Session 2011-12



hitesh 4th Year in E & C Branch

MS.PRIYANKA AGRAWAL A.I.E.T Mr.VIKASH MAHATO (In charge For Training Report) A.I.E.T.

A.I.E.T Jaipur(E&C)

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R.S.E.B. GSS 220KV

A.I.E.T Jaipur(E&C)

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R.S.E.B. GSS 220KV


Now a day the world becomes complex and going towards direction of computerization. So, the RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY has included Seminar Project Study as a part of B.TECH. Course. Today s competitive market works on current market technologies. Therefore, it is necessary that the seminar developed by you should be based on that technology. Now a day, new features are used in all most all fields. We hardly find any field that does not make use of that features. This itself says that the working method of people has changed a lot from ancient times to today s fast and efficient widely used technology. So, to establish yourself in this market you need to design the system in such a way that they don t find any difficulty to extent possible. This is probably one of the most difficult tasks for the developers. Also the seminar must adapt to new skills that are invented continuously. This seminar has been visualized as far as user friendliness and practical usefulness is taken into account. This report that we are submitting highlights the versatility that we are capable of pressure of professional life and try to do best whenever work is given to us. We strongly believe that this report will be helpful in guiding the user about our system. After all, the users are who are guiding to use the system.


A.I.E.T Jaipur(E&C)

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R.S.E.B. GSS 220KV

I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude, my seminar coordinator Mr. Vikash Mahato for his valuable guidance. I am grateful to him for his constant motivation, support & ideas that he gave throughout the year of my thesis. This work would not have been possible without his guidance. I would also like to thanks H.O.D. of ECE department Ms. Priyanka Agarwal for sponsoring this seminar. I would also like to thanks my college APEX INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY that we had during my thesis work.

A.I.E.T Jaipur(E&C)

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5.7 Caution: 3.2 Type of Sub Station 2.5.1 Introduction: 3.: 3.2 Different Arc Quenching Media: 3.E.S.I. 1.2.5.L.P.2.5 One and A Half Breaker Scheme: 3.T.5.2 Rating of Air Breaker Isolator: 3.2.1 Different Equipment of Switchyard Used In G.S.5 Oil Circuit Breaker: A.2.1 Introduction 2.2.S.1 Working of Isolator: 3.3.R.5 Circuit Breaker 3.B.3 Complete Working of SF6 Circuit Breaker: 3.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 5 .3. INTRODUCTION TO 220-KV G. R.. Jhunjhunu: 2.8 Arresters Voltage: 3.1 Oil Vs SF6 Gas: 3.S.4 Isolator and Earthing Switching: 3.V.E.S.4. VARIOUS EQUIPMENT 3.3 Constructional Feature of 132-KV G.3 Capacitor Voltage Transformer (C.6 Location of Arrestors: 3.S.5.V.3.4.S.4 Protection of Transmission Line From Direct Strokes: 3.2 SF6 Vs Air/Gases: 3.4 Protection Against Lightning: 3.2.5 Lightning Arrestor Meter: 3.1 Basic Concept of Using Circuit Breaker: 3.3 SF6 Circuit Breaker: 3.1 Introduction 1.3 Earthing Switch: 3.JHUNJHUNU 2.S.3 Valve Type Lighting Arrestor: 3.N.): 3.E. GSS 220KV TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.2 Lightning Arrester 3.2.R.2.2 Lightning Arrester: 3.5.4 Bus ± Bar Arrangement in Switchyards: 2.2. INTRODUCTION OF R.5.B.5.4.4 Air Blast Circuit Breaker: 3.

S. GSS 220KV 3.CONCLUSION A.6 Rating of Circuit Breaker: 3.1 Protection and Control: 4.4 Transformer Accessories: 3.8.6 Air Conditioning Plant 5.8 Current Transformer 3.2 Annunciator 6.3 Power Line Carrier Communication Transformer 3.S.S.1.2 Rated Pressure of SF6 Gas: 3.I.B. Supply System 5.E.7.3 Tap Changing Transformer: 3.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 6 .1.1 Rating of Current Transformer 4.1.E. PROTECTION AND CONTROL 4.6.2 The Various Type of Relay Installed at 400 KV G.1 Tertiary Winding: 3.1 Rated Power Frequency: 3. are: 4.1 Control Room 5.R.3 Fire Fighting System : D.C.2 Auto Transformer: 3.2 Power Line Carrier Communication 5.1.4 Oil Testing Lab 5.7.OTHER PLANTS 5.

Bulk supply sub station The step of substation is associated with the generation station. The distribution substation are created where the sub transmission voltage/primary is step down to supply voltage.S. From here secondary transmission lines are carried over to the load points.B.S. The generation of electricity at low voltage link 6.E.R. Secondary sub station 4.E.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 7 . The generation voltage is limiting to a low value and needs to step up to the primary transmission voltage so that huge blocks of power can be carried over long distance to the centers economically. Populated areas as in case to transformation and switching stations house to be created. INTRODUCTION OF R. Along this secondary transmission lines secondary substation are created to actual load points where the voltage is further stepped down sub transmission and primary distribution voltage. Step up sub station 2. A substation is immediate link between the generating stations. 1. these substation feed the extra consumer through a network to distribution of and service lines. These are generally known as substation.6-KV or 11-KV is done although high voltage up to 33 KV is also possible but it is not A.I. Distribution sub station 5. The bulk supply and industrial sub stations are generally distributed substation with the difference that the substation is created separately for a consumer and subsequent distribution of the electric power or left to the particular consumer of large or medium supply group. As may be designed by the standard laid down by the electrical supply by undertaking.1 Introduction The economical generation of electrical energy and huge demands for power requires creation of bigger and bigger powerhouses. The powerhouse may be far away from the load centers as in the case of hydropower houses or they may be midst. 1. steam or atomic. The primary grid sub stations are created at suitable load centers along that primary transmission voltage is stepped down to a number of suitable secondary voltage. Primary grid sub station 3.B. GSS 220KV 1. may these be hydro electrical.E.2 Type of Sub Station Depending on the purpose of substation may be classified as 1.

For economical transmission of electric power.S.R. To cut the supply of desired related area. While at distribution level electrical service provides require a voltage level that suits consumer electrical electrical equipment for this purpose we have to provide smoke kind of stations for following reasons. To step down the voltage up to distribution load. 1.JHUNJHUNU 2. We have to maintain the voltage at such a high level that it may not be lost during transmission. To maintain the voltage in original high transmission voltage. 3.N. 2.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 8 .P.E.B. we have two power grids.V.1 Introduction A.S. we transmit power at a very high voltage.I. As we know voltage drop along the length of transmission line. 2. GSS 220KV expected due to economical condition.S.E. INTRODUCTION TO 220-KV G. Thus for the sake of efficient transmission and considering the economical aspect all electrical authorities operating high voltage at transmission level.R.. Generally we operate ring scheme of power grid. in case of any kind of damage. In India. R.L. All GSS are linked to each other to form network as power grid. they are northern and southern power grid.

GSS 220KV R. 5. was constituted by government of Rajasthan power development department with the general duty of promoting & coordinating development of generation.S.I. safety of personal.3 Constructional Feature of 132-KV G.R. 8. Protective zones. 2. 2. This bus bar arrangement provides option of utilization ant of two buses at a time and leaving third one out of for maintenance or repair.N. 3. 2. Following aspect in general affect the station of the scheme.E. To make power system more reliable & efficient inter-state Grid system was regional electricity Board to promote integrated operations of the constituent power system. Hence total capacity of 132-kV G. Provision of extension. receiving station or a switchyard in a distribution system. . A.S.S.S.V.S.B.S. 1.E.2. Importance of load conditions freedom from total shut down and its period desired.4 Bus ± Bar Arrangement in Switchyards: There are several ways in which the switching equipments can be connected in the electrical layout of generating station. is 25 + 50 = 75 MVA These transformers are step down transformer 132-kV to 33-kV and fed three busbar arrangements.P.S.. Regional load dispatch centers have been established to co-ordinate the activities of state load dispatch centers so as to ensure optimum utilization of generation & transmission facilities in the regions. There are total 9 feeders in which 2 are incoming feeders from Sanganer & Chambal which are incoming from and 7 outgoing feeders to two transformers in which one are of 50 MVA capacity & other is of 25 MVA capacity.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 9 . Jhunjhunu: In this G.Degree of flexibility of operation desired. 4. Economic consideration. Maintenance.L. availability and cost.R. Simplicity 7. supply & distribution of electricity within the state in the most efficient & economic manner. breaker and half scheme is adopted between buses main-1 and main. 6. Technical consideration.

E. Duplicate bus bar arrangement 3. All the incoming feeders from generating units are in one direction while out going feeders are oriented in opposite direction. Mesh arrangement.: Some equipment are used in the G.S.R.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 10 .E. This is scheme-having flexibility to attend any element in this switchyard without losing the circuit. It occupies single bay space for two feeders oriented in diagonally opposite directions. for successful operation of breaker and a A. 5. One and a half breaker arrangement. As two circuits are connected between three breakers.B. 2. In 132-kV G.S. 6. Ring bus.S. Opening the associated two circuit breakers trips the circuit. hence the term breaker and the half breaker are used for each circuit. as there are three breakers in series between the main buses. Single bus bar arrangement. Under normal operating conditions all breaker are closed and both buses are energized. however breaker and a half scheme are superior in flexibility reliability and safety 3.I.1 Different Equipment of Switchyard Used In G.S. 2.S.5 One and A Half Breaker Scheme: Breaker and a half scheme or one and a half breaker scheme is sometimes called the three-switch scheme. VARIOUS EQUIPMENT 3. one and a half breaker arrangement scheme is adopted between main-1 and main-2 busses. Sectionalization of bus bar. 4. The breaker and half arrangement are more expensive than other scheme.S. GSS 220KV With these basic requirements there are several bus bar arrangement are as follows:- 1.S.

2 Lightning Arrester 3.S. When the positively charge cloud produce negative charge on the overhead line by electrostatic induction than the negative charge is however presented just under the cloud & portion of the line away from the cloud becomes positively charged. This charge on the line does not flow. Lighting Arrestors are provided with proper Earthing.E. Lightning arrester 2. the lighting arrestors used are ³THYRITE ALUGARD STATION ± class lighting arrestors´.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 11 .1 (below) shows the lightning arrester. they are 1. which can damage the unprotected equipment connected to the line. Protection of power station or substation from direct strokes. The positive charge on the far end flows to the earth through insulators.2 Lightning Arrester: Lightning Arrestor is a device.I.B.S.S.2.E. transformer from over head voltages & lighting. These traveling waves will be of light magnitude & have steep wave front. Isolator 5. 3. Protection for transmission line from direct strokes. Wave trap 4. Figure 3. Now assume due to the direct discharge occurring between this cloud & passing by negative charge on the line is no more bound charge & is free to travel on the both direction in the form of waves. which protects the overhead lines & other electrical apparatus viz.1 Introduction: Every instrument must be protected from the damage of lightning strokes. The three protections in sub stations are essential: 1. Protection of electrical apparatus against traveling waves.R. GSS 220KV Half scheme between two buses.2. Effective protection of equipment against direct strokes requires a shield to prevent lightning from striking the electrical conductor together with adequate drainage facilities over insulated structure. Lighting Arrestors are installed on a concrete A... Capacitor voltage transformer 3. 3. Circuit breaker 6. thus leaving the negative charge on the line directly under the cloud. In this G. These waves are passed to the earth through the lighting arrestors. Current transformer 3. 2.

2.2.5 Lightning Arrestor Meter: This meter indicates the sum of surface leakage & internal grading current of the arrestor. Green.E. Power station & sub stations from direct strokes.3 Valve Type Lighting Arrestor: Basic Lighting Arrestor has spark gap & resistance with non-linear characteristics.S. in parallel with non. 3. the units consist of number of main gap. a non-linear resistor. Overhead transmission line from direct strokes.2. A.E. GSS 220KV block which project above ground by 305 mm. 3. 2.4 Protection of Transmission Line From Direct Strokes: Effective protection requires a shield to prevent lighting from striking to electrical conductor together with adequate drainage facility over instruction so that discharge can drain to ground. High Voltage causes internal flash over between the terminals of electrical equipment. Electrical apparatus from traveling waves.linear resistors. It has three different indicators to indicate different conditions: 1.R. A lighting surge of short duration mainly passes through parallel resistors while a switching surge & power frequency current passes through magnetic coils. 2.Defective.B.4 Protection Against Lightning: All electrical equipments are protected from the severe damage of the lightning strokes which is studied from the view of following protection: 1.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 12 .I. Remove from service. Step wave front of the surge may cause internal flashover between the turns of transformer. 3. Lighting Arrestors are always with a mounting name ³Discharge Counter´. In Heerapura G. Although ground wire runs over lines protects against lighting & reduces induced Voltage but inadequate to protect ant traveling waves which reaches the terminal of electrical this causes following damage: 1. 2. The spark gap consists of series of electrodes whose spark gap is broken. 3. Red.2. High Voltage causes flash over in internal winding.S.Arrestor is healthy. It consist of a isolator in series & connected in such a way that long isolator is in upward & short isolator is in downward so that initially large potential up to the earth is decreased to zero. 3. 3.S.

Counter. 3.T.T. and to interrupt the maximum power frequency follow current before the first current.E. 3.7 Caution: Test on high voltage by common meggar do not provide correct assessment of its health.): Capacitor voltage transformer (C. carrier communication and other vital function of an available for system voltages of 33-kV to 132-kV. 3.V. protection. is inferior to that of electromagnetic voltage transformer.E.R. Its performance is affected by the supply frequency switching transient bus bar etc.T. The carrier equipments can be connected via the capacitor of the C. 3.3 Capacitor Voltage Transformer (C.V. there is no need separate coupling capacitor.V.Maintains counts of operation undergone by the arrestor.2.V.I.2. It is important. the C.S. therefore to assure that the system power frequency voltage from line to ground under any condition of switching fault over voltage never exceeds the arresters rating. GSS 220KV 3. So as to include the other substation equipment within the protective zone in case the lighting arrestor is installed towards line side of circuit breaker then it needs to be ensured that the lighting arrestor has adequate thermal capacity to discharge the switching surges particularly on extra high voltage lines when circuit breaker are not restrict free.6 Location of Arrestors: It is common practice to install the lightning arrestor straight on the terminals of transformer.2.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 13 .) can be effectively employed as potential sources of measuring. metering. A. Thereby.V. The lighting arrestor may be installed at a distance less than maximum permissible from the transformer.8 Arresters Voltage: The thyrite station class arrester is designed to limit the surge voltages to safe value of discharging a surge current to ground.B.T. The performance of C. Never leave the earth terminal if the arrestor underground by pass the monitor with an earth shunt engaged in any work on its terminal.T. is more economical then an electromagnetic voltage transformer when the nominal system voltage increases above 66-kV.

it is eliminated and if we use the PT in yard.E. is used for voltage 66-kV and above.I.3.V.V.T. The construction of capacitor type V. It¶s work is to disconnect the unit or section from all other line parts on installation in order to insure the complete safety of the staff working.S. Tuning carriers compensation.2:Capacitor Voltage Transformer In P. depends on the form of capacitor voltage divider.E. as shown below in figure. It is very expensive due to the fact that the transformation ratio is high and the size of the PT is high than a C. At such voltage cost of electromagnetic type V.2 3. of same capacity.V. So that C. we use the coupling capacitor but C.S.error and phase error is introduced. Generally HV capacitors are enclosed in porcelain housing. are used in G.S.T. The capacitor connected in series acts like potential dividers provided the current taken by the burden or load is negligible compared with the current passing through the series connected capacitors.T. The factor connected in series with the burden is adjusted to such a value that it supply frequency it resonate with the sum of two capacitor.T.T. GSS 220KV Capacitor type V. There are isolators ± A. A large metal sheet box at the base encloses the tuning coil intermediate transformer Figure 3.4 Isolator and Earthing Switching: When to carry out inspection or repair in the substation installation a disconnecting switch is used called isolator.T.B. is tensed to be too high.R. the burden current becomes relative larger and ratio.T. However.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 14 . This eliminates the error.

I. Isolator (disconnecting switch) operators under no load condition it does not have any specified current breaking capacity of current making capacity. Transformer isolating switches.E. In each frame. Insulation supports contact arms. Line Isolator cum earthing switch. Circuit breakers can make and break electric circuit breaker. While opening a circuit.R.E.3 One contact arm has a male contract while other has female contact.B. An isolator is shown below in figure.1 Working of Isolator: Isolator for a 3-phase system is provided in such a manner that of each phase we provided one frame of isolator. When contact is to be opened then both arms are rotated in opposite direction so that contact is broken.4. the breaker is open first then isolator while closing a circuit the isolator is closed first. 3. Bus isolator. Isolator is not even used for breaking load current. 3. line connected to terminal stud. Contacts are made or broken by motor operated mechanism. Not open it in live current flowing because high are damage its connect. 2. GSS 220KV 1. Same time Earthing pole moves upwards to make A. Terminal stud is connected or coupled with contact arm.S. under normal current or short circuit condition. then circuit breaker. The isolators are necessary on supply side of circuit breakers in order to ensure isolation (disconnection) of the circuit Isolator Automatic switching of isolators is preferred.3.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 15 . These three isolators must be operated all together. Isolators are used in addition to circuit breakers and are provided on each side of every circuit breaker to provide isolation and unable maintenance.

T Jaipur(E&C) Page 16 . GSS 220KV contact with the female contact situated adjoin to the terminal stud. Rated Amperes 5.B. Normally it is open. 3.Company :1425kV :2000 Amps :160 kg :220V :ELC Earthing switch is connected between the line conductor and earth. the earth switch is close so as to discharge the voltage trap on the line. This voltage is significant in high voltage system. Though the line is disconnected.5 Circuit Breaker As in 132-kV G.5.E. 3. 3.2 Rating of Air Breaker Isolator: 1. Motor operated mechanism. So as to prevent that arcing circuit breaker are used in which different arc quenching media are provided between contacts. When the line is disconnected. isolator or line circuit breaker is used.I.S. Through all the operation can be carried out manually but for quick operation motor is used. Rated impulse voltage 4.5. 2. Rated mechanical term load 6. Auxiliary voltage 7. if a contact is open then normally a spark is produce to fact that current transverses its path through the air gap.E. Hence the terminal gets earthed.1 Basic Concept of Using Circuit Breaker: In any circuit carrying a large amount of current.R.S. On this criterion isolators can be distinguished as single earth or double earth. there is some voltage on the line to which the capacitance between line and earth is charged. 3. Before starting the maintenance work these voltages are discharged to earth by closing the Earthing switch. 3. breaker. Arcing is harmful as it can damage precious equipments as well as it can harm any personal nearby. a very high amount of current flows in circuits and whenever it is necessary to open a circuit due to any reason like to work a transformer.S. Make S&S power switchgear ltd.4.2 Different Arc Quenching Media: A.

In case of breakdown of SF6 gas. Excellent thermal stability 4.3 SF6 Circuit Breaker: The outstanding physical and chemical property of SF6 gas makes it an ideal dielectric media for use in power switchgear.E.5.3. maintain and repair equipment fill with SF6. no corrosive and non condensable at low temperature. Vacuum circuit breaker In 132-kV G.S.S. GSS 220KV 1.R.3. These properties are included: - 1. It is easier to handle.5.1 Oil Vs SF6 Gas: SF6 is not flammable and toxic like oil.I. the only pressure rise will result from the thermal expansion of gas. Air blast circuit breaker 4. Good thermal conductivity In addition.B.E. SF6 circuit breaker 2. In case of breakdown of oil strong surges of pressure may occur due to sudden development of gaseous products. SF6 type breakers are very efficient.5. High dielectric strength 2. 3. only SF6 gas circuit breaker are used as for generally in G.2 SF6 Vs Air/Gases: A.S. Oil circuit breaker 3. at normal temperature SF6 is chemically inflammable. 3.S. 3. Unique arc quenching ability 3.S.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 17 .

establishing the arc. Contact tube and guide tube. Excellent performance in operation confirms the high level of reliability and safety irrespective of environmental condition.5. the dielectric strength of N2 in addition SF6 has the property that disassociated molecules recombine rapidly after the sources of arcing is removed when superior arching occurs.4 Air Blast Circuit Breaker: In this type of circuit breaker compressed air is used as an arc extinguishes medium. the arc is extinguished and flow of current is interrupted.I.R. In these circuit breakers arc is subjected to air blast axially or the arc. When contact between male and female contacts is just going to break. This piston pulls operating rod downward.5.5. Consequently. This rapidly increases the dielectric strength of the medium between the contacts and prevents the re. 3. Contact tube lies entirely on mole contact. female contact overlaps male contacts. then counteracting piston reaches its extreme position performing. 3.3. When it is required to open the contact then piston is forced to move vertically downward by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure.B. GSS 220KV SF6 has about three times. Contacts tube shorts two male contacts are current completes its path from one male contact to another through contact tube.E. Operating rod pulls blast cylinder using bell and crank mechanism. The air blast cools the arc and sweeps away the arcing products to the atmosphere. Rated power closed position.E. Maximum compression of SF6 gas when the arc is produced SF6 at very high-pressure quenches the arc.S. Main parts of female contacts are blast cylinder.3 Complete Working of SF6 Circuit Breaker: Interrupter unit has two fixed contacts that are connected through a moving contact. Fixed contacts are joined by a moving contact is known as female contact. In open position. In closed position. These contacts are known as male contacts. Contact tube moves away from contact counteracting piston moves towards contact compressing the SF6 present in blast cylinder. Fixed contacts are of rod shape. 3. This female contact is of hollow cylindrical shape.5 Oil Circuit Breaker: A.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 18 . blast cylinder reaches the extremes position again.

5 bar : 11700 kg : 76. Hyderabad : 3AT3 : 420 kV Rated Impulse with stand voltage Lightening/switching = 1425/1050 kV 3.B.1 Rated Power Frequency: Voltage Rated Frequency Rated Normal current Rated short time current Rated Short Time Duration First Pole to clear Section Asymmetrical Rated making Current Rated Operation Duty Rated pressure of Hydraulic 3.6.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 19 .R.2 Rated Pressure of SF6 Gas: : 520 kV peak : 50Hz : 200 Amp : 40 K Amp : 1 Sec : 1.E. Media for extinguish arc as well as for 2. 3. C (gauge) Weight of complete breaker Weight of SF6 gas Rated trip coil voltage Rated closed coil voltage : 7.3 sec to 3 min : Operating Mechanism (Gauge) 250-350 bar 20 dg.S.6 Rating of Circuit Breaker: Specification Make Type Rated Voltage : SF6 gas : BHEL.6.3 : 49 K Amps : 100 K Amp : 0. GSS 220KV In bulk oil circuit breaker transformer oil is used which serves 2 purposes: 1.5 kg : 220 V dc : 220 V dc 3.I.7 Transformer A. Provide insulation between current carrying parts and metallic tank.E.

E.S. apparatus. GSS 220KV 1. machine that 2.m. It is due to saving in cost of the iron core. Has an electric circuit that is linked by a common magnetic circuit When the transformer raises the voltage i.phase transformers or a single 3-phase transformer. A. of the tank and oil of the bushing and of the aux.) and all have the power of 25 MVA.I.C. Transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another 3. Transformer is an A.s. There are changes the voltage from 132-kV to 33-kV (r. A 3-phase transformer is cheaper (about 15%) than a bank of three single-phase transformers. it is called the step-up transformer and when it lowers the voltage it is called the step down transformer. Since the entire three phase assembly is reduced in size and is placed in a single tank.E.).R. Does isolator by the principle of electromagnetic induction and 5. The unique arrangement of the windings and the core in a 3-phase transformer makes it possible to save a great deal of iron by inter locking the magnetic circuits isolator that the same iron is used by the three phase simultaneously.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 20 . A 3-phase transformer is slightly more efficient than a bank of 3 single-phase transformers. fewer transformer bushings are required (All polyphone connections are made inside the tank) and the complete transformer occupation the less floor space than a bank of three single phase transformer.S.S. This is due to the fact that it has shorter magnetic path and consequently the core volume and hence the core loss is smaller.B. additional saving results because less transformer oil is used.e. Does isolator without a change of frequency 4. The voltage transformation in a 3-phase network can be had by means of either a band of three single. In our G. four step down transformers are used. A single unit 3-phase transformer consists essentially of 3-phase transformer with them three cores united into a single core assembly like single-phase transformer.m. One transformer is of 50 MVA and it also step down the voltage from 132-kV to 33-kV (r. when the output voltage of a transformer is higher than its input voltage.s.

GSS 220KV Figure-3. and to limit voltage. it is called the establishing winding when it is employed to limit the short circuit current. The tertiary winding is called the auxiliary winding when it is employed. In star/delta-connected transformers.S. For supplying on additional small load at a different voltage On the other hand. Tertiary winding are normally delta-connected isolator that when faults and short circuits occur on secondary side the considerable unbalance produced in phase voltage may be compensated by the circulating currents flowing in a closed delta. 6. Reactance of the winding should be large enough to limit produced in phase voltage may be compensated by the circulating currents flowing in a closed delta. to suppress harmonic voltages. such as condensers operated at a voltage.I. testing transformers. which is different from both primary and secondary voltages.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 21 .E. The tertiary winding may serve any of the following properties or purposes. 4. 1. When the main load is unsymmetrical.unbalance. in addition to the normal primary and secondary and such transformer are called the triple wound (3 way transformer) transformer.7. 2.7 three phase transformer 3. To supply the sustain auxiliaries of a voltage different from that of the primary of secondary winding. 3. To load large split winding generators. Reactance of the winding should be large enough to limit the circulating currents in order that there is no overheating of the windings. 5. A.V. To measure voltage of an H.R. To supply phase compensating device. to allow sufficient earth fault current to flow for operation of protective equipment.B. To interconnect three supply systems operating different voltages.1 Tertiary Winding: Transformer may be built with a third winding called the tertiary.E.

I.S. A. In step down transformer the conductors goes in on H.E.B.2 Auto Transformer: In auto-transformer the primary and secondary winding are completely insulated from each other but are magnetically linked by a common core. 3. side. side which when connected to the rated voltage gives rated voltage on the l.V. 3. and in secondary output voltage secondary output voltage can also be increased by increasing secondary turns and keeping primary turn fixed. Due 1. a part of the single continuous winding in common to primary and secondary section of this one winding are not the same magnetic circuit.m. per turn. primary and secondary are connected electrically as well as magnetically. The active part is built under heat and pressure on microprocessor controlled broad-band winding machine.R.e.7. GSS 220KV 3. side through bushing and take out the conductor on I.7. Required of copper is less isolator the ohmic lass is reduced.S.7. 2. on changing the ratio of transformation. outer part of bushing is making of porcelain. side.4 Transformer Accessories: 1) Bushing: Bushing are held on the top of the part of transformer and through it he conductor goes of outside for connection from the transformer inner part and vice-versa.V.3 Tap Changing Transformer: The voltage variation in power system is a normal phenomenon owing to the rapid growth in induction and distribution network. required. In the auto-transformer. Only one to winding use is to used for auto-transformer both winding some isolator the advantage spacing is is less present. Therefore it is very important to keep the consumer¶s terminal voltage within the limit.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 22 . Capacitor type bushing is used in the G.S.V. the two windings.v. There is always a tapping on the H.E. Decreases in primary turn cause inverses in e.f. The transformer output voltage and isolator the consumer¶s terminal voltage may be controlled by providing tapping on the transformer winding (either on the primary or secondary side) the principle of regulating the secondary voltage is based on changing the number of turns on the primary or secondary i. In inner part as side of bushing a number of layers of the paper core built up around a center pipe with aluminum foils at external dielectric strength. in fact.

S. the leads from which are taken to a terminal box.R. GSS 220KV 2) Buchloz Relay: Gas operated relay. The alarm circuit. A. will be trapped in the upper portion of the relay housing. which the heat liberate. felting the respective floats. causing the oil level to drop below the level of relay. reactors etc. it comprises. This oil flow impinges on the lower float.E. Each float carriers a switch. If the transformer suffers a loss of oil.E. Construction: This is a hydraulic device. arranged in the pipe line between the mash transformer tank and the conservator tank. The necessary pet-cucks for gas release site testing. As the gas accumulates. causing the displaced oil to surge through the relay.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 23 . The falling oil level. and a drain plug on the body of the housing are provided. commonly known as Buchloz relay is used for protection of oil immersed transformers. decomposition of gas occurs & small bubbles of gas will be generated and these. a cast iron having housing which contains essentially two floats upper and lower. Principle of Operation: When the transformer is healthy. All type of faults occurring with oil filled transformer is accompanied by more or less violent generation of gases. the gas generation is rapid.I. First the alarm and then the surge elements will operate of close their respective circuits. from the oil. attempting to pass from the tank to the oil conservation. This phenomenon has been fully utilized to provide complete internal protection of transformation. which is usually connected to this switch. the buoyancy of both the floats will vanish on offer another. When a slight or incipient fault occurs in the transformer. causing the upper float of built thereby closing the mercury switch. The lower float is thus deflected closing its mercury switch and completing the trip circuit of the circuit breaker. the entire relay housing remains filled with oil and the buoyancies of the respective floats flits the mercury which to the µopen¶ position. is also detected by this relay in time. the oil level in the relay depresses. gets emerged to ring an alarm bell. which may eventually lead to a dangerous situation. with a server internal fault.B. Inspection windows are filled on both side of the relay housing to see the oil level and to ascertain the volume of gas collected on a calibrated scale ion cubic cm.

some means of drying the incoming air is desirable.E.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 24 .11 A. This decreases and increases the air space above the oil in the transformer and causes the transformer to breathe.9 Silica Gel Breather The breather is piped to the air space above the oil in either the transformer tank or the conservation and forms the only entry and exit for the air this space. and no longer effective then turn pink.R. This oil acts as a seal. The crystals are tirted blue when dry but saturated with moisture.I. as the presence of moisture in transformer oil reduces the dielectric strength of the oil and adversely affects the insulation of the transformer immersed in it. it is to be reactivated by heating. is unchanged chemically and the crystals can be restored to their original dryness and blue color by heating in a shallow pan at a temperature of between 150o C to 200o C for two to three hours.B. A silica gel breather is shown above in figure3. During the cooling position of the cycle air from the atmosphere is drawn into the transformer. If the color of the gel is pink. The gel. cup containing transformer oil is covered. At bottom of the breather. The crystals are contained in a metal cartridge with a window to give a clear view of the color of the gel the metal cartridge can be withdrawn by unscrewing the using nuts/hex nuts and then removing the lower portion of breather. The air may be moist and. Oil level is marked on the maintained up to the level indicated before commissioning the transformer.S. however. GSS 220KV 3) Silica Gel Breather: During the load cycle of a transformer the oil in which it is immersed expands and contracts as its temperature rises and falls. In the dehydrating breather the air is desired by passing it through a tube containing crystals of silica gel a substance with a great affinity for water.E. Figure-3. preventing the crystals from absorbing moisture except when breathing is taking place.

A.B. User of magnetic coupling in the indicator achieves completes sealing of liquid inside the conservation from surrounding atmosphere. The valve can be mounted vertically or horizontally on the tank. A stain seals this part less steel. Operates a micro switch. This lifting is instantaneous and allows vapors. In this tank air is prohibited between the upper oil layer and the top inside of conservation. 6) Oil Level Indicator: It is manufactures considering transformer application. When pressure rises above predetermined safe limit the diaphragm gets lifted from it seat.I. The other side of diaphragm is exposed to tank. gases or liquid to come out of the tank depending upon the position of valve on tank. The Pressure relief valve has got a part of about 150 mm diameter. When pressure in the tank rises above predetermined safe limit this valve apparatus and performs following function. Allow the pressure to drop by instantaneously opening a part of about 150 mm diameter. The diaphragm restores its position as soon as pressure in the tank below set limit.E. Swing of hinged float due to the change in liquid level is utilized to indicate level on a calibrated dial and to operated at which for external alarm unit.R. Pressure rises due to any reason. Construction and Working: The Pressure relief valve has an integral flange with six holes for mounting. Give valve operation by raising a flag. 5) Pressure Relief Valve: Pressure relief valve is designed to be used on power transform. the same pressures acts on diaphragm from inside. It is situated at the top of the transformer.S. The result in avoiding any leakage of costly oil and avoiding contamination of insulating oil due to leakage of surrounding air in the conservator.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 25 . Construction Working: A float is used as sensor of liquid level inside the conservator. The lit of the diaphragm is utilized to operate flag and micro switch with the help of red. This switch has four terminals hence switch can be effectively used in conform circuit. It can also be used as content gauge on other tanks where level of liquid inside the tank is required to be indicated continuously on a dial. thereby keeping the port closed. The flag and switch remain operated until they are reset manually. The diaphragm rests on and µO¶ ring and is kept pressed by two heavy-duty springs. GSS 220KV 4) Conservator: Oil is collected in the conservation.E.

Terminal blocks for oil level alarm contacts of magnetic oil level gauge.R. one to actuate the fans when the load exceeds the µON¶ rating of the transformer. Winding Temperature indicator 2.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 26 . Three sets of adjustable mercury contacts are provided. 75 mm room bottom of conservator heads from mercury switch are brought into a terminal box positioned at the bottom of indicator. The normally open switch close when oil drops to 10 mm above empty levels i.S. and houses the following instruments and terminal blocks. GSS 220KV The glass mercury switch is nylon encapsulated to avoid breakage and spilling of mercury. Fuses links and terminal block etc. Oil temperature indicator 3. 9) Cooling equipment Transformer having mixed cooling ONAF and ANOF is provided with through values. Heater supply switch 7. Cooler supply switch 6. Terminal block for alarm and tripping contacts of Buchloz Relay 4. It is provided with hinged door and pad lock. A. 8) Marshalling Box: The marshalling box is of sheet steel weather proof construction mounted on the side of the transformer. Switch is accessible for servicing while indicator is mounted on the conservator without any necessity of draining the oil.e. The instrument is housed in the box.I. The WTI records the winding hot spot temperature. and the other two contacts for actuating the alarm and trip contacts on the main control panel.E. 7) Winding temperature indicator: As the thermometer pocket houses the temperature-sending device of the winding temperature indicator. 1. One mercury switch is provided for low oil level alarm. A heater in the marshalling box to avoid condensation of moisture inside the box.E. The working and construction of the thermometer are described in the attached leaflet. 5.B.

3.O. The current transformer has a rectangular core.8.E.S. is connected to heater element located in the thermometer itself.1 Rating of Current Transformer Make Rated Frequency Hide Side Volt Weight of Oil BIL Current Ratio Turn Ratio Core No. 3. etc.8 Current Transformer Instruction transformers used in conjunction with ammeter.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 27 . A.S.B. Output (VA) : W. and for connection to the heater oil has been provide inside the terminal box. A pocket on the tank cover houses the temperature sensing device of the temperature recorded two terminals and brought out from the current transformer secondary circuit to the tank cover. and the primary is formed by phase µV¶ of the transformer LV located inside the tank. An instruction plate giving the diameter of connection for testing the C. The secondary of the C. insulation of India Limited : 50 Hz : 420 kV : 750 kg : 630/1425 kV : 2000-1000/12000-1000-500 : 2000-1000/2000-1000-500 : 1 and 2. The VA rating of current transformer is small as compare with that of a power transformer. current ratio is transformer step-down current from high value to a low value. overcorrect relays.R.E. A current transformer is provided for the winding temperature indicating equipment.I.T. 4 and 5 : 40 Accuracy Class P. Their current ratio is substantially constant of given range of primary current tend phase angle error is within specified limits.T.S. GSS 220KV 3.

Earth Fault Relay 4. PROTECTION AND CONTROL 4.2 The Various Type of Relay Installed at 400 KV G.B. Over Voltage Relay 5.E. GSS 220KV 4. Figure-4. The relay distinguish between normal & abnormal condition whenever an abnormal condition develops. Buchloz Relay 2.S. the relay closed it¶s contacts there by the trip circuit breakers & circuit breakers opens & faulty point is disconnected flow the supply.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 28 .R. Over Current Relay 3. Protective relay are connected in the secondary circuit of current transformer or potential transformer.S. 4.1 Buchloz Relay A.1. It is as shown below in figure-4. The circuit breaker open it¶s contents one are between the contacts. are: 1.1 Protection and Control: Protective will are used for protection.E. The relay senses the abnormal condition & closed the trip circuit of associated circuit breaker. commonly known as Buchloz relay is used for protection of oil immersed transformers. reactors etc.I. Bus Bar Relay 1)Buchloz Relay: Gas operated relay. various types of relays used for power system. As they separate the arc is extinguished by suitable medium technique.S. Differential Relay 6.

Over current protection is the protection from overload. causing the upper float of built thereby closing the mercury switch. First the alarm and then the surge elements will operate of close their respective circuits. The falling oil level. Overloading of a machine or A.B. causing the oil level to drop below the level of relay.I.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 29 . the entire relay housing remains filled with oil and the buoyancies of the respective floats flits the mercury which to the µopen¶ position. Principle of Operation: When the transformer is healthy.E. If the transformer suffers a loss of oil. the leads from which are taken to a terminal box. This phenomenon has been fully utilized to provide complete internal protection of transformation. causing the displaced oil to surge through the relay. with a server internal fault. As the gas accumulates. which the heat liberate. felting the respective floats. and a drain plug on the body of the housing are provided.R. decomposition of gas occurs & small bubbles of gas will be generated and these. gets emerged to ring an alarm bell. the gas generation is rapid. Construction: This is a hydraulic device. arranged in the pipe line between the mash transformer tank and the conservator tank. the oil level in the relay depresses. The alarm circuit. from the oil. a cast iron having housing which contains essentially two floats upper and lower. The necessary pet-cucks for gas release site testing. Each float carriers a switch. Inspection windows are filled on both side of the relay housing to see the oil level and to ascertain the volume of gas collected on a calibrated scale ion cubic cm. attempting to pass from the tank to the oil conservation. This oil flow impinges on the lower float.E. is also detected by this relay in time.S. which may eventually lead to a dangerous situation. 2) Over Current Relay: Over current protections in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the set pick up level. GSS 220KV All type of faults occurring with oil filled transformer are accompanied by more or less violent generation of gases. which is usually connected to this switch. The lower float is thus deflected closing its mercury switch and completing the trip circuit of the circuit breaker. When a slight or incipient fault occurs in the transformer. the buoyancy of both the floats will vanish on offer another. will be trapped in the upper portion of the relay housing. it comprises.

R. Between R & Y phases R phases o/c relay will operate. Since earth faults are relatively frequency.E. which don¶t involve earth. 2. Residually Connected Earth Fault Relay: In absence of earth fault Irresidual = Ias + Ibs +Ics = 0 when earth fault occur and if residual current is above the pickup value of earth fault relay then earth fault relay will be operated. Between B phase & Earth o/c B & e/f will operate. These include (1) Fuses (2) circuit breaker fitted with overload coils (3) series connected trip coils (4) over current relays in conjunction with current transformer. Combined Earth Fault & Phase Fault Protection: The increase in current of phase cause corresponding increase in respective secondary currents. The secondary flows through respective relay unit. 3) Earth Fault Projection: When the fault current flows through earth return path the fault is called Earth faults. Between R & B phases R & B phase o/c relay will operate. are called phase fault. Between Y & B phases B phases o/c relay will operate. Very often only.I. Between R phase & earth o/c R & e/f relay will operate. with overloading there is an associated temperature rise. 4. Several protection devices are used for over current protection.phase relays are provided instead of three because in case of phase fault currents in any two phases must increase. Hence two relays are enough. A.E. 3. The earth fault relay is residually connected. It is noted that phase relays also sense the earth fault current.B.S.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 30 . therefore relays are necessary in protective systems. For various fault the relay will also operated as follows: 1. Following are the method of earth fault protection. which ultimately isolate the circuit. 5. GSS 220KV equipment/feeders means the machine/feeders are taking more current than its rated current.

there by inherent protection in the line designs. and to clear Bus faults. The most once are: 1. For this purpose two current transformers have the same ratio of transformation & their secondary are interconnected.E.S.S. This is based on the differential basis. Most of the different relays are current differential relays are current differential relay in which vector difference between current entering the protected element and current leaving the protected element is used for relay operation. Differential protection is unit type protection. Between Y phase & Earth e/f relay will operate.R. GSS 220KV 6. bus bar protection is used. 5) Differential Protection: In this protection a different relay operates when the vector difference of two or more similar electrical quantities exceeds a predetermined value. The use of ground wire is a shielding method where the use of spark gap and lighting arrestors are non-shielding methods. For protection against internal voltage normally non-shielding methods are used which allow an arc path between the ground structure and the line conductor but means are provided to quench the arc.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 31 . Lightning 2. Resource effects associated with inductance and capacitance in series The system can be protected against external over voltage by using a shielding method which does not allow an arc path to form between the line conductor and ground. During the fault condition the current reaching to the bus is more than the leaving the bus as some current is fed to this fault and the excess current is fed to a relay which operates and tripping signal is given to all the breakers connected to the bus thus isolated the faulty bus. Synchronizing Before coupling any incoming feeder to bus base it must be synchronized with bus A. 6) Bus Bar Protection: To protect bus bar of important G. 4) Over Voltage Protection: There are many reasons for the Voltage in the power system mainly classified as external & internal source. Operating of switching and over current protective equipment. All the secondary of current transformer on the same bus are connected in such a manner that during normal condition the sum of CT¶s secondary current is zero. 3.B. Neutral displacement during line to ground fault.I. 4.E.S.

f. There are analog of digital. this records the average power of over successive predetermined period. GSS 220KV bar voltage. receiver.3 Power Line Carrier Communication This type of protection for transmission lines carrier current of frequency range 30-200 KHz in USA and 80-500 KHz in determined and transmitted and received through the transmission lines provided with identical equipment consisting of transistor.E. Frequency meters are fitted on different or each feeder of measure frequency. For example 2000 p.5 Mega ohms to 50 Hz and 150 ohm to 500 KHz. demand indicator record the max.I. Power factor meters indication of p.R. of power max.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 32 . which is such value that it offers a low reactance to the carrier frequency but high reactance to the power frequency. line current and reactive power being supplied. of power max. line tuning unit. 4.. capacitor offers 1.E. Energy meters are fitted on different panels to record import and export of power. Thus coupling capacitor allows equipment but doesn¶t allow 50 Hz power frequency currents to enter the equipments. To reduce the impedance further a low inductance is connected in series with the coupling capacitor to form a resonance at carrier frequency.f.f. Coupling Capacitor: The carrier equipment is connected to the transmission lines through the coupling capacitor.S. Voltmeter. this records the average power of over successive predetermined period. demand indicator record the max.. Power factor meters indication of p.B. ammeter and MUAR meter are provided on each panel for the indication of voltage. The function of synchornoscope is to indicate the difference in phase and frequency and voltage of bus bar and incoming feeder. master oscillator power amplifier etc. A. The voltage can be checked by voltmeters.

1.S. When any tripping relay operates.S.1 Control Room A. Power Line Carrier Communication Room 3. Figure-5.R.E. Fire Fighting Plant 4.1 Control Room The remote control of power switchgear requires the provision of suitable control panels located at a suitable point remote from the immediate vicinity of CBS and other equipment. Indicator lamps are also provided to show whether the isolator or CB is open or closed. which on operation completes the alarm bell circuit. there is number of department. Control Room 2. Air Conditioning Plant 5. The color or signal lamps are as Red: circuit breaker of isolator is closed position.OTHER PLANTS In 132-kV G.S. We will discuss them one by one. In addition to visual indication an alarm is also providing for indication abnormal conditions.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 33 . Battery Room 6. Green: Circuit breaker or isolator is open position. its contents emerges an auxiliary alarm relay.B. The departments are: 1.I. On each panel a control switch is provided for remote control operation of CBS control switch for each isolator is provided. GSS 220KV 5.E. Oil Testing Lab 5.

capacitor offers 1. Frequency meter are fitted on different or each feeder of measure frequency. of power max. Line Trap Unit: The line trap unit is inserted between bus bars and connection of coupling capacitor of the line. this records the average power of over successive predetermined period.. For example 2000 p.5 Mega ohms to 50 Hz and 150 ohm to 500 KHz.E.f.1.R. Coupling Capacitor: The carrier equipment is connected to the transmission lines through the coupling capacitor. It is parallel tuned circuit comprising L & C. master oscillator power amplifier etc. 1. it has a low impedance approximately 1 ohm to 50 Hz and high impedance to the frequency signals from entering the neighboring line and the carrier currents flows only in the protected lines. GSS 220KV Synchronizing: Before coupling any incoming feeder to bus base it must be synchronized with bus bar voltage The voltage can be checked by voltmeters.200 KHz in USA and 80-500 KHz is determined and transmitted and received through the transmission lines provided with identical equipment consisting of transistor. There are analog of digital. A.B. A control room is shown above in figure-5. The function of synchornoscope is to indicate the difference in phase and frequency and voltage of bus bar and incoming feeder. line current and reactive power being supplied. 5.S. demand indicator record the max.1. Energy meters are fitted on different panels to record import and export of power. ammeter and MUAR meter are provided on each panel for the indication of voltage. line tuning unit. Thus coupling capacitor allows equipment but doesn¶t allow 50 Hz power frequency currents to enter the equipments. Power factor meters indication of p. Voltmeter. To reduce the impedance further a low inductance is connected in series with the coupling capacitor to form a resonance at carrier frequency.2 Power Line Carrier Communication This type of protection for transmission lines carrier current of frequency range 30. 2. receiver.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 34 .I.f. which is such value that it offers a low reactance to the carrier frequency but high reactance to the power frequency.E.

Protection and Earthing: Once lightening and switching equipment and line cause voltages on power lines trap unit. Application of Carrier Current Relay: Pilot channels such as carrier current or the power line provided simultaneous tripping of circuit breakers at both the ends of the line one of the three cycles.I.S. Electronic Equipment: There are generally identical unit at each end consisting of: 1. which direct the high frequency lighting stroke to pass through the spark gap and not to reach at the generator. Receiver unit 3. The gap is adjusted to the spark at a set value of over voltages. Transmitters: The high frequency signals arriving from the remote end are received by the receiver and are then fed to receive unit which comprises of an attenuator.R. 7. Base of coupling unit is earthen by earth rod in the vicinity to obtain a low earth resistance. 4. Carrier panel is usually installed in the relay room and connected to the station Earthing. filter and matching element which matches the impedances of the line & receiving unit.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 35 . Relay unit 4.B. Non-linear resistor in series with a protective gap is connected across the line trap unit and inductor of coupling unit. Drain Point: It is a pure inductance of 100 mH. 5. Transmitting unit 2. which matches the impedance of the transmission line to the carrier equipment¶s. GSS 220KV 3.E. We have got storage batteries being floated to the system so that in case of failure of rectifier the communication is not interrupted. Thus high-speed fault clearing is obtained which improves the system stability. Matching Circuit or Connecting Filter: It consists of an inductance and a capacitance. Besides there are several other merit of carrier current relay: A.E.

And yellow pipes are also in the form of cube. 2. which is broken. ³Dilues Value´ is present on water pipelines. be control connected by means stations equipment can communications. 4. GSS 220KV These are 1.1. Thus the fire is quenched. Station to are station communication: These carried of are out power In power line to of stations.R. 5. 5. Remote equipment 3. Fast clearance prevents shocks to the system. simultaneous operating of CB¶s at both the ends. Thereby simultaneous reclosing of CB¶s is obtained.I. Telemetering. On the air pipe line quarter values are present. carrier current protection provides easy description Other Uses: 1. When the fire s present at transformer due to increase in temperature the glass tube of quarter values is broken so the pressure is reduced due to decrease of pressure the dilutes value also opened and water came out from pipe through the fountain and make a water net around the transformer. when the temperature of surrounding are increased beyond the predetermined limit. It is controlled by pneumatic values. 3. Fast.E.B. & telephones conversation 2. simultaneous reclosing signal is sent.S.S. Auto reclosing. So first need is the fire fighting system for protection in transformer.3 Fire Fighting System : For only transformer: In G. Red pips are covered the concerns of the transformer as a cube. Tripping due to synchronizing power surges does not occur yet during internal fault clearing is obtained. In water lines the nozzles are kept one entire pipe around the pipe transformer.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 36 .E. provided.S. costlier and heavier equipment is the transformer. the carrier carrier substation current current by and receiving. Basic principle of this system is that its block¶s the incoming oxygen by cover or enclosed the entire transformer by the use of water with pressure. For transformer ³mulsifire system´ is used. For simultaneous faults. carrier signals. A. In these values has a glass tube.

The panel shows the fix area. So that this system is not working at this time. Some judgment is taken. By which the indication and alarm of fire is present the control area. by appearance far good condition of insulating oil the color may be lemon yellow type. CO2 3.I.E.S.R.S. are used. which are not the Halon area the different type of detector.S. the different types of test are done. Detectors are based on the principle of smoke. such as which test is done at first etc. But the government bans Halon. Fire is quenched by different medium such as: 1. For the Yard: Hydrant System: It gives only the availability of water at entire yard. GSS 220KV If the pressure is decreased from a certain level of pressure due to a failure of electrical supply it is stated automatically. Halon System: In this system the building is chosen as Halon zone such as control room. In the halogen zone region nozzle are provided so that the Halon are came ou from nozzles and quenched the arc for this purpose it is kept in an automatic system. A. For this automatic system some detectors are present in the Halon Zones. Oil works as a coolant and dielectric medium. Detectors are connected to solenoid.B. A DG set is also available for option of the failure of electricity supply.1.E.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 37 . Appearance: At first the insulating oil is seeing by the engineers. photo electronics. For this system 75 HP motors are available.4 Oil Testing Lab: In 132-kV G. Co + Power 5. 2. Load dispatch. By detecting the area fire fighting is done. 1. Fire Alarm System: The areas. Foam cylinder 2. Some points are available in yard so that when fire is present manually those points are opened and water throws through cloth pipes.

It is also called loss angle. Tan (delta) increases than resistivity decreases. When sample is put down A.S. And put it in the apparatus.B. The graph between voltage and current is perfectly capacitive.890 in g/cm3 at 27 degree C. When the oil is at proper level. especially hydroscope particles such fiber water contents of oil.R. Specific Resistance Test: In the apparatus the special jar is present in which the testing oil is filled. But the testing oil due to the increasing the carbon in oil leakage current is present so that the graph between voltage and current is filled by some degree from previous graph. tan (delta) is less than 20%.E. The tangent of the diverting angle is called tan (delta). It depends upon the degree of determine of liquid by solid. At 90O C.E. Tan delta test: Oil immersed cylindrical capacitor.1 X 1012) ohm-cm. At 90O C. At room temperature at the time the apparatus should be discharge.I.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 38 . Standard value of density of good oil is 0. The voltage is expressed in kV. GSS 220KV Break down voltage test: Break down is the voltage at which the oil breaks down when subjected to an AC electric field with a continuously increasing voltage contained in a specified apparatus. resistivity is (0. Pressure of oil. temperature of oil and dielectric strength are as followsSpecification Breakdown Voltage Water contents Oil 186-1883 30 kV (before titration) 25 ppm 50 kV (after titration) Oil 1883-1888 30 kV (before titration) 15 ppm 60 kV (after titration Density: For testing the density hydrometer is used.850 to 0.

R. Oil heated by a heating coil immersed in oil.S. Now again discharge it and increase the temperature to 90O C to 87O C again it is charged for one minute. the anode t=has 40 ml solution and cathodic has 5 ml solution. The device used for this purpose is called coulometer which is made by Meterohen Company. In this the anodic solution is Hydranal coulonat A % Cathodic solution is Hydranal coulonat C. Supply System A.I. after same time later automatic a graph is drawn which shows the quantity of different gas in sample . Flash point of transformer oil should be around 125 a machine also performs 140O C.1. 35 ppm moisture permissible for below 145 kV. Inter Facial tension: It is tension between molecules of oil and water. 25 ppm moisture permissible for above 145 kV. Now maintain the vacuums in special apparatus-inject the 50 ml testing oil and starting the starrier. In the cathode solution a magnetic capsule of sterur is placed to uniform the density which is rotated by magnetic fan. Its unit is dyne per cm.5 D. For testing 1 mm oil is injected in the cathode. first is Generating electrode in which silica gel is filled to absorb the moisture and second one is indicating electrode in which iodine is filled. In the gas chromate graph. Flash Point Test: This is the minimum temperature of the oil at which vaporized oil ignites momentarily. In this test oil is filled in a cooper container.E. Water content Test: This test is done to check and removal of the moisture from oil. This process is entirely automatic. 5. We measure this in oil testing LAB. GSS 220KV charge it for one minute and take the reading.C.E. At first take the 50 ml of testing oil.B. A sensor is provided to detect the flash in oil. In this equipment there are two electrodes. Gas contents test: Gas chromoto graph is used for this test. This equipment is based on Micro-processor. The temperature at which flash occurs is noted down.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 39 .

Lead acid is more commonly used at power station & substation because of commonly high cell voltage and lower cost. Fixed charge current ± 24 A 2.S.S. batteries are mounted on wooden stand. The room is kept continuously maintainable so that room is not accumulated with acid vapors to avoid risk of explosion. winding etc. The controller maintains the DC voltage. In the battery room.16 to 2. D. Finishing charge current ± 2 A 5.E.1.E. Batteries System Water electrolyte. The conductor connecting the cells are greased and coated with electrolyte resisting varnish.2 at temperature of 30. Thus D. it has a specific gravity of 1.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 40 . 2%. In charged state. GSS 220KV The batteries used are lead acid type having solution of sulfuric and distilled. supply via rectifier & in event of A. Normal recharge current ± 45 A 4. which are kept charge in normal condition by rectifier supply.B.C.2 Volt/Cell. Boost charger is switch µOn¶ by closing switch open thereby demurring the coil of contractor and batteries are boost charge and the constant load is provided by connecting the load to coil for continuity of supply between battery and load. supply is most suitable for this purpose.C. Operation: The station batteries are normally kept floating across the float rectifier which also supply the current and boost charge is off. independent source of supply is necessary for signaling. First charge ampere-hour input ± 2300 A 3.e. any arc is prohibited in this room. Specification: Ampere-hour capacity is that quantity of electricity at fully discharged battery.R.S. At very high voltages G. remote position control alarm circuit etc.1 to 2. In case of emergency due to main failure station batteries supply the load when the supply is restarted the batteries held to be recharged to achieve this. smoking. The cells are installed from stand by porcelain.C. 1.1 at temperature 20. failure from the fixed batteries. with allowable limit i.C. can be obtained from 400 V 3-phase A.18 Charging: A. Recommended heating voltage of batteries ± 2. The batteries are kept in healthy state at 2.I.

T Jaipur(E&C) Page 41 . humidity. Recommended specific gravity of electrolyte in fully charged condition ± 1.1.210 +/. Manufacture¶s cell design ± 10 SRG 3.6 Air Conditioning Plant This plant is held for air conditioning the control room.S. Specification: 1. 6.. When the switch is on the system is on for that place and vice-versa. No. an ideal air conditioning system should maintain correct temperature. Capacity at 10-hour rate discharge ± 450 Amp/hour 4.S. the load is about 40 tones.7 and should be capable of delivering continuously a current in amperes equal to the normal charging rate of the battery. etc.B. Charging equipment is required for a) Initial charging b) For quick charging after batteries discharge 5. Quantity of acid required per cell for the first cell filling ± 1. The area where all times there are no requirements of the system FCU is used.18 at temperature of 20 5.I. So that central station air condition system is used. air party. GSS 220KV The input of charging source should have a voltage equal to the number of cells in the batteries multiplied by 2. In the 132-kV G.E.S. of cells ± 110 2.R. class rooms. air movement and noise level. A.E.005 at 25 temperatures.

It consists of a sounding alarm and an indicator.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 42 .S.B. The Annunciator is of two sections.I. Fault such as the batteries charger is out of order. the Annunciator is must. which indicates the nature of fault and the zone in which the fault occurs. low oil lines in transformer cooling system of transformer is out of order etc.2 Annunciator In a control room. GSS 220KV 5. are the minor faults & are just warned the Annunciator to the authority concerned.E. The first one is minor fault in which there is a buzzer sounding and indicates come on the panel for the nature of fault.R. A. The alarm keeps ringing until the Annunciator is not accepted.E.

E. washing machines or refrigerators. Power line communication saves the biggest part of installation costs if it is used in buildings where electric wiring is already present hence no need for wiring separately for communication.R.g. dimming values etc. In homes the so called "babyphones" are very popular in which power line communication is used in which low quality analogue voice signals is transmitted through a 230V mains wiring.E. In today world power-line-communication is being used for many applications to control various systems such as street lighting or energy management systems. High data-rate communication over low-tension lines is one of the major applications in new technologies. In Automatic Meter Reading electronic data that is the meter reading is transmitted over power lines from a distant place back to the substation where the reading has to be noted.S. GSS 220KV Conclusion Companies used Power Line Communication to maintain power grid due to past low data rate communication needs. In comparison to the old analogue systems used for communications. Load management and meter reading from a distance are the two Primary motivations for Power line communications in future. digital data which is transferred using the powerline as communication media is a very useful alternative for domestic applications. Power Line Carrier Communication offers symmetric as well as two way communication along with a permanent connection. Indoor power line communication should not be mixed with outdoor power Line communications as both are different from one another regarding the availability. particularly for devices which are already connected to the mains (e. linked together for energy management).B. Hence power line communication meets the customers¶ needs for low cost. The indoor power line communication is capable to transmit information at a rate of 2400bps (bits per second) at a very low cost. For domestic applications this rate of data transmission is good enough as in most of the cases in domestic applications the devices have to transmit only control signals such as on/off. Hence this would be considered a type of fixed network system.T Jaipur(E&C) Page 43 .I. then the reading is relayed to a central computer in the utility's main office. A.

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