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 LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted lowintensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. When a light-emitting diode is forward-biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive lighting (in particular brake lamps, turn signals, and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.
Discoveries and early devices
Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide and a cat's-whisker detector. Russian Oleg Vladimirovich Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927. His research was distributed in Russian, German and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades. Rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys in 1955. Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide (GaSb), GaAs, indium phosphide (InP), and silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvin.
In 1961 American experimenters Robert Biard and Gary Pittman, working at Texas Instruments, found that GaAs emitted infrared radiation when electric current was applied and received the patent for the infrared LED. The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak Jr., while working at General Electric Company. Holonyak is seen as the "father of the light-emitting diode". M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T.P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunications by inventing new semiconductor materials specifically adapted to optical fiber transmission wavelengths. Until 1968, visible and infrared LEDs were extremely costly, on the order of US $200 per unit, and so had little practical use. The Monsanto Company was the first organization to mass-produce visible LEDs, using gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) in 1968 to produce red LEDs suitable for indicators. Hewlett Packard (HP) introduced LEDs in 1968, initially using GaAsP supplied by Monsanto. The technology proved to have major uses for alphanumeric displays and was integrated into HP's early handheld calculators. In the 1970s commercially successful LED devices at less than five cents each were produced by Fairchild Optoelectronics. These devices employed compound semiconductor chips fabricated with the planar process invented by Dr. Jean Hoerni at Fairchild Semiconductor. The combination of planar processing for chip fabrication and innovative packaging methods enabled the team at Fairchild led by optoelectronics pioneer Thomas Brandt to achieve the needed cost reductions. These methods continue to be used by LED producers.
Practical use The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements for incandescent and neon indicator lamps, and in seven-segment displays, first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios, telephones, calculators, and even watches (see list of signal uses). These red LEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators, as the light output was not enough to illuminate an area. Readouts in calculators were so small that plastic lenses were built over each digit to make them legible. Later, other colors grew widely available and also appeared in appliances and equipment. As LED materials technology grew more advanced, light output rose, while maintaining efficiency and reliability at acceptable levels. The invention and development of the high-power white-light LED led to use for illumination, which is fast replacing incandescent and fluorescent lighting. (see list of illumination applications). Most LEDs were made in the very common 5 mm T1¾ and 3 mm T1
packages, but with rising power output, it has grown increasingly necessary to shed excess heat to maintain reliability, so more complex packages have been adapted for efficient heat dissipation. Packages for state-of-the-art high-power LEDs bear little resemblance to early LEDs.
Continuing development The first high-brightness blue LED was demonstrated by Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation and was based on InGaN, borrowing on critical developments in GaN nucleation on sapphire substrates and the demonstration of p-type doping of GaN, which were developed by Isamu Akasaki and H. Amano in Nagoya. In 1995, Alberto Barbieri at the Cardiff University Laboratory (GB) investigated the efficiency and reliability of high-brightness LEDs and demonstrated a very impressive result by using a transparent contact made of indium tin oxide (ITO) on (AlGaInP/GaAs) LED. The existence of blue LEDs and high-efficiency LEDs quickly led to the development of the first white LED, which employed a Y3Al5O12:Ce, or "YAG", phosphor coating to mix yellow (down-converted) light with blue to produce light that appears white. Nakamura was awarded the 2006 Millennium Technology Prize for his invention. The development of LED technology has caused their efficiency and light output to rise exponentially, with a doubling occurring about every 36 months since the 1960s, in a way similar to Moore's law. The advances are in general attributed to the parallel development of other semiconductor technologies and advances in optics and material science. This trend is called Haitz's law after Dr. Roland Haitz.  In February 2008, a luminous efficacy of 300 lumens of visible light per watt of radiation (not per electrical watt) and warm-light emission was achieved by using nanocrystals. In 2001 and 2002, processes for growing gallium nitride (GaN) LEDs on silicon were successfully demonstrated, yielding high power LEDs reported in January 2012. Epitaxy costs could be reduced by up to 90% using six-inch silicon wafers instead of two-inch sapphire wafers.
Physics The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material dopedwith impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, orcathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carriers
—electrons andholes—flow into the junction fromelectrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lowerenergy level, and releases energy in the form of a photon. The wavelength of the light emitted, and thus its color depends on theband gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In silicon orgermanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition, which produces no optical emission, because these areindirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible, or near-ultraviolet light. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter wavelengths, emitting light in a variety of colors. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the ptype layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also use sapphire substrate. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface. Thus, light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production, subject to much research and development. Efficiency and operational parameters Typical indicator LEDs are designed to operate with no more than 30– 60milliwatts (mW) of electrical power. Around 1999, Philips Lumiledsintroduced power LEDs capable of continuous use at one watt. These LEDs used much larger semiconductor die sizes to handle the large power inputs. Also, the semiconductor dies were mounted onto metal slugs to allow for heat removal from the LED die. One of the key advantages of LED-based lighting sources is highluminous efficacy. White LEDs quickly matched and overtook the efficacy of standard incandescent lighting systems. In 2002, Lumileds made five-watt LEDs available with a luminous efficacy of 18–22 lumens per watt (lm/W). For comparison, a conventional incandescent light bulb of 60–100 watts emits around 15 lm/W, and standard fluorescent lights emit up to 100 lm/W. A recurring problem is that efficacy falls sharply with rising current. This effect is known as droop and effectively limits the light output of a given LED, raising heating more than light output for higher current. In September 2003, a new type of blue LED was demonstrated by the company Cree Inc. to provide 24 mW at 20 milliamperes (mA). This produced a commercially packaged white light giving 65 lm/W at 20 mA, becoming the brightest white LED commercially available at the time, and more than four times as
although rare. can occur as well. Lifetime and failure Main article: List of LED failure modes Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25. In 2006.000 to 100. and that are utilized in climates where the temperature within the luminaire gets very hot. Most manufacturers’ published ratings of LEDs are for an operating temperature of 25 °C. so efficiencies are much lower. could result in low signal intensities or even failure. The correlated color temperature was reported to be 4579 K. 2010 about a laboratory prototype LED achieving 208 lumens per watt at room temperature. Note that these efficiencies are for the LED chip only. commercially available in 2011. United States Department of Energy (DOE) testing of commercial LED lamps designed to replace incandescent lamps or CFLs showed that average efficacy was still about 46 lm/W in 2009 (tested performance ranged from 17 lm/W to 79 lm/W). To quantitatively classify lifetime in a standardized manner it has been suggested to use the terms L75 and L50.Cree's XLamp XM-L LEDs. such as traffic signals or in-pavement signal lights. Early red LEDs were notable for their short lifetime. produce 100 lumens per watt at their full power of 10 watts. Like other lighting devices. With the development of high-power LEDs the devices are subjected to higher junction temperatures and higher current densities than traditional devices. LED performance is temperature dependent. but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly. Cree issued a press release on February 3. Lighting works at higher temperature and with drive circuit losses. Sudden failures. . Many of the LEDs made in the 1970s and 1980s are still in service today. Practical general lighting needs high-power LEDs. LEDs used outdoors.  The most common symptom of LED (and diode laser) failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. held at low temperature in a lab. and up to 160 lumens/watt at around 2 watts input power. Typical operating currents for such devices begin at 350 mA.000 hours. of one watt or more. which is the time it will take a given LED to reach 75% and 50% light output respectively. Nichia Corporation has developed a white LED with luminous efficacy of 150 lm/W at a forward current of 20 mA. This causes stress on the material and may cause early light-output degradation. they demonstrated a prototype with a record white LED luminous efficacy of 131 lm/W at 20 mA.efficient as standard incandescents.
they are an energy-efficient technology for uses such as freezers.10 < ΔV < 2. voltage drop and material: Color Wavelength[nm] Voltage drop [ΔV] Semiconductor material Infrared λ > 760 ΔV < 1. LED technology may be a good replacement in uses such as supermarket freezer lighting and will last longer than other technologies. Because LEDs emit less heat than incandescent bulbs.18 Gallium arsenide phosphide(GaAsP) Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) . ice and snow may build up on the LED luminaire in colder climates. because they emit little heat. Thus. the following table shows the available colors with wavelength range. Colors and materials Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials.LED light output rises at lower temperatures.10 Gallium arsenide phosphide(GaAsP) Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Yellow 570 < λ < 590 2.  This lack of waste heat generation has been observed to cause sometimes significant problems with street traffic signals and airport runway lighting in snowprone areas.9 Gallium arsenide (GaAs) Aluminium gallium arsenide(AlGaAs) Red 610 < λ < 760 1.03 Aluminium gallium arsenide(AlGaAs) Gallium arsenide phosphide(GaAsP) Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Orange 590 < λ < 610 2. although some research has been done to try to develop heat sink technologies to transfer heat to other areas of the luminaire. leveling off depending on type at around −30C. However.03 < ΔV < 2.63 < ΔV < 2.
5 Blue/UV diode with yellow phosphor . or white with purple plastic Ultraviolet λ < 400 3.9 < ΔV < 4.1 < ΔV< 4.7 Dual blue/red LEDs.0 Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) /Gallium(III) nitride (GaN) Gallium(III) phosphide (GaP) Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (AlGaInP) Aluminium gallium phosphide(AlGaP) Blue 450 < λ < 500 2.0 Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) Purple multiple types 2.4 Diamond (235 nm) Boron nitride (215 nm) Aluminium nitride (AlN) (210 nm) Aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) Aluminium gallium indium nitride(AlGaInN) – (down to 210 nm) White Broad spectrum ΔV = 3.48 < ΔV < 3.48 < ΔV < 3.Green 500 < λ < 570 1.76 < ΔV < 4.7 Zinc selenide (ZnSe) Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) Silicon carbide (SiC) as substrate Silicon (Si) as substrate – (under development) Violet 400 < λ < 450 2. blue with red phosphor.
This layer of organic semiconductormaterial is situated between two electrodes. which has a slightly different mode of operation. Generally. an OLED typically emits less light per area than an inorganic LED.OLED An OLED (organic light-emitting diode) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissiveelectroluminescent layer is a film of organic compoundswhich emit light in response to an electric current. Thus. at least one of these electrodes is transparent. but allow for higher resolution and larger display sizes. OLED displays can use eitherpassive-matrix (PMOLED) oractivematrix addressing schemes. There are two main families of OLEDs: those based on small molecules and those employing polymers. Due to its low thermal conductivity. Active-matrix OLEDs (AMOLED) require a thin-film transistor backplane to switch each individual pixel on or off. . In low ambient light conditions such as a dark room an OLED screen can achieve a higher contrast ratio than an LCD. Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a Light-emitting Electrochemical Cell or LEC. An OLED display works without a backlight. it can display deepblack levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display(LCD). whether the LCD uses cold cathode fluorescent lamps or the more recently developed LED backlight.
the electroluminescence in anthracene crystals is caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole. W. Pope's group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under vacuum on a pure single crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963 using a small area silver electrode at 400V. They applied high-voltage alternating current (AC) fields in air to materials such as acridine orange. tetracene. G. Device performance was limited by the poor electrical conductivity of contemporary organic materials. Their proposed mechanism involved electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules. The device consisted of a film of poly(n-vinylcarbazole) up to 2. OLEDs are also used in large-area light-emitting elements for general illumination. and that the conducting level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Also in 1965. the forerunner of modern double injection devices. Martin Pope and co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals. Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada produced double injection recombination electroluminescence for the first time in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting electrodes. France. Tangand Steven Van Slyke in 1987. . see conductive polymers. advertising. These contacts are the basis of charge injection in all modern OLED devices. and graphite powder. small. either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films.  This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. and indication. watches.2 micrometres thick located between two charge injecting electrodes. The proposed mechanism was field-accelerated electron excitation of molecular fluorescence. For more on the history of such materials. The first diode device was reported at Eastman Kodak by Ching W. They further described the necessary energetic requirements (work functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts.OLEDs are used in television screens. In 1960. This resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency and led to the current era of OLED research and device production. Pope's group reported in 1965 that in the absence of an external electric field. This was overcome by the discovery and development of highly conductive polymers. portable system screens such as mobile phones and PDAs. In the same year. The results of the project were patented in 1975 and published in 1983. Dow Chemical researchers patented a method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high voltage (500– 1500 V) AC-driven (100–3000 Hz) electrically-insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground anthracene powder. computer monitors. The proposed mechanism was either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons. Helfrich and W. information. History The first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials were in the early 1950s by A. Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Université. Electroluminescence from polymer films was first observed by Roger Partridge at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom.
at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge reporting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer based device using 100 nm thick films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene). in this case the difference in energy between the HOMO and LUMO. As electrons and holes are fermions with half integer spin. The organic molecules are electrically conductive as a result ofdelocalization of pi electrons caused by conjugation over all or part of the molecule. consisting of a conductive layer and an emissive layer. A typical . as electrons are injected into the LUMO of the organic layer at the cathode and withdrawn from the HOMO at the anode. Decay from triplet states (phosphorescence) is spin forbidden.Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spin–orbit interactions to facilitate intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states. different materials may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile. The highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) of organic semiconductors are analogous to the valence andconduction bands of inorganic semiconductors. The graded heterojunction architecture combines the benefits of both conventional architectures by improving charge injection while simultaneously balancing charge transport within the emissive region. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine forming an exciton. and therefore are considered organic semiconductors. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the HOMO level of the organic layer. More recent developments in OLED architecture improves quantum efficiency (up to 19%) by using a graded heterojunction.Research into polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. Burroughes et al. Originally. During operation. However multilayer OLEDs can be fabricated with two or more layers in order to improve device efficiency. In the graded heterojunction architecture. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used as the anode material. a voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. which involved a single layer of poly(pphenylene vinylene). This happens closer to the emissive layer. H. One example was the first light-emitting device synthesised by J. Many modern OLEDs incorporate a simple bilayer structure. or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted. all deposited on asubstrate. the anode and cathode. an exciton may either be in a singlet state or a triplet state depending on how the spins of the electron and hole have been combined. Working principle A typical OLED is composed of a layer of organic materials situated between two electrodes. A current of electrons flows through the device from cathode to anode. Burroughes et al. because in organic semiconductors holes are generally more mobile than electrons. As well as conductive properties. accompanied by emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. H. These materials have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors. a bound state of the electron and hole. thus obtaining emission from both singlet and triplet states and improving the internal efficiency. Statistically three triplet excitons will be formed for each singlet exciton. the composition of hole and electron-transport materials varies continuously within the emissive layer with a dopant emitter. The decay of this excited state results in a relaxation of the energy levels of the electron. The frequency of this radiation depends on the band gap of the material. increasing the timescale of the transition and limiting the internal efficiency of fluorescent devices.. the most basic polymer OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer. This latter process may also be described as the injection of electron holes into the HOMO.
rubrene and quinacridone derivatives are often used. Alq3 has been used as a green emitter. for example triphenylamine and derivatives are commonly used as materials for hole transport layers. commonly used in small molecule OLEDs Efficient OLEDs using small molecules were first developed by Dr. either electrons or holes. homogeneous films. Single carrier devices are typically used to study the kinetics and charge transport mechanisms of an organic material and can be useful when trying to study energy transfer processes. and the construction of very complex multi- . hole only devices can be made by using a cathode comprised solely of aluminium. contrary to polymer-based devices. the vacuum deposition process enables the formation of well controlled. Material technologies Small molecules Alq3. A number of materials are used for their charge transport properties. fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes and conjugated dendrimers. and compounds such as perylene. This makes the production process more expensive and of limited use for large-area devices than other processing techniques. at Eastman Kodak. electron transport material and as a host for yellow and red emitting dyes. so require a capping layer of aluminium to avoid degradation. Similarly. electron only devices can be obtained by replacing ITO with a lower work function metal which increases the energy barrier of hole injection. Metals such as barium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the LUMO of the organic layer. The production of small molecule devices and displays usually involvesthermal evaporation in a vacuum. Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organometallic chelates (for example Alq3.  Fluorescent dyes can be chosen to obtain light emission at different wavelengths. Such metals are reactive. Ching W. though the term SM-OLED is also in use. However. The term OLED traditionally refers specifically to this type of device. recombination does not occur and no light is emitted. As current through the device is composed of only one type of charge carrier. used in the organic light-emitting device reported by Tang et al. resulting in an energy barrier too large for efficient electron injection. For example.). Tang et al. reducing the energy barriers for hole injection.conductive layer may consist of PEDOT:PSS as the HOMO level of this material generally lies between the workfunction of ITO and the HOMO of other commonly used polymers.
excited in the pulsed regime. polymers can be processed in solution. has been demonstrated. is the main reason for the high efficiencies of the small molecule OLEDs. The metal cathode may still need to be deposited by thermal evaporation in vacuum. Polymer light-emitting diodes poly(p-phenylene vinylene). The emission is nearly diffraction limited with a spectral width similar to that of broadband dye lasers. This method is more suited to forming large-area films than thermal evaporation. Coherent emission from a laser dye-doped tandem SM-OLED device. and the emissive materials can also be applied on the substrate by a technique derived from commercial inkjetprinting. as the application of subsequent layers tends to dissolve those already present. Polymer OLEDs are quite efficient and require a relatively small amount of power for the amount of light produced. used in the first PLED Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED). They are used as a thin film for full-spectrum colour displays. also light-emitting polymers (LEP). Substitution of side chains onto the polymer backbone may determine the colour of emitted light or the stability and solubility of the polymer for performance and ease of processing. Typical polymers used in PLED displays include derivatives of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and polyfluorene.layer structures. An alternative method to vacuum deposition is to deposit a Langmuir-Blodgett film. Vacuum deposition is not a suitable method for forming thin films of polymers. However. enabling distinct charge transport and charge blocking layers to be formed. a number of PPVs and related poly(naphthalene vinylene)s (PNVs) that are soluble in organic solvents or water have been prepared via ring opening metathesis polymerization. No vacuum is required. . and spin coating is a common method of depositing thin polymer films. formation of multilayer structures is difficult with these methods. This high flexibility in layer design. However. While unsubstituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) is typically insoluble. involve an electroluminescentconductive polymer that emits lightwhen connected to an external voltage.
Applications of OLEDs in solid state lighting require the achievement of high brightness with good CIE coordinates (for white emission). Plasma . Iridium complexes such as Ir(mppy)3 are currently the focus of research. facilitating intersystem crossing between singlet andtriplet states. Typically. Advantages Further information: Comparison CRT. both singlet and triplet excitons will be able to decay radiatively. hence improving the internal quantum efficiency of the device compared to a standard PLED where only the singlet states will contribute to emission of light.000 cd/m2. a polymer such as poly(n-vinylcarbazole) is used as a host material to which an organometalliccomplex is added as a dopant. although complexes based on other heavy metals such as platinumhave also been used. LCD. The use of macromolecular species like polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) in conjunction with the use of phosphorescent species such as Ir for printed OLEDs have exhibited brightnesses as high as 10.Phosphorescent materials Ir(mppy)3. with the internal quantum efficiencies of such devices approaching 100%. a phosphorescent dopant which emits green light. Main article: Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes use the principle of electrophosphorescence to convert electrical energy in an OLED into light in a highly efficient manner. By using these phosphorescent materials. The heavy metal atom at the centre of these complexes exhibits strong spin-orbit coupling.
although this technique also induces problems in that multi-layer devices can be challenging to make due to registration issues. fabrication of the OLED substrate is more costly than that of a TFT LCD. measured in purely dark conditions) and viewing angle compared to LCDs because OLED pixels directly emit light. it requires the use of Low-Temperature Polysilicon backplanes. Response time OLEDs can also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. lining up the different printed layers to the required degree of accuracy. Disadvantages Current costs OLED manufacture currently requires process steps that make it extremely expensive. As the substrate used can be flexiblesuch as PET. OLED pixel colours appear correct and unshifted. while an inactive OLED element does not produce light or consume power. Better power efficiency LCDs filter the light emitted from a backlight. Whereas LCD displays are capable of between 2 and 16 ms response time offering a refresh rate of 60 to 480 Hz. an OLED can theoretically have less than 0.  theoretically making them cheaper to produce than LCD or plasma displays.01 ms response time.Demonstration of a 4. the displays may be produced inexpensively. Roll-roll vapour-deposition methods for organic devices do allow mass production of thousands of devices per minute for minimal cost.000 Hz refresh rate. until mass production methods lower cost through scalability. Wider viewing angles & improved brightness OLEDs can enable a greater artificial contrast ratio (both dynamic range and static. Light weight & flexible plastic substrates OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates leading to the possibility of flexible organic light-emitting diodes being fabricated or other new applications such as roll-up displaysembedded in fabrics or clothing. enabling up to 100. Specifically. Lower cost in the future OLEDs can be printed onto any suitable substrate by an inkjet printer or even by screen printing. allowing a small fraction of light through so they cannot show true black. so this part of the manufacturing . LTPS backplanes in turn require laser annealing from an amorphous silicon start. even as the viewing angle approaches 90° from normal. However.1" prototype flexible display from Sony The different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to several advantages overflat panel displays made with LCD technology.
leading to poor readability in bright ambient light such as outdoors. External quantum efficiency values of 20% and 19% have been reported for red (625 nm) and green (530 nm) diodes. Water damage may especially limit the longevity of more flexible displays. which is unacceptable for some users. G and B subpixels to reduce the current density through the subpixel in order to equalize lifetime at full luminance. pushing their expected life past that of LCD displays by improving light outcoupling. some manufacturers' displays aim to increase the lifespan of OLED displays. with the proper application of a circular polarizer and anti-reflective coatings. This is lower than the typical lifetime of LCD. leading to complaints of artificial-looking.000 hours for green OLEDs and 62. experimental OLEDs were created which can sustain 400 cd/m2 of luminance for over 198. OLEDs rely completely upon converting electricity to light. blue OLEDs historically have had a lifetime of around 14. Therefore.000–40. enabling the display to be used without any internal light source. This can be partially avoided by adjusting colour balance but this may require advanced control circuits and interaction with the user. e-ink leads the way in efficiency with ~ 33% ambient light reflectivity. manufacturers optimize the size of the R.However. over-saturated colors. unlike most LCDs which are to some extent reflective. Water damage Water can damage the organic materials of the displays. In order to delay the problem. In particular. Color balance issues Additionally. improved sealing processes are important for practical manufacturing. with reflectance approaching 80%. This variation in the differential color output will change the color balance of the display and is much more noticeable than a decrease in overall luminance. Considerable research has been invested in developing blue OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency as well as a deeper blue color. However. LED orPDP technology—each currently rated for about 25. thus achieving the same brightness at a lower drive current. blue light output will decrease relative to the other colors of light. the diffuse reflectance can be reduced to less than . For example. Efficiency of blue OLEDs Improvements to the efficiency and lifetime of blue OLEDs is vital to the success of OLEDs as replacements for LCD technology.000 hours for blue OLEDs.000 hours to half brightness. time-consuming process that cannot currently be used on large-area glass substrates. Outdoor performance As an emissive display technology.process for AMOLEDs starts with the process costs of standard LCD. In 2007. though. The red subpixel may be 10% smaller than the green. blue diodes (430 nm) have only been able to achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies in the range of 4% to 6%.000 hours to half original brightness (five years at 8 hours a day) when used for flat-panel displays. respectively. Lifespan The biggest technical problem for OLEDs was the limited lifetime of the organic materials. and then adds an expensive. depending on manufacturer and model. manufacturers bias the colour balance towards blue so that the display initially has an artificially blue tint. as the OLED material used to produce blue light degrades significantly more rapidly than the materials that produce other colors. More commonly. However. The metallic cathode in an OLED acts as a mirror. a blue subpixel may be 100% larger than the green subpixel.
also known as burn-in. The most pronounced example of this can be seen with a near UV laser (such as a Bluray pointer) and can damage the display almost instantly with more than 20 mW leading to dim or dead spots where the beam is focused. With 10. The varied lifespan of the organic dyes can cause a discrepancy between red. Power consumption While an OLED will consume around 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image which is primarily black.000 fc incident illumination (typical test condition for simulating outdoor illumination). the brightness of each OLED pixel fades depending on the content displayed. Manufacturers and commercial uses Magnified image of the AMOLED screen on the Google Nexus One smartphone using the RGBG system of the PenTile Matrix Family. UV sensitivity OLED displays can be damaged by prolonged exposure to UV light. for the majority of images it will consume 60–80% of the power of an LCD: however it can use over three times as much power to display an image with a white background such as a document or website. This can lead to reduced real-world battery life in mobile devices. that yields an approximate photopic contrast of 5:1. This is usually avoided by installing a UV blocking filter over the panel and this can easily be seen as a clear plastic layer on the glass. and blue intensity. Removal of this filter can lead to severe damage and an unusable display after only a few months of room light exposure. green.0. This leads to image persistence. Screen burn-in Unlike displays with a common light source. .1%.
As of 2011. then the total cost of OLED TVs would be greatly reduced. the Zune HD and the Sony Walkman X Series. introduced a line of OLED desk lamps called "Victory" in September. However due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays. OLED technology can also be found in digital media players such as the Creative ZEN V. as well as some HTC. AMOLED AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode) is a display technology for use in mobile devices and televisions. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight and their low power drain. The Google and HTC Nexus One smartphone includes an AMOLEDscreen. media players and digital cameras. Dupont also states that OLED TVs made with this less expensive technology can last up to 15 years if left on for a normal eight hour day. certain HTC models will use Sony's SLCD displays in the future. The use of OLEDs may be subject to patents held by Eastman Kodak. Chi Mei Corporation. Other manufacturers of OLED panels include Anwell Technologies Limited. and continues to make progress toward low-power.A 3. Portable displays are also used intermittently.5 in) OLED display from a Creative ZEN V media player OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as displays for mobile phones and portable digital media players. Royal Philips Electronics. Prototypes have been made of flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDs' unique characteristics. . Germany. General Electric. DuPont stated in a press release in May 2010 that they can produce a 50-inch OLED TV in two minutes with a new printing technology.  and others. 2011. OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung colour cell phones. numerous universities and others.8 cm (1. car radios and digital cameras among others. both from larger corporations and smaller technology companies . theiriver clix. both of which feature an AMOLED display.Philips Lighting have made OLED lighting samples under the brand name "Lumiblade" available online  andNovaled AG based in Dresden. Nokiahas also introduced some OLED products including the N85 and the N86 8MP. LG and Sony Ericsson models. and active matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels. while the Google and Samsung Nexus S smartphone will use "Super Clear LCD" instead in some countries.DuPont. OLED describes a specific type of thin-film display technology in whichorganic compounds form theelectroluminescent material. AMOLED technology is used in mobile phones. LG. Applications in flexible signs and lighting are also being developed. 40-inch) applications. as does HTC's own Desire and Legend phones. If this can be scaled up in terms of manufacturing. There are by now thousands of patents associated with OLEDs. low-cost and large-size (for example. so the lower lifespan of organic displays is less of an issue.
Researchers at DuPont used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software to optimize coating processes for a new solution-coated AMOLED display technology that is cost and performance competitive with existing Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technology. Clear Black Display or CBD is an AMOLED display with a polarized filter on top.Design Schematic of an active matrix OLED display An AMOLED display consists of an active matrix of OLED pixels that generate light upon electricalactivation that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin film transistor (TFT) array. namelypolycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si). Two primary TFT backplane technologies. one commercialQVGA OLED display consumes 3 watts while showing black text on a white background. which functions as a series of switches to control the current flowing to each individual pixel. one to start and stop the charging of a storage capacitorand the second to provide a voltage source at the level needed to create a constant current to the pixel and eliminating the need for the very high currents required for passive matrix OLED operation. where power consumption is critical to battery life. integrating the production of capacitive sensor arrays in the AMOLED module fabrication process. Comparison to other technologies AMOLED displays provide higher refresh rates than their passive-matrix OLED counterparts[not specific enough to verify] . Future development Manufacturers have developed in-cell touch panels. TFT backplane technology is crucial in the fabrication of AMOLED displays. they developed shortand long-range film-thickness control and uniformity that is commercially viable at large glass sizes. Using custom modeling and analytical approaches. In-cell sensor AMOLED fabricators include AU Optronics andSamsung.7 watts showing white text on a black background. and they consume significantly lesspower. are used today in AMOLEDs.  This advantage makes active-matrix OLEDs well suited for portable electronics. As an example. improving response time often to under a millisecond. this continuous current flow is controlled by at least two TFTs at each pixel. Typically. Because the . These technologies offer the potential for fabricating the active matrix backplanes at low temperatures (below 150°C) directly onto flexible plastic substrates for producing flexible AMOLED displays. The amount of power the display consumes varies significantly depending on the color and brightness shown. but only 0. Samsung has marketed their version of this technology asSuper AMOLED.
such as usingBlack Google Mobile to search with a black background. rearranging the subpixels for each color and in the case of PenTile RGBW. Current demand for AMOLED screens is high and. Compared with the first-generation AMOLED. The organic materials used in AMOLED displays are prone to degradation over a period of time.black pixels actually turn off. less sunlight reflection and reduced power consumption . due to supply shortages of the Samsung-produced displays. Samsung'sSuper AMOLED technology addresses this issue by reducing the size of gaps between layers of the screen. albeit while introducing graininess. One of the main differences from other display technologies is that the layer that detects touch is integrated into the screen rather than being overlaid on top. which lets through more light. AMOLED mobile phone users can save battery power by avoiding white backgrounds and many methods exist to achieve this.. the free encyclopedia Super AMOLED Logo Super Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode or Super AMOLED is a display technology (variant from AMOLED) mainly for use in mobile devices such as mobile phones (see the list below for examples). PenTiletechnology is sometimes used. certain models of HTCsmartphones have been changed to use next-generation LCD displays from the Samsung and Sony joint-venture SLCD in the future. AMOLED displays may be difficult to view in direct sunlight compared to LCDs because of their reduced maximum brightness. technology has been developed to compensate for material degradation. AMOLED also has contrast ratios that are significantly better than LCD. Additionally. adding a white subpixel.Construction of new production facilities in 2011 will increase the production of AMOLED screens to cope with demand Super AMOLED From Wikipedia. some of the Super AMOLED advantages are brighter screens. However. thereby increasing brightness.
The first device to use it is the Galaxy Note: an Android v2. thinner with AMOLED Plus displays being 18% more energy efficient than the old Super AMOLED displays. is a further development where the PenTile RGBG pixel matrix (2 subpixels) is replaced with Samsung's "Real Stripe" (3 subpixels) RGB RGB subpixel arrangement. with a Super AMOLED Plus screen Super AMOLED Plus. A common substrate is glass. first introduced with the Samsung Galaxy S II and Samsung Droid Charge smartphones. This may be called "HD Super AMOLED Plus".3" 1280x800 display. Thin-film transistor A thin-film transistor (TFT) is a special kind of field-effect transistor made by depositingthin films of a semiconductor active layer as well as the dielectric layer and metallic contacts over a supporting substrate. However this required a change back to pentile RGBG subpixels. The screen technology is also brighter.with a 4.3 phone with a 5.Super AMOLED Plus The Samsung Galaxy S II. since the primary application of TFTs is in liquid .65" display with 1280x720 resolution. resulting in finer details. Samsung is expected to introduce a new screen using "Real Stripe" RGB subpixels with the move to the laser-induced thermal imaging (LITI) process. HD Super AMOLED HD Super AMOLED is a new Super AMOLED type display from Samsung. This goes from eight to twelve subpixels per group. The phone (and the display) was announced in September 2011. The higherresolution and dpi were made possible due to a change in materials and new manufacturing process. The change to LITI is also said to be an important step toward commercializing OLED TVs. The second device to use it is Samsung'sGalaxy Nexus phone . though still using shadow mask (or fine metal mask (FMM)) technology.
Glass plates 2/3 .crystal displays.Rear electrodes .Rugged polymer layer 8 .Spacers 9 . such as a silicon wafer.RGB colour mask 5/6 . This differs from the conventional transistor where the semiconductor material typically is the substrate.Front electrode 11 .Horizontal and vertical polarisers 4 .Thin film transistors 10 .Horizontal and vertical command lines 7 . 1 .
The most beneficial aspect of TFT technology is a separate transistor for each pixel on the display. the semiconductor layer can be either amorphous silicon. resulting in a display that can be used for video. many color LCD TVs and monitors use this technology. from point A to point B. television. passive matrix LCD displays could not keep up with fast moving images. would disappear between the two points. some TFT devices can be made completely transparent. for example.calculators. the amount of charge needed to control it is also small. the first solution-processed transparent TFTs (TTFTs). LCs do not emit light directly. such as indium tin oxide (ITO). Transistors are embedded within the panel itself. gaming. or video displaythat uses the light modulating properties ofliquid crystals (LCs). Other materials which have been used as semiconductors in TFTs include compound semiconductors such as cadmium selenide and metal oxides such as zinc oxide. Also. gaming devices. andtelephones. A TFT is used in both direct and indirect capture as a base for the image receptor in medical radiography. A TFT monitor can track the pointer. By using transparent semiconductors and transparent electrodes. or it can be annealed into polysilicon. the deposition process has to be completed under relatively low temperatures. Chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition (usually sputtering) are applied. were reported in 2003 by researchers at Oregon State University. etc.Manufacture TFTs can be made using a wide variety of semiconductor materials. watches. TFTs have also been made using organic materials (referred to as an Organic TFT or OTFT). LCDs have replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. The Portuguese laboratory CENIMAT at the Universidade Nova de Lisboahas produced the world’s first completely transparent TFT at room temperature. microcrystalline silicon.signage. As of 2008. The characteristics of a silicon based TFT depend on the crystalline state. an implementation of LCD technology.[clarification needed] Because conventional substrates cannot withstand high annealingtemperatures.aircraft cockpit displays. Liquid crystal display A liquid crystal display(LCD) is a flat panel display. A common material is silicon. This allows for very fast re-drawing of the display. As each transistor is small. A pointer dragged across the screen. including computer monitors.[broken citation] TFT panels are heavily used in digitalradiography applications in general radiography. CENIMAT also developed the first paper transistor. They are used in a wide range of applications. based on zinc oxide. They are common in consumer devices such as video players. Applications The best known application of thin-film transistors is in TFT LCDs. electronic visual display. that is.clocks. reducing crosstalk between pixels and improving image stability. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT . Prior to TFT. The new AMOLED (Active Matrix Organic light-emitting diode) screens also contain a TFT layer. which may lead to applications such as magazines and journal pages with moving images. instrument panels. and other forms of multimedia.
. they cannot suffer image burn-in. 2. the discovery of liquid crystals. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-poweredelectronic equipment. 6. Glass substrate with common electrode film (ITO) with horizontal ridges to line up with the horizontal Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of moleculesaligned between twotransparent electrodes. and since they do not use phosphors. 1. With no actual liquid crystalbetween the polarizing filters. worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units.  LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. however. 4. Polarizing filter film with a vertical axis to polarize light as it enters.) Polarizing filter film with a horizontal axis to block/pass light. this layer is replaced with a light Twisted nematic liquid crystal. filter. 5.and plasma displays. Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display. By 2008. light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. It is an electronically modulated optical devicemade up of any number of segments filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. 3. source. The most flexible ones use an array of small pixels. Glass substrate with ITO electrodes. LCDs are. Vertical ridges etched on the surface are smooth. susceptible to image persistence. The shapes of these electrodes will determine the shapes that will appear when the LCD is turned ON. dates from 1888. and two polarizing filters. Reflective surface to send light back to viewer. The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology. (In a backlit LCD.
such that the top and bottom polarizers are parallel. and the device appears grey. the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other. This is avoided either by applying analternating current or by reversing the polarity of the electric field as the device is addressed (the response of the liquid crystal layer is identical. these devices are usually operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage (the eye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than the bright state). the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. in which case the bright and dark states are reversed. The voltage-off dark state in this configuration appears blotchy. Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material containionic compounds. regardless of the polarity of the applied field). These devices can also be operated between parallel polarizers. for example.  Before applying an electric field. this ionic material is attracted to the surfaces and degrades the device performance. This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light. The Liquid Crystal Display is intrinsically a “passive” device.The surface of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. In a twisted nematic device (still the most common liquid crystal device). If an electric field of one particular polarity is applied for a long period of time. however. Because of this. or twist. and thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black. a cloth. The managing and control of the data to be displayed is performed by one or more circuits commonly denoted asLCD drivers. LCD with top polarizer removed from device and placed on top. If the applied voltage is large enough. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel. The optical effect of a twisted nematic device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. pocket calculators etc. Displays for a small number of individual digits and/or fixed symbols (as in digital watches.) can be implemented with independent electrodes for each segment. it is a simple light valve. and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helicalstructure. the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymerlayer that is unidirectionally rubbed using. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). In contrast full alphanumericand/or variable graphics displays are usually implemented with pixels arranged as a . because of small variations of thickness across the device. This light will then be mainly polarized perpendicular to the second filter.
George H. For details on the various matrix addressing schemes see Passive-matrix and active-matrix addressed LCDs. 1964: George H. Heilmeier. 1927: Vsevolod Frederiks devises the electrically switched light valve. 1962: Richard Williams of RCA found that liquid crystals had some interesting electro-optic characteristics and he realized an electro-optical effect by generating stripe-patterns in a thin layer of liquid crystal material by the application of a voltage. Practical problems with this new electro-optical effect made Heilmeier continue to work on scattering effects in liquid crystals and finally the achievement of the first operational liquid crystal display based on what he called the dynamic scattering mode(DSM). 1936: The Marconi Wireless Telegraph company patents the first practical application of the technology. smectics and cholesterics). Reinitzer: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholesterins. Gray. George W. This effect is based on an electro-hydrodynamic instability forming what is now called "Williams domains" inside the liquid crystal. Heilmeier was inducted in the National Inventors Hall of Fame and credited with the invention of LCD. which makes it possible to address each pixel at the intersections. DSM displays could be operated in transmissive and in reflective mode but they required a considerable current to flow for their operation. for example by selecting the rows one-by-one and applying the picture information on the other side at the columns row-by-row. "The Liquid Crystal Light Valve". two melting points and generation of colors) and published his findings at a meeting of the Vienna Chemical Society on May 3. 1904: Otto Lehmann publishes his work "Flüssige Kristalle" (Liquid Crystals). The general method of matrix addressing consists of sequentially addressing one side of the matrix.matrix consisting of electrically connected rows on one side of the LC layer and columns on the other side. 421-441 (1888)). then working in the RCA laboratories on the effect discovered by Williams achieved the switching of colors by field-induced realignment of dichroic dyes in a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal. Monatshefte für Chemie (Wien) 9. called the Fréedericksz transition. the essential effect of all LCD technology. by Dr. 1922: Georges Friedel describes the structure and properties of liquid crystals and classified them in 3 types (nematics. 1962: The first major English language publication on the subject"Molecular Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals". . Brief history 1888: Friedrich Reinitzer (1858–1927) discovers the liquid crystalline nature of cholesterol extracted from carrots (that is. Heilmeier's work is an IEEE Milestone. 1911: Charles Mauguin first experiments of liquids crystals confined between plates in thin layers. 1888 (F. Application of a voltage to a DSM display switches the initially clear transparent liquid crystal layer into a milky turbid state.
532 261) with Wolfgang Helfrich and Martin Schadt (then working for the Central Research Laboratories) listed as inventors. After thorough analysis. where the inventors worked. 1960s: Pioneering work on liquid crystals was undertaken in the late 1960s by the UK's Royal Radar Establishment at Malvern. invent the super-twisted nematic (STN) structure for passive-matrixaddressed LCDs. This is a milestone for implementing large-screen LCDs having acceptable visual performance for flat-panel computer monitors and television screens. the twisted nematic field effect in liquid crystals was filed for patent by Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland. Europe EP 0131216.229 and many more countries. (Swiss patent No. engineers at Hitachi work out various practical details of the IPS technology to interconnect the thin-film transistor array as a matrix and to avoid undesirable stray fields in between pixels (Abstract). while working with Sardari Arora and Alfred Saupe at Kent State UniversityLiquid Crystal Institute. were listed as inventors in the corresponding patent applications filed in Switzerland on July 7. Darmstadt. Boveri & Cie (BBC). details of advantageous embodiments are filed in Germany by Guenter Baur et al. 1983. Boveri & Cie who produced displays for wristwatches during the 1970s and also to Japanese electronics industry. Patent 4. and October 28. 1992: Shortly thereafter. which had correct stability and temperature properties for application in LCDs. James Fergason. NEC and Hitachi become early manufacturers of active-matrix addressed LCDs based on the IPS technology. assigns these patents to Merck KGaA. Hoffmann-La Roche then licensed the invention to the Swiss manufacturer Brown. Patents were granted in Switzerland CH 665491. in Pittsburgh. The team at RRE supported ongoing work by George Gray and his team at the University of Hull who ultimately discovered the cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals. The Fraunhofer Institute in Freiburg. Pennsylvania. Hitachi also improves the viewing angle dependence further by optimizing the shape of the electrodes (Super IPS).634. U. 1983. In 1971 the company of Fergason ILIXCO (nowLXD Incorporated) produced the first LCDs based on the TN-effect. 1983: Researchers at Brown. H. which soon produced the first digital quartz wrist watches with TN-LCDs and numerous other products. Scientific details are published in the article referred to  1990: Under different titles inventors conceived electrooptical effects as alternatives to twisted nematic field effect LCDs (TN. .and STN. Switzerland.S.LCDs). and patented in various countries (Abstract). Amstutz et al. which soon superseded the poor-quality DSM types due to improvements of lower operating voltages and lower power consumption. 1972: The first active-matrix liquid crystal display panel was produced in the United States by Westinghouse. the world's leading supplier of LC substances. 1971. 1970. 1970: On December 4. One approach was to use interdigital electrodes on one glass substrate only to produce an electric field essentially parallel to the glass substrates (Abstract). To take full advantage of the properties of this In-Plane Switching (IPS) technology further work was needed. filed an identical patent in the United States on April 22. England.
with a few exceptions such as the display in the original Gameboy Advance. but active-matrix displays almost always are. Passivematrix displays are usually not backlit. suitable for use in a tablet computer. this consists of a cold cathode fluorescent lamp that is situated behind the LCD panel. Another report on the origins and history of LCD from a different perspective until 1991 has been published by Hiroshi Kawamoto.1-inch LCD panel. For battery-operated units (e. In October 2011. which can improve contrast and black level in some situations. 2008: LCD TVs become the majority with a 50% market share of the 200 million TVs forecast to ship globally in 2008 according to Display Bank. the LEDs in one section of the screen can be dimmed to produce a dark section of the image while the LEDs in another section are kept bright. laptops) this requires an inverter to convert DC to AC. Passive-matrix and active-matrix addressed LCDs This section does not cite any references or sources. available at the IEEE History Center. A detailed description of the origins and the complex history of liquid crystal displays from the perspective of an insider during the early days has been published by Joseph A. Recently. Both schemes also allow for a slimmer panel than on conventional displays. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. (June 2009) . they require an external lighting mechanism to be easily visible. the LEDs are used to backlight the entire LCD panel. Unsourced material may bechallenged and removed. green and blue LEDs is used to illuminate a small cluster of pixels. On most displays. In another scheme. especially for Chinese character display. 1996 Samsung develops the optical patterning technique that enablesmulti-domain LCD. Castellano in Liquid Gold: The Story of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry. Illumination As LCD panels produce no light of their own. In one scheme. 2007: In the 4Q of 2007 for the first time LCD televisions surpass CRT units in worldwide sales. For example. Multidomain and In Plane Switching subsequently remain the dominant LCD designs through 2010. two types of LED backlit displays have appeared in some televisions as an alternative to conventional backlit LCDs. a set of red. Toshiba has announced 2560x1600 pixels on an 6.g.
 STN LCDs have to be continuously refreshed by alternating pulsed voltages of one polarity during one frame and pulses of opposite polarity during the next frame. portable devices with less information content to be displayed. low cost and/or readability in direct sunlight are needed. STN LCDs have been optimized for passive-matrix addressing. allowing each column line to access one pixel. When a row line is selected. because the pixel must retain its state between refreshes without the benefit of a steady electrical charge. As the number of pixels (and. correspondingly. when color active-matrix became standard on all laptops. and color-STN (CSTN) in which color is added by using an internal filter. Monochromepassive-matrixLCDs were standard in most early laptops (although a few used plasma displays) and the original Nintendo Game Boy until the mid-1990s. Individual pixels are addressed by the corresponding row and column circuits. such as modern LCD computer monitorsand televisions. The commercially unsuccessful Macintosh Portable (released in 1989) was one of the first to use an active-matrix display (though still monochrome). because pixels are subjected to partial voltages even while not selected. Passive-matrix LCDs are still used today for applications less demanding than laptops and TVs. New zero-power (bistable) LCDs do not require continuous refreshing. Crosstalk between activated and non-activated pixels has to be handled properly by keeping the RMS voltage of non-activated pixels below the threshold voltage. Displays having a passive-matrix structure are employing super-twisted nematic STN or double-layer STN (DSTN) technology (the latter of which addresses a color-shifting problem with the former). use this type of display.A general purpose alphanumeric LCD. A matrix of thin-film transistors (TFTs) is added to the electrodes in contact with the LC layer. where lowest power consumption (no backlight). The row line is then deactivated and the . use an active matrix structure. while activated pixels are subjected to voltages above threshold. This is important. with two lines of 16 characters. if their write/erase characteristics are suitable. Slow response times and poor contrast are typical of passive-matrix addressed LCDs with too many pixels. Rewriting is only required for picture information changes. columns and rows) increases. This type of display is called passive-matrix addressed. Potentially. In particular. all of the column lines are connected to a row of pixels and voltages corresponding to the picture information are driven onto all of the column lines. passive-matrix addressing can be used with these new devices. They exhibit a sharper threshold of the contrast-vs-voltage characteristic than the original TN LCDs. this type of display becomes less feasible. Each pixel has its own dedicated transistor. High-resolution color displays.
the electrical field is applied through opposite electrodes on the same glass substrate. Before LGEnhanced IPS was introduced in 2009. Activematrix addressed displays look "brighter" and "sharper" than passive-matrix addressed displays of the same size. so that the liquid crystals can be reoriented (switched) in the same plane. In this method. In-plane switching (IPS) In-plane switching is an LCD technology that aligns the liquid crystals in a plane parallel to the glass substrates. thus requiring a brighter backlight and consuming more power. lower power technology can be found in the Apple iMac. and iPhone 4. the additional transistors resulted in blocking more transmission area. iPad. This newer. and generally have quicker response times. By properly adjusting the level of the voltage almost any grey level or transmission can be achieved. Active matrix technologies A Casio 1. IPS LCD vs AMOLED . This requires two transistors for each pixel instead of the single transistor needed for a standard thin-film transistor (TFT) display. producing much better images. the Hewlett-Packard EliteBookmobile workstations and the Nokia 701. Currently Panasonic is using an enhanced version eIPS for their large size LCD-TV products as well as Hewlett-Packard in its WebOS based TouchPad tablet. the liquid crystals untwist changing the polarization and blocking the light's path. All of the row lines are selected in sequence during a refresh operation. polarized light passes through the 90degrees twisted LC layer. which equips the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-P93Adigital compact cameras Main articles: Thin film transistor liquid crystal displayand Active-matrix liquid crystal display Twisted nematic (TN) See also: twisted nematic field effect Twisted nematic displays contain liquid crystals that twist and untwist at varying degrees to allow light to pass through. making this type of display less desirable for notebook computers. When no voltage is applied to a TN liquid crystal cell. In proportion to the voltage applied.8 in color TFT LCD.next row line is selected.
HYDIS licensed AFFS to Sanyo Epson Imaging Devices Corporation. In 2006. so time sequential color control can possibly be realized and expensive color filters would be obsolete. called HFFS (FFS+). AFFS was developed by Hydis Technologies Co. Vertical alignment (VA) Vertical alignment displays are a form of LCDs in which the liquid crystals naturally align vertically to the glass substrates.. improving the contrast ratio and bringing it closer to that of the AMOLED screens. LCD Task Force). Hydis introduced a high-transmittance evolution of the AFFS display. Advanced fringe field switching (AFFS) Known as fringe field switching (FFS) until 2003. AFFS panels are mostly utilized in the cockpits of latest commercial aircraft displays. Hydis introduced AFFS+ with improved outdoor readability in 2007. In 2004. causing permanently lit or unlit pixels which are commonly referred to as stuck pixels or dead pixelsrespectively. AMOLED display still performs best due to its underlying technology. For details refer to Blue Phase Mode LCD. On August 24. Hitachi is using AFFS to manufacture high-end panels. AFFS-applied notebook applications minimize color distortion while maintaining a wider viewing angle for a professional display. Nokia announced the Nokia 701 and also made the claim of the world's brightest display at 1000 nits. advanced fringe field switching is similar to IPS or SIPS offering superior performance and color gamut with high luminosity. the liquid crystals remain perpendicular to the substrate creating a black display between crossed polarizers. Ltd. Color shift and deviation caused by light leakage is corrected by optimizing the white gamut which also enhances white/grey reproduction. Manufacturers' policies for the acceptable number of . Unlike integrated circuits (ICs).LG claimed the smartphone LG Optimus Black with an IPS LCD (LCD NOVA) has the brightness up to 700 nits. Shortly thereafter. Blue Phase mode Main article: Blue Phase Mode LCD Blue phase mode LCDs have been shown as engineering samples early in 2008. Korea (formally Hyundai Electronics. When no voltage is applied. Hydis Technologies Co. the liquid crystals shift to a tilted position allowing light to pass through and create a gray-scale display depending on the amount of tilt generated by the electric field. 2011.When it comes to contrast ratio. while the competitor has only IPS LCD with 518 nits and double an Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) display with 305 nits. The screen also had Nokia's Clearblack layer. The physics of blue phase mode LCDs suggest that very short switching times (~1 ms) can be achieved. where the black levels are displayed as pitch black and not as dark grey. LG also claimed the NOVA display to be 50 percent more efficient than regular LCDs and to consume only 50 percent of the power of AMOLED displays when producing white on screen. When voltage is applied. Quality control Some LCD panels have defective transistors. but they are not in mass-production yet. LCD panels with a few defective transistors are usually still usable.Ltd licensed AFFS to Japan's Hitachi Displays..
are located. 134 of the 137 dies on the wafer will be acceptable. though. For example. Dead pixel policies are often hotly debated between manufacturers and customers. depend mainly on the bulk properties of the liquid crystal (LC) and use standard strong anchoring. A display with only a few defective pixels may be unacceptable if the defective pixels are near each other. Several bistable technologies.g. In 2004 researchers at the University of Oxford demonstrated two new types of zero-power bistable LCDs based on Zenithal bistable techniques. developed by QinetiQ (formerlyDERA). Specifications Important factors to consider when evaluating an LCD: Resolution versus range: Fundamentally resolution is the granularity (or number of levels) with which a performance feature of the display is divided. Each of the major features of a display has both a resolution . which describes the uneven patches of changes in luminance. LCD panels also have defects known as clouding (or less commonlymura). Other bistable technologies. Resolution is often confused with range or the total end-to-end output of the display. However. BiNem® technology. Kent has recently[when?]demonstrated the use of a ChLCD to cover the entire surface of a mobile phone. whereas rejection of the LCD panel would be a 0% yield. e. Even where such guarantees do not exist. are based mainly on the surface properties and need specific weak anchoring materials. not every LCD manufacturer conforms to the ISO standard and the ISO standard is quite often interpreted in different ways. notably in South Korea where some of the largest LCD panel manufacturers. Samsung adheres to the less restrictive ISO 13406-2standard.[original research?] Many manufacturers would replace a product even with one defective pixel. with alignment films and LC mixtures similar to the traditional monostable materials. such as LG.defective pixels vary greatly. can retain an image without power. ZBD Displays is a spin-off company from QinetiQ who manufacture both grayscale and color ZBD devices. quality control has been improved. LCD panels are more likely to have defects than most ICs due to their larger size. Samsung held a zero-tolerance policy for LCD monitors sold in Korea. However. Kent Displays has also developed a "no power" display that uses polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLCD). and keep that color even when power is cut off. Zero-power (bistable) displays See also: Ferro Liquid Display The zenithal bistable device (ZBD).. It is most visible in dark or black areas of displayed scenes. To regulate the acceptability of defects and to protect the end user. The crystals may exist in one of two stable orientations ("Black" and "White") and power is only required to change the image. Other companies have been known to tolerate as many as 11 dead pixels in their policies. An SVGA LCD panel with 4 defective pixels is usually considered defective and customers can request an exchange for a new one. now have "zero defective pixel guarantee". ISO released the ISO 13406-2 standard.As of 2005. At one point. a 300 mm SVGA LCD has 8 defects and a 150 mm wafer has only 3 defects. like the 360° BTN and the bistable cholesteric. which is an extra screening process which can then determine "A" and "B" grade panels. allowing it to change colors.[according to whom?]Some manufacturers. In recent years. the location of defective pixels is important.
The higher the resolution. the colors usually start to change and can even invert. resolution is often expressed in terms of dot pitch or pixels per inch. The size (or spatial range) of an LCD is always described in terms of the diagonal distance from one corner to its opposite. you would be able to see the individual rows of pixels. LCD spatial performance is also sometimes described in terms of a "dot pitch". the closer you can sit to the set or the larger the set can usefully be sitting at the same distance as an older standard definition display. The spatial resolution of an LCD is expressed in terms of the number of columns and rows of pixels (e. So going forward. This is an historical remnant from the early days of CRT television when CRT screens were manufactured on the bottoms of glass bottles. which is why there will frequently still be black bars at the top and bottom of an HDTV screen. Newer High Definition televisions (HDTV) are 16:9. In practical terms that means for an older standard definition TV set the ideal viewing distance was about 8 times the height (not diagonal) of the screen away. Spatial performance: LCDs come in only one size for a variety of applications and a variety of resolutions within each of those applications. the image of the rows of pixels still merge. Older. For a normal person with 20/20 vision. 5:4. and blue sub pixel. Each pixel is usually composed of a red. green. This is consistent with the printing industry (another form of a display). the square screens were measured diagonally to compare with the older round screens. At this point. spatial resolution may be more subject to interpretation. 4:3. particularly on mobile devices. as are most new notebook computers.and a range that are tied to each other but very different. or more.. Viewing angles for LCDs used to be very restrictive however. The Viewing Angle of an LCD may be important depending on its use or location. The Aspect ratio is the ratio of the width to the height (for example. when televisions went to a more square format. Later. Movies are often filmed in much different (wider) aspect ratios. Running the LCD is frequently half. 1024×768). If you were closer to the screen than that. At that distance the individual rows of pixels merge into a solid. but the total image becomes smaller as you get further away. this provides a very solid looking and detailed image. The viewing angle is usually measured as the angle where the contrast of the LCD falls below 10:1. If you are further away. As with the distance discussion above. are frequently much less than this as the higher the dot pitch. red becoming green and so forth. Frequently the range is an inherent limitation of the display while the resolution is a function of the electronics that make the display work.g. However there are newer schemes to share sub-pixels among pixels and to add additional colors of sub-pixels. the resolution of your eyes is about one minute of arc. the ideal viewing distance is about half what it is for a standard definition set. and other premium printed media are often at 300 dots per inch. the more optically inefficient the display and the more power it burns. of the power consumed by a mobile device. This had been one of the few features of LCD performance that was easily understood and not subject to interpretation. LCDs. An additional consideration in spatial performance are viewing cone and aspect ratio. One external factor to consider in evaluating display resolution is the resolution of your own eyes. Magazines. a direct extension of cathode ray tubes used inoscilloscopes. The diameter of the bottle determined the size of the screen. 16:9 or 16:10). For an HDTV set with slightly more than twice the number of rows of pixels. standard definition TVs were 4:3. For a computer monitor or some other LCD that is being viewed from a very close distance. improved optical films have been developed that give almost 180 .
or how quickly you can change a sub-pixel's brightness from one level to another. For a 3D display it must display twice as many images in the same period of time as a conventional display and consequently the response time of the LCD becomes more important. will exhibit image smearing. For LCD monitors. You are more able to see flicker or any sort of temporal distortion in a display image by not looking directly at it as your rods are mostly grouped at the periphery of your vision. as looking at an LCD from an extreme up or down angle is not a common usage model and these photons are wasted. Temporal/timing performance: Contrary to spatial performance. Color performance: There are many terms to describe color performance of an LCD. LCDs sometimes use a technique calleddithering which is time averaging colors to get intermediate colors such as alternating between two different colors to get a color in between. In any case. They include color gamut which is the range of colors that can be displayed and color depth which is the color resolution or the resolution or fineness with which the color range is divided. Temporal performance can be further taxed if it is a 3D display. These different types of measurements make comparison difficult. Refresh rate or the temporal resolution of an LCD is the number of times per second in which the display draws the data it is being given. This doubles the . temporal performance is a feature where smaller is better. the range is the pixel response time of an LCD. Top to bottom viewing angles may still be restrictive. Further. such high refresh rates may not be actually supported by pixel response times and the result can be visual artifacts that distort the image in unpleasant ways. it is usually expressed as a ratio of the total area within color space that a display can show relative to some standard such as saying that a display was "120% of NTSC". NTSC is the National Television Standards Committee. Although color gamut can be expressed as three pairs of numbers. this is measured in btb (black to black) or gtg (gray to gray). color range is rarely discussed as a feature of the display as LCDs are designed to match the color ranges of the content that they are intended to show. 3D displays work by showing a different series of images to each eye. Color depth or color support is sometimes expressed in bits. green. Specifically. Further. no matter how low the refresh. alternating from eye to eye. and bluest blue. greenest green. It is actually greater in your black and white vision (rod cells) than in color vision (cone cells). termed color stretch. this number is almost never published in sales advertising.degree viewing angles from left to right.High-end LCD televisions now feature up to 240 Hz refresh rate. colors can be shown that are outside of the nominal range of the display. LCD monitors exhibit no refresh-induced flicker. rate. However with clever optical techniques that are based on the way humans see color. and blue or 8 bits each for each color in a different display. by design. the old standard definition TV specification. Having a color range that exceeds the content is a useless feature. the XY coordinates within color space of the reddest red. which requires advanced digital processing to insert additional interpolated frames between the real images to smooth the image motion. Manufacturers commonly focus the light in a left to right plane to obtain a brighter image here. Color gamut is a relatively straight forward feature. However. Since activated LCD pixels do not flash on/off between frames. This can be ambiguous as an 8-bit color LCD can be 8 total bits spread between red. either as the number of bits per sub-pixel or the number of bits per pixel. 3D LCDs with marginal response times.
people like what they like and everyone does not like the same thing. as one will always have the light from the LCD itself. 8-bit. The LCD itself is only a light valve. or any display. so brightness was commonly discussed in TV advertising. it does not generate light. Many years ago. There are additional aspects to LCD color and color management. LCD televisions also frequently have facial recognition software.. however this is done at the expense of the temporal performance of the display. These adjustments can have important effects on the consumer. there are two large caveats to contrast ratio as a measure of LCD performance. another form of display. Brightness is usually stated as the maximum output of the LCD. consumers generally prefer a less saturated image. As a practical matter. The blinking backlight was developed to improve the motion performance of LCDs by turning the backlight off while the liquid crystals were in transition from one image to another. a side benefit of the blinking backlight was infinite contrast. Beyond that. The contrast reported on most LCDs is what the LCD is qualified at. the light comes from a backlight that is either a florescent tube or a set of LEDs. The number of colors is the translation from the base 2-bit numbers into common base-10. is governed by the amount of surface reflections. . but for most common displays the limit is about 28bit color. Kodak had to overcome initial rejection of its portrait film in Japan because of these adjustments. The first caveat is that contrast ratios are measured in a completely dark room. That is why viewing angles are specified to the point where they fall below 10:1.  Black print on a white paper is about 15–20:1. Brightness and contrast ratio: Contrast ratio is the ratio of the brightness of a full-on pixel to a full-off pixel and. There is no substitute for looking at the LCD one is going to buy before buying it. has similar adjustments built in to it. which recognizes that an image on the screen is a face and both adjust the color and the focus differently from the rest of the image. but is discernable. people generally prefer a more colorful facial image than in reality (higher color saturation). In the CRT era. in common terms means 2 to the 8th power or 256 colors. For example.number of colors that can be displayed. In the U. The film that Kodak initially sent to Japan was biased in the wrong direction for Japanese consumers. The second caveat is that the human eye can only image a contrast ratio of a maximum of about 200:1. When color depth is reported as color support. The color resolution of the human eye depends on both the range of colors being sliced and the number of slices. not its actual performance. LCD TVs commonly display more than that as the digital processing can introduce color distortions and the additional levels of color are needed to ensure true colors. Portrait film. In any case. Television monitors have their builtin biases as well. there may be sunlight coming in through a window or other room lights that reflect off of the surface of the LCD and degrades the contrast. as such. Dithering is commonly used on computer displays where the images are mostly static and the temporal performance is unimportant. A 10:1 image is not great. Trinitron CRTs had a brightness advantage over the competition. would be directly tied to brightness if not for the invention of the blinking backlight (or burst dimming).S. In Japan. which describe what color white is and how the other colors are displayed relative to white. but are not easily quantifiable. the room is never completely dark. it is usually stated in terms of number of colors the LCD can show. such as white point and gamma correction. the contrast of an LCD. In actual use. 8-bits per color or 24-bits would be 256 x 256 x 256 or over 16 Million colors. However. not by the performance of the display.
and TEMPEST – Telecommunications Electronics Material Protected from Emanating Spurious Transmissions. These include MIL-S-901D – High Shock (Sea Vessels). saturation. military LCD monitor must be compliant with MIL-STD-3009 (formerly MIL-L-85762A).S. even within the intended viewing angle. In general. . brightness. LCD. For use with night vision imaging systems a U. (January 2012) LCD monitors have been adopted by the United States military. Not affected by screen burn-in.With current LCD technology. instead ofCRT displays. although monochrome plasma displays are also used. as display devices LCDs are not perfect for all applications. is usually the same from maker to maker and is consequently not discussed much except for notebook LCDs and other displays that will be viewed in bright sunlight. because they are smaller. Advantages and disadvantages Further information: Comparison CRT.MIL-STD-810F – Field Environmental Conditions (Ground Vehicles and Systems). MIL-STD-167B – Vibration (Sea Vessels). Little or no flicker depending on backlight technology. These LCD monitors go through extensive certification so that they pass the standards for the military. by variations in posture. though important. notably for the M1 Abrams tank. contrast and brightness to vary. causing color. MIL-STD-740B – Airborne/Structureborne Noise. MIL-STD-461E/F – EMI/RFI (Electromagnetic Interference/Radio Frequency Interference). Low power consumption. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. lighter and more efficient. No geometric distortion. Plasma In spite of LCDs being a well proven and still viable technology. but there is always a trade-off between brightness and battery life in a mobile device. brighter is better. Advantages Very compact and light. Disadvantages Limited viewing angle. Military use of LCD monitors The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with USA and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. No theoretical resolution limit. Can be made in almost any size or shape.
Bleeding and uneven backlighting in some monitors. especially toward the edges. The technology was invented and first demonstrated by T Peter Brody and his Thin-Film Devices department at Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1968. causing brightness distortion. . sound (sonoluminescence). or other mechanical action (mechanoluminescence). In a constant-on situation. Loss of contrast in high temperature environments. Active matrix Active matrix is a type of addressing scheme used in flat panel displays. The term describes a method of switching individual elements of a flat panel display. Smearing and ghosting artifacts caused by slow response times (>8 ms) and "sample and hold" operation. 8-bit S-IPS panels can display 16 million colors and have significantly better black level.000 colors. This is distinct fromblack bodylight emission resulting from heat (incandescence). which activelymaintains the pixel state while other pixels are being addressed. Low bit depth results in images with unnatural or excessive contrast. or CdSesemiconductor material. using a CdSe or Silicon-based thin-film transistor(TFT) for each pixel. Only one native resolution.Metal insulator metal diodes).e.g. Not all LCDs are designed to allow easy replacement of the backlight. many cheaper LCDs are only able to display 262. Cannot be used with light guns/pens. Each pixel is attached to a switch-device. the number of connectors needed to address the display is m + n.e. but neither diodes (e. Another variant is to use diodes or resistors. Electroluminescence Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon andelectrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of anelectric current or to a strongelectric field. i. The latter of these is not yet economical when compared to TFT. Fixed bit depth. varistors) are currently used. nor non-linear voltage dependent resistors(i. a FET based on either the cheaper non-crystallinethin-film silicon (a-Si). from a chemical reaction (chemiluminescence). which is when only part of the screen has overheated and looks discolored compared to the rest of the screen. Displaying resolutions either requires avideo scaler. but are expensive and have slower response time. or display at 1:1 pixel mapping. polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si). Given a m × n matrix. and the term was introduced into the literature in 1975. which also prevents crosstalk from inadvertently changing the state of an unaddressed pixel. lowering perceptual quality. The most common switching devices are Thin Film Transistors (TFT). Input lag Dead or stuck pixels may occur during manufacturing or through use. in which images will be physically too large or won't fill the whole screen. thermalization may occur.
2'-bipyridine . Examples of electroluminescent materials Electroluminescent devices are fabricated using either organic or inorganic electroluminescent materials. where bpy is 2. gallium arsenide (GaAs). electrons and holes may be separated either by doping the material to form a p-n junction (in semiconductor electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes) or through excitation by impact of high-energy electrons accelerated by a strong electric field (as with the phosphors in electroluminescent displays). Semiconductors containing Group III and Group V elements. Prior to recombination. such asindium phosphide (InP). Peak wavelength is at 492 nm and the FWHM spectral bandwidth is quite wide at about 85 nm. The excited electrons release their energy as photons .Spectrum of a blue/green electroluminescent light source for a clock radio (similar to the one seen in the above image). Certain organic semiconductors.light. The most typical inorganic thin-film EL (TFEL) is ZnS:Mn with yellow-orange emission. Examples of the range of EL material include: Powdered zinc sulfide doped with copper (producing greenish light) orsilver (producing bright blue light) Thin-film zinc sulfide doped with manganese (producing orange-red color) Naturally blue diamond. and gallium nitride (GaN). such as [Ru(bpy)3]2+(PF6-)2. which includes a trace of boron that acts as a dopant. The active materials are generally semiconductors of wide enough bandwidth to allow exit of the light. usually a semiconductor. Mechanism Electroluminescence is the result of radiative recombination of electronsand holes in a material.
Powder phosphor-based electroluminescent panels are frequently used as backlights to liquid crystal displays. PA. lit diameter 59 mm) The most common electroluminescent (EL) devices are composed of either powder (primarily used in lighting applications) or thin films (for information displays. Later in the 1960s. which used a Sylvania electroluminescent display panel as part of its display-keyboard interface (DSKY). however. MA. and their gentle green-cyan glow is a common sight in the technological world. For line-voltage-operated devices. Finlux (Oy Lohja Ab) in Finland. and dates from 1960. and Planar Systems in the USA. produced and marketed an EL night lamp (right). They do.08 W at 230 V. Here. with some samples known to be still functional after nearly 50 years of continuous operation. MA developed and manufactured several instruments for the Apollo Lunar Lander and Command Module using electroluminescent display panels manufactured by the Electronic Tube Division of Sylvania at Emporium. Sylvania Lighting Division in Salem and Danvers. wristwatches. this converter often makes an audible whine or siren sound while the backlight is activated. Raytheon. manufactured the Apollo guidance computer. even illumination to the entire display while consuming relatively little electric power. bright. For battery-operated devices.Practical implementations An electroluminescent nightlight in operation (uses 0. it may be supplied directly from the power line. Sylvania's Electronic Systems Division in Needham. MA. with each gauge pointer also an individual light source. These lamps have proven incredibly reliable. this voltage must be generated by a converter circuit within the device. and was continued successfully on several Chrysler vehicles through 1967. Sudbury. Brightness per unit area increases with increased voltage and frequency. longlife light emission is achieved in thin film yellow-emitting manganese-doped zinc sulfide material. They readily provide a gentle. This makes them convenient for battery-operated devices such as pagers. require relatively high voltage (between 60 and 600 volts). Electroluminescent nightlights operate in this fashion. Thin film phosphor electroluminescence was first commercialized during the 1980s by Sharp Corporation in Japan. entered production on 1960 Chrysler and Imperial passenger cars.) Electroluminescent automotive instrument panel backlighting. Displays using this technology were manufactured for medical and vehicle applications where ruggedness and . under the trade name Panelescent at roughly the same time that the Chrysler instrument panels entered production. and computer-controlled thermostats.
Winter 2005 Electroluminescent technologies have low power consumption compared to competing lighting technologies. together with the thinness of the material. filament lamps. In 1992. driven from a transistor on the display) Similar to LCD trends. The solid-state nature of TFEL allows for a very rugged and high-resolution display fabricated even on silicon substrates.wide viewing angles were crucial. has made EL technology valuable to the advertising industry. other transparent conducting materials. EL film produces single-frequency (monochromatic) light that has a very narrow bandwidth. The light emitted from the surface is perfectly homogeneous and is well-perceived by the eye. where circuitry is added to prolong voltages at each pixel. Glass coated with indium tin oxide is commonly used as the front (transparent) electrode while the back electrode is coated with reflective metal. Timex introduced its Indiglo EL display on some watches. electroluminescent light is not directional and therefore hard to compare with (thermal) light sources measured in lumens or lux. The world's first electroluminescent billboard campaign. Canada. and when. Recently. is absolutely uniform and visible from a great distance. or LEDs. the EL material must be enclosed between two electrodes and at least one electrode must be transparent to allow the escape of the produced light. the brightness of the surface appears the same from all angles of view.e. and liquid crystal displays were not well developed. Relevant advertising applications include electroluminescent billboards and signs. . An EL film is a so-called Lambertian radiator: unlike with neon lamps. In either case. blue-. there have also been Active Matrix EL (AMEL) displays demonstrated. voltages are driven from edge of the display cf. Additionally. such as neon orfluorescent lamps.. AMEL displays of 1280x1024 at over 1000 lines per inch (lpi) have been demonstrated by a consortium including Planar Systems. such as carbon nanotube coatings or PEDOT can be used as the front electrode. EL manufacturers are able to control precisely which areas of an electroluminescent sheet illuminate. and green-emitting thin film electroluminescent materials that offer the potential for long life and full color electroluminescent displays have been developed. This. red-. The display applications are primarily passive (i. This has given advertisers the ability to create more dynamic advertising that is still compatible with traditional advertising spaces.
producing the greatest apparent light output for the least electrical power input. In principle. Unlike neon and fluorescent lamps. However. EL lamps are notnegative resistance devices so no extra circuitry is needed to regulate the amount of current flowing through them. the commonly-used greenish color closely matches the peak sensitivity of human vision. . EL lamps can be made in any color. Chryslerbegan building cars with EL panel lighting for the 1960 model year.1966 Dodge Charger instrument panel with electroluminescent lighting.
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