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Encoding Techniques

Digital data, digital signal Analog data, digital signal Digital data, analog signal Analog data, analog signal

Digital signal

Discrete, discontinuous voltage pulses Each pulse is a signal element Binary data encoded into signal elements

Terms (1)

Unipolar

All signal elements have same sign

Polar

One logic state represented by positive voltage the other by negative voltage

Data rate

Rate of data transmission in bits per second

Time taken for transmitter to emit the bit

Terms (2)

Modulation rate

Rate at which the signal level changes Measured in baud = signal elements per second

Binary 1 and Binary 0 respectively

Receiver Need to know

Timing of bits - when they start and end Signal levels

Signal to noise ratio (SNR). Data rate Bandwidth Encoding scheme.

Signal Spectrum

Lack of high frequencies reduces required bandwidth Lack of dc component allows ac coupling via transformer, providing isolation, reduce interference. Concentrate transmitted power in the middle of the channel bandwidth to reduce distortion.

Clocking

Synchronizing transmitter and receiver External clock Sync mechanism based on transmitted signal.

Error detection

Can be built into signal encoding scheme.

Some codes are better than others

Higher signal rate (& thus data rate) lead to higher costs Some codes require signal rate greater than data rate

Encoding Schemes

Nonreturn to Zero-Level (NRZ-L) Nonreturn to Zero Inverted (NRZI) Bipolar AMI (Alternate mark inversion) Pseudoternary Manchester Differential Manchester B8ZS(bipolar with 8-zeros substitution) HDB3( high density bipolar-3 zeros)

Two different voltages for 0 and 1 bits Voltage constant during bit interval

no transition I.e. no return to zero voltage

e.g. Absence of voltage for zero, constant positive voltage for one More often, negative voltage for one and positive for zero. This is NRZ-L

Nonreturn to zero inverted on ones Constant voltage pulse for duration of bit Data encoded as presence or absence of signal transition at beginning of bit time Transition (low to high or high to low) denotes a binary 1 No transition denotes binary 0 An example of differential encoding

NRZ

Differential Encoding

Data represented by changes rather than levels More reliable detection of transition rather than level In complex transmission layouts it is easy to lose sense of polarity

Pros

Easy to engineer Make good use of bandwidth (most of energy concentrated in the middle of transmission BW).

Cons

dc component Lack of synchronization capability

Used for magnetic recording (data storage). Not often used for signal transmission.

Multilevel Binary

Use more than two voltage levels Bipolar-AMI

zero represented by no line signal one represented by positive or negative pulse one pulses alternate in polarity No loss of sync if a long string of ones (zeros still a problem) No net dc component Lower bandwidth than NRZ. Easy error detection

Pseudoternary

One represented by absence of line signal Zero represented by alternating positive and negative No advantage or disadvantage over bipolar-AMI

01001100011

Not as efficient as NRZ

Each signal element only represents one bit In a 3 level system could represent log23 = 1.58 bits Receiver must distinguish between three levels (+A, -A, 0) Requires approx. 3dB more signal power for same probability of bit error

Biphase

Manchester

Transition in middle of each bit duration Transition serves as clock and data Low to high represents one High to low represents zero Used by IEEE 802.3

Differential Manchester

Midbit transition is clocking only Transition at start of a bit period represents zero No transition at start of a bit period represents one Note: this is a differential encoding scheme Used by IEEE 802.5

Encoding Schemes

Manchester Encoding

Cons

At least one transition per bit time and possibly two Maximum modulation rate is twice data rate. Requires more bandwidth

Pros

Synchronization on mid bit transition (self clocking) No dc component Error detection

Absence of expected transition

Modulation Rate

R R D= = L Log 2 M

Scrambling

Use scrambling to replace sequences that would produce constant voltage Filling sequence

Must produce enough transitions to sync Must be recognized by receiver and replace with original Same length as original

No dc component No long sequences of zero level line signal No reduction in data rate Error detection capability

B8ZS

Bipolar With 8 Zeros Substitution Based on bipolar-AMI If octet of all zeros and last voltage pulse preceding was positive encode as 000+-0-+ If octet of all zeros and last voltage pulse preceding was negative encode as 000-+0+ Causes two violations of AMI code Unlikely to occur as a result of noise Receiver detects and interprets as octet of all zeros

Polarity of preceding pulse + substitution 000+-0-+ 000-+0+

HDB3

High Density Bipolar 3 Zeros Based on bipolar-AMI String of four zeros replaced with one or two pulses

Number of ones since last substitution Polarity of preceding pulse + odd 000000+ even +00+ -00-

Public telephone system

300Hz to 3400Hz Use modem (modulator-demodulator)

Amplitude shift keying (ASK) Frequency shift keying (FSK) Phase shift keying (PK)

Modulation Techniques

encode 0/1 by different carrier amplitudes

usually have one amplitude zero

up to 1200bps on voice grade lines very high speeds over optical fiber

s (t ) =

most common is binary FSK (BFSK) two binary values represented by two different frequencies (near carrier) less susceptible to error than ASK used for

up to 1200bps on voice grade lines high frequency radio even higher frequency on LANs using co-ax

s (t ) =

Multiple FSK

More than two frequencies used More bandwidth efficient than BFSK. More susceptible to error Each signal element represents more than one bit.

s i (t ) = A cos 2 f i t , 1 i M

f i = f c + (2 i 1 M ) f d f d = the difference frequancy L=# of bits per signal elem ent. M = log 2 L

phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent data binary PSK(BPSK)

two phases represent two binary digits

differential PSK(DPSK)

phase shifted relative to previous transmission rather than some reference signal

s (t ) =

Differential PSK(DPSK)

get more efficient use of BW if each signal element represents more than one bit

eg. shifts of /2 (90o) each element represents two bits split input data stream in two & modulate onto carrier & phase shifted carrier

9600bps modem uses 12 angles, four of which have two amplitudes

Delay in Q stream

1 1 s (t ) = I (t ) cos 2 f c t Q (t ) sin 2 f c t 2 2

bandwidth

ASK/PSK bandwidth directly relates to bit rate multilevel PSK gives significant improvements

in presence of noise:

bit error rate of PSK and QPSK are about 3dB superior to ASK and FSK for MFSK & MPSK have tradeoff between bandwidth efficiency and error performance

QAM used on asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) and some wireless Combination of ASK and PSK Logical extension of QPSK Send two different signals simultaneously on same carrier frequency

Use two copies of carrier, one shifted 90 Each carrier is ASK modulated Two independent signals over same medium Demodulate and combine for original binary output

QAM Modulator

s (t ) = d 1 (t ) cos 2 f c t + d 2 (t ) sin 2 f c t

QAM Levels

Two level ASK

Each of two streams in one of two states Four state system Essentially QPSK

Combined stream in one of 16 states

64 and 256 state systems have been implemented Improved data rate for given bandwidth

Increased potential error rate

Digitization

Conversion of analog data into digital data Digital data can then be transmitted using NRZ-L Digital data can then be transmitted using code other than NRZ-L Digital data can then be converted to analog signal Analog to digital conversion done using a codec Pulse code modulation Delta modulation

sampling theorem:

If a signal is sampled at regular intervals at a rate higher than twice the highest signal frequency, the samples contain all information in original signal

Voice data limited to below 4000Hz Require 8000 sample per second Analog samples (Pulse Amplitude Modulation, PAM) Each sample assigned digital value

4 bit system gives 16 levels Quantized

Quantizing error or noise Approximations mean it is impossible to recover original exactly

8 bit sample gives 256 levels Quality comparable with analog transmission 8000 samples per second of 8 bits each gives 64kbps

PCM Example

Nonlinear Encoding

Quantization levels not evenly spaced Reduces overall signal distortion Can also be done by companding

Delta Modulation

Analog input is approximated by a staircase function

Move up or down one level () at each sample interval

Binary behavior

Function moves up or down at each sample interval hence can encode each sample as single bit 1 for up or 0 for down

DM has simplicity compared to PCM but has worse SNR issue of bandwidth used

want 128 levels (7 bit) & voice bandwidth 4khz need 8000 x 7 = 56kbps

data compression can improve on this still growing demand for digital signals

use of repeaters, TDM, efficient switching

Why modulate analog signals?

Higher frequency can give more efficient transmission Permits frequency division multiplexing (chapter 8)

Types of modulation

Amplitude Frequency Phase

Analog Modulation

The AM signal is

s (t ) = [1 + na x (t )]cos 2 f c t , where m (t ) = na x (t )

n a : modulation index if na 1, then m (t ) can be recoverd from the envolpe [1 + na x (t )] of s (t )

BT = 2B , where B is bandwidth of m (t )

Angle modulation(1)

Angle modulated signal is

s (t ) = Ac cos[2 f c t + (t )]

Two types of angle modulated

Phase modulated (PM)

s (t ) = Ac cos[2 f c t + n p m (t )]

Frequency modulated (FM)

s (t ) = Ac cos[2 f c t + n f m (t )dt ]

Instantaneous frequency

f i (t ) = f c + 1 '(t ) 2

Angle modulation(2)

Modulation index of FM and PM is

f = B

Carsons rule

BT = 2( + 1)B = 2(f + B )

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