MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009

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Summary of MFIX Equations
Refer to this document as:
S. Benyahia, M. Syamlal, T.J. O’Brien, “Summary of MFIX Equations 2005-4”, From
URL https://mfix.netl.doe.gov/documentation/MFIXEquations2005-4-4.pdf , August 2008.

Modifications to the previous version
https://mfix.netl.doe.gov/documentation/MFIXEquations2005-4-3.pdf
• Corrected Equation A3 and A4. The MFIX code contains mass-transfer source
terms due to subtraction of continuity equations from conservative form of A3-A4.
Table of Contents
A. Governing equations ................................................................................................................................. 2
B. Kinetic Theory........................................................................................................................................... 3
Constitutive equations................................................................................................................................ 3
Algebraic granular energy equation ........................................................................................................... 5
C. Frictional Stress Models ............................................................................................................................ 5
Schaeffer model ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Princeton model ......................................................................................................................................... 6
D. Interface Momentum Transfer .................................................................................................................. 7
Wen-Yu drag correlation ........................................................................................................................... 7
Gidaspow drag correlation ......................................................................................................................... 8
Hill-Koch-Ladd drag correlation ............................................................................................................... 8
Syamlal and O’Brien.................................................................................................................................. 9
Solids/solids momentum exchange coefficient ........................................................................................ 10
E. Correlations for maximum packing ......................................................................................................... 10
Yu-Standish correlation ........................................................................................................................... 10
Fedors-Landel correlation ........................................................................................................................ 11
F. Gas momentum equation constitutive models ......................................................................................... 12
Stresses..................................................................................................................................................... 12
Porous media model ................................................................................................................................. 12
G. Gas/Solids Turbulence models................................................................................................................ 12
H. Energy equation constitutive models ...................................................................................................... 12
Interphase heat transfer ............................................................................................................................ 12
Gas and solids conduction ....................................................................................................................... 13
Heats of reaction ...................................................................................................................................... 13
Nomenclature ............................................................................................................................................... 14
References .................................................................................................................................................... 16

be aware that some of the equations in those documents have been revised. The equations are listed here without any explanation. Some details about the equations may be found in the two previous MFIX documents [1. Governing equations Einstein summation convention implied only on subscripts i and j. Continuity equations for solids phases m = 1. M: ⎡∂ ∂ ε m ρ m U mjU mi ⎢ (ε m ρ mU mi ) + ∂ t ∂ x j ⎢⎣ ( ⎤ )⎥ = − ε m ∂∂Pxg ⎥⎦ i + ∂τ mij ∂x j M + I gmi − ∑ I kmi k =1 (A3) + ε m ρ m gi Momentum equations for gas phase g: ⎡∂ ∂ ε g ρ g U gjU gi ⎢ ε g ρ gU gi + ∂ ∂ t x j ⎢⎣ + ε g ρ g gi ( ) ( ⎤ )⎥ = − ε g ∂∂Pxg ⎥⎦ i + ∂τ gij ∂x j M − ∑ I gmi + f gi m =1 (A4) Granular temperature equations for solids phases m = 1. A. 2]. M: Nm ∂ ∂ (ε m ρ m ) + ( ε m ρ mU mi ) = ∑ Rmn ∂t ∂xi n=1 (A1) Continuity equation for gas phase g: ∂ (ε g ρ g ) + ∂ ( ε g ρ gU gi ) = ∂t ∂xi Ng ∑R (A2) gn n=1 Momentum equations for solids phases m = 1. Refer to the readme file for the keywords (to be used to set up an MFIX simulation) for selecting the different equation choices presented here. This document will be updated when the equations in MFIX are revised or errors in this document needs to be fixed. to expedite the publication of this document. M ∂Θ m ⎞ ∂U mi ∂ ⎛ 3 ⎡ ∂ε m Θ m ∂ε mU mj Θ m ⎤ ⎜⎜ κ m ⎟⎟ + τ mij ρm ⎢ + ⎥= ∂xi ⎠ ∂x j 2 ⎢⎣ ∂t ∂x j ⎥⎦ ∂xi ⎝ + ∏ m − ε m ρ m J m (A5) Energy balance equations for solids phases m = 1. M ⎡ ∂Tm ε m ρ m C pm ⎢ ⎢⎣ ∂t + U mj ∂Tm ⎤ ∂qmi 4 − γ gm (Tm − Tg ) − ΔH m + γ Rm TRm − Tm4 ⎥=− ∂x j ⎥⎦ ∂xi Energy balance equation for gas phase g: ( ) (A6) .MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 2/16 The purpose of this document is to summarize the current set of equations in MFIX.

MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) ⎡ ∂Tg ε g ρ g C pg ⎢ ⎢⎣ ∂t + U gj 3/16 ∂Tg ⎤ ∂q gi M = − + ∑ γ gm (Tm − Tg ) − ΔH g + γ Rg TRg4 − Tg4 ⎥ ∂x j ⎥⎦ ∂xi m=1 ( ) (A7) Species balance equations for solids phases m = 1.mmη (2 − η ) ⎝ 5 n=1 n =1 ⎥⎦ ⎠⎝ 5 ⎠ 5 μm = ⎜ (B4) . which guarantees that two identical solids phases will behave same as one solids phase. Kinetic Theory Constitutive equations This is a modified Princeton model [3]. Solids stresses: ⎛ ∂U ⎞ mi ⎟⎟δ ij + 2μ m S mij τ mij = ⎜⎜ − Pm + ημ b x ∂ i ⎠ ⎝ (B1) where ⎞ 1 ∂U mi ⎟− ⎟ 3 ∂x i ⎠ (B2) M ⎡ ⎤ Pm = ε m ρ m Θ m ⎢1 + 4η ∑ (ε n g 0. Modifications include the ad-hoc extension of kinetic theory to polydisperse systems (more than one solids phase).mn )⎥ n =1 ⎣ ⎦ (B3) S mij = 1 ⎛⎜ ∂U mi ∂U mj + 2 ⎜⎝ ∂x j ∂xi Solids pressure: Solids viscosity: M ⎤ μ m* ⎛ 8 M ⎞⎛ 8 ⎛ 2 + α ⎞⎡ ( ) ( ) (ε n g 0. M ⎛ ∂ (ε m ρ m X mn ) + ∂ ( ε m ρ mU mi X mn ) = ∂ ⎜⎜ Dmn ∂X mn ∂t ∂xi ∂xi ⎝ ∂xi ⎞ ⎟⎟ + R mn ⎠ (A8) Species balance equation for gas phase g: ∂ (ε g ρ g X gn ) + ∂ ( ε g ρ gU gi X gn ) = ∂ ⎛⎜⎜ Dgn ∂X gn ∂t ∂xi ∂xi ⎝ ∂xi ⎞ ⎟⎟ + R gn ⎠ (A9) B.mn ⎟⎜ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎢⎣ g 0.mn )⎞⎟ + 3 ημ b ⎥ η ε g η η + + − 1 1 3 2 ⎜ ⎟⎢ ∑ ∑ n 0 .

mm ⎠ ⎢ 64 2⎛ ⎥ (41 − 33η )η ⎜ ∑ (ε n g 0.mn ⎟ ⎥ 5 n=1 ⎛ κ m* ⎞ ⎢⎝ n =1 ⎠⎥ ⎟ κ m = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎟⎢ ⎥ M ⎞ ⎝ g 0.mm Θ m κ κ m* = κ= (B8) M ⎛ 6 βκ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ρ m ∑ (ε n g 0.mn )⎟ + ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 25π ⎝ n=1 ⎠ ρ mε m g 0.mn ) 5π n =1 M (B5) (B6) (B7) Solids conductivity: M ⎡⎛ 12 M ⎞⎤ ⎞⎛ 12 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 η ε g 1 η 4 η 3 ε g + − + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∑ n 0.mm Θ m μ μ m* = ⎛ 2 βμ ⎞ ⎟⎟ ρ m ∑ (ε n g 0.mn ) Θ m + ⎜⎜ 5 ρ ε n =1 ⎝ m m⎠ 75 ρ m d p πΘ m (B9) (B10) 48η (41 − 33η ) Collisional dissipation: ∑ (ε M Jm = η= 48 π η (1 − η ) 1+ e 2 Exchange terms: n =1 n g 0.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 4/16 ρ mε m g 0.mn ⎠⎝ 5 ∑ ⎢ n 0 .mn ) Θ m + ⎜⎜ ρ ε n =1 m m ⎝ ⎠ 5 μ= ρ m d p πΘ m 96 M 256 μb = με m ∑ (ε n g 0.mn ) dp Θ 3m/ 2 (B11) (B12) .

5 + g emm emm emm ε m 0 mm ⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎩ 3(3 . ( ⎧⎪10 24 ε * − ε g Pc = ⎨ ⎪⎩0 ) 10 εg < ε* εg ≥ ε* (Note that the constant in the code is 1025 dyne/cm2). which is derived by equating the production to dissipation.e2mm ) ρ m g 0mm (B18) d pm π C.mm d p3 ρ m πΘ m Algebraic granular energy equation MFIX offers an option to solve algebraic granular energy equation. 2 2 ⎧ .emm ) 5 π ⎭ (B17) K 4m = 12(1 .4(1 + )(3 1) ] + 0 .MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) Π m = −3β Θ s + 81ε m μ g2 u g − u m 5/16 2 (B13) g 0. (C1) . Note that this is equation was revised in 2005. Frictional Stress Models Schaeffer model This model [4] is used at the critical state when the solids volume fraction exceeds the maximum packing limit.K 1m ε m D + K 1m (Dmii ) 2 ε 2m + 4 K 4m ε m [ K 2m (Dmii ) 2 + 2 K 3m (Dmij Dmij ) )] ⎫⎪ mii ⎪ Θm = ⎨ ⎬ 2 ε K 4m m ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ (B14) K 1m = 2 (1 + emm ) ρ m g 0 mm (B15) K 2m = 4 d pm ρ m (1 + emm ) ε m g 0 mm / (3 π ) - K 3m = 2 K 3m 3 (B16) 8 ε m g 0 mm (1+ emm ) ⎫ π d pm ρ m ⎧ ( ) [ 3 1 + 0.

11 )2 + Ds2. (Note that the constants in the code are 0.11 − Ds .23 + Ds2.31 (C5) 6 1 ⎛ ∂u s .i ∂u s . Also the frictional model influences the flow behavior at solids volume fractions below maximum packing ( ε sfmin = 0.05. s=5.12 + Ds2.22 − Ds .33 )2 + (Ds . ( ) ⎧10 24 ε * − ε 10 g ⎪ ⎪⎪ ( 1 − ε g ) − ε smin Pc = ⎨ Fr s εg −ε* ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎩0 ( ( ) ) r εg <ε* ε * ≤ ε g < (1 − ε sfmin ) (C7) ε g ≥ (1 − ε sfmin ) Where Fr =0.ij (C4) Princeton model This model [5] is a modification of Savage model that accounts for strain-rate fluctuations.22 )2 + (Ds .5 and 1025 dyne/cm2). j ⎞⎟ = ⎜ + (C6) ∂xi ⎟⎠ 2 ⎜⎝ ∂x j I 2D = Ds . r= 2. μs ⎟ M ⎜ ⎟ 4I 2D μf = ⎨ ε ⎜ ⎟ ∑ m ⎪ m =1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎪⎩0 εg <ε* (C2) εg ≥ε* μ smax = 100 (C3) (Note that this constant in the code is 1000 poise).5 ). μ bulk =0 f [ ] 1 (Ds . Pf ⎛⎜ ∇⋅v = ⎜1 − 2 Pc ⎝ n 2 sin (φ ) S : S + Θ / d p ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ n −1 εs (C8) M ∑ε m =1 m .MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 6/16 ⎧ ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ( ) P sin φ ε max s ⎪⎪min⎜ c .33 − Ds .

03 ⎩ ∇⋅v ≥ 0 (C10) ∇⋅v < 0 2 3 = − μf μ bulk f (C11) D.15 Re 0. Interface Momentum Transfer Gas/solids momentum interface exchange: I gmi = β gm (u gi − u mi ) (D1) Solids/solids momentum exchange: I kmi = β km (u ki − u mi ) (D2) Wen-Yu drag correlation β gm = ρ g ε g ε m u g − u m −2.65 3 εg CD 4 d pm ( ⎧24 / Re 1 + 0. the coefficient n is set differently depending on whether the granular assembly experiences a dilatation or compaction: ⎧ 3 ⎪ n = ⎨ 2 sin (φ ) ⎪1.44 Re = ρ g ε g u g − u m d pm μg ) Re < 1000 Re ≥ 1000 (D3) (D4) (D5) .687 CD = ⎨ ⎩0.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) ⎧ 2 Pf sin (φ ) ⎪ ⎛ Pf n − (n − 1)⎜⎜ μf = ⎨ S : S + Θ / d p2 ⎪ ⎝ Pc ⎩ 7/16 ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 1 n −1 ⎫ ⎪ εs ⎬ M ⎪ ∑εm ⎭ (C9) m =1 Here.

01 and Re ≤ (F2 − 1) (3 / 8 − F3 ) ε s > 0. 01 Re ≤ > ε ⎪ s (3 / 8 − F3 ) ⎪ ⎨ F3 + F32 − 4 F1 (F0 − F2 ) ⎪ ⎪ε s > 0. Koch and Ladd [6. 7] was modified [12] and implemented in MFIX.687 CD = ⎨ ⎩0.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 8/16 Gidaspow drag correlation β gm ⎧3 ρ g ε g ε m u g − u m −2.01 and Re > 2 F1 ⎩ And the coefficients are defined as follows: (D11) (D12) .01 and Re ≤ (D10) F3 + F32 − 4 F1 (F0 − F2 ) 2 F1 (F2 − 1) ⎧ and 0 .44 Re = ε g ≥ 0.65 ⎪ CD εg d pm ⎪4 =⎨ ⎪150ε s (1 − ε g )μ g 1.15 Re 0.75 ρ g ε m u g − u m + ⎪ 2 d d pm ε g pm ⎩ ( ) ⎧ 24 / Re 1 + 0.8 Re < 1000 (D7) Re ≥ 1000 ρ g ε g u g − u m d pm (D8) μg Hill-Koch-Ladd drag correlation (valid for one solids phase only) The drag correlation of Hill.8 (D6) ε g < 0. β gm = 18μ g (1 − ε m )2 ε m F 2 d pm (D9) The drag force ( F ) is given as: F = 1 + 3 / 8 Re F = F0 + F1 R 2 e F = F2 + F3 Re ε s ≤ 0.

0232/(1− ε s )5 ε s ≥ 0.12 Rem (2B .00051 exp(11.8 ) 2 V rm / Rem u g − u m 2 2 V rm = 0.4−ε s ) / ε s ) (D18) Syamlal and O’Brien β gm = 3ε m ε g ρg 2 rm 4 V d pm ( (0.0673+ 0.14ε s ⎤ ⎡ εs ⎪(1 − w)⎢ + 10 w ⎥ ⎢ 2 3 3 1 + 0.9351ε s + 0.A) + A (D19) ) (D20) .0953 ρ g (1 − ε m ) u g − u m d pm Re = 2μ g (D16) (D17) w = e (−10 (0.16ε s ⎪ ⎢⎣ (1 − ε s ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ F0 = ⎨ εs ⎪ 10 ⎪ (1 − ε )3 s ⎩ ⎤ ⎥ 0.03ε s + 15.41ε s ⎪ ⎢⎣ (1 − ε s ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ F2 = ⎨ εs ⎪ 10 ⎪ (1 − ε )3 s ⎩ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥⎦ ε s < 0 .48ε s + 8.212ε s + 0.4 (D15) ε s < 0.63 + 4.5 A .0953 ⎧⎪0.6ε ) s ⎩ 0.4 ε s ≥ 0 .03667 F3 = ⎨ ⎪⎩0.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 9/16 ⎧ ⎡1 + 3 ε s / 2 + (135 / 64 )ε s ln (ε s ) + 17.681ε s − 8.681ε s − 11.1 (D14) ε s > 0.0.11 + 0.4 (D13) ⎧ 2 / 40 ⎪ F1 = ⎨ ε s ⎪0.1 ⎧ ⎡1 + 3 ε s / 2 + (135 / 64 )ε s ln (ε s ) + 17.06 Rem ) + 0.06 Rem + (0.01 < ε s < 0.89ε s ⎤ ⎡ εs ⎪(1 − w)⎢ + w 10 ⎥ ⎢ 2 3 3 1 + 0.4 ⎥⎦ ε s ≥ 0.01 < ε s ≤ 0.

mixture ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ = min ⎨ max i −1 ⎪1 − ⎛⎜1 − ε s . To use these correlations.k ) ρ ρ g u − u + s P ⎛π π2 ⎞ ⎟⎟ = 3(1 + e )⎜⎜ + c fkm m k 0 . (See reference [10] and [11] for details) E. Yu-Standish correlation This correlation can be used for powder mixtures with 2 or more components.85 ⎪⎩ ε g (D22) Rem = d pm u g − u m ρ g (D23) μg Solids/solids momentum exchange coefficient (d p. Correlations for maximum packing This section provides description of two empirical correlations for computing the solids maximum packing in polydisperse systems by Yu and Standish [8] and Fedors and Landel [9]. M (E2) .i ⎪ ∑ ⎜ pij j =1 ⎝ ⎩ (E1) ε smax .i ⎞ cxi ⎟ ⎟X ⎠ ij − ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ M ⎛ ⎞ ε smax cx i ⎜1 − . ⎟ i ⎪ ∑ ⎜ pij ⎟⎠ X ij ⎪⎭ j =i +1⎝ i = 1.mk m k coef c 8 ⎠ 2π ρ m d 3p .m + ρ k d 3p .14 g (D21) ⎧⎪ 0..MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 10/16 A = ε 4.m + d p.k ⎝2 2 β km ( ) (D19) c fkm : Constant defined in input file (no default value assigned) s coef : Constant defined in input file with default value of zero.. .mixture ε max s .. ε * = 1 − ε smax .28 if ε g ≤ 0. 2.8 ε 1.65 if ε g > 0. the numbering of the solids phases was rearranged in MFIX to start with the coarsest to the finest powder.85 g B = ⎨ 2.

1 max + (1 − ε smax . j rij = ⎨ ⎪ d p.1 ε smax .i ⎪ ⎪ d p.1 .i ⎩ ε smax .2 max ε s . Fedors-Landel correlation This correlation can only be used for a binary mixture of powders.2 s .i X ij = ⎨ 1 − rij2 ⎪ ⎪1 − 2 − ε max s .741 (E5) rij > 0. 2. 2 ε smax .i 1 − ε s .i (E3) M ∑ ε s.1 ⎪ ⎪ max max max ⎪ 1 − r2.1 )ε s ..i . 2 ) + 1 − r2.1 )ε s . 2 (E7) .741 i≥ j (E6) i< j i = 1.1 )ε s . d p .35rij2 .. j ⎪ d p . mixture ( [ ( ] ) ] )[ ] cx1 ≤ cx1 > ε smax .1 ε smax .. ⎧ ⎪ max max max max × ⎪ (ε s .1 ε smax . 2 cx 2 + ε s . i ) rij ≤ 0.1 + (1 − ε s .i + ε s . i pij = ⎨ max ⎪⎩ε s . j j =1 ⎧ 1 − rij2 ⎪ max ⎪ 2 − ε s .1 max + (1 − ε smax .MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) cxi = 11/16 ε s .i ⎩ j<i (E4) j≥i ( )( max max ⎧⎪ε smax 1 − 2.i ⎧ d p .1 s.1 − ε s . M represent the maximum packing and particle diameter of individual powders.35rij + 1. .1 )ε s . 2 ⎪ ⎪ max max cx1 ( ) =⎨ + − + ε smax ε smax 1 ε ε .1 (1 − ε s .1 ⎪⎩ [ ε max s .

12 + Dg2.2 Pr 1 / 3 + 1.33 − 2.7 Pr 1 / 3 (H3) .33 )2 + (Dg . Gas/Solids Turbulence models The gas/solids turbulence models are given in Benyahia 2005.4ε g + 1.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 12/16 F.22 )2 + (Dg . Energy equation constitutive models Interphase heat transfer γ gm = 0 γ gm = C pg Rgm ⎡ ⎛ C pg Rgm ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ −1⎥ ⎢exp⎜⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎣⎢ ⎝ γ gm ⎠ ⎦⎥ 6κ g ε m Num ( (H1) (H2) d m2 )( ) ( ) Nu m = 7 − 10 ε g + 5 ε g2 1 + 0. Gas momentum equation constitutive models Stresses τ gij = 2μ gt S gij (F1) where 1 ⎛⎜ ∂U gi ∂U gj + 2 ⎜⎝ ∂x j ∂xi ⎞ 1 ∂U gi ⎟− δ ⎟ 3 ∂x ij i ⎠ μ gt = Min( μ max .31 Porous media model f gi = − (F4) μg c1 U gi − ( ] ) c2 ρ g U gjU gj U gi 2 (F5) (F6) G. The equations are not reproduced here because of a small inconsistency in the notation.11 − Dg .2 ε g2 Re 0m. μ g + μ e ) S gij = (F2) (F3) μ e = 2 l s2ε g ρ g I 2 Dg I 2 Dg = [ 1 (Dg . H.11 )2 6 + Dg2.7 Re 0m.33 − Dg .22 − Ds. 23 + Dg2.

ref )n + ∫ C pmn (T )dT ⎥ ε g ρ g ⎜⎜ + U gi ∂ ∂ t x ⎥ n ⎢ i ⎠ ⎝ Tref ⎣ ⎦ Ts Nm ⎡ ⎤⎛ ⎞ ≈ ∑ ⎢(H m .MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 13/16 Gas and solids conduction qmi = − κ m q gi = − κ g ∂Tm ∂xi ∂Tg ∂xi (H4) (H5) Heats of reaction Ts ⎡ ⎤ ∂X gn ⎞ ⎛ ∂X gn ⎟⎟ − ΔH m = ∑ ⎢(H m .ref )n + ∫ C pgn (T )dT ⎥⎜⎜ Rgn − X gn ∑ R gn′ ⎟⎟ ⎥⎦⎝ n ⎢ n′=1 Tref ⎠ ⎣ (H6) (H7) .ref )n + ∫ C pmn (T )dT ⎥⎜⎜ Rmn − X mn ∑ Rmn′ ⎟⎟ ⎥⎦⎝ n ⎢ n′=1 ⎠ Tref ⎣ Tg Ng ⎡ ⎤⎛ ⎞ − ΔH g ≈ ∑ ⎢(H g .

plastic regime. viscous regime. summation convention is used only for these indices. J/m3 Enthalpy of fluid phase. s-1 Dmij Dgn Dmn ekm fgi gi g0m (Hm. fluid phase. J/m·K·s Conductivity of material that constitutes solids phase m. J/m·K·s A turbulence length-scale parameter. species n at Tref. k or m = 0 indicates fluid phase. Pa Pressure in Solids phase m. kg/m·s Diffusion coefficient of nth solids-phase-m species-n. j Rate of strain tensor. J/m2·s Solids-phase m conductive heat flux.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 14/16 Nomenclature c1 c2 Cpg Cfkm Cpm dpm D gij Permeability of porous media. s-2 Fluid-phase conductivity. s-1 I2Dg I2Ds kg kpm ksm ls m M Mw n Ng Nm Num Pg Pmp Pmv Pr qgi qmi R Rem Rkm Rmk Diffusion coefficient of nth gas-phase species. m Rate of strain tensor. J/m·K·s Solids phase m conductivity. m/s2 Radial distribution function at contact Enthalpy of mth solids phase. m-1 Specific heat of the fluid phase. Pa·m3/kmol·K mth solids phase particle Reynolds number Ratio of solids to fluid conductivity Rate of transfer of mass from mth phase to kth phase. J/m2·s Universal gas constant. Second invariant of the deviator of the strain rate tensor for gas phase. "m=0" indicates fluid phase Total number of solids phases Average molecular weight of gas Index of the nth chemical species Total number of fluid-phase chemical species Total number of solids phase m chemical species Nusselt number Pressure in the fluid phase. J/m3·s Indices to identify vector and tensor components. Pa Prandtl number Fluid-phase conductive heat flux. J/kg·K Diameter of the particles constituting the mth solids phase. J/m3 Heat of reaction in the fluid phase. N/m3 Acceleration due to gravity. m Index of the mth solids phase. m2 Inertial resistance factor of porous media. J/m3·s Heat of reaction in the mth solids phase. J/kg·K Coefficient of friction for solids phases k and m Specific heat of the mth solids phase. kg/m·s Coefficient of restitution for the collisions of mth and kth solids phases Fluid flow resistance due to porous media. kg/m3·s .ref )n (Hg. solids phase-m. Pa Pressure in Solids phase m.ref )n ΔHg ΔHm i. species n at Tref. s-2 Second invariant of the deviator of the strain rate tensor for solids phase 1.

J/m3·K·s 0 γ gm Fluid-solids heat transfer coefficient not corrected for interphase mass transfer. kg/m·s ξmk = 1 if Rmk < 0. kg/m3 Microscopic (material) density of the mth solids phase.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) Rgn Rmn t Tg Tm TRef TRg TRm Ugi Umi xi Xgn Xmn GREEK LETTERS βgm 15/16 Rate of production of the nth chemical species in the fluid phase. kg/m·s Turbulent viscosity of the fluid phase. Pa Solids phase m stress tensor. kg/m·s Molecular viscosity of the fluid phase. Pa Angle of internal friction. Microscopic (material) density of the fluid phase. plastic regime. K Reference temperature. J/m3·K4·s Granular energy dissipation due to inelastic collisions. K Thermodynamic temperature of the solids phase m. kg/m3·s Fluid-solids heat transfer coefficient corrected for interphase mass transfer. kg/m3·s Rate of production of the nth chemical species in the mth solids phase. K Fluid-phase velocity vector. m/s ith Coordinate Direction. viscous regime. s Thermodynamic temperature of the fluid phase. kg/m·s Solids viscosity. J/m3·K4·s Solids-phase-m radiative heat transfer coefficient. kg/m3·s Time. kg/m·s Maximum value of the turbulent viscosity of the fluid phase. m2/s2 Solids conductivity function Second coefficient of solids viscosity. else ξmk = 0. kg/m3 Fluid-phase stress tensor. βkm γRg γRm εg εm η Θm λrm λv m μe μg μgmax μgt μpm μvm ξmk ρg ρm τ gij τ mij φ φk J/m3·K·s Fluid-phase radiative heat transfer coefficient. K Solids phase-m radiation temperature. kg/m3·s Coefficient for the interphase force between the kth solids phase and the mth solids phase. K Fluid phase radiation temperature. m Mass fraction of the nth chemical species in the fluid phase Mass fraction of the nth chemical species in the mth solids phase γ gm Coefficient for the interphase force between the fluid phase and the mth solids phase. kg/m·s Solids viscosity. m/s mth solids-phase velocity vector. kg/m·s Eddy viscosity of the fluid phase. also used as general scalar Contact area fraction in solids conductivity model . viscous regime. J/m3·s Volume fraction of the fluid phase (void fraction) Packed-bed (maximum) solids volume fraction Volume fraction of the mth solids phase Function of restitution coefficient Granular temperature of phase m.

9. Rogers. DOE/MC-313465824. Yu.. Powder Tech.. J. Eq.. Syamlal. 162. Powder Tech. 2003.. 10. J. M. 213-241.F. and Ladd. Syamlal. 6. D.. MFIX Documentation: Numerical Techniques. 2001.J. DOE/MC/21353-2373.A. A. Syamlal. Gera.C. Benyahia... S. National Technical Information Service. D. R.. 225-231. 129." Topical Report.. R. Springfield.. J.F. 445. M.. J. 419-428.L. J. Int. NTIS/DE94000087.L..C.. Springfield.. 30 (4). Powder Tech. Syamlal. and Landel R. Diff. 2002. 7. DOE/METC-94/1004. . 1987. 2001. Springfield. J. "The Particle-Particle Drag Term in a Multiparticle Model of Fluidization. 2001. VA 3. 19-50. D. Powder Tech. Mech. 1993. 8. 2006. Theory Guide. 1979.N. 11. 4. and T. National Technical Information Service. 448. Fluid Mech. Fedors. M and Sundaresan. 72-85.. Srivastava. and Ladd.. 52.. A. K. NTIS/DE87006500. and Sundaresan.J. Fluid Mech. Syamlal M and O'Brien TJ. 151-185. 66. Hill. R.. O'Brien TJ.B. 2.. 448. December 1998. S. 12. 23. "MFIX Documentation. W. VA. J. Syamlal M.. and Standish N." Technical Note.J.. Schaeffer. Agrawal.MFIX Equations 2005-4-4 (August 2009) 16/16 References 1. 243-278. 1987. D. M. O'Brien. P. 166-174. NTIS/DE98002029. 1987. Hill. Koch.G. VA.. Fluid. Loezos. 233-241. National Technical Information Service. Multiphase flow.. 5. Koch. S.

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