -25. It will be easy for the student to exhibit in detail the process of shewing that and CF are in one straight Hne, and also LE and the process is exactly the same as that in

BC

EM

;

by which it is shewn that KII and IIM are in one straight and also FG and GL. It seems that VI. 25 is out of place, since it separates propositions so closely connected as VI. 24 and VI. 26. AVe may enunciate VI. 25 in familiar language thus: to make a figure
I. 45,

line,

which shall have the form of one figure and the size of anotho'. VI. 26. This proposition is the converse of VI. 24 it might be extended to the case of two similar and similarly situated parallelograms which have a pair of angles vertically
;

opposite.

have omitted in the sixth Book Propositions 27, 28, 29, first solution which Euclid gives of Proposition 30, as they appear now to be never required, and have been condemned as useless by various modern commentators; see Austin, Walker, and Lardner. Some idea of the nature of these propositions may be obtained from the following statement of the problem proposed by Euclid in VI. 29. -^^ is a given straight line; it has to be produced through jB to a point 0, and a parallelogram described on A subject to the following conditions the parallelogram is to be equal to a given rectilineal figure, and the parallelogram on the base BO which can be cut off by a straight line through B is to be similar to a given parallelogram.

We

and the

;

VI.

32.

enunciation

is

This proposition seems of no use. Moreover the imperfect. For suppose to be produced

ED

;

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.

289
;

through i) to a point F, such that is equal to DE and join OF. Then the triangle CDF will satisfy all the conditions in Euclid's enunciation, as well as the triangle CDE but CF and Cli are not in one straight line. It should be stated that the bases must lie on corresponding sides of both the parallels the bases CF and BC do not lie on corresponding sides of the parallels AB and DC, and so the triangle CDF would not fulfil all the conditions, and would therefore be excluded. VI. ^J,. In VI. 33 Euclid implicitly gives up the restriction, which he seems to have adopted hitherto, that no angle is to be considered greater than two right angles. For in the demonstration the angle BGL may be any multiple whatever of the angle BGC, and so may be greater than any number of right
;

DF

angles.

VI.
Simson.

B,
of

C,

D.

These propositions

were

The important proposition VI.
Ptolemy.

D occurs

introduced by in the Me^ctXi;

Swra^is

THE ELEVENTH BOOK.
In addition
to

to the first six

read part

of

Books of the Elements it is usual the eleventh Book. For an account of the
Books of the Elements the student
in
is

contents of the other

referred to the article Euchides

Dr

Smith's Dictionary of

Greek and
tities

Roman

Biograjthy,

and

to the article Irrational

Quan-

in the Enr/lish Cydopa'dia.

We

may

state

briefly that

Books VII, VIII, IX treat on Arithmetic, Book on Irraand Books XI, XII on Solid Geometry. XI. Def. lo. This definition is omitted by Simson, and justly, because, as he shews, it is not true that solid figures contained by the same number of similar and equal plane figures For, conceive two pyramids, which are equal to one another. have their bases similar and equal, but have different altitudes. Suppose one of these bases applied exactly on the other; then if the vertices be put on opposite sides of the base a certain solid is forired, and if the vertices be put on the same side of the base another solid is formed. The two solids thus formed are cont;uned by the same number of similar and equal plane figures,
tional Quantities,

X

but they are not equal. It will be observed that in this example one of the solids has a re-entrant solid angle ^ see page 264. It is however true that
19

290
two convex

NOTES ON

solid figures are equal if they are contained by equal plane figures similarly arranged; see Catalan's Theorcmes et Prohlemes de Geometric Elementairc. This result was first demonstrated by Cauchy, who turned his attention to the point at the request of Legendre and Malus; see the Journal de VEcole Poll/technique, Cahier i6. XI, Dcf. 26. The word tetrahedron is now often used to denote a solid bounded by any four triangular faces, that is, a pyramid on a triangular base and when the tetrahedron is to be such as Euclid defines, it is called a regular tetrahedron. Two other definitions may conveniently be added. straight line is said to be parallel to a plane when they do not meet if produced. The angle made by two straight lines which do not meet is the angle contained by two straight lines parallel to them, drawn through any point.
;

A

11. In XI. 21 the first case only is given in the oriIn the second case a certain condition must be introduced, or the proposition will not be true the polygon BCDEP must have no re-entrant z,ng\Q. See note on I. 32. The propositions in Euclid on Solid Geometry which are now not read, contain some very important results respecting the volumes of solids. We will state these results, as they are ginal.
;

XI.

of use; the demonstrations of them are now usually given as examples of the Integral Calculus. We have already explained in the notes to the second Book how the area of a figure is measured by the number of square inches or square feet which it contains. In a similar manner the volume of a solid is measured by the number of cubic inches or cubic feet which it contains ; a cubic inch is a cube in which each of the faces is a square inch, and a cubic foot is similarly

often

defined.
is found by multiplying the number base by the number of inches in its altitude ; the volume is thus expressed in cubic inches. Or we may multiply the number of square feet in the base by the number of feet in the altitude the volume is thus expressed in cubic feet. By the base of a prism is meant either of the two

The volume

of a prism
its

of square inches in

;

equal, similar,

and

parallel fgures of
is

XI.

Definition 13;

and the

altitude of the prism

the perpendicular distance between these

two planes.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS.
The
vol lime.

291

rule for the
eqtial bases

prisms on

volume of a prism involves the fact that and between the satne parallels arc equal m

parallelepiped is a particular case of a prism. The volume pyramid is one third of the volume of a prism on the same base and having the same altitude. For an account of what are called the ^fire regular solids the student is referred to the chaj^ter on Polyhedrons in the Treatise on Spherical Trigonometry.
of a

A

THE TWELFTH BOOK.
Two
tions.

propositions are given from the twelfth Booh, as they

are very important, and are required in the University

Examina-

The Lemma

is

the

first

proposition of the tenth Book,

and

is

required in the demonstration of the second proposition of

the twelfth Book.

1U--2

APPENDIX
This Appendix consists of a collection of important propositions which will be found useful, both as affording

geometrical exercises, and as exhibiting results which are
often required in mathematical investigations.
will

The student

have no

diflBculty in

drawing

for himself the requisite

figures in the cases

where they are not given.

sum of the squares on the sides of a triangU twice the square on Jialfthe base, together icith ticice tJie square on the straight line which joins the certejs to the miihlle point of the base.
1.

Tlie
to

is

equal

Let

ABC be a
AB.

triangle;

and

of the base

Draw

CE

let be the middle point perpendicular to the base

D

B
meeting
it

A
E
may be

B

A

B

E

at -C; then

cither in

AB

or in

AB

produced.
First, let

E

coincide with
I.

D

;

then the proposition

follows immediately from

47.
;

let E not coincide with D then of the two ADC and BDC, one must be obtuse and one acute. Suppose the angle A7JC obtuse. Then, by II. 12, tho square on AC equal to the squares on AD, DC, together with twice the rectangle ylD, DE; and, by II. tho square on BC together with twice the rectangle* DE

Next,

angles

is

1.'},

/i/>>.

is

equal to the S(piares on BD, DC. Therefore, by Axiom 2, tiie squares on AC, BC, together with twice the rectani;lo BD, arc equal to the squares on A 1>, DB, and twice the Sfjuare on D(^, together with twice the rectangle AD, DE. But is C(iii:d to ])Ii. Thorcfore the scinares on AC, di'Q equal to twice the squares on AD, DC.

DE

EC

AD

294

APPENDIX.

2. If tiro chords intersect iritJiui a circle^ the angle which they include is measured by half the sum of the in-

tercepted arcs.

Let the chords
join

AB

and

CD

of a circle intersect at

E\

AD.

The angle is equal to the angles ADE, and DAE, by that is, to the angles I. 32 standing on the arcs and BD. Thus the angle is equal to an angle at the circumference of the circle standing on the sum of the arcs and and is therefore equal to an angle at the centre of the circle standing on half the sum of these arcs.
;

A EC

AC

A EC

BD

AC

;

Similarly the angle and AD. of the arcs

CEB

is

measured by half the sum

CB

3. If tico cJioirls produced intersect without a circle, the angle which they include is measured hy half the difference of the intercepted arcs.

Let the chords
tersect at

AB
AD.

and

CD

of a circle, produced, in-

E\

join

Tlie angle

by
of

I.

32.

tlie

ADCia equal to the angles EAD and A ED, Thus the angle AEC is equal to the difference angles yli)C and ^yiZ>; that is, to an angle at tlie
circle

circumference of the

standing on an arc which

is

the

and is therefore cqunl to an and difference of angle at the centre of the circle standing on half the diflcrencc of these arcs.

AC

BD;

APPENDIX.
4.

295
shall

To draio a straight
circles.

line

which

touch two

gicen

Let

A

be the centre of
tlic less circle.

tlie gi-eater circle,

and

B

the

centre of

With centre A, and radius equal

a circle

to tiie difference of tlie radii of the given circles, describe from draw a straight line touching the circle ;

B

Join so described at G. and produce it to meet the circumference at D. Draw the radius parallel to A D, and on the same side oiAB\ and join DE. Then shall touch both circles.

AC

BE

BE

See

I.

33,

I.

29,

and

III. IG Corollary,

Since two straight lines can be drawn from to touch the described circle, two solutions can be obtained and the two straight lines which are tiuis drawn to touch the two given circles can be shewn to meet AB, produced through Bj at the same point. The construction is api)licable when each of the given circles is without the other, and also when they intersect.
;

B

When each of the given circles is without the other v/c can obtain two other solutions. For, describe a circle with A as a centre and radius equal to the sum of the radii of the given circles and continue as before, except tliat will now be on opposite sides of AH. and The two straight lines which arc thus drawn to touch the two given circles can be shewn to intersect at the same poiut.
;

AD

BE

AB

296
5.

APPENDIX,
To
is

describe a circle

which

shall j^dss through three
line.

given points not in the same straight
This
6.

solved in Euclid IV. 5.
describe a circle

To

which shall pass through two
line,

given points on the same side of a giveti straight touch that straight line.

and

and pro* Let A and B be the given points; join Make a duce it to meet the given straight line at 6' square equal to the rectangle CA, CB (II. 14), and on the

AB

equal to a side of this S(]uarc. given straight line take Describe a circle tlirough A, B, (5); this will be the circle required (III. 37).

CE

E

Since
solutions.

E can be taken on either

side of C, there are two

The construction ^lils if is parallel to the given straight line. In this case bisect at D, and draw at right angles to AB, meeting the given straight line at

AB

AB

DG
C

Then describe a

circle

through

yi,

B,

C.

To describe a circle which shall pass through a 7. given point and tcuch two given straight lines. Let A be the given point produce the given straight lines to meet at B, and join A 73. Through draw a straight line, bisecting that angle included by the given straight lines within which A lies and in this bisecting straight line take any point C. From 6' draw a perpendicular on one of the given straight lines, meeting it at i> with centre C, and radius CD, describe a circle, meeting AB, produced if necessary, at E. Join CE; and through A draAV a straiglit line parallel to CE, meeting BC, produced if
;

B

;

;

APPENDIX.

297

necessary, at F. The circle described from the centre F^ M'ith radius FA, will touch the given straight lines.

For,

as BC is to BF, CD is to FG as BG is to BF (VI. 4, V. 16). ThereTherefore fore CE is to FA as (7i> is to FG (V. 11). C^ is to CD as i^yi is to FG (V. 16). But CE is equal to CD therefore i^yl is equal to FG (V. J). If A is on the straight line BC we determine E as before then join ED, and draw a straight line through A parallel to ED meeting BD produced if necessary at G

BD,
and

meeting

draw a perpendicular from Then CE is it at G.

F on

the straight line

to

FA

;

;

;

straight line at right angles to BG, and the point of intersection of this straiglit line with BCy produced if necessary, is the rccpiircd centre.

from

G

draw a

As
radius

the circle described from the centre C, with the at two points, there arc two CD, will meet

AB

solutions.

A

is on one of the given straight lines, draw from If a straight line at right angles to this given straight line the ]>()int of intersection of this straight line with cither of the two straiglit lines which l>iseet the angles made by the given straight lines may be taken for the centre of the required circle.
;

A

If the two given straight lines are parallel, instead of drawing a straight line BC to bisect the angle between them, we must draw it parallel to them, and equidistant from them.

298
8.

APPENDIX.
7o
describe
lines,

a
not

circle

ichich shall

given straight
parallel.

more than two of

touch three ichich are

Proceed as in Euclid IV. 4. If the given straight lines form a triangle, four circles can be described, namely, one as in Euclid, and three others each touching one side of the triangle and the other two sides produced. If two of the given straight lines are parallel, two circles can be described, namely, one on each side of the third given
straight line.
9.

To

circle,

and touch a given

describe a circle ichich shall touch a given straight line at a given jyoint.

Let A be the given point in the given straight Hne, and C be the centre of the given circle. Tiirough C draw
a straight line perpendicuhxr to the given straight
line,

and meeting the circumference of the circle at B and D, of which JJ is the more remote from the given straight
line. Join AD^ meeting the circumference of the circle at E. From A draw a straight line at right angles to the given straiglit Hne, meeting CE produced at F. Then 7'^ shall be the centre of the required circle, and FA its radius.

AEF equal to the angle CED 15); EAF eciual to the angle CDE 29); therefore the angle AEF equal to the angle EAF; therefore AF'i^ equal to EF
For the angle and the angle
is (I.

is

(I.

is

{I. 6).

APPENDIX.

299

In a similar manner another solution may be obtained by joining AB. If the given straight line falls without the given circle, the circle obtained by the first solution touches the given circle externally, and the circle obtained by the second solution touches the given circle internally. If the given straight line cuts the given circle, both the circles obtained touch the given circle externally.

To describe a curie ich'ich shall pass through tico 10. gieen points and touch a given circle.
Let A and B be the given pomts. Take any point G on the circumference of the given circle, and describe a If this described circle touches circle through A, B, C. the given cu-cle, it is the required circle. But if not, let

D

be tlic other point of intersection of the two circles. Let y/i^and CD be produced to meet at from draw a

B

-,

B

straight line touching

given circle at F. Then a circle described through A, B, shall be the rctiuired circle. See in. 33 and III. 37.
tlic

F

There arc two be drawn from B

solutions, because
to

two straight
circle.

lines

can

touch the given

If the straight line which bisects at riglit angles passes through the centre of the given circle, the construction fails, for nnd CD arc parallel. In this case must be determined l)y drawing a straight line parallel to so as to touch the given circle.

AB

F

AB

AB

300

APPENDIX.

11. To describe a circle which shall touch two giten straight lines and a given circle.

straight lines parallel to the given straight a distance from them equal to the radius of the given circle, and on the sides of them remote from the centre of the given circle. Describe a circle touching the straight lines thus drawn, and passing through the centre of the given circle (7). A circle having the same centre as the circle thus described, and a radius equal to the excess of its radius over that of the given circle, will bo the required cii'cle.
lines, at

Draw two

Two solutions will be obtained, because there arc two solutions of the problem in 7 the circles thus obtained
;

touch the given circle externally.
obtain two circles which touch the given circle by drawing the straight lines parallel to the given straight lines on the sides of them adjacent to the centre
internally,

We may

of the given circle.

12.

To

describe

a,

circle

which

given point
circle.

and touch a gicen

shall pass through a straight line and a given

will suppose the given point and the given straight line without the circle; other cases of the problem may be

We

treated in a ^similar manner.

be the given point, and J3 the centre of the From draw a perpendicular to tlie given straight line, meeting it at (', and meeting the circumand B, so that 7> is beference of the given circle at tween Jj and ('. Join EA and determine a point /^in EA^ ])roduced if necessary, such that the rectangle E^L, may be equal to the rectangle EC, this can be done by describing a circle through A, O, i>, which will meet EA at the required point (III. 36, Corollary). Describe a circle to pass tiu'ough A and and touch the given straight line (G); this shall bo the required circle.

Let

A

given

circle.

B

D

ED

EF

;

F

APPENDIX.
straiglit line at

301

For, let the circle thus described touch the given meeting the given circle at //, join

G

;

EG

and join DII. Then the triangles EITD similar; and therefore the rectangle EG,
the rectangle rectangle EA, therefore //

and

4, YI. \CA equal to the rectangle EH, and is on the circumference of the described Take the centre of the circle (III. 36, Corollari/). described circle join KG, KH, and BH. Then it may and are equal be shewn that the angles Therefore is a straight line (I. 29, I. 5). and therefore the described circle touches the given circle.

EG,

EF
;

EH (III. 31, VI.

ED

ECG
is

are equal to Thus the
;

is

EG

K

KHG KHB
;

EHB

;

Two solutions ^^^1I be obtained, because there are two solutions of the problem in G the circles thus described touch the given circle externally.
By joining instead of we can obtain two solutions in which the circles described touch the given circle internally.

DA

EA

302

APPENDIX.

To describe a circle winch shall touch a given 13. straight line and two given circles.
Let be the centre of the larger circle and the centre of the smaller circle. Draw a straight line parallel to the given straight line, at a distance from it equal to the radius of the smaller circle, and on the side of it remote from A. Describe a circle Avith as centre, and radius equal to the difference of the radii of the given circles. Describe a circle Avhich shall pass through B, touch externally the circle just described, and also touch the straight line "vvhieh has been diawn parallel to the given straight line (12). Then a circle having the same centre as the second described circle, and a radius equal to the excess of its radius over the radius of the smaller given circle, will be the required circle.

A

B

A

Two solutions will be obtained, because there are two solutions of the problem in 12 the circles thus described touch the given circles externally.
;

AVe may obtain in a similar manner circles which touch the given circles internally, and also circles which touch one of the given circles internally and the other externally.

14. Let A he the centre of a circle, and B the centre of a larger circle ; let a straight line he drawn touching

the

former

circle at

meeting

AB

C and the latter circle at D, and produced through A at T. From T draw

straight line meeting the smaller circle at and L, the larger circle at and ; so that the fre letters T, K, L, M, are in this order. Then the straight line^ AK, KC, CL, shall he respectively parallel to the straight lines BM, MD, DN, NB; and the rectangle TK, TN shall he equal to the rectangle TL, TM, and equal to the rectangle TC, TD.

any and

M

N

K

N

LA

Join AG,

BD.

Then the

triangles

TMCand TBD

are

APPENDIX.
equiangular
(VI.
4,
;

303
^(7
is

and

tlicrcforc
is,

V. IG), that

as

AK

TA
is

is

to 77? as

to

BD

to

BM.

^Z

are similar and Therefore tlie triangles is equal to the angle (VI. 7); therefore the angle Similarly is parallel to BM. and therefore \ is parallel to And because is parallel to BN. is equal parallel to BD, the angle and is equal and therefore the angle to the angle (III. 20); and therefore CL is parallel to the angle is parallel to DM. Similarly to DN.

TBM

AK

TAK TAK

TBM

BM

AG

AK

DBM DNM
is

CAK

\

CLK

CK
TD

(III. 37, VI. 16); (VI. 4); therefore TN; and therefore the rectangle is to Similarly the is equal to the rectangle TC, TD. TK, is equal to the rectangle TC, TD. rectangle TL,

Now

TM

to

and TM'\s

TN

TC

ri> as as 77> is to
to

TK

as Ti) is to

is

to

TN

TC

TK

TM

may suppose

If each of the given circles is without the other we the straight line which touches both circles and B, and the above results to meet at Thcticecn will all hold, provided we interchange the letters A' and ; so that the five letters arc now to be in the following order, L, K, T, M, N.

AB

A

L

The point Tis
circles.

called a centre

of similitude of the two

304

APPENDIX.
To describe a
circle

15.

which shall
circles.

2^ass

through a

given point

and touch two given

Let be the centre of the smaller circle and tlie centre of the larger circle ; and let be the given point.

A

E

B

Draw a straight line touching the former circle at C and the latter at Z>, and meeting the straight line AB, produced through A, at T. Join TE and divide it at so that the rectangle TE, may be equal to the rectangle TC, TD. Then describe a circle to pass through and and touch either of the given circles (10); this shall be the required circle.

TF

F

E

F

APPENDIX.
;

305

For suppose that the circle is described so as to touch the smaller given circle let G be the point of contact wo have then to shew tiiat the described circle will also touch the larger given circle. Join TG, and produce it to meet the larger given circle at H. Then the rectangle TG, 77/ is equal to the rectangle TC, therefore (14) the rectangle TG, Til is equal to the rectangle TE, TF\ and therefore the described circle passes through //.
;

TD

;

Let
line.

straight line

be the centre of this circle, so that OGxi is a wo have to shew that is a straight
;

OHD

AK

Let
is

TG

intersect the smaller circle again at A"

;

therefore the angle is equal to the angle and the angle A is equal to the angle AGK, which is equal to the angle OGH, which is equal to the angle OHG. Therefore the angles and together arc equal to and together; that is, to two right angles. Therefore is a straight
parallel to

BHG

BH{\4);
;

KG

AKT

then

OHG

AKT

OHB

AKG

BUG

line.

Two solutions will be obtained, because there are two solutions of the problem in 10. Also, if each of the given circles is without the other, two other solutions can be
obtained by taking for the point between and where a straight line touching the two given circles meets AB. The various solutions correspond to the circumstance that the contact of circles may bo external or
internal.
16.
circles.

T

A

B

To

describe a circle

which shall touch three given

Let A be the centre of that circle which is not greater than either of the other circles; let B and Cbe the centres of the other circles. With centre B, and radius equal to the excess of the radius of the circle with centre over the radius of the circle with centre A, describe a circle. Also with centre C, and radius equal to the excess of the radius of the circle with centre C over the radius of the circle with centre A, describe a circle. Describe a circle to touch externally these two described circles and to pass through Then a circle having the same centre as (15). the last described circle, and having a radius equal to

B

A

20

30G

APPENDIX.

the excess of its radius over the radius of the circle with centre A, will touch externally the three given circles. In a similar way we may describe a circle touching internally the three given circles, or touching one of them externally and the two others internally, or touching one of them intenially and the two others externally.

In (I given indefinite straight line it ?> required 17. find a jjoint such that the sum of its distances from two given 2^oints on the same side of the straight line
to

shall he the least possible.

be the two given points. From A draw Let A and a perpendicular to the given straight line meeting it at C\ so that CD may be equal to AC. to and produce meeting the given straight line at E. Then Join shall be the required point.

DB

B AC

D

E

ACE

be any other point in the given straight line. For, let is common to is equal to DC, and Then, because the two triangles ACE, DCE\ and that the right angle is is equal to the right angle DCE\ therefore equal to DE. Similarly, ^.P is equal to DF. And the therefore (I. 20) and FB is greater than sum of and FB is greater than BD\ that is, the the sum of and and FB is greater than the sum of sum of is greater than therefore the sum of ^i^ and and EB^ the sum of

F

AC

EC

AE

EB

;

DF AF ^F AE

BD

:

DE

FB

APPENDIX.
18.

307

that of

The perimeter of an isosceles triangle is less than any other triangle qf equal area standing on tlie

.same base.

Let

triangle;

ABC bo an isosceles AQC any other triC
;

angle cqnal in area and standing on the same base A then is paralJoin

BQ
it

BQ

lel

to. 16'

vl. 39).

And
that the
is

will follow

sum

of

AQ

from 17 and Q(J

gi-cater

than the sum of

AB

and BC.
19. //'

a polygon he not equilateral a polygon
perimeter.

found of the same number qf sides, and equal in
having a
less

may he area, hut

be two adjacent unequal sides of Join CE. Through draw a straight line parallel to CE. Bisect CE at L from L draw a straight line at rigiit angjes to CE meeting the stniight line drawn through at A". 'J'hen by removing from the given polygon the triangle and applying the triangle CKE^ we obtain a polygon having the same number of sides as the given polygon, and equal to it in area, but having a less perimeter (lt>}.
For,
let

CD,

DE

the polygon.

D

;

D

CDE

20—2

;

308

APPENDIX,

a

20. and are tico gicen ^joints on the same side of giveti straight line, and produced meets the given

A

B

AB

straight line at C\ of all 2'>oints in the given straight line on each side of C, it is required to determine thai at which subtends the greatest angle.

AB

Describe a circle to pass through A and B, and to touch the given straight line on that side of C -which is to be considered (6). Let be the point of contact: shall be the required point.

D

D

ADB.

For, take any other point in the given straight line, on the same side of (7 as Z> is; draw EA, EB; then one at least of these straight lines will cut the circumference

E

Suppose that

Then the angle AFB is equal to the angle ADB (III. and the angle AFB is greater than the angle AEB (I.
therefore the angle

BE cuts the circumference at F\]oviv AF.
21);
16);

ADB

is

greater than the angle

AEB.

given points within a circle both tcat/s so as to divide the irhole circumference into tico arcs; it is required to determine the point in each of these arcs at which subtends the greatest angle.
21.
e^re

A

and

AB

and 5

tico

is

draicti

and produced

AB

APPENDIX.

309

and to touch Describe a circle to pass through A and the point of contact the circunifcrcncc considered (10) The demonstration is similar will be the rc(|uired point. to that in the preceding proposition.
:

D

2)oints icithoiit a given required to determine the points on the circumference of the (jicen circle at ichich AB subtends the
22.

A

and B are two glcen
least angles.

circle;

it is

greatest

and

Suppose that neither
given
circle.

AB
:

nor

AB

produced cuts the

Describe two circles to pass through A and B, and to touch the given circle (10) the point of contact of the circle which touches the given circle externally will be the point where the angle is greatest, and the point of contact of the circle which touches the given circle internally will be the point where the angle is least. The demonstration
is

similar to that in 20.
If

AB

cuts the given circle, both the circles obtained
;

by 10 touch the given circle internally in this case the angle subtended by ^1^ at a point of contact is less than
the angle subtended at any other point of the circumference of the given circle which is on the same side of AB. Here the angle is greatest at the points where cuts the circle, and is there equal to two right angles.

AB

produced cuts the given circle, both the circles If obtained by 10 touch the given circle externally in this at a point of contact is case the angle subtended by greater than the angle subtended at any other point of the circumference of the given circle which is on the same side of AB. Here the angle is least at the points produced cuts the circle^ and is there zero. where

AB

AB

;

AB

310
23.

APPENDIX.

If there he four magnitudes such that the first is second as the third is to the fourth ; then shall the first together with the second he to the excess of the first above the second as the third together icith the fourth is to the excess of the third above the fourth.
to the

For, the first together with the second is to the second as the third together with the fourth is to the fourth (V. 18). Therefore, alternately, the first together with the second is to the third together with the fourth as the second is to the fourth (V. 16).
Similarly, by V. 17 and V. 16, the excess of the first above the second is to the excess of the third above the fourth as the second is to the fourth. Therefore, by Y. 11, the first together with the second is to the excess of the first above the second as the third together with the fourth is to the excess of the third above

the

foui'th.

24. TJie straight lines drawn at right angles to the sides of a triangle from tJie points of hisection. of the sides Qneet at the same point.

Let ABC be a triangle; bisect BC at Z>, and bisect CA from draw a straight line at right angles to BC, and from draw a straight line at right angles to CAi
at

E

;

E

D

let these straight lines that the straight line

meet

at G^

which bisects

also passes tlirough

G.

From

to shew at right angles the triangles and
:

we have then

AB

BDG

;

APPENDIX.
CDG we
\

311
;

BG equal to CG and from tlio AEG we can shew tliat CG equal to AG therefore BG equal to AG. Then we (fraw a straight line from G to the middle point of AB wo
can shew
lliat
is

triangles

CEG

and

is

is

if

can shew that this straight line that is, the line which bisects
throu<2rh

is

AB

at right angles to 2X right angles passes

AB:

G.

TJie straight lines drmcn from the angles of a 25. triangle to the 2)oints of bisection of the ojyposite sides meet at the same point.

Let be a triangle bisect at D, bisect CA at E, and bisect at F; join and OF meeting at G;
;

ABO

AB

BE

BG

join
line.

AG and GD:
triangle

then

AG

and

GD shall lie in a straight
and
38);

The

the triangle

BEA is equal to the triangle BEC, GEA is equal to the triangle GEO (I.
Axiom, the triangle

therefore, by the third to the triangle BGC.
Similarly, the triangle

BGA

is

equal

CGA
is

is
is

equal to the triangle

CGB.

Therefore the triangle And the triangle

BGA CGD BGD therefore the triangles BGA and BGD together are equal Therefore the to the triangles CGA and CGD t<igether. triangles BGA and BGD togotlicr are equal to half the on the straight line Therefore G must triangle ABC. AD) that AG and GD in a straight line.
e<iual to the triangle CGA. equal to the triangle (1.38)
fall
is,

lie

312
26.

APPENDIX.
Tlie straif/hi lines ichich bisect the

angles of a

triangle meet at the

same
;

j)oint.

Let

ABC be

a triangle

bisect the angles at

B

and

G

by straight

lines

bisect the angle at

meeting at A.

G

;

join

AG

:

then

AG

shall

draw GD perpendicular to BC, GE perpenCA, and (ri^ perpendicular to AB. From the triangles BGF and BGD we can shew that GF is equal to GD; and from the triangles CGE and CGD we can shew that GE is equal to GD therefore GF is equal to GE. Then from the triangles AFG and AEG we can shew that the angle FAG is equal to the angle

From

G

dicular to

;

EAG.
The theorem may also be demonstrated ^G^ to meet BG at H. Then yl5 is to GH, and AG is to CH as ^6^ is to

fore is to i?i/ as therefore is to (7i7(V. 11) is to yi(7 as is to C'/T (V. 16); therefore the straight line bisects the angle at (VI. 3).

AB

AH

BH

AC

BH as ^G^ to GH (VI. 3); thereis
;

thus.

Produce

AB

A

27. Let tico sidss of a triangle he produced through the base; then the straight lines ichich bisect the tiro exterior angles tlius formed, and tlie straight line which bisects the vertical angle of the triangle, meet at the same point.

lliis

may be
shall

she^vn like 26:

if

we adopt

the second

method we

have to use VI. ^.

;

APPENDIX.
28.

313

triangle on the opposite sides meet at the

The perpendiculars drawn from the ancfles of a same point.
;

Let be a triangle and obtuse angled. From draw

ADC

first

B

BE

suppose that it is not x)erpendicular to CA ;

A
from

F

B

G

(7 draw let these perpenperpendicular to diculars meet at join AG, and produce it to meet at D: then shall be perpendicular to BC.
;

OF

AB

AD

G

;

BC

For a

circle will

go round
is

fore the angle

FAG

{Note on HI. 22) thereA equal to the angle (III. 21).
;

EG F

FEG

And a circle will go round BCEF{lll. 31, N'ote on III. 21) therefore the angle is equal to the angle FCB. Therefore the angle is equal to the angle BCF. And is common to the two triangles the angle at and BCF. Therefore the third angle is equal to the third angle (Note on I. 32). But the angle is a right angle, by construction ; therefore the angle is a right angle.

B

BAD

FEB

BFC

BDA

BAD

BFC BDA

when

In the same way the theorem may be demonstrated the triangle is obtuse angled. C>r this case may be deduced from what has been already shewn. For sui)pose the angle at A obtuse, and let the perpendicular from B on the opposite side meet that side produced at E, and let the i)eri)cndicular from C on the opposite side meet that side /) rod 'teed at F; and let and CF be produced to

meet at G. Then in the triangle BCG the perpendiculars BF and CE meet at therefore by the former case the straight line GA produced will be perpendicular to BC.
.

BE

/

;

;

S14

APPENDIX.

29. If from any j^oint in the circumference of the circle described round a triangle x>eri:endlculars he drawn to the sides of the triangle^ the three points of intersection

are in the same straight

line.

any point on the circumbe a triangle, Let draw Pi>, ference of the circumscribing circle; from

ABC

P

P

PE,
tively

PF perpendiculars to the sides BC, CA, AB respecD, E, F shall be in the same straight
:

line.

[We will suppose that is on the arc cut off by AB, on is on CA produced the opposite side from C, and that through A the demonstration will only have to be slightly modified for any other figure.]

P

E

;

{Note on III. 22) there(III. 21). equal to the angle are together equal to two and are and right angles (I. 13); and the angles together equal to two right angles (III. 22). Therefore is equal to the angle PBC; therefore the the angle is equal to the angle PBC. angle
fore the angle

PFE But the angles PAE

A

circle will

go round
is

PEAF PAC

;

PAE PBO PAC

PAE PFE

{Note on III. 21) Again, a circle will go round are together equal and therefore the angles has But the angle to two right angles (III. 22). been shewn equal to the angle PFE. Therefore the angles and arc together equal to two right angles. Therefore are in the same straight line. and

PFD

PFDB PBD

PBD

PFD

PFE FD EF

APPENDIX.
ABC

315

is the point of interis a triangle, and 30. section of the perpendiculars from A, B, C on the opposite tides of the triangle: the circle 2chich 2Jasses through the middle points of OA, OB, DC will pass through the feet of the perpendiculars and through the middle points of the sides of the triangle.

Let

Z),

E,
;

F

be

tlie

middle points of OA, OB,

OC

respectively

A

be the foot of the perpeudicular from ou BC, and // the middle point of BC.
let

G

a right-angled triangle and is the hypotenuse therefore is eqii:d to EO; therefore the angle is equal to the angle EOG. Similarly, the angle is equal to the angle FOG. Therefore the angle is equal to the angle FOE. But tiie angles and are together equal to two right angles therefore the angles and C are together equal to two right angles. And the angle is equal to tlie angle EDF, because EI), are parallel to BA, AOyi. 2). Therefore the angles and are together equal to two right angles. is on the Hence circumference of the circle which passes through D, E, {Note on III. 22),
is

nien

OBG

middle point of

tiie

OB EGO FGO

;

EG

E

FOE

FGE BA

;

FGE

BA

DF

BAC

FGE

G

EDF F
OC
\

Again,
Therefore

FII

is

parallel to

therefore the angle

H

is

the angle EGF. also ou the circumference of the circle.
is

EHF

OB, and
eipial

EH parallel
to

to

316

.

APPENDIX.
two points
in

Similarly, the

the triangle ference of the

ABC
circle.

may be shewn

each of the other sides of to be on the circum-

which is thus shewn to pass through these nine points may be called the Nine points circle: it has some curious properties, of wliich we will now give two.
circle

The

The radius of the Nine points circle is half of the o'adius of the circle described round the original triangle.
has its sides respectively halves For the triangle of the sides of the triangle ABC, so that the triangles are similar. Hence the radius of the circle described round is half of the radius of the circle described romid

DEF

DEF
ABC.

If ^
triangle

he the centre of the circle described round the ABC, the centre of the Nine points circle is the

middle point of SO. For HS is at right angles to BC, and therefore parallel Hence the straight line which bisects HG at right to GO. angles must bisect SO. And and G are on the circumference of the Nine points circle, so that the straight line which bisects at right angles must pass through the centre of the Nine points circle. Similarly, from the other sides of the triangle ABC two other straight lines can be obtained, which pass through the centre of the Nine points circle and also bisect SO. Hence the centre of the Nine points circle must coincide with the middle point of SO.

H

HG

may state that the Nine points circle of any triangle touches the inscribed circle and the escribed circles of the triangle a demonstration of this theorem will be found in the Nouvelles Annales de Mathematiqucs for 1S42, page 196. For the histoiy of this theorem see th« volume of the same Journal for 1863, page 562.
:

We

31.

angle

If two straight lines bisecting two angles of a and terminated at the opposite sides be equal,

tri-

the

bisected angles shall he equal.

Let 1)0 a triangle; let the straight line bisect the angle at B, and be terminated at the side AC; and let the straight hue CE bisect the angle at C, and be terminated at the side AB; and let the straight line bo equal to the straight line CE: then the angle at shall be equal to the angle at C.

ABC

BD
B

BD

317

and CE meet at O then if the angle For, let be not equal to the angle OCB^ one of them mnst be greater than the other let the angle OBC be the greater. and CE, each are equal to Then, because CB and to each; l>ut the angle CBD is greater than the angle (I. 24> BCE\ therefore CD is greater than base BC make the triangle On the other side of the may be equal BCF equal to the triangle CBE, so that
; ;

BD

OBG

BD

BC

BE

to

CE, and

CF equal

to

BE

BF

(I.

22);

and join DF.

is is equal to BD, the angle Tlien because is, by hyequal to the angle BDF. And the angle and the angle is pothesis, less than the angle is equal to the angle BOE\ therefore the angle (I. 32), and therefore the greater than the angle angle is gi-eater than the angle BFC.

BF

BFD

QBE

OCD

;

COD ODC

OEB

ODC

BFD,

and Hence, by taking awav the equal angles is greater than the angle the angle and therefore C'J'is greater than CD (I. 19) therefore is greater than CD.

FDC

BDF

;

DEC BE
;

But
is

it

was shewn that

CD

is

greater than

BE\

which

absurd.

Ilierefore the angles are not unequal, and is that is, they are equnl and therefore the angle equal to the angle CB. [For the history of this theorem see Lady's and Gen^ tlemaris Diary for 1S59, page SS.]
;

OBC

OCB

ABC

A

318
a

APPENDIX.

32. If a quadrilateral figure does not admit of having circle described round it, the S7im of the rectangles conis

tained by the opposite sides contained hy the diagonals.

greater than the rectangle

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral figure which does not admit of having a circle described round it then the rect;

angle AB, DC, together with the rectangle be greater than the rectangle AC, BD.

BC, AD,

shall

the angle equal to the angle DBC, equal to the angle BDC; then the is similar to the triangle triangle (VI. 4); as is to therefore is to and therefore the rectangle AB, is equal to the rectangle AE, DB.
For.

make

and the angle

BAE ABE AE AB DC

ABE

DB

DC

BDC

;

Join EC. Then, since the angle is equal to the is equal to the angle DBA. angle DBC, the angle and are similar, And because the triangles is to as is to therefore the triangles and are similar (VI. 6) therefore CB is to CE as is to is and therefore the rectangle CB, equal to the rectangle CE, DB.

CBE
;

BE EBC DB DA
;

DB

BC

ABE
;

ABE DBC

AB ABD DA

Therefore the rectangle AB, DC, together with the rectangle BC, \^ equal to the rectangle AE, together with the rectangle CE, that is, equal to the rectangle contained by and the sum of and EC. But the sum of and is greater than (I. 20); therefore the rectangle AB, DC, together with the rectangle BC, is greater than the rectangle AC, BD,

AD

AE

BD

BD

BD

;

EC

AE

AC

AD

APPENDIX.

319

33. Jf the rectangle contained hy the diagonals of a quadrilateral he equal to the sum of the rectangles contained bjf the opposite sides, a circle can be described round

the quadrilateral.

This is the converse of VI. indirectly with the aid of 32.
34.

D;

it

can be demonstrated

It is required to find a point in a given straight such that the rectangle contained by its distances from two gicen points in the straight line may be equal to the rectangle contained by its distances from two other given
line,

points in the straight line.

Let A, B, C,
straight line
:

D

it is

he four given points in the same required to find a point in the straight

line,

from
its

such that the rectangle contained by its distances A and may be equal to the rectangle contained by distances from C and £>.

B

On describe any triangle and on describe a similar triangle CFB, so that is parallel to ylE, and to join EF, and let it meet the given straight line at 0. Then shall be the required point.

AD BF

A ED; CF

CB

DE;

For, OE is to OA as OF is to OC (VI. 4); therefore OE is to OF as OA is to OC (V. 16\ Similarlv OE is to OF AS OD is to OB. Therefore OA is to OC as OD to OB (V. 11). Therefore the rectangle OA, OB is equal to
is

the rectangle OC,

OD.

;

320
The

APPENDIX,
foin-

figure will vary slightly according to the situation given points, but corresponding to an assigned situation there will be only one point such as is required.

of the

PD PE to PG (Y. 11); therefore BG parallel to DE. But, by the construction, BF parallel to ED therefore BG and BF are themselves parallel which 30) absurd. Therefore P not such a point as required.
; ;

PD fore PD to PB as PE
is is

For suppose there could be such a point P, besides the O which is determined by the construction given above and that the points are in the order A, C, JD, B, O, P. Join PF, and let it meet CF, produced at G join BG. Then the rectangle PA, PB is, by hvpothesis, equal to the rectangle PC, and therefore PA is to PC as is to PB. But PA is to PC as is to PG (VI. 2) therepoint
;

;

is

is

is

;

(I.

;

is

is

ON GEOMETRICAL ANALYSTS.
Tlie substantives analysis and synthesis, and the 35. corresponding adjectives analytical and synthetical, are of frequent occurrence in mathematics. In general analysis means decomposition, or the separating a whole into its parts, and synthesis means composition, or making a whole out of its parts. In Geometry however these words are used in a more special sense. In synthesis we begin with results already established, and end' with some new result thus, by the aid of theorems already demonstrated, and problems already solved, we demonstrate some new theorem, or solve some new problem. In analysis Ave begin with assuming the truth of some theorem or the solution of some problem, and we deduce from the assumption consequences which we can compare with results already established, and thus test the validity of our assumption.
36. The propositions in Euclid's Elements are all exhibited synthetically the student is only employed in examining the soundness of the reasoning by which each successive addition is made to the collection of geometrical truths already obtained and there is no hint given as to the manner in which the propositions were originally discovered. Some of the constructions and demonstrations appear rather artificial, and we are thus naturally induced to enquire whether any -rules can be discovered' by which we may be guided easily and naturally to the investigation of new propositions.
;

;

APPENDIX.
37.

321

Geometrical analysis has sometimes been described huigiiaye whieli might lead to the expectation that directions could be given which woukl enable a student to proceed to tlie demonstration of any proposed theorem, or the solution of any proposed problem, with confidence of success but no such directions can be given. AVe will Suppose that a state the exact extent of these directions. new theorem is proposed for investigation, or a new problem for trial. Assume the truth of the theorem or the solution of the problem, and deduce consequences from this assumption combined with results Avhicli have been already established. If a consequence can be deduced which contradicts some result already established, this amounts to a demonstration that our assumption is inadmissible that is, the theorem is not true, or the problem cannot be solved. If a consequence can be deduced which coincides with some result already established, we cannot say that the assumption is inadmissible and it may happen that by starting from the consequence which we deduced, and retracing our ste^^s, we can succeed in giving a synthetical demonstration of the theorem, or solution of the problem. These directions however are very vague, because no certain rule can be prescribed by which we are to combine our assumption with results already established; and moreover no test exists by which wc can ascertain whether a valid consequence which we have drawn from an assumption will enal^le us to establish the assumption itself. That a proposition may be false and yet funiish consequences which are true, can be seen from a simple example. Suppose a theorem were proposed for investigation in the following words one angle of a triangle is to another as the side opjwsite to the Jirst angle is to the side If this be assumed to lie true wo opposite to the other. can immediately deduce Euclid's result in I. 19; but from Euclid's result in I. 19 we cannot retrace our steps and establish the proposed theorem, and in fact the proposed
in
; ; :

;

theorem

is false.

Thus the only definite statement in the directions respecting Geometrical analysis is. that if a consequence can be deduced from an assumed proiM)sition which contradicts a result already established, that assumed proposition

must be

false.

21

322
38.

APPENDIX.
We may mention,
in particular, that a

consequence

would contradict results already established, if we could shew that it would lead to the solution of a problem already given up as impossible. There are three famous problems which are now admitted to be beyond the power of Geometry namely, to find a straight line equal in length
;

to the circumference of a given circle, to trisect any given angle, and to find two mean proportionals between two given straight lines. The gi'ounds on which the geometrical solution of these problems is admitted to be impossible cannot be explained without a knowledge of the higher parts of mathematics the student of the Elements may however be content with the fact that innumerable attempts have been made to obtain solutions, and that these attempts
;

have been made

in vain.

The first of these problems is usually referred to as the Quadrature of the Circle. For the history of it the student should consult the article in the English Cyclopcedia under that head, and also a series of papers in the Athenwum for 1863 and subsequent years, entitled a Budget of Paradoxes, by Professor De Morgan.
For approximate solutions of the problem we may refer to Davies's edition of Hutton's Course of Mathewatics, Vol. I. page 400, the Ladifs and Gentleman's

Diary for 1855, for April, 1862.

page

86,

and the PhilosojMcal Magazine

The third of the three problems is often referred to as the Duplication of the Cube. See the note on VI. 13 in Lardner's Euclid, and a dissertation by C. II. Biering entitled Historia ProUeniatis Cuhi Duplica?idi .Haunise,
.

.

1844.

We
lysis.

will

now

give some examples of Geometrical anaj^oints it is

39.

Prom

two given
to the

the

same point in a given straight
Let

line,

required to draw to two straight lines
line..

equally inclined

given straight

A

and

B

be the given points, and

CD

the given

straight line.

AE and EB to be the two straight lines CD. Draw BF perpendicular to CD, and produce AE and BF to meet at G, Then the angle
Suppose
equally inclined to

; ;

APPENDIX.
angle

323
;

BED is equal to the angle AEC^ by hypothesis and AEC is equal to the angle DEG 15). lleucc
(i.

tho tho

triangles therefore

BEF and GEF are
FG
is

equal in

all resi3ects (I.

26)

FB. This result shews how we may synthetically solve the problem. Draw BF perpendicular to CD, and produce it to G, so that FG may be equal to FB; then join AG^
equal to

and

AG

will intersect

CD

at the required point.

40. To divide a given strai'jht line into tico iiarts such tliat the difference of the squares on the parts may he equal to a given square.

line,

Let be the given straight and suppose C the required
A-

AB

point.

B

Then the difference of the squares on and is to be equal to a given square. is equal But the difference of the squares on and to the rectangle contained by their sum and difference therefore this rectangle must be equal to the given square. Hence we have the following synthetical solution. On describe a rectangle equal to the given square (I. 45); then tlie difference of and CB will be equal to the side of tlie rectangle adjacent to AB, and is therefore known. And tlie sum of vl(7and CB is known. Thus and CB are known.

AC

BC

AC

BC

AB

AC

AC

It is obvious that the given square must not exceed tho square on AB, in order that the problem may be possible.

There are two positions of (', if it is not specified which of the two segments and CB is to be greater than the other; but only one position, if it is specified.

AC

21-2

;

324
a gh'en

APPENDIX.

In like manner we may solve the problem, to produce straight line so that the square on the whole straight line made ap of the given straight line and the part produced^ may exceed the square on the p>art produced hy a given square, ichich is not less than the square on the given stt^aight line. The two problems may be combined in one enunciation thus, to divide a given straight line internally or externally so that the difference of the squares on the segments tnay be equal to a given square.

To find a jooint in the circumference of a given 41. segment of a circle, so that the straight lines ichich join the p)oint to the extremities of the straight line on which the segment stands inay he together equal to a given
straight line.

Let A CB be the circumference of the given segment, and suppose C the required point, so that the sum oi AG and CB is equal to a given straight line. so that CD may be equal to CB Produce AG to and join DB. Then h equal to the given straight line. And the angle ACB is equal to the sum of the angles GDB and

D

AD

ADB half of the angle in the given segment. Hence we have the following synthetical solution. Describe on ^^ a segment of a circle containing an angle
fore the angle
is

CBD

(I. 32),

that

is,

to twice the angle

GDB (I. 5).

There-

equal to half the angle in the given segment. With A as centre, and a radius equal to the given straight lino, describe a circle. Join A with a point of intersection of this circle and the segment which has been described ; tliia

APPENDIX.

325

joining straight line Mill cut the circumference of the given segment tit a point which solves the problem.

and it must The given straight line must exceed not exceed a certain straight line which we will now determine. Supi)<)sc the circumference of the given segment join AE, and produce it to meet the cirbisected at is cimiference of the described segment at F. Then for the is equal to (III. 28), and equal to same reason that CB is equal to CD. Thus EA, EB, is the centre of the circle are all equal and therefore Hence is the is a segment (III. 9). of which longest straight line which can be drawn from A to the circumference of the described segment; so that the given straight line must not exceed twice AE,

AB

E

:

EB

EB

EF

;

ADB

E

^^ EF

AF

To describe an isosceles triangle having each 42. the angles at the base double of the third angle.
This problem
solution to have following.
;

of

we may suppose the is solved in IV. 10 been discovered by such an analysis as the

triangle as

such a required, so that each of and is double of the the angles at

Suppose the triangle
is

ABD

B

D

angle at A.

by the straight Bisect the angle at DC. Then the angle 'yl7>C is e<iual therefore CA is to the angle at is equal equal to CD. The angle to the angle ADB, by hy[)Othesis the angle therefore the third angle to the angle at A Therefore (I. .32\ to the third amrle is equal to AC. to (I. 6); aiid therefore
line

D

A
;

;

CBD

;

ABD

CDB is BCD is

CD

BD

BD

is

equal equal equal

is equal to the angle at A, the Since the angle the circle described will touch at straight line (Note on III. 32). Therefore the round the triangle (III. 3G). is equal to the square on rectangle AB, is equal to the square Therefore the rectangle AB,

BD

BC

BDC ACD

D

BD

BC
C

on AC.
Therefore
in II. 11.

AB

is

divided at

in the

manner required
is

Hence the

s}iithetical solution of the

pntblem

evident.

^

326
43.

APPENDIX.
To inscribe a square in a given Unangle.

ABC be the given triangle, and suppose DEFG the
Let
required square.

Draw

AR

perpen-

dicular to

BC^ and

yl A" parallel to

and let BF producat K. ed meet

BG\

AK

Then
as

But

is to (YI. 4). G^i^is equal to GD, bv hypothesis. Therefore is to ^A" as is to (V. 7, V. 11). Therefore is equal to 7). Hence we have the following synthetical solution. Draw and join BJT. Then A' parallel to BG, and equal to meets at one of the corners of the required square, and the solution can be completed.

BG is to GF BA is to AK, and BG is to GD as BA

AH

AH
AC

BA

BA

AH

AK{V.

^

BK

AH;

heticeen two given straight required to draw a straight line, such that the rectangle contained hy the parts between the given point and the given straight lines may be equal to a given rectangle.
44.
lines, it is

Through a given point

Let

and

AB

P

be the given point,

and
;

AC

straight lines

the given suppose

the required straight line, so that the rectangle MP, is equal to a given rectangle. to Q, so that Produce may the rectangle AP, be equal to the given rectThen the rectangle angle. is equal to the MP, Therefore a circle Avill go round rectangle AP, PQ. is {Note on III. 35). Therefore the angle equal to the angle {111. 21). Hence we have the following synthetical solution. Promay be to Q, so that the rectangle AP, duce a segment equal to the given rectangle; describe on of a circle containing an angle equal to the angle join with a point of intersection of this circle and the straight line thus drawn solves the problem.

MPN PN

AP

PQ

PN AMQN
AP

P AM

PNQ

PQ PQ

P

PAM; AC

APPENDIX.
45.

327

angh' so

and

circle it is required to inscribe a trisides may pass t/iroitr/h tiro gicen points^ the third side be x)arallel to a gicen straight line.

In a gircn
tliat tiro

C

D

Let

A

and

B

Suppose straight Une. inscribed in the given circle.

be the given points, and CD the given to be the required triangle

PMN

Draw

iV^jE^

parallel to

necessary to meet

the problem might be conIf the point sidered solved. For EX3f is a kno^^'n angle, and therefore And then, since is known in magnitude. the chord is a kno>Mi point, and E^f is a known magnitude, the posi-

AB at F. F were known

AB\ join EM,

and produce

it if

EM

F

tion of

31 becomes known. We have then onlv to shew how

'llie ansjle

The (I. 29). the ansxle Ilcnco (III. 21). angle JifEN is equal to the angle Therefore are similar triangles (VI. 4). and 'Hiercfore the rectangle is to A P. as is to (VI. IC). ]5ut is equal to the rectangle BA, MA, is known j since A is a giri'ii point tlic rectangle MA, is determined. and is kuo\vu; thus
is

MEN

F

is

cipial to

MAF MA

AP

BAP AF BA

MPN

MFA

to be

determined

AB

AF

AF AP

328

APPENDIX.
it is

46. In a given circle angle so that the sides

may

required to inscribe a trijmss through three given

points.

Let A, B,

C

he the three given points.

Suppose

PMN

to be the required triangle inscribed in the given circle.

Draw parallel to AB, and determine the point shall then have to deas in the preceding problem. scribe in the given circle a triangle so that two of and C, and the its sides may pass through given points, third side be parallel to a given straight line AB. This

NE

F

We

EMN

F

can be done by the preceding problem,
Tliis example and the preceding are taken from the work of Catalan already cited. The present problem is sometimes called CaMilloii^s and sometimes Cramer's; the

history of the general researches to which it has given rise be found in a series of papers in the Mathematician^ Vol, III. by the late T. S. Davies.
will

ON
A

LOCI.

locus consists of all the points which satisfy cer47. tain conditions and of those points alone. Thus, for example, the locus of the points which are at a given distance

APPENDIX.

329

from a given point is the surface of the sphere described from the given point as centre, Avith the given distance as radius lor all the points on this surface, and no other points, are at the given distance from the given point. If ue restrict ourselves to all the points in a fixed plane which are at a given distance from a given jioint, the locus is the circumference of the circle described from the given point as centre, Avith the given distance as radius. In future we shall restrict ourselves to loci which are situated in a fixed plane, and which are properly called plane loci.
;

Several of the propositions in Euclid furnish good examples of loci. Thus the locus of the vertices of all triangles which are on the same base and on the same side of it, and which have the same area, is a straight line parallel to the base; this is shewn in I. 37 and I. 39.

Again, the locus of the vertices of all triangles which are on the same liase and on the same side of it, and which have the same vertical angle, is a segment of a circle described on the base for it is shewn in III. 21, that all the points thus determined satisfy the assigned conditions, and it is easily shewn that no other points do.
;

"We will now give some examples. In each example wo ought to shew not only that all the points which we indicate as the locus do fulfil the assigned conditions, but that no other points do. This second part however we leave to the student in all the examples except the last two in these, which are more difficult, we have given the complete
;

investigation.
48.

Required the locus of points which are equidisgiven
j^oints.

tant

from two

and be the two given points; join and straight line through the middle point of at right angles to then it may be easily shewn that this straight line is the required locus.
Let

A

B

AB\

draw a

AB

AB;

49.

Required the
ba.<<e

on a

ffiren

rninated at

A
bf/

nated at B,

of the vertices of all triangles that the square on the side termay exceed the square on the side termia given square.
locu.<{

AB, such

Suppose

C draw

C to denote a point on the required locus from a perpendicular on the given base, meeting it, pro;

330
duced

APPENDIX.

if necessary, at D. Then the square on ylC is equal to the squares on and 6'i>, and the square on is and equal to the squares on (I. 47) therefore the square on ^(7 exceeds the square on by as much as the square on exceeds the square on BD. Hence i) is a fixed point cither in jS or in produced through (40). And the required locus is the straight line drawn through D, at right angles to AB,

AD
^

BD

CD

BO

;

AD

BC

AB

B

50.

Required the locus of a

'point

such that the straight

lines drawn equal.

from

it

to

touch tico given circles

may

be

AB (49).
circles.

Let be the centre of the greater circle, the centre denote any point on the reof a smaller circle and let quired locus. Since the straight lines drawn from to touch the given circles are equal, the squares on these and straight lines are equal. But the squares on exceed these equal squares by the squares on the radii of the respective circles. Hence the square on exceeds the square on PB, by a known square, namely a square equal to the excess of the square on the radius of tlie circle of wiiich A is the centre over the square on the radius of Hence, the required the circle of which is the centre. locus is a certain straight line which is at right angles to
;

A

P

B

PA PA

P PB

B

This straight line

is

called the radical a.xis of the

two

If the given circles intersect, it follows from III. 36, that the straight line which is the locus coincides with the produced parts of the common chord of the two circles.
51. Required the locus of the middle points of all the chords of a circle which jkiss through a fixed point. the fixed Let be the centre of the given circle ;

A

B

APPENDIX.

331

point; let any chord of the circle be drawn so that, probe tiieduced if necessary, it may i)ass through B. Let is a point on the remiddle point of this chord, so that

P

P

quired locus.
at right angles to the chord of (III. 3); therefore is on the is a diameter. circumference of a circle of -which be within the given circle the locus is the cirHence if as diameter; if cumference of the circle described on be Avithout the given circle the locus is that part of the as diameter, circumference of the circle described on •which is within the given circle.

The

straight line
is tlie

which

P

AP

is

middle point

B

B

AB AB AB

P

52. is a Ji.vcd 2)olnt from which any straight line drawn meeting a fixed straight line at P in OP a 2)oint Q is taken such that OQ is to OP in a fixed ratio:
is
;

determine the locus o/Q.

We
line,
is

shall shew that the locus of Q is a straight lino. For draw a perpendicular from O on the fixed straight

meeting

to

OP meeting the fixed
point

OC
Q

it at in in the fixed ratio
;

C

OC take
;

a point

D

such that

OD

draw from any straight line straight line at P, and in OP take a
is

such that

OQ

to

OP

in the fixed ratio; join

arc similar (VI. 6); QD. The triangles 07)Q and is equal to the angle 0('J\ and is therefore the angle Hence Q lies in the straight line therefore a right angle. drawn through at right angles to OD.

OOP

ODQ

D

;

332
53.
is
is

APPENDIX.
a fixed point from which any straight line the circumference rf a fixed circle at P a point Q is taken such that OQ is to OF in a fixed determine the locus of Q.
shall

drawn meeting

in

OP
:

ratio

AVe
cuxle.

shew that the locus

is

the circumfcrcuce of a

For let C be the centre of the fixed circle in OC take is to OC in the fixed ratio, and such that a point parallel draw any radius CP of the fixed circle draw to CP meeting OP, produced if necessary, at Q. Then the

D

;

OD

;

DQ

triangles is to

OCP and ODQ are similar (VI. 4), and therefore OP as OD is to OC, that in the fixed ratio. Therefore Q is a point on the locus. And DQ is to CP
OQ
is,

is of constant length. the fixed ratio, so that the locus is the circumference of a circle of which

in

DQ

D
D

Hence
is

the

centre.

in a 54. There are four given j^oints A, B, C, straight line; required the locus of a point at tchich

AB

and CD subtend equal

angles.

Find a point O in the straight line, such that the rectangle OA, may be equal to the rectangle OB, OC (.34), may be equal to and take such that the square on cither of these rectangles (II. 14): the circumference of the circle described from as centre, with radius OK, shall be the required locus.

OK

OD

OK

[We will take the case in which the points are in the following order, O, A, B, C, D.']
For
let

P

be any point on the circumference of

this

APPENDIX.
circle.

333
and
also a circle

Describe a circle round

PADy

round

PBG; then touches each of these circles (III. 37); therefore the angle is equal to the angle PDA, (III. 32). and the angle is equal to the angle tindAPB But the angle is equal to the angles together, and the angle is equal to the angles and together (I. 32). Therefore the angles and and together are equal to the angles has been she>\Ti equal together and the angle is equal to to the angle therefore the angle the angle CPD.

PDA APB PDA

OP OP A OPB OPB PCB
;

PCB OP A

CPD OPA CPD

PDA

OPA

;

APB
;

"We have thus shewn that any point on the circumference of
the circle satisfies the assigned conditions we shall now shew that any point which satisfies the assigned conditions is on the circumference of the circle. the required conand also a circle round QBC. These circles will touch the same straight and are equal, and line at Q; for the angles the converse of III. 32 is true. Let this straight line which touches both circles at Q be drawn and let it meet the Then straight line containing the four given points at R. is equal to the rectangle RB, RC; the rectangle RA, (III. 3()). Therefore for each is equal to the square on must be and therefore must coincide with (34) equal to OK. Thus Q must be on the circumference of the the radius. is the centre, and circle of which
satisfies

For take any point

Q

which

ditions.

Describe a circle round

QAD,

AQB

CQD

;

RD

RQ

R

;

RQ

OK

;

334
55.

APPENDIX.
Reqtiired the locus of the vertices of all the tria given base AB, and hace a constant ratio.

ABC ichich stand on the side AC to the side BC in
angles
If the sides

AC and BC

are to be equal, the locus

is

the straight line which bisects at right angles. will suppose that the ratio is greater than a ratio of equality; so that IS to be the greater side.

AB

We

AC

is to Divide yl^ at Z> so that in the given ratio to E, so that (VI. 10); and produce is to in the given ratio. Let be any point in the required locus join and PE. Then bisects the angle APB, and bisects the angle between and produced. Tlicrefore the angle is a right angle. Therefore is on the circumference of a circle described on as diameter.

PE

PD

P

AD AB

DB

AE

EB

PD

DPE

BP

AP DE

P

"We have thus shewn that any point which satisfies the assigned conditions is on the circumference of the circle described on as diameter we shall now shew that any point on the circumference of this circle satisfies the assigned conditions.

DE

;

AE AE

be any point on the circumference of this circle, be to QB in the assigned ratio. For, take O the centre of the circle and join QO. Then, by construction,

Let

Q

QA

shall

;

to DB, and therefore, alternately, to therefore the sum of and is to their difference as the sum of and is to their difference (2.3); that is, twice is to twice as twice is to twice BO; therefore is to as is
IS,

\^

AD

to to

EB as AD AD ^s EB

is

is

DB

\

DO

AO AO

EB

DB DO DO DO

AE

;

APPENDIX.
to

335
is

AOQ and QOB are similar triangles (VI. and therefore AQ is to (^Z? as QO is to i?C>. This shews have still to that the ratio of AQ to BQ is constant;^
tlie trianirlos
fi)

B0\

tliat is,

ylO

is

to

OQ

as

QO

to

OB.

Therefore

-sve

shew that

this ratio is the

same as

tlic

assigned ratio.

BO

is to as have already shewn that is to and is to i)0 as therefore, the difference oi and is to i?0 (V. 17); that is, the diflfercnce of is to ^Z> as therefore as 7?7J> is to is to is to i^O. is to i>i? as is to i?0; that is, This shews that the ratio of is the same as the to
;

We

AD
DO

DO

DO

AD

BO BO

AO AO

DO DO

DO

;

AD

QO

QO

BO

assigned ratio.

ON MODERN GEOMETRY.
"We have hitherto restricted ourselves to Euclid's 56. Elements, and propositions which can be demonstrated by strict adherence to Euclid's methods. In modem times various other methods have been introduced, and have led to numerous and important results. These methods may be called semi-gcomctrical, as they are not confined "within the limits of the ancient pure geometry; in fact the power of the modern methods is obtained chiefly by combining arithmetic and algebra with geometry. The student who desires to cultivate this jiart of mathematics may consult Townsend's Chapters on the Modern Geometry of the Point, Line, and Circle.
"We will give as specimens some important theorems, taken from what is called the theory of transversals.
or curved, which cuts a system of called a tram^rersal ; in the examples wliicli we sh:ill give, the lines will be straight lines, and the system will consist of three straight lines forming a triangle.
line, straight
is

Any

other lines

we

will give a brief enunciation of the theorem whith are about to prove, for the sake of assisting the memory but the emmciation will not be in retaining the result fully comprehended until the demonstration is completed.

AVe

;

336

APPENDIX,

57. If a straight line cut the sides, or the sides produced, of a triangle, the product of three segments in order is equal to the x>roduct of the other three segments.

Let

ADC be a triangle, and let a straight line be drawn
BC
at I), the side at E, at /; Then

AB

cutting the side

produced through

B

CA

BD

and the side and are

DC

called segments of the side BC, and segments of the side CA, and also segments of the side AB.

AF and FB are called
BC, meeting

CE and EA

are called

DF produced at H.
Then the triangles another; therefore
Therefore the

Through

A

draw a

straight line parallel to

CED and EAH are equiangular to one AH is to CD as AE is to EC (YI. 4). rectangle AH, EC is equal to the rectangle
FA H

CD,AE(Y1.
;

16).

Again, the triangles and one another therefore A His to

FBD are equiangular to BD as FA to FB (YI.
is 4).

Therefore the rectangle BD, FA (VI. 16).

AH, FB

is

equal to the rectangle

the straight lines represented by numbers in the notes to the second Book of the Elements. have then two results Avhich we can express arithmetically: namely, the j^^'oduct AH. is equal to the product CD.AE; and the j^roduct is equal to the product BD.FA.
in the

Now suppose

manner explained

We

EC AH.FB

Tlierefore,

A H. EC. BD FA is equal to the product A H. FB. CD.AE,
.

by the principles of arithmetic, the product

and

BD.CE.AFis

by the principles of arithmetic, the product equal to the product DC.EA.FB. This is the result intended by the enunciation given above. Each product is made by three segments, one from
therefore,

APPENDIX.
:

337

every side of the triangle and the two sccfincnts wliicli terminated at any angular point of the triangle are never in the same product. Thus if >ve begin one product \vith the segment BD, the other segment of the side BG, namely DC, occurs in the other product then the segment CE occurs in the first product, so that the two segments CD and CE, which terminate at C, do not occur in the same product;
;

and so on. The student should
for the case in

for exercise
result.

draw another

figure

which the transversal meets all the sides

produced^ and obtain the same
58.
tliat if

DC. EA

Conversely, it may be shewn by an indirect proof .CE. be equal to the product the product lie in the same FB, the three points D, E,

BD

AF

.

F

straight line.
59. If three straiffht lines he drawn throKgh the angidar jjoints of a triangle to the ojyposite sides, and meet at the same jyoint, the prudnct of three segments in order is equal to the product of the other three segments. Let ABC be a triangle. From the angular points to

the opposite sides let the straight lines ADD, BOE, COF be drawn, Avhich meet at the point O the product AF.BD.CE shall be equal to the product FB.DC.EA.
:

For the triangle is cut by the transversal FOG^ and therefore bv the tlieorcm in 57 the following products are equal, AF.BC.DO, and FB.CD.OA.

ABD

Again, the triangle

EOB, and

theref(^re
al,

products are cqi

ACD is cut by the transversal by the theorem in 57 the following AO.DB. CE and OD. BC.EA.
22

;

338

APPENDIX.

Therefore, by the principles of arithmetic, the following CE and products are equal, AF. EA. Therefore the following .CD . OA .OD

FB

.

EC

BC DO AO DB
.
. .

.

.

products are equal,

AF. BD .CE

a.iid

FB.DC.EA.

supposed the point to be within the triangle if O be without the triangle two of the points D, E, will fall on the sides produced.

We have

F

that

Conversely, it may be shewn by an indirect proof the product CE be equal to the product FB.DC.EA, the three straight lines AD, BE, Ci^meet at the same point.
60.
if

AF BD
.

.

TVe may remark that in geometrical problems the 61. following terms sometimes occiu', used in the same sense as in arithmetic namely arithmetical progression, geometriproposical progression, and Jtarnionical progjxssioji. tion respecting harmonical progression, which deserves notice, will now be given.
;

A

62. Let ABC be a triangle; let the angle A he bisected by a straight line which meets BC at D, and let the exterior angle at A be bisected by a straight lineichich meets shall BG^ produced through C,atE: then BD, BC, be in harmonical progression.

BE

APPENDIX.
For

339
;

to ^^ is to (Yl. 3) and is to (VI. A). Therefore is to is to J^^C" ( V. 11). Therefore ^Z> is to as /)(7 is EC(V. 16). Thus of the three straigiit lines BD.BC, BE, the first is to the third as the excess of the second oyer tlie first is to the excess of the third over the second. Therefore BD, BC, are in harmonical progression.
is

BD

to as to

i^'(7;is

BE

BA

is

DC BA AC

AC

BD BE

BE DC

BE

lliis result is
is

sometimes expressed by saying that

divided harmonically at

D and G.

BE

22—

2

EXEECISES IN EUCLID.
I.

1

to 15.

1. On a given straight line describe an isosceles triangle having each of the sides equal to a given straight

line.

the diameter of the smaller shew where the given point and the vertex of the constructed triangle will be
2.

In the figure of

I.

2

if

circle is the radius of the larger,

situated. If 3.
gles,

two straight lines bisect each other at right anany point in either of them is equidistant from the

extremities of the other. at the base of an and If the angles 4. isosceles trian._le be bisected by the straight lines J3D, will be an isosceles triangle. CD, shew that BACis a triangle having the angle double of the 5. at D, bisects the angle and meets angle A. If is equal to AD. shew that and meet at // In the figure of I. 5 if 6. shew that FHsind GHare equal. meet at //, In the figure of I. 5 if i^C7 and 7. shew that ^ZT bisects the angle BAG. are quadrilateral The sides ^i?, 8. shew equal, and the diagonal yiC bisects the angle are equal, and that the diagonal that the sides CB and bisects the angle BCD. are two triangles on the same side of ACB, 9. is equal to is equal to BD, and AB, such that and intersect at 0: shew that the triBC,iind is isosceles. angle The opposite angles of a rhombus are equal. 10. diagonal of a rhombus bisects each of the angles 11.

ABC

ACB

DBG BD BD

B FC

B

AC

BG BG

ADodi

A BCD BAD:

CD

AC

ADB

AD

^C BC

AD

A OB A

through which

it

passes.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

341

If two isosceles triangles are on the same base the 12. straight line joining their vertices, or that straiglit line produced, will bisect the base at right angles. Find a point in a given straight lino such that its 13. distances from two given points may be equal. Through two given points on opposite sides of a 14. given straight line draw two straight lines which shall meet in tiiat given straight line, and include an angle bisected

by that given straiglit 15. A given angle to G and the angle are at right angles.

line.

EAG bisected, the

JJAC is

bisected

if CA is produced two bisecting lines
;

If four straight lines meet at a point so tliat the 16. opposite angles are equal, these straight lines arc two and two in the same straight hue.

I.

16 to 26.

is a triangle and the angle A is bisected by 17. shew that is at a straight line which meets greater than BE, and CA greater than CE. and In the figure of I. 17 shew that 18. are together less than two right angles, by joining A to any

ABC

EC

E

;

EA

ABC

ACB

point in
19.

EC.

is the is a quadrilateral of which A tiie shortest shew that the angle longest side and is greater than the angle AEC, and the angle greater than the angle BAD. If a straight line bo drawn through A one of the 20. angular points of a square, cutting one of the opposite sides, is and meeting the other ])roduced at F, shew that greater tiian the diagonal of the square. The perpendicular is the shortest straight lino 21. that can be drawn from a given point to a given straight line; and of others, that which is nearer to the peri)ondicular is less than the more remote; and two, and only two, equal straight lines can be drawn from tlio given point to the given straight line, one on each side of the perpen-

BCD

ABC

EC

AE

;

ECE

AF

dicular.

The sum of the distances of any ])oint from the 22. three angles of a triangle is greater than half the sum of the sides of the triangle.

342

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,

Tlie four sides of any quadrilateral are together 23. greater than the two diagonals together. The two sides of a triangle are together greater 24. than twice the straight line drawn from the vertex to the middle point of the base. 25. If one angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the other two, the triangle can be divided into two isosceles
triangles.

If the angle C of a triangle is equal to the sum 26. and B, the side of the angles is equal to twice the straight line joining C to the middle point oi AB. X. 27. Construct a triangle, having given the base, one of the angles at the base, and the sum of the sides. The perpendiculars let fall on tw'o sides of a tri28. angle from any point in the straight line bisecting the angle between them are equal to each other. In a given straight line find a point such that the 29. perpendiculars drawn from it to two given straight lines

A

AB

be equal. Through a given point draw a straight line such that the perpendiculars on it from two given points may be on opposite sides of it and equal to each other.
shall
30.

ABC;

AC

of a triangle straight line bisects the angle a ]3erpendicular is dra\\Ti to this bisecting is produced to meet straight line, meetmg it at D, and produced at sliew that BL> is equal to 1>E. or are any tw^o straight lines meeting at AB, 32. draw a straight line meeting them at through any point
31.

A

from

B

A

AC

and F, such
33.

P that AE may be equal

AC

E

BD
to

:

A

:

E

AF.
:

right-angled triangles have tlieir hypotenuses equal, and a side of one equal to a side of the other shew that they are equal in all respects.

Two

I.

27 to 31.

Any straight line parallel to the base of an iso34. sceles triangle makes equal angles with the sides. are respectively and If two straight lines 35. and D, shew that the inclination of parallel to two others is equal to that of to D. yl to straight line is drawn terminated by two parallel 36. straight lines ; through its middle point any straight line is

A

B

^

C

C

A

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

343

drawn and terminated by the parallel straight lines. Shew that the second straight line is bisected at the middle point of the first. If through any point equidistant from two parallel 37. straight lines, two straight lines be drawn cutting the parallel straight lines, they will intercept equal portions of these parallel straight lines. If the straight line bisecting the exterior angle of 38. a triangle be parallel to the base, shew that the triangle is
isosceles.
39.
*^

ABC

Find a point B in a given straight line CD, such that if ^1^ be drawn to B from a given point A, the angle will be equal to a given angle. 40. If a straight line be drawn bisecting one of the

angles of a triangle to meet the opposite side, the straight lines drawn from the point of section parallel to the other sides, and terminated by these sides, will be equal. The side 41. of a triangle is produced to a point D\ the angle is bisected by the straight line CE which meets at E. straight line is drawn parallel to BC, meeting through at F, and the straight line bisectinfr the exterior angle at G. Shew that EF'i^ equal to EG. is the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle 42. in such that ABC: find a point may be equal on AC. to the perpendicular from is an isosceles triangle: find points Z>, 43. in such that BD, DE, the equal sides AB, may all be equal. 44. straight line dra^vn at right angles to the base of an isosceles triangle cuts the side at and CA produced at E: shew that is an isosceles

BG ACB

ABC

E

AB

A

AG ACD

^^

D

ABC
A

AB D AC

DB

EG

^

D

ABC

A ED

BG AB

triangle.

I.

32.

From the extremities of the base of an isosceles 45. triangle straight lines are drawn perpendicular to the sides; shew that the angles made by them with the base are each equal to half the vertical angle. On the sides of any triangle 46. equilateral triangles BCD, C^lfJ, ABFiiro described, all external: shew that the straight lines AD, BE, arc all equal.

ABC

CF

344
47.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
"What
?

is

the magnitude of an angle of a regular
lines

octagon
48.

Through two given points draw two straight
^vith

forming
triangle.

a straight line given in position an equilateral

If the straight lines bisecting the angles at the 49. base of an isosceles triangle be produced to meet, they will contain an angle equal to an exterior angle of the triangle. is the vertex of an isosceles triangle ABC, and 50.

A

BA

produced to D, so that is equiil to BA and DC\^ drawn shew that BCD is a right angle. 51. ABC is a triangle, and the exterior angles at and C are bisected by the straight lines BD, CD respectively, meeting at shew that the angle together
is
;
:

AD

B

D

:

with half the angle make up a right angle. Sliew that any angle of a triangle is obtuse, right, 52. or acute, according as it is greater than, equal to, or less than the other two angles of the triangle taken together. -^ Construct an isosceles triangle having the vertical 53. angle four times each of the angles at the base. In the triangle is bisected at 54. the side is equal and sd, G; is produced to so that to AE, and CG is produced to // so that Gil is equal to and IIB are in one straight line. CG shew that 55. Construct an isosceles triangle which shall have one-tliird of each angle at the base equal to half the vertical

BAG

BDC

AB

AE
EB

ABC

E

BC

EF

E

:

angle.
it is

AB, are two straight lines given in position: required to find in them two points and Q, such and that, being joined, may together be equal to a given straight line, and may contain an angle equal to a given angle. 57. Straight lines are drawn through the extremities of the base of au isosceles triangle, making angles with it on the side remote from the vertex, each equal to one-third of one of the equal angles of tlie triangle and meeting the sides produced: shew that three of the triangles thus formed are isosceles.
56.

AC

PQ

AP

PQ

E

are two straight lines intei-secting at arc drawn forming two triangles the angles ACE, ACE, are bisected by the straiglit lines CF, BF, meeting at F. Shew that the angle is equal to half the sum of the angles EAC, EDB.
58.

AEB, CED

E

;

straight lines

AC,

DB

BED;

DBE

CFB

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
59.

845

straight line joininp- tlie middle point of the rig-Jit-angled triangle to the right angle is ctpial to h;ilf the hypotenust (iO. From the angle of a triangle a perpendicular is drawn to the opposite side, meeting it, produced if necessary, at D; from the angle perpendicular is drawn to the opposite side, meeting it, produced if necessary, at E: shew that the straight lines which join and to the middle point o'i are equal. From the angles at the base of a triangle perpen61. diculars are drawn to the opposite sides, produced if necessary shew that the straight line joining tiie points of intersection will be bisected by a perpendicular drawn to it from the middle point of the base. ()2. In the figure of 1. 1, if (7 and be the points of intersection of the circles, and be produced to meet one of the circles at K, shew that is an equilateral

The

hypotenuse of a

A

ABC

Ba

E

AB

D

:

AB CHK

H

triangle.
63. The straight lines bisecting the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle meet the sides at I) and ^: shew is parallel to the base. that 64. AB, ^XQ two given straight lines, and is a given point in the former it is required to draw through a straight line to meet at Q, so that the angle may be three times the angle AQP. 65. Construct a right-angled triangle, having given the hyiwtenuse and the sum of the sides. ii'o. Construct a right-angled triangle, having given the hypotenuse and the difterence of the sides. Construct a right-angled triangle, having given the 67. hypotenuse and the perpendicular from the right angle

DE

AC

P

:

P

AC

AEQ

(/^

^/
.

,

on

it.

Construct a right-angled triangle, having given the 68. perimeter and an an^le.
6i).

\y'

70.
71.

Trisect a right angle. Trisect a given finite straight line.

W

From

a given point
lines,

it is

required to draw to two
lines at right
its

parallel straight

two equal straight

^
u-

angles to each other. 7'2. Describe a trinncrle of given perimeter, having angles equal to those of a given triangle.

346

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
I.

33, 34.

73.

parallel,

of

its

two of its opposite sides and the two others equal but not parallel, any two opposite angles are together equal to two right
If a quadrilateral have

angles.
74. If a straight line which joins the extremities of two equal straight lines, not parallel, make the angles on the same side of it equal to each other, the straight line which joins the other extremities will be parallel to the first. No two straight lines drawn from the extremities 75. of the base of a triangle to the opposite sides can possibly bisect each other. If the opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal it 76. is a parallclogTam. If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral are equal 77.

a pai'allelogram. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. 79. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other it is a parallelogram, If the straight line joining two opposite angles of 80. a parallelogram bisect the angles the four sides of the parallelogram are equal. Draw a straight line through a given point such 81. that the part of it intercepted between two given parallel straight lines may be of given length. Straight lines bisecting two adjacent angles of a 82. parallelogram intersect at right angles. Straight lines bisecting two opposite angles of a 83. parallelogram are either parallel or coincident. If the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal all its 84. angles are equal. Find a point such that the perpendiculars let fall 85. from it on two given straight lines shall be res])ectively equal to two given straight lines, llow many such points
it is

78.

are there
86.

?

be terminated by two given straight lines. On the sides AD, BC, and CD of a parallelogram 87. A BCD three equilateral triangles are described, that on BC towards the same parts as the parallelogram, and those ou AB, CD towards the opposite parts: shew that the

It is required to draw a straight line which shall equal to one straight line and parallel to another, and be

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

347

from distances of the vertices of the triangles on AD, are respectively equal to the two diagonals of that on the parallelogram. If the angle between two adjacent sides of a paral88. lelogram bo increased, while their lengths do not alter, the diagonal through their point of intersection will diminish. -i, B, C are three points in a straight line, such 89. that is equal to BC: shew that the sum of the perpendiculars from and C on any straight line which does not pass between and C is double the perpendicular from on the same straight line. If straight lines be drawn from the angles of any 90. parallelogram perpendicular to any straight line which is outside the parallelogram, the sum of those from one pair of opposite angles is equal to the sum of those froai the other pair of opposite angles. If a six-sided plane rectilineal figure have its op91. posite sides equal and parallel, the three straight lines joining the opposite angles will meet at a point. 92. AB, are two given straight lines; through a given point between them it is required to dniw a straight line GEIl such that the intercepted portion shall be bisected at the point E. 93. Inscribe a rhombus within a given parallelogram, so that one of the angular points of the rhombus may be at a given point in a side of the parallelogram. is a parallelogram, and E, F, the middle 94. and and points of resi)ectively ; shew that will trisect the diagonal AC.

CD

BC

AB

A

A

B

E

AC

GH

ABCD

AD

BC

BE

DE

I.

35 to 45.

ABCD is a quadrilateral having BC parallel to shew that its area is the same as that of the parallelo-^.^^'' gram which can be formed by drawing through the middle

AD

95.
;

point of
9G.

E AEB
AD,

parallel to having the middle point of DC; show that the triangle is half the quadrilateral. 97., Shew that any straight line passing through tho middle point of tiic diameter of a parallelogram and termi- \r uated by two opposite sides, bisects the parallelogram.
is

DC straight line parallel ABCD a quadrilateral
ii

to .IB.

BC

is

^
y^

348
98. 99.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
Bisect a parallelogram by a straight line drawn
it.

through a given point within
gram.

Construct a rhombus equal to a given parallelo-

'

100. If two triangies have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each -to each, and the sum of the two angles contained by these sides equal to two right an,^les, the triangles are equal in area, 101. straight line is drawn bisecting a parallelogram and meeting at and at shew that the triangles and are equal. " V 102. Shew that the four triangles into which a parallelogram is divided by its diagonals are equal in area. ~^ 103. Two straiglit lines and intersect at E, and the triangle is equal to the triangle shew that BC\& parallel to AD. 104. is a parallelogram; from any point in the diagonal the straight lines PA, are drawn. Shew that the triangles and are equal. 105. If a triangle is described ha^^ug two of its sides equal to the diagonals of any quadrilateral, and the included angle equal to either of the angles between these diagonals, then the area of the triangle is equal to the area of the quadrilateral. The straight line which joins the middle points of .-J---106. two sides of any triangle is parallel to the base. '^ 107. Straight lines joining the middle points of adjacent sides of a quadrilateral form a parallelogram. are the middle points of the sides AB, 108. D, of a triangle, and CD, intersect at F: shew that the triangle equal to the quadrilateral 109. The straight line which bisects two sides of any triangle is half the base. ^ 110. In the base oi 2l triangle take any point D\ bisect AD, DC, AB, ^i the points E, F, G, 11 respectively shew that is equal and parallel to FH. 111. Given the middle points of the sides of a triangle, construct the triangle. 112. If the middle points of any two sides of a triangle be joined, the triangle so cut off is one quarter of the whole. ^ 113. The sides AB, of a given triangle are bisected at the points E, F; 7i perpendicular is drawn from to the opposite side, meeting it at D. Shew that the

ABCD

A

EBF

AD

CED

E

BC

F

:

A EC

AB

CD

BED:

—^

ABCD BD

PAB

PCB

PC

P

E BFCh

BE

AG

ADFE.

:

EG

BC

AC

AC

ABC

A

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

319
also that

FDE equal to the angle AFDE half the triangle ABC.
aiiirle

is

BAG. Shew

is

114.
l)ase

Two

triangles

«)f

and on

o])posite sides:

joining their vertices is produced. lliree parallelograms which are equal in all re115. spects are placed witli their equal bases in the same straight line and contiguous the extremities of the base of the first are joined Avith the extremities of the side opposite to the base of the third, towards the same parts shew that the portion of the new parallelogram cut off by the second is one half the area of any one of them. draw any is a parallelogram; from IKj. produced at ^"^ at jPand meeting straight line and CG: shew that the triangles ABF, G: draw are equal. is a, given triangle: construct a triangle of y. 117. equal area, having for its base a given straight line AD, ' coinciding in ])osition with AB. is a given triangle: construct a triangle of 118. equal area, having its vertex at a given point in and its base in the same straight line as AB. is a given quadrilateral: construct ano119. -for one side, ther quadiihiteral of equal area having and for another a straight line drawn through a given point in 6V> parallel to ^i?. is a quadrilateral: construct a triangle 120. ^ whose base shall be in the same straight line asAB, vertex in CD, and area equal to that of the at a given point given quadrilateral. is a given triangle: construct a triangle of 121. ecpial area, having its base in tlie same straight line n.sAB, and its vertex in a given straight line i)arallol to AB. Bisect a given triangle by a straight line drawn 122. through a given point in a side. 123. Bisect a given quadrilateral by a straight lino drawn through a given angular point. 124. If through the point O within a panllclogram two straight lines are drawn i>arallel to the sides, and and the parallelograms are equal, the point O is in the diagonal C.
; ,
:

equal area stand on the same shew that the straight lino bisected by the base or the base

ABCD DFG

AF

BC

D AB

CFG

ABC

ABC

BC

ABCD

AB

ABCD
ABC

P

^

ABCD

OB

OD

A

350

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
I.

46 to 48.
a triangle ABC^ squares shew that the straight

ACDE,
126.

On the sides AC, BC of BCFH are described: lines AF and BD are equal.
125.

The square on the
is

gle of a triangle

less

side subtending an acute anthan the squares on the sides

containing
127.

tlie

acute angle.

side subtending an obtuse angle of a triangle is greater than the squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle. If the square on one side of a triangle be less 128. than the squares on the other two sides, the angle contained by these sides is an acute angle if greater, an obtuse
;

The square on the

drawn parallel to the hypotenuse and each of the acute angles is joined with the j^oints where this straight line intersects the sides respectively opposite to them: shew that the
squares on the joining straight lines are together equal to the square on the hypotenuse and the square on the straight
parallel to it. If any point be joined to A, B, C, D. the angular points of a rectangle, the squares on and are and PP. together equal to the squares on In a right-angled triangle if the square on one of 131. the sides containing the right angle be three times the square on the other, and from the right angle two straight lines be drawn, one to bisect the opposite side, and the other perpendicular to that side, these straight lines divide the right angle into three equal parts. If 132. be a triangle whose angle is a riglit angle, and BE, be drawn bisecting the opposite sides respectively, shew that four times the sum of the squares
line

angle. straight line is 129. of a right-angled triangle,

A

drawn

130.

P

PB

PA

PC

ABC

^

CF

BE and CF is equal to five times the square on BC. On the hypotenuse BC, and the sides CA., AB of 133. a right-angled triangle ABC, squares BDEC, AF, and AG are described; shew that the squares on DG and EF
on
are together equal to five times the square on

BC.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
II.
1

351

to 11.

straight line is divided into two parts; shew 134. that if twice tlic rectangle of the parts is equal to the sum of the squares described on the parts, the straight line is
bisected.
IS.*). Divide a given straight line into two parts such that the rectangle contained by them shall be the greatest

A

possible. 136. Construct a rectangle equal to the difference of

two given squares.
137.

that the

sum

Divide a given straight line into two parts such of tlio squares on the two parts may be the

least possible.

Shew that the square on the sum of two straight 138. lines together with the square on their difference is double
the squares on the two straight lines, Divide a given straight line into two parts such 139. that the sum of their squares shall be equal to a given
square. 140. Divide a given straight line into two parts such that the square on one of them may be double the square on the other. 141. In the figure of II. 11 if Cllhe produced to meet at L, shew that CL is at right angles to EF. 142. In the figure of II. 11 if i?^ and meet at 0, shew that .4 is at right angles to CII. Shew that in a straight line divided as in II. 11 143. the rectangle contained by the sum and difference of the parts is equal to the rectangle contained by the parts.

EF

CH

II.

12 to 14.

144. The square on the base of an isosceles triangle is equal to twice the rectangle contained by cither side and by the straight line intercepted between the perpendicular let fall on it from the opposite angle and the extremity of the base. 145. In any triangle the sum of the squares on the sides is equal to twice the square on half the base together with twice the square on the straight line drawn from tho vertex to the middle point of the base.

852
146.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
;

equal

\i

BD
to

is equal to AB, shew that the square on CD is equal the square on AB, together with twice the square

ABC is a triangle having the sides AB and AC AB is i^roduccd beyond the base to IJ so that

onBC.
147.

lelogram

The sum of the squares on the sides of a paralis equal to the sum of the squares on the

diagonals.

The base of a triangle is given and is bisected by 148. the centre of a given circle if the vertex be at any point of the circumference, shew that the sum of the squares on the two sides of the triangle is invari.-ible. In any quadrilateral the squares on the diagonals 149. are together equal to twice the sum of the squares on the straight lines joining the middle points of opposite sides. If a circle be described round the point of inter150. section of the diameters of a parallelogram as a centre, shew that the sum of the squares on the straight lines drawn from any point in its circumference to the four angular points of the parallelogram is constant. The squares on the sides of a quadrilateral are 151. together greater than the squares on its diagonals by four times the square on the straight line joining the middle points of its diagonals. the diameter of a circle take two points In 152. equally distant from the centre, and from any point and in the circumference draw EC, ED: shew that the are together equal to the squares and squares on
:

E

D

AB

C

EC

ED

on

^Cand AD.

such that the base of a triangle take In 153. are together equal to the the squares on ^IjB and will squares on J (7 and CD, then the middle point of and C. be equally distant from The square on any straight line drawn from the 154. vertex of an isosceles triangle to the base is less than the square on a side of the triangle by the rectangle contained by the segments of tlie base. is described on the hj-potenuse 155. A square jBCof a right-angled triangle ABC: shew that the squares are together equal to the squares on and on

BC

BD

D

AD

B

BDEC

DA

AC

EA

and AB.
156.

and

DE

ABC is
is

a triangle in which

drawn from a point

D

in

AC perpendicular

C

is

a right angle,
to

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
AB:
shew that the rectangle AB,

353
equal to the

AE

is

rectangle

AC, AD.

If a straight line be drawn through one of the 1.37. angles of an equilateral triangle to meet the opposite side produced, so that the rectangle contained by the whole straight line thus produced and the part of it produced is equal to the square on the side of the triangle, shew that the square on the straight line so drawn will be double the square on a side of the triangle. In a triangle whose vertical angle is a right angle 158. a straight line is drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the base shew that the square on this perpendicular is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the
:

base.
159. In a triangle whose vertical angle is a right angle a straight line is drawn from the vertex perpendicular to the base: shew that the square on either of the sides adjacent to the right angle is equal to the rectangle contained by the base and the segment of it adjacent to that side. 160. In a triangle the angles and Care acute: if and be the points where perpendiculars from the opposite angles meet the sides AC, AB, shew that the square on is equal to the rectangle AB, BF, together with the rectangle AC, CE. Divide a given straight line into two parts so that IGl. the rectangle contained by them may be equal to the square described on a given straight line which is less than half the straight line to be divided.

E

F

ABC

B

BC

III.

1

to

1.5.

162. Describe a circle with a given centre cutting a given circle at the extremities of a diameter. 1G3. JShew that the straight lines drawn at right angles to the sides of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle from their middle points intersect at a fixed point. l(j-4. If two circles cut each other, any two parallel straight lines drawii through the points of section to cut the circles are equal. 1()5. Two circles whose centres are A and intersect at C through C two chords and IX 'G are tlrawii equally inclined to and terminated by the circles:

B

;

shew that

AB DE and FG are cipial.

DCE

23

354
166.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

Through either of the points of intersection of circles draw the greatest possible straight line terminated both ways by the two circumferences. If from any point in the diameter of a circle .167. straight lines are drawn to the extremities of a parallel
two given
chord, the squares on these straight lines are together equal to the squares on the segments into which the diameter is divided. are two fixed points without a circle and 168. in the circumferit is required to find a point and ence, so that the sum of tiie squares described on may be the least possible. If in any two given circles which touch one an169. other, there be drawn two parallel diameters, an extremity of each diameter, and the point of contact, shall lie in the same straight line. circle is described on the radhis of another 170. circle as diameter, and two chords of the larger circle are dra^vvn, one through the centre of the less at right angles to the common diameter, and tlie other at right angles to the Shew first through the point where it cuts the less circle. that these two chords have the segments of the one equal to the segments of the other, each to each.

PQR BP

A

B

;

P

AP

A

171.

Through a given point within a
is

circle

draw the

shortest chord.

rl72. circumference,
/

i

is any point in its the centre of a circle, a perpendicular on a fixed diameter: shew that the straight line which bisects the angle always passes through one or the other of two fixed points. 1*73. Three circles touch one another externally at the are points yl, -6, (7; from A, the straight lines AB, and E\ shew that I)E at produced to cut the circle is a diameter of BG, and is parallel to the straight line joining the centres of the other circles. Circles are described on the sides of a quadri174. shew that the common chord of any lateral as diameters adjacent two is parallel to the common chord of the other

PN

P

OPN

BC

D

AG

:

two.

Describe a circle which shall touch a given circle, centre in a given straight line, and pass through a given point in the given straight line.
175.

have

its

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
in.
IG to 19.

355

81icr\v*that two tangents can be drawii to a circle 170. fioni a given external point, and that they are of equal length.

y

Draw parallel to a given straight line a straight 177. line to touch a given circle. 17S. Draw perpendicular to a given straight line a

i^
i/^

)/
'

\^

straight line to touch a given circle. In the diameter of a circle produced, determine 179. a point so that the tangent drawn from it to the circumference shall be of given length. Two circles have the same centre: shew that all 180. chords of the outer circle which touch the inner circle are equal. Through a given point draw a straight line so that 181. the part intercepted by the circumference of a given circle w^ shall be equal to a given straight line not greater than the diameter. Two tangents are drawn to a circle at the oppo182. site extremities of a diameter, and cut off from a third (^ tangent a portion AB: if C be the centre of the circle shew that is a right angle. Describe a circle that shall have a given radius ^^^ 183. and touch a given circle and a given straight line. circle is drawn to touch a given circle and a 184. given straight line. Shew that the points of contact are always in the same straight line with a fixed point in the circumference of the given circle. Draw a straight Ihie to touch each of two given 185.

^

-^

ACB

A

circles.

Draw a straight line to touch one given circle .«!o 18H. that the part of it contained by another given circle shall be equal to a given straight line not greater than the diameter of the latter circle. Draw a straight line cutting two given circles .so 187. that the chords intercepted within the circles shall have given lengths. 1,S8. A quadrilateral is described so that its sides shew that two of its sides are together touch a circle cijual to the other two sides. Shew that no parallelogram can be described 189. about a circle except a rhombus.
:

23-2

:

356
190.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,

circle at

are two straight lines touching a is equal to and if be joined touches the circle, and CE together shew that If a quadrilateral be described about a circle tho 191. angles subtended at the centre of the circle by any two opposite sides of the figure are together equal to two

B and

ABD, ACE
(7,
:

DE

DE

DE

BD

right angles.
192.
circle:

Two

when produced are cut by a

radii of a circle at right angles to each other straight line which touches the

shew that the tangents drawn from the points of section are parallel to each other. straight line is dra^vll touching two circles: 193. shew that the chords are parallel which join the points of contact and the points where the straight line through the centres meets the circumferences. If two circles can be described so that each 194. touches the other and three of the sides of a quadrilateral figure, then the difference between the sums of the opposite sides is double the common tangent drawn across the quad-

A

rilateral.
is the 195. circle: shew that

AB

the semicircle is to the semicircle parallel to AB. If from any point without a circle straight lines 196. be drawn touching it, the angle contained by the tangents is double the angle contained by the straight line joining the points of contact and the diameter di-awn through one of them. A quadrilateral is bounded by the diameter of a 197. circle, the tangents at its extremities, and a third tangent shew that its area is equal to half that of the rectangle contained by the diameter and the side opposite to it. If a quadrilateral, having two of its sides parallel, 198. be described about a circle, a straight line drawn through the centre of the circle, parallel to either of the two parallel sides, and terminated by the other two sides, shall be equal to a fourth part of the perimeter of the figure. series of circles touch a fixed straight line at 199. a fixed point shew that the tangents at the points w^here they cut a parallel fixed straight line all touch a fixed circle. 200. Of all straight lines which can be drawn from two given points to meet in the convex circumference of a

C the centre of a semithe centre of any circle inscribed in equidistant from C and from the tangent
diameter and

A

:

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

357

given circle, the sum of the two is least which make equal angles with the tangent at the point of concourse. 201. C is the centre of a given circle, CA a radius, a point on a radius at right angles to CA join and produce it to meet the circle again at Z>, and let the tangent at meet CB produced at E: shew that is an
;

D

AB BDE

B

isosceles triangle. 202. Let the diameter BjI of a circle be equals the radius; through P, so that

draw tho draw PEC touching the circle and from at G and meeting the former tangent at E\ join BC and produce it to meet at then will the triangle
tangent

AP

produced to

A ED,

DEC be

P AED

A

D

:

equilateral.

III.
^

20 to 22.

are drawn to a circle; Two tangents AB, any p int on the circumference outside of the triangle ABC: shew that the sum of the angles and

D

203.

AC

is

ABD

ACD

is

Q are any points in the circumferences of two segments described on the same straight line AB, and on are bisected Q, the same side of it the anu'lcs meeting at It shew that tho by the straight lines A /i
;

constant. \ 204. P,

,

BB

PA

PBQ
:

angle
V

ABB constant. Two segments of a circle arc on the same base 205. in the circumference of one of the AB, and P is any segments; the straight lines APD, BPC are drawn meeting the circumference of the other segment at D and C AC and BD are drawn intersecting at Q. Shew that the constant. angle AQB APB is a fixed chord passing through P n point of intersection of two circle-; ^IQP, PBR\ and QPR any other chord of the circles passing through P shew that AQ and RB when i)roduccd meet at a constant angle. a triangle; C and D are points in BO 207. AOB
is

])<)int

\

is

2()(i.

is

:

is

and
the

AG respectively, such that the angle GIX' shew that a circle may be angle OBA
:

is

equal to described

round the quadrilateral

ABCD.

358

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

-"^-Q^^ is a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle, and the sides AB, when produced meet at O sliew that the triangles AOC, are equiangular. 209.^ Shew that no iiarallelogram except a rectangle can be inscribed in a circle. -^210. triangle is inscribed in a circle: shew that the gum of the angles in the three segments exterior to the triangle is equal to four right angles. ^quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle: shew 211. that the sum of the angles in the four segments of the circle exterior to the quadrilateral is equal to six right angles. 212. Divide a circle into two parts so that the angle contained in one segment shall be equal to twice the angle contained in the other. Divide a circle into two parts so that the angle 213.
:

A BCD CD A

BOD

A

contained in one segment shall be equal to five times the angle contained in the other. 214. If the an^le contained by any side of a quadrilateral and the adjacent side produced, be equal to the opposite angle of the (juadrilateral, shew that any side of the quadrilateral will subtend equal angles at the opposite - angles of the quadrilateral. 215. If any two consecutive sides of a hexagon inscribed in a circle be respectively parallel to their opjiosite sides, the remaining sides are parallel to each other. are four points taken in order on the 216. A, B, C, circumference of a circle; the straight lines AB, CD produced intersect at P, and AD, at Q shew that the straight lines which respectively bisect the angles APC, are perpendicular to each other. If a quadrilateral be inscribed in a circle, and a 217. straight line 1)0 drawn making equal angles with one pair of opposite sides, it will make equal angles with the other

D

BC

:

AQC

pair.

quadrilateral can have one circle inscribed in it shew that the straight lines joining the opposite points of contact of the inscribed circle are perpendicular to each other.
218.
it

A

and another circumscribed about

:

III.

23 to 30.

The straight lines joining the extremities of the 219. chords of two equal arcs of a circle, towards the same parts are parallel to each other.

-

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

359

220. The straight lines in a circle which join the extremities of two pai'allel chords arc equal to each other. 2-21. AJi is a common cliord of two circles; through any point of one circumference straight lines CAD, are drawn terminated by the other circumference shew is invariable. that the arc *- 222. Through a point C in the circumference of a circle two straight lines ACE, are drawn cutting the circle at and shew that the straight line which bisects the angles ACETf^f^-iweQt^ the circle at a point equidistant

CUE

G

:

DE

B

E

DCE

:

from


^

223. The straight lines bisecting any angle of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle and the opposite exterior angle, meet in the circumference of the circle. 224. is a diameter of a circle, and Z> is a given

B and

E.

AB

point on the circumference draw a chord on one side of so that one arc between the chord and diamcLcr may be three times the other. 22."). two of the angular points of a From and triangle ABC, straight lines are drawn so as to meet the and Q in given equal angles: shew opposite sides at and Q will be of the same that the straight line joining length in all triangles on the same bise AB, and having vertical angles equal to C. If two equal circles cut each other, and if through 226. one of the points of intersection a straight line be drawn terminated by the circles, the straight lines joining its extremities with the other point of intersection are equal. are three chords of a circle; the OA, OB, ,«. 227. is equal to the angle BOC, and OA is nearer angle From a i)crj>cndicular is drawn to the centre than OB. proon OA, meeting it at P, and a j)cr{)endicular on is equal to CQ. duced, meeting it at Q shew that ^228. is a given finite straight line; through two indefinite straight lines are drawn eciually inclined meets these toyl/i; any circle passing through A and be between Shew that if straight lines at Ij and JA is constant; '\i and and jiM the sum of and the difference of and be not between
:

AB

DE

A

B

P

P

'

AOB

DC

B

OC

:

AP

AB

A

AL
is

AL

AM

AL

AM

AB

B

AL

AM

AB

constant. ^10/? 229.
is

angles to each other;

EFG

arc diameters of a circle at right is a point in the arc and at F^ and drawn in such a a chord meeting

and

CO Z>

E

AC

COD

360

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

Shew that the is equal to the radius. direction that is equal to three times the arc AE. arc The straight lines which bisect the vertical angles •a. 230. of all triangles on the same base and on the same side of and having equal vertical angles, all intersect at the it,

EF

EG

same

point. If two circles touch each other internally, any 231. chord of the greater circle which touches the less shall be divided at the point of its contact into segments which subtend equal angles at the point of contact of the two
circles.

III.

31.

~>J

Right-angled triangles are described on the same 232. hypotenuse: shew that the angular points opposite the hypotenuse all lie on a circle described on the hypotenuse
as diameter.
233. The circles described on the equal sides of an isosceles triangle as diameters, will intersect at the middle point of the base. , The greatest rectangle which can be inscribed 234.
^ . .

m

a

ABC

The hvpotenuse ^^ of a right-angled triangle D, and EDF is drawn at right angles are cut off each equal to DA DE and to AB, and CE and CF are joined: shew that the last two straight lines will bisect the angle C and its supplement respec235.
is

circle is a square.

bisected at

DF

;

"^

tivelv.

DE ACE ADE If two circles ABC, ABD intersect 238. V\ and AC, AD be two diameters, shew that
AB
line

^

as diameter of any triangle the side is a diameter parallel to BC: described; a bisect the interior and shew that the straight lines angles at B. and exterior If AD, CE be drawn perpendicular to the sides 237. be joined, shew that of a triangle ABC, and BC, are equal to each other. and the angles
236.

On

circle is

AB EF

ABC

EB

FB

at

A

and B,

the straight

CD

will

231).

and

If a circle

pass through B. be the centre of a circle and OA a radius as diameter, the circumbe described on

OA

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

361

fcrence of tins circle will bisect any chord drawn through it froin A to meet the exterior circle. 240. Describe a circle touching" a given straight line at a given point, sucii that tlie tangents drawn to it from two given points in the straight line may be parallel. 241. Describe a circle with a given radius touching a given straight line, such that the tangents drawn to it from two given points in the straight line may be parallel.
242. If from the angles at the base of any triangle perpendiculars are drawn to the opposite sides, produced if necessary, the straight line joining the points of intersection will be bisected by a perpendicular drawn to it from the centre of the base. 243. is a diameter of a circle and Care points on the circumference on the same side of AD; a pei-pen-

i/

AD B dicular frem D on BC produced through C, meets at shew that the square on AD greater than the sum of the
;

^^
'

it

jEJ:

is

squares on
244.

AB, BC, CD, by
is

twice the rectangle

BC, CE.
t^

the diameter of a semicircle, is a point on the circumference, is perpendicular to AB; on as diameters two semicircles are described, and AM, meet these latter circumferences at $, i?: shew AP, that QLl will be a common tangent to them.

AB

BP

BM

PM

P

B and C are given drawn perpendicular to AC, and perpendicular to AB\ in like manner 67^ is dra\Mi perpendicular to AB, and FG to AC. tShew that EG is
245.

AB, AC 2iXQ two

points in the same;

DE

BD

straight lines,
is

parallel to BC. T\v«) circles intersect at the points 246. and B, from which are drawn chords to a point in one of the circuniferences. and these chords, produced if necessary, cut the

A

C

^

y/'

and E\ shew that the straight cuts at right angles that diameter of the circle ^Z^C which passes through C. 247. If squares be described on the sides and hypotonnse of a rit^ht-nu'^led triangle, the straight line joining the intersection of the diagonals of the latter scjuare with the right angle is perpendicular to the straight line joining the intersections of the diagonals of the two former.
other circumference at
line

DE

D

is the centre of a given circle, 24S. a straight line less than the radius; find the }t(tint of the circum-

C

CA

ference at which

CA

subtends the greatest angle.

:

362
249.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

and are circumference. Shew tliat if the chords joining and with and eacli way intersect at i<^and (r, then produced is at right angles to AB.
any two points
in its

ABh the diameter of a semicircle, D
A

E

FG

B

D

E

equal circles touch one another externally, of contact chords are drawn, one to each circle, at right angles to each other: shew that the straight line joining the other extremities of these chords is equal and parallel to the straight line joining the centres of the circles.
250.

Two

and through the point

rhombus

circle is described on the shorter diagonal of a as a diameter, and cuts the sides and the points of intersection are joined cross\^'ise with the extremities of

251.

A

;

that diagonal
is

shew that the parallelogram thus formed a rhombus with angles equal to those of the first.
:

252. If two chords of a circle meet at a right angle within or without a circle, the squares on their segments are together equal to the squares on the diameter.

III.

32 to 34.

•^ 253. centre is

the circumference of a circle, whoso a tangent at any point P, meets produced at A, and is drawn perpendicular to CB shew that the straight line bisects the angle APD.

^ is a point in
C PA,
;

PD

CB

PB

254.

If

two

circles

touch each other, any straight line
oflf

dra^vn through the point of contact will cut

similar seg-

ments.
< 255. at A.

PAD
-^

any chord, and ylZ> is a tangent to a circle any straiglit line parallel to AB, meeting the circumference at and Q. Shew that the triangle is equiangular to the triangle QAB.
IS
is

AB DPQ

P

256. Two circles ABDII, ABC, intersect each other a straight line at the points A, B; from is drawn in the one to touch the other and from any chord whatever is drawn cutting the circles at and/f: shew that is parallel to DH.

B

BD

;

A

£G

G

xj

257.

Two
AC,

tangents

AD are drawn to each circle and

circles intersect at

A

and B.

At A the
terminated

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
by the circiiinferencc of the otlier. shew tliat AB or AB produced,
angle
If
if

363

CB, be joined, necessary, bisects the

BD

circles intersect at A and B, and through any point in the circumference of one of them the chords and are di-awn to cut the other circle at (7 and D: shew that CD is parallel to the tangent at P. "^ 259. If from any point in the circumference of a circle a chord and tangent be drawn, the pci-jjendiculars dropped on them from the middle point of the subtended arc are equal to one another.

P

258.

CBD. Two

PA

PB

^

is any chord of a circle, 260. any point on tho circumference of the circle is a perpendicular on and is produced to meet the circle at Q and ^iVis drawn shew that the triangle j)erpendicular to the tangent at NAM'i^ equiangular to the triangle PAQ.
;

AB

PM
P

P
;

AB

P

:

Two diameters AOB, of a circle are at 261. is a point in the circum right angles to each other meets the tangent at produced at Q, ference meet the same line at 7?, S respectively: and AP, h equal to SQ shew that -4 262. Construct a triangle, having given the base, the vertical angle, and the point iu the base on which the per; ;

COD

BP

P

COD

BQ

)

pendicular falls. Construct a triangle, having 263. vertical angle, and the altitude. Construct a triangle, having .J 264. vertical angle, and the length of the from the vertex to the middle point of
-*

given the base, tho
given the
ba.^e,

the

straight line the base.

draun

-J

265.
triangle,
isosceles.

Having given the base and the vertical angle of a shew that the triangle will be greatest when it is
given j>oint A without a circle whose draw a straight line cutting the circle at the and C, so that the area BOC may be the greatest

\)

266.
is

From a

centre points

B

—^

possil)le.

Two straight lines containinix a constant angle 267. always pass through two fixed points, their po-ition being otherwise unrestricted: shew that the straight line bisecting the angle always passes through one or other of two
fixed points. Given one angle of a triangle, the side opposite 26S.

364
it,

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
sides,

and the sum of the other two
III.

construct the

triangle.

35 to

37.

^
*

269. If two circles cut one another, the tangents dra^vn to the two circles from any point in the common chord produced are equal.
:

^

Two circles intersect at A and B shew that 270. produced bisects their common tangent. 271. If ^Z>, (7^ are drawn perpendicular to the sides of a triangle ABC, shew that the rectangle conBC, is equal to the rectangle contained tained by BC and by BA and BE. If through any point in the common chord of two 272. circles which intersect one another, there be drawn any two

AB

AB

BD

other chords, one in each circle, their four extremities shall all lie in the circumference of a circle.

From a given point as centre describe a circle 273. cutting a given straight line in two points, so that the rectangle contained by their distances from a fixed point in the straight line may be equal to a given square.
tangents the chord

DF by the square on BC.
:

AE and DF, cut one anotlier at B and C, and BCh produced to cut the tangents at G and H'. shew that the square on GH exceeds the square on AE or
275. A series of circles intersect each other, and ai*e such that the tangents to them from a fixed point are equal shew that the straight lines joining the two points of intersection of each pair will pass througli this point. triangle; from any point IB, aright-angled 276. a straight line is drawn at right in the hypotenuse and BA produced at F: angles to BC, meeting CA at is equal to the difference of shew that the square on the rectangles BD, Z>(7and AE, EC; and that the square and is equal to the sum of the rectangles BD^ on

274.

Two

circles

ABCD, EBCF,

having the

common

D

ABC

BC

DE

E

DF

DC

AF, FB.
277.
It
is

required to find a point in the straight line

which touches a circle at the end of a given diameter, such that when a straight line is drawn from this point to the
other extremity of the diameter, the rectangle contained

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,
by
tlie

3G5

part of

it

ciVcle

may bo equal

without tlio circle and the part within tlio to a giveu square not greater than that

on the diameter.

IV.
278.

1

to 4.

through
279.

A

In IV. 3 show that the straight lines drawn and to touch the circle will meet. In IV. 4 shew that the straight Hues which bisect

B

and C will meet. the angles will In IV. 4 shew that the straight lino 280. bisect the angle at A. touch If the circle inscribed in a triangle 281. at the points D, E, and a straight line the sides AB, be drawn from A to the centre of the circle meeting the circumference at G, shew that the point G is the centre of the circle inscribed in the triangle ADE. tShcw that the straight lines joining the centres of 282. the circles touching one side of a triangle and the others produced, pass through the angular points of the triangle. of a triangle circle touches the side 283. and the other two sides produced shew that the distance with this between the points of contact of the side circle and with the inscribed circle, is equal to the differand AC. ence between the sides 284. A circle is inscribed in a triangle ABC, and a triangle is cut off at each angle by a tangent to the circle. Shew that the sides of the three triangles so cut off are together equal to the sides of ABC. is the centre of the circle inscribed in a tri285. angle BAC, and .1Z> is produced to meet the straiglit line shew that O at at right angles to dra^^^l through and is the centre of the circle which touches the side produced. the sides AB, 286. Three circles are described, cacli of which touches one side of a triangle ABC, and tlie other two sides jirothat be the point of contact of the side BC, duced. If is equal to BD, of AC, and /•' that of AB, shew that

B

.

DA ABC

AC

/

^

/

A

BC

ABO

:

BC

AB

D

B

BD

:

BC

AC

D

BF to CE, and CD to
287.

AE

E

AF.

.

Describe a circle which shall touch a given circle and two given straight lines which themselves touch tbo given circle.

yj

:

366
^^

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

If the three points be joined in which the circle 288. inscribed in a triangle meets the sides, shew that the resulting triangle is acute angled. Two oj^posite sides of a quadrilateral are toge2i9. ther equal to the other two, and each of the angles is less than two right angles. Shew that a circle can be inscribed in the quadrilateral, ''v^ Two circles HPL, 290. that touch each other externally, have the common tangents HK, and being joined, shew that a circle may be inscnbcd in the quadrilateral —A 291. Straight lines are drawn from the angles of a triangle to the centres of the opposite escribed circles shew that these straight lines intersect at the centre of the inscribed circle. Two sides of a triangle whose perimeter is con^-\ 292. stant are given in position shew that the third side (always touches a certain circle. Given the base, the vertical angle, and the radius 293. of the inscribed circle of a triangle, construct it.

A

KPM,

KM

LM HL
;

HKML.

:

lY.

5 to

9.

294. In IV. 5 shew that the perpendicular from on will bisect BG. '^''. be drawn parallel to the base If of a 295. triangle ABC, shew that the circles described about the ^\\(\.ADE\\'A\q a common tangent. triangles If the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a 296. ._» triangle be concentric, shew that the triangle must be

BC

F

DE

BC

ABC

-S

equilateral. Shew that if tlie straight line joining the centres 297of the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle passes through one of its angular points, the triangle is
isosceles.

The common chord of two circles is produced to 298. is touches one of the circles at A, any point any chord of the other. Shew that the circle wiiich passes is through Ai B, and G touches the circle to which a tangent.

P PA
;

PBC PA

is inscribed in a circle, quadrilateral are produced to meet at E: sliew that the will have thij circle described about the triangle parallel to AB. tangent at

299.

and

AD, BC

A

A BCD

E

ECD

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
300.
line,

367
i/^

and pass

Describe a circle which shall touch a given straight throiigli two given pohits.

Describe a circle Avhich simll pass through two 301. given i)oints and cut otF from a given straight line a chord of given length.

^
^^
*^
>

Describe a circle which shall have its centre in a 302. given straight line, and cut oft' from two given straight lines chords of equal given length.

Two triangles have equal bases and equal vertical 303. angles: shew that the radius of the circumscribing circle of one triangle is equal to that of the other.
Describe a circle which shall pass through two 304. given points, so that the tangent drawn to it from another given point may be of a given length.
radii

305. is the centre of a circle; CA, at right angles; from any chord

C

B

cutting CA at N\ a circle being described round shew that it will be touched by BA. and 306. are parallel straight lines, and the straiglit lines which join their extremities intersect at E: shew that the circles described round the triangles ABE, touch one another.

BP

CB

are two
is

drawn

V/^

ANP,

AB

CD

CDE

Find the centre of a circle cutting off three equal 307. chords from the sides of a triangle.
308. triangle

^^

If

ABC, and

scril^ed circle

be the centre of the circle inscribed in the AG be produced to meet the circumat F, shew that FB, FO, and FC are all

The opposite sides of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are produced to meet at and Q, and about the triangles so formed without the <iuadril:iteral, circles are described meeting again at shew that P, R, Q are in

equal. 309.

P

R

:

one straight
310.

line.

The angle
is

ACB

of any triangle

is

bisected,

and

the base ^'15

bisectcil at right angles,

by straight lines

which intersect at D: shew that the angles are together equal to two right angles.
311.

ACB,

ADB

a semicircle, being the diameter, //^' intersect at E: shew that if a circle be described round it will cut the former at right angles.
is

ACDB

AB

and the two chords

AD,

CDE

:

o

68

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
A BCD
:

^

312. The diagonals of a given quadrilateral intersect at O shew that the centres of the circles described about the triangles GAB, OBC, OCD, ODA, will lie in the angular points of a parallelogram.

-^>l

^
VV
x-^

,

313. A circle is described round the triangle ABC; the tangent at C meets produced at the circle whose centre is and radius cuts at E: shew that bisects the angle A CB.

EC

D

AB

DC

D AB
E

;

AB, ^(7 are two straight lines given in position; a straight line of given length D, are the middle points of AB, AC; DF, are drawn at right angles to AB, yl (7 respectively. Shew that ^i^will be constant for
314.

BCis
all

EF

;

positions of
315.

BC.

-^
^

'tU,

'

A circle is described about an isosceles triangle which is equal to ^C; from A a straight line is drawn meeting the base at and the circle at shew that the circle which passes through B, D, and Ej

ABC in
touches
316.

^^

D

E

AB.

i^

and a chord of a given circle are in the chord, both within or both without and the circle if a circle be described to pass through and D, and touch the given circle, shew that subtend equal angles at the point of contact.
;

^C is
:

B

D

two given points

AB

B

CD

and are two points within a circle 317. in the circumference such that if point drawn meeting the circle at H. and K^ the chord be the greatest possible.

P

A

B

:

PAH,

HK

PBK be
shall

find the

^

The centre of a given circle is equidistant from 318. two given straight lines describe another circle which shall touch these two straight lines and shall cut off from the given circle a segment containing an angle equal to a given
:

angle.
is the centre of the circle circumscribing a 319. triangle yli? (7; D, E, t\\e feet of the perpendiculars from are A, B, C on the opposite sides shew that OA, OB, respectively perpendicular to EF, FD, DE.

O

F

:

00

circle straight lines

from any point in the circumference of a given be drawn to the four angular points of an inscribed square, the sum of the squares on the four straight lines is double the square on the diameter.
320.
If

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

36D

Shew that no rcctan<^Ic except a square can be 321. described about a circle.

3'22.

Describe a circle about a given rectangle.

323.

two
will

If tangents be drawn through the extremities of diameters of a circle the parallelogram thus formed

bo a rhombus.

lY.
324.
is

10.

Shew

eipial

to three times

in the figure of IV. 10 that the angle the angle at the vertex of the

ACD

triangle.
32.'5. Shew that in the figure of IV. 10 there are two triangles which possess the required property: shew that there is also an isosceles triangle whose equal angles are each one tliird part of the third angle.

326. Shew that the base of the triangle in IV. 10 is equal to the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in the smaller circle of the figure.

327. On a given straight line as base describe an isosceles triangle having the third angle treble of each of the angles at the base.

In the figure of IV. 10 suppose the two circles to is equal to DC, E: then the base of the conIf A be the vertex and 320. being one of the two points structed triangle in IV. 10, of intersection of the two circles employed in the construcprobe drawn meeting the other, and A tion, and is another isosceles triangle duced at G, shew that
328.

cut again at

DE

D
E

BD

E

BD

GAB

of the
330.

same kind.

In the figure of IV. 10 if the two equal chords of the .smaller circle be produced to cut the larger, and these points of section be joined, another triangle will bo formed having the ^Troperty required by the proposition.

In the figure of IV. lo suppose the two circles to 331. to join AE, CE, and \^Y^M\\\CQ AEy cut again at is a parallelogram. meet at G then Shew that the smaller t)f the two circles emph^yed 332. in the figure of IV. 10 is equal to the circle described round the required triangle. 24

^

;

BD

:

CDGE

370
'^

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

In the figure of IV. 10 if J i^ be the diameter of 333. the smaller circle, is equal to a radius of the circle which circumscribes the triangle BCD.

DF

IV.
n/

11 to 16.

334. The straight lines which connect the angular points of a regular pentagon which are not adjacent intersect at the angular points of another regular pentagon.

BE, and
\j

ABGDE a regular BE meet AC F the sum oi AB and BF.
33o.
is

let

ixi

;

pentagon join AC and shew that m equal to
;

AC

Shew that each of the triangles made by joining 336. the extremities of adjoining sides of a regular pentagon is less than a third and greater than a fourth of the whole area of the pentagon.
Shew how to derive a regular hexagon from an 337. equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle, and from the construction shew that the side of the hexagon equals the radius of the circle, and that the hexagon is double of the
triangle.

~>/

"^

In a given circle inscribe a triangle whose angles 338. are as the numbers 2, 5, 8.

"A

If ABCDEF is a regular hexagon, and AG, BD, 339. CE, DF, EA, FB be joined, another hexagon is formed whose area is one third of that of the former. ~^ 340. Any equilateral figure which is inscribed in a
circle is also equiangular.

VI.

1,2.

Shew that one of the triangles in the figure of 341. IV. 10 is a mean proportional between the other two. -* 342. Through D, any point in the base of a triangle

ABC, straight lines DE, DF are dra\vn parallel to the sides AB, AC, and meeting the sides at E, F: shew that
the triangle AEFia a angles FBD, EDC.

mean

proportional between the

tri-

\

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
343.

371

an

e([uilatcr;d triangle
is

Perpendiculars arc drawn from any point within on the three sides shew that their
:

sum
lines

invariable.

34 1. Find a point within a triangle such that if straight be drawn from it to the three angular points the triangle will be divided into three equal triangles. From a jioint 345. in the connnon base of two triangles ACB, ADB, straight lines are drawn parallel to is parAC, AD, meeting BC, at F, G shew that

E

BD

:

FG

allel to

point in the base of a triangle straight parallel to the sides shew that the intersection of the diiigonals of every parallelogi*am so formed lies in a certain straight line. In a triangle a straight line ^4Z> is drawn 347. which bisects the perpendicular to tiie straiglit line parallel angle shew that a straight line drawn from
lines are

CD. 346. From any
drawn

:

ABC

BD

B

:

D

to

J5C

will bisect

^C.
straight line parallel to meetand join that the triangle is equal to the
;

348. ABC is a triangle; any BC meets AB nt D and AC at E

ing at
349.

F: shew

BE ADF
BE

CD

triangle

AEF.

a triangle; any straight line parallel to join and CD meeting at F: shew that if .li^be produced it will bisect BC. If two sides of a quadrilateral figure be parallel 350. to each other, any straight line drawn parallel to them will cut the other sides, or those sides produced, proportion-

BC meets AB at D and AC at E;

ABC

is

ally.
it is required to draw from 351. is a triangle produced, a straight a given point P, in the side AB, or line to AC, or ylC produced, so that it may be bisected bv
;

ABC

AB

BC.

YI.
35-2.

3,

A.
.

Tlie side
an<xlcs

and the
lines

ADB, ADC
is
2i.

BC of a triangle
BC.

/ is bisected at D, are bisected bv the straight

nr

DE, DF. meeting AB,

shew that

353. right angles to

EF AB \%

AC

at E, /respectively:
is
;

parallel to

it,

and

diameter of a circle. C'D is anv point in CD

E

AE wwA BE

a ch(ud at

:

372

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,

are drawn and produced to cut the circle at and G\ shew that the quadrihitcral has any two of its adjacent sides in the same ratio as the remaining two. Apply VI. 3 to solve the problem of the trisec354. tion of a finite straight line. In the circumference of the circle of which 355. is a diameter, take any point P; and draw PC, on opposite sides of AP, and equally inclined to it, meeting Sit C and shew that ^(7 is to ^(7 as ^Z> is to BU. is a straight line, and Z> is any point in it 356. determine a point in produced such that is to

CFDG

F

PD

AB

AB

D AB P AB PB as PA is to PB.
:

PA

From the same point A straight lines are drawn 357. making the angles BAG, CAP, each equal to half a right angle, and they are cut by a straight line BCPE, which makes BAE an isosceles triangle shew that BC or is a mean proportional between BE and CD. 358. The angle yl of a triangle ABC is bisected by which cuts the base at D, and is the middle point of BC: shew that OD bears the same ratio to OB that the

DAE

DE AD

:

difference of the sides bears to their sum. and bisect the interior and exterior 359. angles at of a triangle ABC, and meet the base at is the middle point of and and shew that ;

AD
^

AE

P

ABC

between OD and OE. in the sides of a triangle 360. Three points D, E, hQmg joined form a second triangle, such that any two sides make equal angles with the side of the former at which they meet: shew that AD, BE, CF are at right

E

BC

:

OB is a mean proportional

F

angles to

BC, CA,

AB respectively.
VI.
4 to
6.

If two triangles be on equal bases and between 361. the same parallels, any straight line parallel to their bases will cut off equal areas from the two triarigles. and CD are two parallel straight lines is 362. and meet at F, and the middle point of CD meet at G shew that is parallel to AB. and A, B, C are three fixed points in a straight Ihie ; 363. any straight line is drawn through C shew that the perpendiculars on it from A and are in a constant ratio.

AB

BD

;

AC

:

BE FG

;

E AE

;

B

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
364.
straiglit line passing-

373

If the perpendiculars from two fixed points on a between them be in a given ratio, tlio straight line must pass through a third fixed point. Find a straight line such that the perpendiculars .SG'). on it from three given points shall be in a given ratio to each other. Through a given point draw a straight line, so 366. that the parts of it intercepted between that point and perpendiculars drawn to the straight line from two other given points may have a given ratio. intersects tangent to a circle at the point 367. two parallel tangents at J3, C, the points of contact of respectively and BE, which with the circle are D, intersect ati'"': shew that ^-ii^ is parallel to the tangents

A

A

E

;

CD

BD, CE.

arc fixed and and Q are fixed points 368. any straight line is drawn from parallel straight lines at M, and a straiglit line is drawn from to meet shew that the ratio of meeting at parallel to is constant, and thence shew that the straight to and passes through a fixed point. line through Shew that the diagonals of a quadrilateral, two 369. of whose sides are parallel and one of them double of the other, cut one another at a point of trisection.
; ;

PM

P AB PM QN

AB

CD

P

CD

N

Q

:

M

N

A and B arc two points on the circumference of a which C is the centre draw tangents at A and B perpendicular to meeting at T and from A draw is to NA. to BC as CB shew that
370.
circle of
;

;

:

BTU
DF.

BN
Vii

AN

In the sides AB, ^(7 of a triangle 371. is e<iual to taken two points Z>, E, such that

DE, BC are AC ^^EF

produced to meet
to

ABC are CE\ F shew that AB to

BD
:

is

IS

If through the vertex and the extremities of the 372. base of a triangle two circles be descril)ed intersecting each other in the base or base produced, their diameters

are i)roportional to the sides of the triangle.

Find a point the perpendiculars from which on 373. the sides of a given triangle shall be in a given ratio.
(^n AB, AC, two adjacent sides of a rectangle, 374. two similar triangles are constructed, and perpendiculars are drawn to AJi, AC horn the angles wliich they subtcml, If AB, AC be homologous intersecting at the pomt P.

374

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

is in all cases in one of the diagonals of sides, shew that the rectangle. In the figure of I. 43 shew that if 375. and be produced they Avill meet on reproduced.

P

EG

FH

AP

376.
is

to

APB and CQD are j^arallcl straight lines, and PB as DQ to- QC shew that the straight
is
:

lines

necessary, will meet at a point shew also that the straight lines PQ. AD, BC, produced if necessary, will meet at a point. is a triangle, and the side \^ produced 377. if any to so that is equal to AC, and is johied straight line drawn parallel to cuts the sides AC, CB, and from the i)oints of section straight lines be drawn parallel to DB, shew that these straight lines will meet at points equidistant from its extremities. 378. If a circle be described touching externally two given circles, the straight line passing through the points of contact will intersect the straight line passing through the centres of the given circles at a fixed point. of a triis the middle point of the side 379. through the angle ABC, and is any point in straight lines BPE, are drawn meeting the other sides at E, is parallel to BC. shew that the middle 380. is the diameter of a circle, point of the radius as diameters circles on AE,
if
:

PQ, AC, ED, produced

D

ACB

CD

AB

BD

AC

:

AB

D

P

F AB

:

CPF EF
;

AD

BC

;

P

are described
circles at
is

;

P and Q, and AB produced at L shew that BL equal to the radius of the smaller circle. 381. ABCDE a regular pentagon, and AD, BE
:

PQL

OB

EB

E

is

a counnon tangent meeting the

is

intersect at
I)ro2iortional

:

sliew that a side of the

pentagon

is

a

mean

between

and 382. is a parallelogram and in a straight line parallel to P, and and meet at ; shew that to AD. 383. are two given points and pei-pcndicular to a given straight line CD; is peri)endicular to intersect at E, and
;

A BCD

AO and AD.
S

PD
A

P ^^ PA
;

QC

QB meet at PS is parallel

Q

are points

B

;

A C and BD are

AD
:

AF and BE make equal angles with
384.

EF

CD

and BC shew that

CD.

the angular points of a parallelogram A perpendiculars are drawn on the diagonals meeting them at is a paralleloE, F, G, II respectively shew that

From

BCD

:

EFGH

gram

similar to

ABCD.

EXERCISES IX EUCLID.
385.

375

centres

If at a given point two circles intersect, and their on two fixed straight lines which })ass throng:h tiiat point, shew tluit whatever be the ni:i<j:nitnde of the circles their common tani;ents will always meet in one of two fixed straight lines which pass through the given point.
lie

YI.

7 to 18.

If two circles touch each other, and also touch 386. a given straight line, the part of the straight line between the points of contact is a mean proportional between tlio diameters of the circles. Divide a given arc of a circle into two parts, so 387. that the chords of these parts shall be to each other in a given ratio. In a given triangle draw a straight line parallel 388. to one of the sides, so that it may be a mean proportional between the segments of the base. xiBC is a triangle, and a perpendicular is drawn 389. between from A to the opposite side, meeting it at and C: shew that if .-1Z> is a mean proportional between and CD the angle BACis a right angle. is a triangle, and a perpendicular is dra>vn 390. between from A on the opposite side, meeting it at is a mean proportional between and C shew that if C is a right angle. and BC, the angle 391. C is the centre of a circle, and A any point within CA is produced through .1 to a point such that the it radius is a mean proi)ortional between CA and CB shew be any point on the circmnference, the angles that if

D

B

BD
B

ABC

D

:

BD
;

BA BA

B

:

P

are equal. a fixed i)nint in a given straight line OA, and a circle of given radius moves so as always to be is drawn from O to the a tangent touched by is taken a third pro})orproduced circle, and in
392.

CFA

and

CBP
is

O

OA

;

OP

OP PQ
:

tional
line.

shew that to OP and the radius moves along OA, the i)oint Q will move
393.

as the circle iu a straight

Two

and

SPT is
S

gents at

given parallel straight lines touch a chtIo, another tangent cutting the two former tanand I] aud^ meeting the circle at P. bhew

376

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

A

that the rectangle SP, is constant for all positious of P. 394. Find a point in a side of a triangle, from which two straight lines drawn, one to the opposite angle, and the other parallel to the base, shall cut oti" towards the vertex and towards the base, equal triangles. 395. is a triangle having a right angle at C; from a straight line is drawn at right angles to AB, cutting produced at from a straight line is drawn at right angles to AB, cutting produced at shew that the triangle is equal to the triangle ACB. 396. The straight line bisecting the angle of the triangle meets the straight lines drawn through

FT

A EC

ACB

E

;

ECE

B AC

E

:

and shew that the

ABC C, parallel to BC and AB respectively, at E and F:
ABC
triangles

CBE, ABFare

equal.

397. Shew that the diagonals of any quadrilateral figure inscribed in a circle divide the quadrilateral into four triangles which are similar two and two ; and deduce

the theorem of III. 35. 398. AB, CD are any two chords of a circle passing through a point O is anv chord ijarallel to OB join CE, Z>i^ meeting at the points G and H, and DE, meeting at the points A' and L shew that the rectangle OG, 0H\% equal to the rectangle OK, OL.

AB

EF AB
;

;

CF

:

399.
lines

A BCD is a quadrilateral in
:

CE, i>^ which bisect the angles ACB, and AC at i^and G respectively shew that
as

a circle; the straight cut

ED

ADB EF

BD
EG

is

to

is

to

EC.

400. From an angle of a triangle two straight lines are drawn, one to any pomt in the side opposite to the angle, and the other to the circumference of the circumscribing circle, so as to cut from it a segment containing an angle equal to the angle contained by the first drawn line and the side which it meets shew that the rectangle contained by the sides of the triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the straight lines thus drawn. 401. The vertical angle C of a triangle is bisected by a straight line which meets the base at D, and is produced to a point E, such that the rectangle contained by CD and CE is equal to the rectangle contained by ^i6' and CB: shew that if the base and vertical angle be given, the posi:

tion of

E is invariable.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
402.

377

A square is inscribed in a right-angled triangle one side I)E oi the square coinciding with the hypotenuse of the tri:nigle: shew that the area of the square is equal to the rectangle AD, BE. is a parallelogram from 403. a straight line is drawn cutting tiie diagonal xiC at F, the side at 6r, and the sitle produced at E: sliew that the rectangle EF, FG is equal to the square on BF. 404. If a straight line drawn from the vertex of an isosceles triangle to the base, be produced to meet the circumference of a circle described about the triangle, the rectangle contained by the whole line so produced, and the part of it between the vertex and the base shall be equal to the square on either of the equal sides of the
ABC,

AB ABCD

;

B

AD

DC

triangle.

straight lines are drawn from a point to which the centre is the points of contact are joined by a straight line which cuts at H\ and on as diameter a circle is described shew that the straight lines drawn through to touch this circle will meet it on the circumference of the given circle.
40.3.

Two

touch a

circle of

E

A

;

HA

EA

:

E

YI.

19 to Z>.

An isosceles triangle is described having each 40G. of the angles at the base double of the third angle: if the angles at the base be bisected, and the points where the lines bisecting them meet the opposite sides be joined, the triangle will be divided into two parts in the proportion of the base to the side of the triangle. 407. Any regular polygon inscribed in a circle is a mean proportional between the inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons of half the number of sides.
and KII In the figure of VI. 24 shew that 4(»S. arc parallel. Divide a triangle into two equal parts by a 409. straight line at right angles to one of the sides. 41(1. If two isosceles triangles are to one another in the duplicate ratio of their bases, shew that the triangles are similar.

EG

:

3.78
411.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
Through a given point draw a chord
be divided at the point
in a given in a given

circle so that it shall ratio.

412. From a point Avithout a circle draw a straight line cutting the circle, so that the two segments shall be equal to each other. 413. In the figure of II. 11 shew that four other

straight lines, besides the given straight lino are divided in the required manner. 414. Construct a triangle, having given the base, the vertical angle, and the rectangle contained by the sides. 415. circle is described round an equilateral triangle,

A

and from any point

in the circumference straight lines are di'awn to the angular points of the triangle shew that one of these straight lines is equal to the other two
:

together. 416.

isosceles triangle angles to AB,

shew

AB, DB.

of the base of an straight lines are drawn at right respectively, and intersecting at that the rectangle BC, is double of the rectande

From

the extremities B,

C

AC

ABC,

AD

D

417. is an isosceles triangle, the side being equal to ^6'; i^ is the middle point oiBC; on any straiglit line through perpendiculars and CE are drawn shew that the rectangle AC, is equal to the sum of the rectangles EC, and FA, FG.

ABC

AB

A

EG

EF

EG

:

XI.

1

to 12.

418. Shew that equal straight lines drawn from a given point to a given plane are equally inclined to the plane. 419. If two straight hues in one plane be equally inclined to another plane, they will be equally inclined to the common section of these planes. 420. From a point a perpendicular is drawn to a plane meeting it at from a perpendicular is drawn en a straight line in the plane meeting it at C shew that ^C'is perpendicular to the straight line in the plane. 421. is a triangle the perpendiculars from and on the opposite sides meet at through a straight line i.s drawn perpendicular to the plane of the triangle, and is any point in this straight line shew that

B

A

;

B

:

B

ABC

;

D

;

D

A

E

:

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

379

to any anguhar point of the trithe straight line joining angle is at right angles to the straight line drawn through that angular point parallel to the opposite side of the tri-

E

Straight lines arc drawn from two given points without a given plane meeting each other in that plane find when their sum is the least possible. 423. Three straight lines not in the same plane meet at a point, and a plane cuts these straight lines at equal distances from the point of intersection shew that the perpendicular from tliat point on the })lane will meet it at the centre of the circle described about the triangle formed by the portion of the plane intercepted by the planes passing through the straight lines. Give a geometrical construction for drawing a 424. straight line which shall be equally inclined to three
:
:

angle. 422.

straight lines
42.3.

meeting

at a point.

D
is

perpendicular to E draw EC, which intersect in AB^ and from two planes CAB, perpendicular to the plane CAB meeting it at draw F: shew that the straight line CF, produced if necessar}',

From

a point

DF

DAB

ED

perpendicular to AB. 42G. Perpendiculars are drawn from a point to a plane, and to a straight line in that plane shew that the straight line joining the feet of the perpendiculars is perpendicular to the former straight line.
:

XL
427. vertices

13 to 21.

A

BCD is the common base of two pyramids, whoso and E lie in a plane passing through BC\ and
BED,

AB,

.16' are respectively ])erpendicular to the faces
:

shew that one of the angles at A together with the angles at E make up four right angles. Within the area of a given triangle is inscribed 428. shew that the sum of the angles subanother triangle tended by the sides of the interior triangle at any point
:

CED

not in the i>lane of the triangles is less than the sum of the angles subtended at the same point by the sides of the exterior angle.

429.

From the

extremities of the two i)arallcl straight

;

380
lines

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
AB,

CD

parallel straight lines
a, b, c,

dra"^^'n

CD

meeting a plane at as ab to cd.

Aa, Bh, Cc, d: shew that

AB

Dd
is

are
to

Shew tliat the perpendicular drawn from the ver430. tex of a regular tetrahedron on the opposite face is three times that drawn from its own-foot on any of the other faces.
431. A triangular p}Tamid stands on an equilateral base and the angles at the vertex are right angles shew that the sum of the perpendiculars on the faces from any point of the base is constant.
:

432. Three straight lines not in the same plane intersect at a point, and through their point of intersection another straight line is drawn within the solid angle formed by them: shew that the angles which this straight line

makes with the

first three are together less than the sum, but greater than half the sum, of the angles which the first three make with each other. Three straight lines which do not all lie in one 433. plane, are cut in the same ratio by three planes, two of which are parallel: shew that the third will be parallel to the other two, if its intersections with the three straight lines

are not
434.
line,

all in

the same straight

line.

one through one straight and the other through another straight line which does not meet the former. 435. If two planes which are not parallel be cut by two parallel planes, the lines of section of the first two by the last two will contain equal angles. 43G. From a point A in one of two planes arc drawn .^i? at right angles to the first plane, and AC perpendicular to the second plane, and meeting the second plane at B, C shew that BC is perpendicular to the line of intersection of the two planes. Polygons formed by cutting a prism by parallel 437.
parallel planes,
:

Draw two

planes are equal. 438. Polygons formed by cutting a pyramid by parallel planes are similar. The straight line PBbp cuts two parallel planes 439. at B, b, and the points P, p are e-<iuidistant from the planes PAa, pcC Sire other straight lines drawn from P,]? to cut the planes shew that the triangles yiBC, abc are equal.
:

440.

Perpendiculars

AE^

BF

are

drawn

to a plane

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
from two points A,

381

B above it;

a plane

is

drawn through

A

perpenclicuhir to AB\ shew that its line of intersection with the given phmc is perpendicular to EF.

I.

1

to 48.

441.

ABC
From

is

a triangle, and

shew that the sum of
442.

PA^ PB, PC

P

is
is

less

any point within it: than the sum of

the sides of the triangle.
radii

of two circles parallel and the centres meets the are drawn; the straight line and S\ shew that -4/? is parallel circumferences again at

A

B

AP, BQ

PQ

R

to

BS.

443. If any point be taken within a parallelogram the of the triangles formed by joining the point with the extremities of a pair of opposite sides is half the parallelo-

sum

gram.
444. If a quadrilateral figure be bisected by one diagonal the second diagonal is bisected by the first. Any quadrilateral figure which is bisected by 445. both of its diagonals is a parallelogram. In the figure of I. 5 if the equal sides of the tri446. angle be produced uj)wards through the vortex, instead of downwards through the base, a demonstration of I. lo may be obtained without assuming any proposition beyond I. 5. 447. A is a given point, and is a given point in a given straight line it is required to draw from A to the given straii,dit line, a straight line A P, such that the sum and of A may be equal to a given length.
:

B

P

PB

382

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
first

448. Shew that by superposition the may be immediately demonstrated, and

case of

also the

I. 2G second

case with the aid of I. 16. 449. straight line is drawn terminated by one of the sides of an isosceles triangle, and by the other side produced, and bisected by the base shew that the straight lines thus intercepted between the vertex of the isosceles triangle and this straight line, are together equal to the two equal sides of the triangle. 4.30. Through the middle point of the base of a triangle a straight line is drawn, so as to cut oflF equal parts fix)m the sides AB, AC, produced if necessary: shew that is equal to CE. Of all parallelogi'ams which can be formed with 451. diameters of given lengths the rhombus is the greatest.

A

:

DME

M

BC

BD

4.52.

Shew from

I.

18 and

I.

32 that

if

nuse then

BC of
AD,

a right-angled triangle BD, CD are all equal.

ABC be bisected at D,

the hypote-

453. If two equal straight lines intersect each other any where at right angles, the quadrilateral formed by joining their extremities is equal to half the square on

either straight

line.

Inscribe a parallelogram in a given triangle, in 454. such a manner that its diagonals shall intersect at a given point within the triangle. Construct a triangle of given area, and having two 455. of its sides of given lengths. Construct a triangle, having given the base, the 456. difference of the sides, and the diflfereuce of the angles at the base. 457. AB, are two given straight lines it is required to find iw ^i j^oint P, such that if be drawn perpendicular to AC, the sum of and may be equal to a given straight line. 458. The distance of the vertex of a triangle from the bisection of its base, is equal to, greater than, or less than iialf of the base, according as the vertical angle is a right, an acute, or an obtuse angle. 459. If in the sides of a given square, at equal distances from the four angular points, four other points be taken, one on each side, the figure contained by the straight lines which join them, shall also be a square.

AC AB

:

AP

AQ

PQ

:

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

383

On a given straifjht line as base, construct a tri400. angle, having giv<Mi the ditFcrence of the sides and a point through which one of the sides is to pass.
is a triangle in which is greater than the angle ./ is bisected bva straight line which meets i^C'at D; shew that is greater than CD.

461.
;

ABC

BA

CA

BD

4G-2.

If

triangle

may be

one angle of a triangle be triple another the divided into two isosceles triangles.

463. If one angle of a triangle be double another, an isosceles triangle may be added to it so as to form together with it a single isosceles triangle.

464. Let one of the equal sides of an isosceles triangle be bisected at Z>, and let it also be doubled by being produced through the extremity of the base to E, then the distance of the other extremity of the base from is double its distance from D.

E

Determine the locus of a point whose distance 465. from one given point is double its distance from another
given point.
466.

and

are described let the parallelogram whose adjacent sides are and bo completed, and also that whose adjacent sides are CE and CG shew that the di:igonals of these latter parallelograms are in the same straight
;

CFBG

CB

straight line as diagonals any

A

AB
CF

is

bisected at C, and on

two parallelograms

ADCE

AC
and

CD

:

line.

467. is a rectangle of which A, C are opposite angles is any point in and is any point in shew that twice the area of the triangle AEF, together with the rectangle BE, is equal to the rectangle
;

E

A BCD

BC

F

CD

ABCD.
468.

DF

a.rc two triangles on the same base, has the side equal to the side AC; a circle passing through C and has its centre on CA, produced if necessary; a circle j>assing through B and h;us its centre /"' on BA, produced if necessary: shew that the quadrilateral AEDFhan the sum of two of its sides equal to the sum of the other two.

and

ABC

ABC,

DBC

AB D

E

D

469.

Two

straight lines

AB,

AC arc given in position:

:

384
it is

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
required to find

point P, such that a perpenAC, the straiglit line may exceed this perpendicular by a proposed length. Shew that the opposite sides of any equiangular 470, hexagon are parallel,and that any two sides which are adj acent are together equal to the two to which they are parallel.
ii

m AB

dicular being

drawn from

it

to

AP

and E, the corners of the square From 471. of a right-angled triangle described on the hypotenuse are let fall on AC, ABC, perpendiculars DM, is equal to AB, and respectively: shew that equal to A C.
-

D

AM

EN

BC

BDEC AB

AN

P

472.
is

AB

and

AC
:

are two given straight lines, and
is

a given point

it

straight line which shall form with possible triangle.
473.

a required to draw through the least and

AB

AC

P

is a right angle a triangle in which to draw a straight line parallel to a given straight and CB, and bisected line, so as to be terminated by

ABC is
ABC

C

shew how

CA

by ^^.
is an isosceles triangle having the angle at 474. is produced four times either of the other angles is joined is equal to twice AB, and to so that are equiangular to and shew that the triangles one another.

B

;

D

BD

AB

ACD

ABC

CD

within a parallelogram 475. Through a point straight lines are drawn parallel to the sides : shew that and the difference of the parallelograms of which are diagonals is equal to twice the triangle

K

A BCD

KA

KG

BKD.

Construct a right-angled triangle, having given 476. one side and the difference between the other side and the
liypotenuse.
477.

The

BC, ylC
double of
478.
is

straight lines AD, of a triangle intersect at

BE

bisecting the sides
is

G: shew that ^6^
;

GD.

BAC is a right-angled triangle
BC at right angles
;

one straight line

drawn bisecting the right angle A, and another

the base
at

^

:

if

bisecting these straight lines intersect is 2> be the middle point of BC, shew that

DE

equal to
479.

bus

AEFC is

DA. On AC

the diagonal of a square ABCD, a rhomdescribed of the same area as the square.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
and having
its
:

385

acute angle at A if be joined, shew divided into three equal angles, AB, are two fixed straight lines at right 480. angles is any pohit in A 7^, and is any point in AC; on as diagonal a half s<piare is described with its vertex at G shew that the locus of G is the straight line which bisects the angle BAC. 481. Shew that a square is greater than any other parallelogram of the same perimeter. Inscribe a square of given magnitude in a given 482.
that the angle
;

AF

EACis

DE

D

AC

E

:

square. 483.

a third of that the triangle the quadrilateral or BDF.
is

AE

ABC

is

a triangle
;

;

CFE

ADFE
A

AC CD and BE intersect at F: shew BFC half the triangle BAC, and that
is

^Z>

is

a third of

AB, and

is

equal to either of the triangles

484.

ABC

angle
line

;

the angle

meets BC which meets AC xxi shew that the triangle
48.').

a triangle, having the angle C a right is bisected by a straight line which at D, and the angle is bisected by a straight
is

ABDE.
Shew
by a straight
line into

B E AD AOB
;

and

is

intersect at half the quadrilateral
:

BE

that a scalene triangle cannot be divided two parts which will coincide. 486. A BCD, are parallelograms on cqu:tl bases BC, CE, and between the same parallels AD, BE; the straight lines and intersect at shew that is e(pial to twice DF. Parallelogi-ams AFGC, 487. are described on AC, i?C outside the triangle and meet at is joined, and through A and Z; straight lines and are drawn, both parallel to ZC, and meeting and Kll at and respectively shew that the tiguro is a parallelogram, and that it is equal to the sum of the parallelograms EC, CK. 488. If a quadrilateral have two of its sides jiarallel shew that the straight line drawn panillel to these si<lcs through the intersection of the diagonals is bisected at that

ACED

BD

AE

ABC; EG

F CBKH
B

:

BF

BE A DEB

ZC

KH

AD
FQ

D

E

:

point.

489. Two triangles are on etpial bases and between the same parallels shew that the .sides of the triangles intercept equal lengths of any straight line which is parallel
:

to their bases.

25

386

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

In a right-angled triangle, right-angled at A, if 490. is more the side A C be double of the side A 13, the angle than double of the angle C.

B

491.

Trisect a parallelogram by straight lines
its

drawn

through one of

angular points.
;

is a is an equilateral triangle 492. rhombus, a side of which is equal to a side of the triangle, and and CD of which pass through and the sides

AHK
:

ABCD

K respectively
493.

BC

shew that the angle

A

H

of the

rhombus

is

ten-ninths of a right angle.
Ti'isect a

from a given point

in

given triangle by straight lines drawn one of its sides.

494. In the figure of I. 35 if two diagonals be drawn to the two parallelograms respectively, one from each extremity of the base, and the intersection of the diagonals be joined with the intersection of the sides (or sides produced) in the figure, shew that the joining straight line will bisect the base.
II.
1

to 14.

495. Produce one side of a given triangle so that the rectangle contained by this side and the produced part may be equal to the difference of the squares on the other

two

sides.

Produce a given straight line so that the sum of the squares on the given straight line and on the part produced may be equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole straight line thus produced and the part produced. 497. Produce a given straight line so that the sum of the squares on the given straight line and on the whole straight line thus produced may be equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole straight line thus produced and the part produced. 498. Produce a given straight line so that the rectangle contained by the whole straight line thus produced and the part produced may be equal to the square on the given
496.
straight line. 499. Describe an isosceles obtuse-angled triangle such that the square on the largest side may be equal to three times the square on cither of the equal sides. 500. Pind the obtuse angle of a triangle when the

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,

387

square on the side opposite to the obtuse angle is greater than tlie sum of the squares on the sides containing it, by the rectangle of the sides. 501. Construct a rectangle equal to a given square when the sum of two adjacent sides of the rectangle is e(j[ual to a given quantity. 502. Construct a rectangle equal to a given square when the difference of two adjacent sides of the rectangle is equal to a given quantity. 503. The least square which can be inscribed in a given square is that which is half of the given square. 504. Divide a given straight line into two parts so that the squares on the whole line and on one of the parts may be together double of the square on the other part. 505. Two rectangles have equal areas and equal perimeters: shew that they are equal hi all respects. 50b'. A BCD is a rectangle; is a i)oint such that the sum of P^4 and is e(iual to the sum of and shew that the locus of consists of the two straight lines through the centre of the rectangle parallel to its

PD

PC

P

:

P

PD

sides.

III.

1

to 37.
shall pass

507.
X)oint

Describe a circle which and touch a given straight

through a given

line at a given point.

Describe a circle which shall pass through a given 508. point and touch a given circle at a given point. Describe a circle which shall touch a given circle 509. at a given point and touch a given straight line. are perpendiculars from the angles AD, 510. is perand 7? of a triangle on the opposite sides or produced shew that the angle pendicular to FBI) is equal to the angle EBA. the perjK'n511. be a triangle, and BE, diculars from the ftnglcs on the opposite sides, and A' the middle point of the third side, shew that the angles FEK, EFIl are each equal to A. are and 512. IS a diameter of a circle and /' reat two chords meeting the tangent at are and spectively shew that the angles

A

BE ED ED U ABC

;

BF

:

CF

AB
:

;

B FCE

AC E

AD FDE

equal. ^

25—2

388

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

513. Shew that the four straight lines bisecting the angles of any quadrilateral form a quadrilateral which can be inscribed in a circle. 514. Find the shortest distance between two circles which do not meet. 515. Two circles cut one another at a point it is required to draw through a straight line so that the extreme length of it intercepted by the two circles may be equal to that of a given straight line. 516. If a polygon of an even number of sides be inscribed in a circle, the sum of the alternate angles together with two right angles is equal to as many right angles as the figure has sides.

A

^

:

circle,

Draw from a given point in the circumference of a a chord which shall be bisected by its point of mtersection with a given chord of the circle.
517.

"When an equilateral polygon is described about must necessarily be equiangular if the number of sides be odd, but not otherwise. is the diameter of a circle whose centre is C, 519. constant join and DCE is a sector having the arc intersecting at shew th;it the angle is AE,
518.

a circle

it

AB

BD

P

DE

\

APB

;

number of triangles on the same base BC^ and on the same side of it have their vertical angles equal, and perpendiculars, intersecting at D, be drawn from B and C ow the opposite sides, find the locus of Z> and shew that all the straight lines which bisect the angle pass through the same point. 521. Let O and C be any fixed points on the circumference of a circle, and OA any chord; then if AC be joined and produced to B^ so that OB is equal to OA^
;

constant. 520. If any

BDC

the locus of
522.

B is an

equal

circle.

of a point in the diagonal parallelogram ABCD, straight lines PE, PF, PG, PII are drawn perpendicular to the sides AB, BC, CD, shew that is parallel to GIL 523. Through any fixed point of a chord of a circle other chords are drawn shew that the straight lines from the middle ])oint of the first chord to the middle points of the others will meet them all at the same angle.

From anv

P

BD

EF

DA

:

;

524.

ABC is

a straight

line,

divided at any point

B

;

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
into

3S9

arc similar segments of arc produced to meet the circumferences at /-"' and res[)cctively. and AF, CE, BF, ciyg joined: shew that and arc isosceles triangles, equiangular to one another. r)2o. If the centres of two circles -which touch each other externally be fixed, the common tangent of those circles will touch another circle of which the straight line joiniug the fixed centres is the diameter. 52{j. is a given point it is required to draw from two straight lines which shall contain a given angle and intercept on a given straight line a part of given length, 527. straight line and two circles are given: find the point in the straight line from which the tangents drawn to the circles are of equal length. 52S. In a circle two chords of given length are drawn so as not to intersect, and one of them is fixed in position the opposite extremities of the chords arc joined by straight lines intersecting within the circle shew that the locus of the point of intersection Avill be a portion of the circumference of a circle, passing through the extremities of the fixed chord. 529. and arc the centres of two circles which touch internally at C, and also touch a third circle, whose centre is D, externally and internally respectively at and F: shew that the angle is double of' the angle ECF. 530. C is the centre of a circle, and is a perpendicular on a chord J PZ?: shew that the sum of and is greatest when is equal to yiP. 5M. AB, BC, are three adjacent sides of any polygon inscribed in a circle; the arcs AB. BC, are bisected at Z, Jl, respectively cuts BA, and at and Q shew that and is an isosceles triangle that the angles ABC, arc together double of the angle LMN. 532. In the circumference of a given circle detcnnino a point so situated that if chords be drawn to it from the extremities of a given chord of the circle their diHVrcnce shall be equal to a given straight line less than the given chord. 533. Construct a triangle, having given the sum of the
circles,

two parts;

ADB

and

CDB

having the

common chord BD; CI) and

CBE

BE

E

AD ABF

A

A

:

A

:

A

B

E

ADB

CP

AP

CP

CP CD
;

P

N

:

BPQ BCD

LM

BC

CD
;

;

390

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,

sides, the difference of the

segments of the base made by the perpendicular from the vertex, and the difference of the base angles. On a straight line 534. as base, and on the same side of it are described two segments of circles is any point in the circumference of one of the segments, and the straight line cuts the circumference of the other segment at Q: shew that the angle is equal to the angle between the tangents at A.

AB

P

BP

PAQ

circle at

a fixed straight line cutting a given are two other straight lines making equal angles with AKL, and cutting the circle at P, Q and R, S shew that Avhatever be the posiand ARS, the straight line joining the midtion of and RS always remains parallel to itself. dle points of
535.

K

AKL

is

and

L APQ, ARS
;
:

APQ

PQ

another quadrilateral can be described such that every two of its adjacent sides are equally inclined to that side of the former quadrilateral which meets them both, then a circle may be described about the former quadrilateral. 537. Two circles touch one another internally at the point A it is required to draw from A a straight line such that the part of it between the circles may be equal to a given straight line, which is not greater than the difference between the diameters of the circles.
636.

If about a quadrilateral

:

ABCD is a parallelogram AE at right angles at right angles to CB shew that ED, if produced, will cut AC at right angles.
538.
;

is

to

AB, and CE is

:

539. From each angular point of a triangle a perpendicular is let fall on the opposite side shew that the rectangles contained by the segments into which each perpendicular is divided by the point of intersection of the three are equal to each other. The two angles at the base of a triangle are 540. bisected by two straight lines on which peqiendiculars are drawn from the vertex shew that the straight line which passes through the feet of these perpendiculars will be parallel to the base and will bisect the sides. In a given circle inscribe a rectangle equal to a 541.
: :

given rectilineal figure. 542. In an acute-angled triangle are let fall on BC, CA AD,

BE

ABC perpendiculars
respectively; circles

;

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,
described on
tively at F,

391

AC,

BC

G

and H,

K

as diameters meet BE, shew that F, G, II,
:

K

AD
lie

respecon tho

circuniforence of a circle.

Two diameters in a circle are at right angles 04:5. from their extremities four parallel straight lines aro drawn shew that they divide the circumference into four
;

equal parts.
544.

and

E is the middle point of a semicircular arc AEB^ CDE is any chord cutting the diameter at D, and tho
C shew AEBC.
:

circle at rilateral

that the square on

CE is

twice

tlic

quad-

545. is a fixed chord of a circle, is a movcahle chord of the same circle a parallelogram is described of which and ^16' are adjacent sides: find the locus of the middle points of the diagonals of the parallelogram.
;

AB AB

^C

546. is a fixed chord of a circle, is a moveable chord of the same circle a parallelogram is described of which and AC are adjacent sides: determine the greatest possible length of the diagonal drawn through A. 547. If two equal circles be placed at such a distance apart that the tangent drawn to either of them from the
;

AB AB

AC

centre of the other
will

is

equal to a diameter, shew that they

have a common tangent equal to the radius. 548. Find a point in a given circle from which if two tangents be drawn to an equal circle, given in position, the chord joining the points of contact is equal to the chord of the first circle formed by joining the points of intersection of the two tangents produced; and determine the
limit to the possibility of the problem.
is a diameter of a circle, and is any any point in AB, and through C a straight line is dra^ii at right angles to AB, meeting AF, produced if necessary at G, and meeting the circumference at IJ: shew that the rectangle FA, AG, and the rectangle BA, AC, and the square on are all equal. 550. Construct a triangle, having given the base, the vertical angle, and the length of the straight line drawn from the vertex to the base bisecting the vertical angle.

549.

AB
is

AF

chord;

C

AD

551.

A,

i>,

C

are three given points in the circumfer-

ence of a given circle: find a point such that if AP^ BP, CP meet the circumference at D, E, respectively, the arcs DE^ may be equal to given arcs.

P

EF

F

392
552.
circle,

^EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
Find the point in the circumference of a given sum of whose distances from two given straight at right angles to each other, wliich do not cut the
the the greatest or least possible,

lines

circle, is

On the sides of a triangle segments of a circle are described internaUy, each containing an angle equal to the excess of tvro right angles above the opposite angle of the triangle shew that the radii of the circles are equal, that the circles all pass through one point, and that their chords of intersection are respectively perpendicular to the opposite sides of the triangle.
553.
:

IV.

1

to 16.

554. From the angles of a triangle perpendiculars are drawn to the opposite sides meeting them at Z>, E, respectively shew that and are equally inclined to AD.

ABC

F

:

DE

DF

555. The points of contact of the inscribed circle of a triangle arc joined; and from the angular points of the triangle so formed perpendiculars are drawn to the o})posite sides shew that the triangle of which the feet of these perpendiculars are the angular points has its sides parallel to the sides of the original triangle.
:

556.
tlie radii

Construct a triangle having given an angle of the inscribed and circumscribed circles.

and

Triangles are constructed on the same base with 557. equal vertical angles shew that the locus of the centres of the escribed circles, each of which touches one of the sides externally and the other side and base produced, is an arc of a circle, the centre of which is on the circumference of the circle circumscribing the triangles.
;

558. From the angular points A.B, C of a triangle perpendiculars are drawn on the opposite sides, and terminated at the points Z>, E, on the circumference of the circumscribing circle if L be the point of intersection of the perpendiculars, shew that LD, LE, are bisected by the sides of the triangle.

F

:

LF

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

393

is a re^ilar pentagon join and ]}D 559. shew tluit A() is equal to IJO, and tliat intersecting at the rectangle AC, CO is eqnal to the squ;\re on HC. 560. straight line I^Q of given length moves so that its ends are ahvays on two fixed straight lines CP, CQ and Q at riglit angles to straight lines from nnd CQ respectively intersect at A' perpendiculars from and Q respectively intersect at >S': shew that the on CQ and loci of and aS' are circles having their common centre at Right-angled triangles are described on the same 5G1. hypotenuse shew that the locus of the centres of the inscribed circles is a quarter of the circumference of a circle of which the common hypotenuse is a chord. is any triangle 562. On a given straight Ihie are bisected and straight described; the sides AC, lines drawn at right angles to them through the points of find the locus of D. bisection to intersect at a point C<mstruct a triangle, having given its base, one of 563. the angles nt the base, and the distance between the centre of the inscribeil circle and the centre of the circle touching the base and the sides produced. Describe a circle which shall touch a given straight 564. line at a given point, and bisect the circumference of a
;
:

ABCDE
A

AC

P

;

CP

;

P

C

R

CP

:

EG

AB
;

ACE

D

given

circle.

565. Describe a circle which shall pass through a given point and bisect the circumferences of two given circles. Within a given circle inscribe three equal circles, 566.

touching one another and the given circle. If the radius of a circle be cut as in II. 11, the 567. gi'cater segment will be the side of a regular decagon inscriV)ed in the circle. If the radius of a circle be cut as in II. 11, the 56S. square on its greater segment, together with the square on the radius, is equal to the square on the side of a regular pentagon inscnbed in the circle. From the vertex of a triangle draw a straight 569. line to the base so that the square on the straight line may be equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the
base. Four straight lines are drawn in a piano forming 570. four triangles; shew that the circumscribing circles of these triangles all pass through a conmion iK)iut.

394

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

The perpendiculars from the angles 571. and i? of a triangle on the opposite sides meet at the circles described round and cut or produced at and the points shew that is equal to BF.

E

ADC F

DEC

:

AB AE

D

A

AB

;

572. The four circles each of which passes through the centres of three of the four circles touching the sides of a triangle are equal to one another.

Four circles are described so that each may 573. touch internally three of the sides of a quadrilateral shew that a circle may be described so as to pass through the centres of the four circles.
:

A circle is described round the triangle ABC, 574. and from any point P of its circumference perpendiculars are dra\\'n to BC, CA, AB, which meet the circle again at D, E, F: shew that the triangles yl^Candi)^i^ are equal in all respects, and that the straight lines AD, BE, CF are
parallel.

"With any point in the circumference of a given another circle, cutting the former and at from draw in the described circle a chord equal to its radius, and join AD, cutting the given circle at Q shew that is equal to the radius of the given circle.
575.
circle as centre, describe

BD

A

B

;

B

:

QD

point is taken without a square, such that 576. straight lines being drawn to the angular points of the square, the angle contained by the two extreme straight lines is divided into three equal parts by the other two straight lines shew that the locus of the point is the circumference of the circle circumscribing the square.
:

A

Circles are inscribed in the two triangles formed 577. by drawing a perpendicular from an angle of a triangle on the opposite side and analogous circles are described in relation to the two other like perpendiculars shew that
;
:

the sum of the diameters of the six circles together with the sum of the sides of the original triangle is equal to twice the sum of these perpendiculars.
'riirce concentric circles are drawn in the same 578. plane: draw a straight line, such that one of its segments between the inner and outer circumference maybe bisected at one of the points at which the straight line meets the middle circumference.

EXERCISES IN EUCLID,
VI.
to D.

395

1

is a diaireter, and any point in the circum579. and are joined and produced ference of a circle; if necessary; from any point C in a straijjflit line is drawn at right angles to meeting at J) nr.d at E, and the circumference of the circle at F: shew that is a third proportional to and CF. 580. A^ B, Care three points in a straight line, and a point at which and subtend equal angles shew that the locus of is the circumterence of a circle. 5S1. If a straight line be drawn from one corner of a square cutting otf one-fourth from the diagonal it will cut off one-third from a side. Also if straight lines be drawn similarly from the other corners so as to form a square, this square will be two-fifths of the original square. The sides AB, 582. of a given triangle arc produced to any points D, E, so that is parallel to BC. The straight line is divided at /'so that DF'\^ to as is to CE: shew that the locus oi u a straight

AB

AP

BP AB

P

AB

AP

BP

CD

CE

AB D

BC

D

:

AC

BD
:

DE

DE

ABC

F

FE

line.

P in the straight line so that PB may be a mean proportional l)etween PA and PC. 5s4. A, B arc two fixed points on the circumference of a given circle, and P a moveable point on the circumference; on PB taken a jioint D such that PD to PA in a constant ratio, and on PA taken a point JJ such that PE to PB in the same ratio shew that DE always touches a fixed circle. ABCh an isosceles triangle, the angle at A being four times cither of the others shew that BC be bisected at D and E, the triangle ADE equilateral.
lino
is

583. A, B, find a point

C are

three points in order in a straight

is

is

is

is

:

5S;5.

:

if

is

586. Peqjcndiculars are let fall from two opposite angles of a rectangle on a diagonal phew that thoy will divide the diagonal into equal parts, if the square on one side of the rectangle be doui»le tnat on the other. is divided into any two part.s 587. A straight line at C, and on the whole straight line and on the two parts of it equilateral triangles ADB. A<'E. J>f'F arc described, the two latter being on the same side of the straight
:

AB

:

39(i
line,

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
;
:

and the former on the opposite side (?, H, A" are the shew centres of the circles inscribed in tiiese triangles are respectively eqnal to the that the angles AGH. h equal to GK. angles ABC, BDC, and that On the two sides of a right-angled triangle squares 5SS. shew that the straight lines joining the are described acute angles of the triangle and the opposite angles of the squares cut off equal segments from the sides, and that each of these e(iual segments is a mean proportional between the remaining segments. Two straight lines and a point between them are 589. draw two straight lines from the given given in position point to terminate in the given straight lines, so that they shall contain a given angle and have a given ratio, in the circumference of a circle "With a point 590. is described cutting the as centre, a circle of the and C any chord former circle at the points at E, and the circumformer meets the common chord shew that the angles ference of the other circle at and are equal for all positions of P. are triangles on the same base in the 591. ABC, and j^i^ produced meet the sides ratio of two to one is cut off equal to FE. and in a pp.rt and at as is to is to shew that is bisected at

BGK

GH

:

:

A

ABC

PBC B

;

AD

BC
:

EPO

D BG
DA.

DPO ABE AF EG FB E
;
;
:

BO

BE

DF
;

is the centre of a circle, and another circle 592. is and C passes through and cuts the former at at E, and from a chord of the latter circle meeting tangents to the former circle shew and are drawn that G, E, lie on one straight line. In AB, AC, two sides of a triangle, are taken 593. are produced to F, G such that points D, E\ arc joined is equal to AD, and CG equal to ^^; BG, is equal to the meeting at H: shew that the triangle

A

A

DF F

DG

BC

B

AD
:

D

AB,AC

BF

together. triangles BHC, if be taken equal to In any triangle 594. one-fourth of AC, the straight one-fourth of BC, and and line drawn from C through the intersection of into two parts, which are in the ratio of will divide

ADE

ABC

FUG BD

CF

CE

BE

AD

AB

nine to one.
595.

Any

rectilineal figure

is

inscribed in a circle

shew that by bisecting the arcs and drawing tangents to
the points of bisection parallel to the sides of the recti-

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.
lineal figure,

397

we can form a similar rectilineal figure circumscinbing the circle. o;)!). Find a mean proportional between two similar right angled triangles which have one of the sides containing the right angle connnon. In i\\d sides .1(7, 597. of a triangle points and are taken, such that CD nnd CE arc respectively

D

E

BC

the third parts of intersecting at O the fourth parts of
:

598.

CA,

CB

AC and BC\ BJ) and shew that EO and DO are respectively A E and BD. ai-e diameters of two circles which touch

ADC AE are drawn

each other externally at C\ a chord oi the former circle, wlien produced, touches the latter at E^ while a chord oi the latter, when produced, touches the former at G: shew that the rectangle contained ])\ iind is four times that contained by and FG.

AD

BF

DE

AD

BF

599. Two circles Intersect at A, and is drawn meeting tlicm at B and C; with B, C as centres are described two circles each of which intersects one of the former at right angles shew that these circles and the circle whose diameter is ^6' meet at a point.
:

BAC

divides
to

A BCDEF is a rcg;dar hexagon shew that BF A D in the ratio of one to three. 601. A BC DEF are triangles, having the an^le A equal the anule D; and AB is equal to DF: shew that the
(JOO.
:

areas of the triangles are as ^(7 to
602.
If J/,
if

DE.

an escribed

circle

shew that

N be the points at which the inscribed and touch the side AC of a triangle ABC; BM be produced to cut the escribed
circle

again at P, then IVP is a diameter. The angle A of a triangle 603. is a right angle, and is the foot of the perpendicular from A on BC; nre i)erpendiculars on AB, AC: shew that the DM, angles BM(\ are etpial. 604. If from the j)oint of bi.section of nny given arc of a circle two straight lines be drawn, cutting* the chord of the arc and the circumference, the four i)oints of intersection shall also lie in the circumference of a circle. 605. The side oi a triangle A B( is touched by the inscribed circle at D, and by the escribed circle at E: shew that the rectangle contained by the radii is e<iual to the rectangle AD, and to the rectangle AE, EB.

D

ABC

DN

BNC

AB

'

DB

398

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

Shew that the locus of the middle points of 606. straight lines parallel to the base of a triangle and terminated by its sides is a straight line. 607. parallelogram is inscribed in a triangle, having one side on the base of the triangle, and the adjacent sides parallel to a fixed direction : shew that the locus of the intersection of the diagonals of the parallelogram is a straight line bisecting the base of the triangle. On a given straight line 608. as hypotenuse a right-angled triangle is descnbed and from and straight lines are drawn to bisect the opposite sides shew that the locus of their intersection is a circle. 609. From a given point outside two given circles which do not meet, draw a straight line such that the portions of it intercepted by each circle shall be respectively proportional to their radii. 610. In a given triangle inscribe a rhombus which shall have one of its angular points coincident with a j)oint in the base, and a side on that base. 611. is a triangle ha\'ing a right angle at (7;

A

AB

;

A

B

:

ABDE

ABC

the square described on the hypotenuse; F^ G, are the points of intersection of the diagonals of the squares on the hypotenuse and sides shew that the angles DCE, are together equal to a right angle.
is
:

H

GFH

MISCELLANEOUS.
612.
is

a fixed point from which any straight

fixed straight line at in a point is constant: Q is taken sucli tliat the rectangle OP, shew that the locus of Q is the circumference of a circle. 613. O is a fixed point on the circumference of a circle, from which any straight line is drawn meeting the circumference at in OJP a point Q is taken such that the shew that the locus of Q is rectangle OP, is constant a straight line. The opposite sides of a quadrilateral inscribed in 614. a circle when produced meet at and Q shew that the square on is equal to the sum of the squares on tho tangents from and Q to the circle.
;

drawn meeting a

P

line is

OF

OQ

P

;

OQ

:

PQ

P

:

P

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

399
;

is a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle 615. and 7>C'are in-oduced to meet at /''; the opposite sides at shew that the and and tlie opposite sides as diameter cuts the circle circle described on

ABCD

AB BC EF

AD

K

:

ABCD

at rig-ht angles.
Gib'. From the vertex of a right-angled triangle a perpendicular is drawn on the hypotenuse, and from the foot of this perpendicular another is drawn on each side of the triangle shew that the area of the triangle of which these two latter perpendiculars arc two of the sides cannot be gi'cater than one-fourth of the area of the original
:

triangle.
lines

If the extremities of two intersecting straight be joined so as to form two vertically opposite triangles, the figure made by connecting the points of bisection of tho given straight lines, will be a parallelogram

617.

equal in area to half the ditfereuce of the triangles.
are two tangents to a circle, touching it AB, 618. is any point in the straight line which at and and.yl(7; shew that is joins the middle points oi

B

C R
;

AC

AB

equal to the tangent drawn from

R

AR

to the circle.

is are two tangents to a circle; 619. AB, a chord of the circle which, produced if necessary, meets at the straight line joining the middle points of AB, are equal to one shew that the angles RAP,

AC

PQ

R

;

AQR

AC

another.
6*20. Shew that the four circles each of which passes through the middle jmints of the sides of one of the four triangles formed by two adjacent sides and a diagonal of any quadrilateral all intersect at a point. Perpendiculars are drawn from any point on tho 621. three straight lines which bisect the angles of an equilateral tri;ini:le shew that one of them is equal to the sum
:

of the other two.
6*22.

Two

drawn through
through

circles intei-sect at perpendicular to

A

and B, and

B

AB to meet the circles;

CBD

is

A

a straight line

is

drawn bisecting either tho

interior or exterior angle ing the circumferences at

between .IT and AI>, and meetE and F\ shew that the tangents to the circumferences at E and /"' will intersect in AJi i>roduced.
6-23.

Divide a triangle by two straight lines into three

400
parts, which,

EXERCISES IN EUCLID.

shew that the triangle PAC is equal to the difference is within the angle of the triangles PAB and PAD, or that which is vertically opposite to it and that

when properly arranged, shall form a parallelogram whose angles are of given magnitude. is a parallelogram, and 624. is any point:

ABCD

P

DAD

UP

;

equal to'the sum of the triangles has any other position. and PAD, if 625. Two circles cut each other, and a straight line is drawn, which meets one circle at and D, and E, and their common chord at C: the other at is to the square on shew that the square on as the rectangle BC, CD is to the rectangle AC, CE.
the triangle
is

PAC

P

PAB

ABCDE

B

A

BD

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CAMBKIDOE

:

PRINTED

fi-^.C. J.

CLAY, M.A., AT

THE XJNIVEKSITY PRESS.

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