SWINE FLU

NEED FOR STUDY The recent outbreak of swine flu within the human population has caused a great deal of concern for health officials in India and has become a much publicized disease; Swine flu is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by one of the several swine influenza viruses commonly H1N1 viruses. (Type an influenza virus) An average of 2, 00,000 Americans are hospitalized due to seasonal flu annually. Between 1976 and 2006, the fewest Americans who died from the flu were 3,000 in one year. The most deaths from flu in that same time period were 49,000 in one year. Most of those who died were either infants, elderly, or people who had compromised immune systems due to another medical problems. In US 1,192 specimens were tested by WHO and NREVSS ( National Respiratory And Enteric Virus Surveillance System) collaborating laboratories and reported to CDC/ Influenza Division and 9 (0.8%) were found positive for influenza. 105 Laboratory in US Confirmed influenza – associated pediatric deaths which have been reported to CDC. The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza like illness (ICI) was 0.9%. New York City and 49 states experienced minimal ICI activity geographic spread of influenza in Duerto Rico and 21 states was reported as sporadic and the District of Columbia, US Virgin Island, Guam and 29 states reported no influenza activity US VIROLOGIC Surveillance IN NATIONAL LEVEL Swine flu has unfortunately now reached India. Out of the 1,121 specimens tested in India 837 specimens are confirmed positive. Proportion of outpatient visit for influenza like illness (ICI) was 2.5%. As we had witnessed, the outbreak of this drastic and dreadful disease, swine flu Spreading among human population and endangering the lives of many within the recent Past, so we have taken up this study for our project work in order to create an awareness about the prevention and treatment of swine flu.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
➢ Literature related to origin of swine flu. ➢ Literature related to transmission of swine flu. ➢ Literature related to prevention and treatment of swine flu. ➢ Literature related to role of research for swine flu.

we sum up the current situation and put it into the current state of knowledge of influenza pandemics some indications suggests that a pandemic may be mild but even “mild” pandemic can result in millions of deaths. in department of medicine. There are concerns that this virus may mutate or rearrolt with existing influenza viruses giving rise to more transmissible or more pathogenic viruses. with a 9th reporting in August 2004. . A study conducted on novel swine origin influenza virus by michdelism Etal in 2009. Out breaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by H5N1 viruses were reported. In this review. and there is circumstantial evidence that they can be transmitted by wild birds.V.D. A study conducted on origin and evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza by Sims L. There in some evidence that the excretion of the virus by domestic ducks had increased by early 2004. now this pandemic may develop can be made at this time. education of medical personnel’s and the public production of vaccines and use of specific antiviral agents. Etal in 2009.BY 2000 there host range had extended to domestic ducks. Eg: adementane. Hygienic Institute. Surveillance cutting infected birds.etal in 2005. the potential for transmission of disease to humans.LITERATURE RELATED TO ORIGIN OF SWINE FLU A study conducted on an update of swine flu origin influenza virus A /H1N1 by Schnitzler S . In this review. The review discussed regarding the epidemiology and genetics of avian influenza viruses. However no reasonable fore lasts. New York. The global efforts for disease prevention via a host of programmes including intensified. University of Rochester School of medicine. Asian H5N1 viruses were first detected in domestic geese in southern china in 1996. neuraminidase inhibitors. A study conducted on origin of pandemic (avian) influenza by Rajagopal’s Treanur in 2005. suggesting that the virus had spread recently and rapidly. which played a key role in the genesis of the 2003/04 out breaks. This summarizes the current information’s on the new pandemic swine flu origin influenza virus A/ H1N1. In eight neighboring Asian countries between December 2003 and January 2004. specific makers for virulence can be evaluated in the viral genome.

At the moment of the onset of the pandemic there was few data about the transmission of the 2009 H1N1 virus infection from the mother to the newborn. June through 4. Human serological testing and performance of the human influenza like illness (I L I). virus in 12. June through 4. During the first year 15 of 88 swine flu (SW) had ILI and were sampled all was culture negative for influenza. . The study investigates a PH1N1 out breaks occurring on a swine research from with 37 human and 1300 and 1300 swine in Albert’s Canada from 12. During the second year 11 of 76 of SW had ILI and were sample one was culture positive for human seasonal H3N2 virus. A study conducted on transmission of influenza A virus between pigs and people in 2002-2004 by carter H in king’s college London. case definition were also done. The respiratory samples was collected and tested for influenza viruses from swine worker (SW) and from pigs. July 2009. Rigorous attention to standard precaution and droplet precaution is required to reduce the Trans mission of the infection in the health care setting. Nevertheless neonates born to an ill mother from 2 days before through 7 days after illness onset in the mother were thought to be exposed and potentially infected.senal blood samples from study participants were tested by hemaggultination inhibition. A Study conducted on focal on 2009 H1N1 influenza (swine flu) in infectious disease group of Italian society. July 2009.LTERATURE RELATED TO TRANSMISSION OF SWINE FLU A study conducted on swine outbreak of pandemic influenza A. Seven of 37 human developed 14 and 2 were positive for PH1N1 by revase transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

In1997. lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhoea. A study conducted on the spread of avian influenza H5N1 virus by Chutinimitkul. A study conducted on Avian influenza by Thomas J. close contact with their secretions or contaminated fomites. In 1997. WHO has documented 258 confirmed human infections with a mortality rate effective defense against an influenza pandemic.The transmission of H5N1 virus to human is by direct contact with infected birds and paultry. detection of H5 Specific RNA. since avaian influenza virus from bird to human infection with high morbidity and mortality rate the probability of human to human transmission. would be a directed vaccine to elicit specific immune response towards the strain or strain of the influenza virus. After a mean incubation period of 2-5 days. an outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus emerged and caused severe systemic disease. S etal university Bangkok Thailand Jan 2006. In severe cases death occur due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ involvement. The study reveals influenza A H5N1 virus infection presences a major health problems Asian and Eurasian countries. In this review articles influenza virus A (H5N1) infections.k etal university of Maryland Baltimore USA by Sept 2006. laboratory diagnostic . infection onsets with high fever. epidemiology and protection have been discussed. in Hongkong. Avian influenza virus A1H5N1 is a public health threat that has the potential to cause serious illness and death in human. Moreover. The diagnosis is confirmed by viral isolation.LITERATURE RELATED TO PANDEMIC SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS A study conducted on influenza type A (H1N1) virus infection by Engin A comhursitesi Tip fakuters. Enfeksiyon Hastaliklan etal. The world health organization considers the avian influenza A H5N1 virus a public health risk with pandemic potential.

.techniques vaccination strategies and antiviral therapies must be aimed at outbreak control and management aspects.

95%.7. They used qualitative interview to identify the main reason why people approach NHS direct with concern about swine flu and to identify aspects of their contact which were reassuring.LITERATURE RELATED TO EFFECT OF COMMUNICATION SWINE FLU A study conducted on reassuring and managing patients with concerns about swine flu by Rubin GJ etal.1% of respondents were very or fairly likely to accept the swine flu vaccine. resign a frame work approach.6. at an average weekly.0) or one’s child AOR. The strongest predictors were being very worried about the possibility of one self (adjusted odds ratio {AOR} 4. 95% confidence interval {CI} 3. Thirty six surveys were run. interval across the UK between 1st May 2009 and 10th January 2010. CI 4. A study conducted on the impact of communication about swine flu on public response to the outbreak by Rubin G.9 catching swine flu overall .J etal in king’s college. Thirty six surveys were run. A study conducted on the impact of communication about swine flu on public response to the outbreak by Rubin G.33 patients participated in semi structured interview. The study recommend future major incidents involving other forms of chemical. All participants were asked to state how worried they were about the possibilities of personally catching swine flu.1% of respondents were very or fairly. at an average weekly. particularly where advice can be given via trusted pre-existing service. London. London. All participants were asked to state how worried they were about the possibilities of personally catching swine flu. In total 56. interval across the UK between 1st May 2009 and 10th January 2010.2-7. biological or radiological hazards may also cause large number of unexposed people to seek health advices our data suggest the providing telephone triage and information is such instance.13. In total 56.J etal in king’s college.

1% of participants reporting carrying tissue with them 95% had bought sanitizing gel 2.0% had avoided public transport and 1.6% had sought medical advice.33. .

8%) and 69 family members (68. who had close contact . concerns and behavior of people with existing respiratory condition in relation to the H1N1 swine influenza pandemic. 101 family members) . 37. CONCERN IF BEHAVIOUR OF THE PEOPLE AFFECTED WITH SWINE FLU. 39. Participants were not highly anxious about swine flu.About half (53. p. There was 1292 respondents (45% response rate) .3%) about swine flu.3%) were very fairly likely to take up swine flu vaccination. 58. p. A Study conducted on new influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu) information needs of airport passengers and staff. one to one interview(13 patient.5% FM). More patient were worried (n=147. p. n = 78. A study conducted on exploring the need. 54.31) than not worried (n=99. At the start of the influenza A/H1N1 epidemic (29-30) April 2009 qualitative semistructured interviews (n=101) were conducted at frank furt internal airport with passengers who were either returning from going to Mexico and with airport staff. p.LITERATURE RELATED TO SURVEY ON NEEDS.9%. 77.6% FM) in total 212 patient (83.2%) of respondent indicates some level of concern about pandemic (H1N1) 2009 when travelling and just over one third (35. n= 55.6% FM) and greater use of sanitizing hand gel (n= 100. 7 family members) and focus group ( n = 3 groups. 30 participants). 40. None the less.5%.4%. 49.2% FM). Mainly via a leaflet delivered to their home (n =125. Commonly adopted preventive measure were more frequent hand washing (107. 36. The method used is mixed method study cross sectional survey (253 patient. 42.A University of Manchester UK. 73. Most had already received information about swine flu (n = 187. a multicenter survey and qualitative study by Luker K. 38. but did recognize risk for patients. LITERATURE RELATED TO PRECAUTIONS TAKEN DURING SWINE FLU WHILE TRAVELING A Study conducted on level of concern and precautions taking among Australians regarding travel during pandemic (H1N1) 2009. 37.8%. if they exhibited symptoms consistent with pandemic (H1N1)2009.5%) indicated they would likely cancelled. the majority of Queenslanders would have not postponed their own travel.

There gap include 1) An understanding of the molecular determinants of influenza virus and the host that permit efficient bansmissibility and pandemic potential 2) The urgent need for prospective surveillance in apparently healthy swine 3) The molecular determinants of high pathogenicity in poultry.etal in university of hongkong by June 2010. Webster RG in Department of infectious disease St. By this study the researcher identify the gap in their knowledge of H5N1 and pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. Memphis TN 3810 – 2794 USA. The results showed that a desire for more information was associated with higher concern-the least concern participants did not want any additional information. A Study conducted on perspectives on influenza on evolution and the role research by Forrest HL. A Study conducted on a pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based modified vaccines Ankara by Garica.with these passengers. The MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-NI-Ca live vaccines together with an activated whole virus vaccines were assessed in using immune competent Balb/c mice and was founded that non replicating MVA based H1N1 live vaccines induced a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for pandemic influenza.pigs.and people 4) The genetic basis as the reservoir of highly pathogenicity in poultry. LITERATURE RELATED TO ROLE OF RESEARCH FOR SWINE FLU VIRUS. Jude children Research hospital. pigs and people 5) The problem with vaccines 6) Seasonality 7) Co-infections and 8) Anti-influenza drug resistance . while the most participants reported a range of information needs. Airport staffs in contact with passengers travelling from the epicenter of the outbreak showed the highest level of fear or concern coupled with a desire to be adequately briefed by their employees.

METHODOLOGY .

O1 Treatment Structured teaching programme Post test Assessment of awareness on prevention and treatment of swine flu. The pre-experimental design was considered an appropriate research design to describe the awareness of the swine flu among the group. and method of data collection and plan for data analysis RESEARCH APPROACH A research approaches tells the researcher what data and how to analyze it also suggest possible conclusion to be drawn from the data. development and description of the tool. RESEARCH DESIGN The research design selected for the present study was pre-experimental study with one group pre test and post test design. It view the nature of the problem selected for the study and objective to be accomplished. the population sample technique. research design. Here the pre test is conducted followed by structured teaching programme and then conducting post test for the same group after 4 days. X O2 O1 ǀ O2: Awareness on swine flu . the setting. So we have selected this approach for our study. pilot study. the induction and exclusion criteria. Pre test Assessment of awareness on prevention and treatment of swine flu. It includes research approach.METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the methodology adopted for the proposed study and different steps undertaken after gathering and orienting data for investigation.

X: Structured teaching programme .

The sample were selected by using purposive sampling techique out of 46 samples who attented the structured teaching programme. SAMPLING CRITERIA I. The sample for the present study was 40 students in R. Exclusion Criteria a) Students who were not available at the time of study. SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOOL .R college of nusing. Chikkabanavarn. R. selected to participate in research study. Sampling is the processes of selecting a group of people. b) Students who were read and write English. I. who were selected depending upon the selecting criteria. behaviour or other elements with which to conduct a study. It may be natural setting depending upon the study topic and researcher’s The study has been conducted in the 1st year BSC nursing. event.R college of nursing. SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Sample refers to a subset of population. Inclusion Criteria a) Students who were willing to participate.SYSYTEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF RESEARCH STUDY SETTING OF THE STUDY Setting refers to the area where the study is covered. Bangalore which comprises about 40 students POPULATION Population is a group whose numbers possessnspecific attributes that a researcher interested to study.

Signs and symptoms 7.Tools were prepared on the basis of objective of the study. The items are distributed under the following components.It consists of items. Classification 3. Prevention Each correct response was assigned of score of one and wrong response was assigned a score of zero . Incidence and prevalence 4. Definition 2. published and unpublished research studies and internet research were used to develop the tool.Books. It was considered to be the most appropriate instrument to elicit the response from the students who are able to understand read and write English The following steps were carried out in preparing the tools:  Review of literature: . Part2:. 1. articles. Incubation period 5.Consisting of items pertaining to the demographic variables of the respondents such as age. Source of transmission / Mode of transmission 6. prevention and treatment of swine flu. sex. DESCRIPTION OF THE TOOL The interview schedule was designed into two parts. A self administered questionnaire selected to assess the knowledge of students regarding prevention and treatment measures. Nurses responsibility 10. Diagnosis 8.  Preparation of the blue print: . Part 1:. 10 components were considered for the preparation of the tool and questions for the tool were distributed under these components. Journals. newspaper. previous knowledge and source of information. Treatment 9.a blue print was prepared to aid in the construction of the tool.

“the extent to which research findings represent reality” RELIABILITY OF THE TOOL Reliability of an instrument is the degree of consistency with which it measures the attribute it’s supposed to measure. The total score was which is classified as follows in this study • • • Adequate knowledge > 75% Moderately adequate knowledge 51-75% Inadequate knowledge <50% VALIDATION OF THE TOOL 1. The following steps were adopted to develop the STP ➢ Preparation of the 1st draft of STP ➢ Content validity of STP ➢ Preparation of final draft of STP ➢ Description of the STP PREPERATION OF THE 1ST DRAFT OF STP .SCORING PROCEDURE Each item carries 1 mark for the correct answer and 0 mark for the wrong answer. 2. In qualitative research. In quantitative research. the ability of a data gathering instrument to what it purposes to measure. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURED TECHINIQUE PROGRAMME The STP was developed based on the review of the related research and non-research literature and the objectives stated in the teaching plan.

A 1st draft of STP was developed keeping in mind the objective. Bangalore. literature reviewed and opinion of experts. Definition of swine flu 2. Incidence and prevalence 4. PREPERATION OF FINAL DRAFT OF STP Suggestions from experts were taken into consideration and modification of the tools was made. Diagnosis 8. Incubation period 5. The suggestions were incorporated in the structured teaching programme. Prevention PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION PERMISSION FROM THE CONCERNED AUTHORITY. Sign and symptoms 7. It consists the following contents 1. The final draft of STP was prepared after incorporating experts’ suggestions.R College of nursing. Classification 3. criteria. . The STP was prepared to enhance the knowledge of students regarding prevention and treatment measures. Treatment 9. Source of transmission and mode of transmission 6. DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURED TECHNIQUE PROGRAMME The STP was titled “PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF SWINE FLU”. The main factors that were kept in mind which preparing STP were the level of understanding 1st year students’ simplicity of language and relevant audio – visual aids. Nurses responsibility 10. Formal permission was obtained from principal of R. CONTENT VALIDITY OF STP The initial draft of structured teaching programme was given to experts in the field along with the tool.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA Frequencies and percentages to be used for analysis of demographic characteristics Calculation of mean. Post test was conducted using the same self administrated questionnaire after the structured teaching programme. on the next day the structured teaching programme was administrated using the 4 days. PRE-TEST The investigation conducted on questionnaire method of evaluation techniques to each samples on swine flu.PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION The data was collected on the meeting day where the 40 students gathered. Total data was collected from 40 samples which were selected by using purposive sampling by meeting the sampling criteria. IMPELEMENTATION OF STP After the pretest. PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS The data obtained was analyzed in teams of achieving the objective of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. The time for the test was from 30 mts. mean deviation. mean percentage of pretest and posttest scores .

POST TEST Classification of respondents (post test level) on prevention and treatment of swine flu. AWARENESS LEVEL INADEQUATE MODERATE ADEQUATE 12. AWARENESS LEVEL INADEQUATE MODERATE ADEQUATE 12.5% 12.5-18% >18% TOTAL CATEGORY RESPONDENTS NUMBER 16 24 0 40 PERCENTAGE 40% 60% 0% 100% The finding revealed that 60% as moderate awareness level and 40% as inadequate awareness level.5-18% >18% CATEGORY NUMBER 0 14 26 RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 0% 35% 65% .5% 12.RESULTS PRETEST Classification of respondents (pretest level) on prevention and treatment of swine flu.

.TOTAL 40 100% The findings revealed that 65% have adequate awareness and 35% have acquired moderate awareness.

Score Prevention & treatment of swine flu. . TOPIC TEST Max.5% Above table reveals the classification of respondents by age majority of the respondents (23) followed by 17 in age group of 17 years. Pretest posttest 25 25 Mean RESPONDANTS Mean Percentage 12.Classification of mean value and mean percentage of pretest and post test.5 19 50% 76% CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS BY PERSONAL CHARECTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS CATEGORY RESPONDENTS NUMBER AGE GROUP (YEARS) 17 years 18 years 17 23 PERCENTAGE 42.5% 57.

5% 50% 2. In the present study it has evident that 20 of respondents where Christian followed by 19 Hindus and remaining 1 was Muslim. .5% The above table reveals respondents by religion.CLASSSIFACTION OF RESPONDENTS BY FAMILY RELACTED CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS CATEGORY RESPONDENTS NUMBER RELIGION HINDU CHRISTIAN MUSLIM 19 20 1 PERCENTAGE 47.

D = (d-d)2n-1 t = 2×405.325.55 = 2.87 = 5.T-Test t =dnSD Where d = dn S.55 = 2×6.55 = 12.645.D = (d-d)2n-1 d = dn = 2 = 120440-1 = 120439 = 30.55 S.27 .

SUMMARY .

score regarding swine flu. ➢ It was found that 28 students are heard about swine flu ➢ It was reveal that most students have heard about swine flu from mass media ➢ After STP. H1 – There is significant association between pretest and posttest knowledge score regarding swine flue Findings of the study ➢ It was found that 23 students were of age 18 years ➢ It was found that the remaining 17 students were of age 17 years.There is significant difference between pretest and posttest knowledge. we have ruled out that the post test knowledge score was more compared to pretest knowledge score. The objectives of the study were:  To assess the present knowledge scores of 1st year BSc (N) students on prevention and treatment of swine flu.SUMMARY This chapter deals with the summary of the study and its major findings. By this we came to conclusion that the STP was effective ➢ The pretest knowledge score was the post test score was .  To evaluate the effectiveness of STP on awareness of prevention and treatment of swine flu. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching program on prevention and treatment of swine flu among. Hypothesis formulated in this study were: H0 .

eye protection glasses.Nurse should update their by getting or knowing latest information about disease and prevention. NURSING SURVICES The nurse plays a great in role prevention of communicable disease like swine flu. 2. NURSING RESEARCH The study helps the nurse researcher to develop insight into the development of teaching module and materials for nursing students regarding swine flu and its prevention. The nurse administrator should concentrate on the proper selection. schools.IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY The findings of the study can be used in the following areas: 1. Nursing administrator should organize the health education and in-service education programme. Nurse should come forward to take up unsolved questions in the field of awareness of prevention and treatment of swine flu to carry out studies and publish . interest and entrance the ability in educating the nursing students. placement and effective utilization of the nurse in all the areas giving opportunity creativity. The curriculum should emphasis on the importance of swine flu and its prevention in colleges. gloves. NURSING ADMINISTRATION The nurse administrator should part in formulation of health policy. She has to follow standard precautions thereby preventing the transmission of infections among patients and herself by educating themselves and their communities about disease and prevention. Instruct the client who are coughing or sneezing to wear a mask. wiping down surfaces and chairs. Nurses should protect themselves by personal protective equipment like gown. the element of protocols and standing order with respect to swine flu and its prevention. NURSING EDUCATION The nurse educator should periodically conduct special awareness to the students in colleges and schools for enhancing like knowledge about swine flu and its prevention. Isolate the suspected cases and confirmed cases. while attending client . and they should conduct health camps and give awareness for public regarding prevention and treatment of swine flu 3. frequent hand washing. 4.

them for the benefit of adolescents. Nursing personnel’s should be motivated to involve in research in the prevention and treatment of swine flu. RECOMMENDATIONS  The study can be conducted on every aspect of prevention.  The can be conducted by increasing the sample size.  A comparative study can be conducted to assess the knowledge before and after giving information regarding swine flu and its prevention. .

Swine flu is a a) Non-communicable disease b) Communicable disease c) Endemic disease Max. Mark: 1.EVALUATION TOOL SWINE FLU Date: 25 Time: 30 min. First outbreak of swine flu was in a) 1980 b) 1918 c) 1915 1. Incubation period of swine flu is a) 1 month b) 28 days . Incidence and prevalence of swine flu is common in a) South Africa b) Mexico c) India 1. Swine flu is a type of a) Fatal disease b) Preventable disease c) Incurable disease 1. What is swine flu? a) Viral disease b) Bacterial disease c) Fungal disease 1. 1.

sneezing c) Parental transfusion 1. a) Sweat b) Droplet c) Blood 1. bluish skin color and fever with rash. a) Fast breathing. coughing. The high risk group of swine flu are a) Pregnant women. chronic medical problem b) Pregnant women and children c) Under five children 1. In adult which system is having symptoms of swine flu? a) Musculoskeletal system b) Nervous system . b) Hormonal imbalance. fever without rashes c) Proteinuria. Common mode of transmission of swine flu is a) Indirect contact b) Direct contact with pigs. The number of times can the man be affected by swine flu in his/her life span are. a) Man – Man – Pig b) Pig – Man – Man c) Man – Pig – Man 1.c) 1-7 days 1. children and adults with obesity. Swine flu get transmitted from. hypervolemia 1. Which human body system is affected by swine flu a) Circulatory system b) Respiratory system c) Musculoskeletal system 1. Swine flu symptoms in children are. Source transmission of swine flu. a) One time b) Two time c) More than two time 1.

a) Naso phasyngeal swab. a) Oseltamiver (Tamiflu) b) Isoniazid c) Atanalol 1. The investigation of conformation of swine flu is a) X – Ray b) Real time RTPCR c) CT Scan 1. The side effect of aspirin by using in the time of flu is a) Rett syndrome b) Down syndrome c) Reye’s syndrome 1. pain. coma and death 1. a) Prevention in swine b) Prevention of transmission to humans c) Prevention of its spread among humans 1. Throat swab b) Blood examination c) Urine examination 1. swelling c) Shock. The duration of prophylaxis is. The most important component of prevention of swine flu is. The side effect of H1N1 vaccine at the location where the vaccine have been administered are. a) Disinfection followed by cleaning . a) 7 days after last exposure b) 5 days after last exposure c) 10 days after last exposure 1. The commonly used aseptic technique for inactivating the flu virus is.c) Respiratory system 1. The clinical specimens used for the diagnosis of swine flu are. redness. a) Abdominal pain and discomfort b) Tenderness. The drug recommended both for prophylaxis and treatment are.

a) 25% b) 50% c) 70% 1.b) Drying c) Fumigation 1. Swine flu spread through eating pork a) Yes b) No c) None of the above . The important measure to prevent swine flu is. The disinfectant ethanol used for inactivating flu virus is used in percentage of. a) Isolation b) Keeping hands clean c) Notification and screening 1.