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on cultural evolution. This report also examines how the cultural impact of globalisation has affected international strategy and organisation. Methodology: various theories were used to analyse the concept of globalisation and its impact on cultural evolution. First the theory of homogenisation was analysed, which claims that the world is converging and becoming a smaller place. Secondly, the theory of polarisation was also analysed, which is of the view that the factors that leads to the unity of the world can also serve as a force for its disunity. Finally the theory of hybridisation was analysed. This theory is of the view that as the world converges and diverges, paying attention to local needs tend to make it a global place. Findings: Cultural distinctiveness have a great impact on globalisation.in order for international organisations to succeed, an indebt knowledge and understanding of the local culture is important. It is therefore necessary for international organisation to adopt the strategy of being glocal in promoting its global brand.
INTRODUCTION This report reveals the meaning of globlisationand its implication on different cultures. Am indept understanding of the cultural impact of globalisation is very important in the field of international strategy and organisation. This reasons are: 1. international marketing scheeme is affectted by globalisation and cultural differeces. .2.cultural distinctiveness has affected strategies adopted in international management. A given strategy in a particular culture is unlikely to yield the same result in another cultural background or environment. 3. understanding the difference between macro and micro environment has been of great help in strategies of international interventions. 4.cultural distinctiveness has a great impact on consumption of goods and services. A clear understanding of this, helps international organisations to properly analyse the market and suggest ways to properly meet consumers needs and demand. 1.2 objectives The objective of this report is to examine the various theories of globalisation and its effect on international strategy and cultural evolution.
family. The global trasformation of local culture 2. we will discuss the concept of homogenisation. different . Based on this. technological convergence and their impact on marketing. homogenity implies that technological change. Four major factors that contribute to homogenity are outlined bellow: 1. cultural distinctiveness will remain and will be held as honour among many people. hindering us from seeing these trend and wider implication that they suggest. the influence of religion. Therefore we should not allow our selfs to be blinded by the theories of homogenisation. The impact of a different cultural heritage. The enlightenment theorist believe that old tradition that were not based on science and technology will be trown away as elightenment and homogenisation life style come to dominate the world.2. 2. key theories of academic article Globalisation has been used in various ways that it has lost its true meaning. the mass media. and leadership must be considered. POLARISATION The limits of cultural homogenity has resulted into an opposite conceptualisationknown as polarisation. Despite the fact that technological and economic convergence facilitates global and economic convergence. In discussing the concept of cultural homogenisation and global tendencies.1 homogenisation As far back as the early 1980’s marketing gurus Theodore levitt(1983. Consumer mentality 3. we have to beer in mind that this is just one factor that affects contemporary businessand cultural evolution. Elite culture 4.1983a) described globalisation as an emerging cultural homogenity caused by increase in communication. In todays world. polarisation and hybridisation. The internet A new enlightenment the increase in interdepedence of the world economics and the interconnection of its communication networks encourage the trend of homogenisation and shows no sign of abating. and consumer oriented marketing campaigns work together to remake what ever they touch in their own image. selling homogeneous products is the best strategy for business to adopt. Polarisaton may result in distinctive taste among specific target market. In order to overcome this impression we would analyse the various theories with respect to globalisation. He further reasoned that in a world where cultures are converging. In doing so.
as it suggests ways of managing the different outcomes of cultural reactions towards globalisation. It confirms that even though they have an element of truth. Romantic nationalism(see appendix 3) Just as homogenisation reflects the tradition of enlightenment. arabic and french food while maintaining a nationalistic view point.segments of the populaton seek to preserve their unique heritage. listen to english and latino music. their extreme nature makes them errorneous. (see appendix1) In addition. kpeople may preserve their tradition peacefully or by use of violence means. Cultural and religious fundamentalism (see appendix2) 2. This is the kind of model needed by practtioners involved in international business. This example explains the key points of the theory of hybridisation that deals with important aspects of both homogenisation and polarisation. The same technology that leads to homogenity can also be a force of polarisaton. SCOPE AND LIMITATION . eat american. The significant factors and aspects of polarisation are highlighted below. polarisation mirrors romantic nationalism. The dialetical method developed be fredrick hegels provides an important way of explaining the process of hybridsation. we have to beer in mind that polarisation and homogenity are etremist without pointing out the exceptionality of their respective beleives. A good example of hybridisation is the fact that in europe most teenagers want to wear american jean. In general.( see appendix4) The dialetical method provids a hypothesis that can be tested and easily applied to a wide range of situations involving international business. this hypothesis suggests that status quois impacted by outside forces and that both are transformed in the process. However. 1. values and habits. This theory takes into consideration the situations that arise as a result of globalisation as well as conceptualising it as a part of a continual and ongoing process.(asgary et al 2002). HYBRIDISATION AND DIALTICS The theory of hybridsation argues that both homgenisation and polarisation do not clearly show the true picture of globalisation.
an irritated farmer named Jose Bove. different cultures and converging technology has led to the complexity of the term globalisation. As a result. Mcdonald’s later discovered the importance of children in influencing family decsision.OUTCOME In a worl were there are different belief systems. 3. It had to adopt French recipes to its menu that the French liked. no standerd answer esists. However by modelling the process of hybridisation in terms of dialetical mothod. mcdonald’s started paying attention to local details. This protest by Jose brought the attention of the French president who openly condemned the role of US within the global food industries. introducing American menus and way of life to the French. it faced lots of oppositions. there was need for mcdonald’s to restrategise. As a result. He took his tractor along with some other farmers and demolished the mcdonald’s branch in his local area. Based on this. Mcdonald’s was able to attract its French customers by introducing some local menus that suits the French taste bud. and this was a big boost to its sales. The difference in food culture between the French and the Americans was very wide. it started to experience an increase in growth. the French were not willing to accept its brand. The moment mcdonald’s started positioning itself as a place for the modern French family. began a protest against the insurgence of junk food. and therefore. In 1999. However. This was the turning point for mcdonald’s in France. positioned itself as a family restaurant rather than a US brand restaurant. the success of mcdonald’s was not completely smooth without hitches. When mcdonald’s fist came into france. It discovered that French do not have the habit of snacking. The Mistake mcdonald’s made was that it positioned it self as an American fast food company. This strategy was powerful because it was the only brand at that time that recognised the fimily. Also. a clear and direct means of dealing with the phenomenom of globalisation can be embraced. It added French pastries and cakes to its menu. The French preferred home made kind of food rather than fast food meals. (reference) The opposition by Jose led mcdonald’s to adopt a transparency policy campaigne with farmers to explain to them what it is doing to improve relations among them. it had ensure that French franchise only . Secondly. CASE STUDY A case study of the global strategy of mcdonald’s reveals the concept of globalisation as “ think global and act local”. Secondly the French were sentimental towards accepting the American life style because it hated the American politics.
Mcdonald’s promoted it self as an American company. This strategy adopted by mcdonald’s is the premises of the hybridisation theory. The polarisation theory. However it was able to homogenise its product to the French by making them feel that its brand was a modern place for the French family using the influence of kids. views that as cultures converge. FINDINGS Mdonald’s adopted the theory of homogenisation in its first approach to the French market. This case study of mcdonald’s in France. However. CONCLUSION . This strategies adopted by mcdonald’s made the French to accept its global brand because it had a local taste and feel. In the case of mcdonald’s the opposition was violent. it is important for organisations to pay attention to local needs by adopting the strategy of glocalisation. And in turn. points out that an indebt knowledge and understanding of the local needs of a particular community or nation is important to the success of international organisation. The opposition by Jose illustrates the key points of the polarisation theory. by paying attention to local content and needs in view of the concept of “ think global and act local”. trying to introduce and integrate the American food culture to the French. However. opposition groups will rise to protect the key element of their culture which they hold in high esteem. This culture vary. The food industry is very sensitive in terms of culture. therefore the strategy adopted in country A will be different from the strategy adopted in country B. Mcdonald’s almost succeeded in winning the heart of the French. In conclusion cultures affect the strategy adopted by international organisations. Hence. It was able to promote its global brand from a local perspective. cultural differences may have lesser impact on other industries. Different culture have different taste buds which can be difficult to change.prepare fries from a particular specie of French potato. but unfortunately it was opposed by a local French farmer. If mcdonald’s was not faced with opposition. These oppositions might be peaceful or violent. Unfortunately this approach failed. the polarisation theory would have been exceptionally true. SCOPE AND LIMITATION This case study focuses on mcdonald’s which is in the food industry. the French were able to accept its global brand while maintaining a nationalistic view point. it was able to achieve great success.
while maintaining a global brand. Finally. making them feel at home. Also cultures has affected the nature of global brands. global brands has been able to evolve cultures to a certain degree . Secondly. But are willing to accept foreign influences only if it is able to portray certain aspect of their culture. In addition. globalisation is a mix of homogenisation and polarisation. for international organisations to succeed globally. . it is important to pay attention to local needs. Hence the concept of “think global and act local should be a key factor in international strategy and organisation. which results in hybridisation.In conclusion. people hold certain element of their culture in high esteem and are not willing to let go of it.