Running head: Gender Identity

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Gender Identity Daniel Muldoon December 12, 2011 PSY/340 Melynda Marchi

There are instances that there are deviations of this rule and this result in different syndromes that cause physiological. During these six weeks the fetus has the potential to become either male or female. but an understanding of all of the different factors need to be taken count for to figure out the more complicated aspects of gender identity and a person¶s sexual orientation. structure of their neurological structure. mental retardation. DNA What makes a person a person is their DNA. (Pinel. and what makes human DNA different from other DNA is that humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. In earlier times. and in severe cases can cause a person to be more violent. (internal and external). 2009). then the person is a genetic male. If one of the chromosomes is an X and the other is a Y. The chromosomes are designated by X and Y. What happens is that in the sixth week . sexual orientation. There are many different theories on how a person¶s gender should be identified. psychological and varying sexual abnormalities. All of this happens up until the sixth week of gestation in a pregnancy. What also designates the sex of the person is that 23rd chromosome.Gender Identity Gender Identity Gender identity is very complex that has areas that relate to a person¶s genetic inheritance. the identity of a person¶s gender was solely based on the genitals of the individual and the structure of the gonads. their endocrine system. If both of the chromosomes are an X. then the person is a genetic female. It was then decided that gender identity would be based off of the reproductive abilities of the person and the functionality of said person¶s psyche. These abnormalities can cause problems in a female¶s menstrual cycle. During this time the fetus has both of the reproduction systems of a male and a female. and different factors in the environment and their 2 social lives. their physiology.

this man may feel more feminine than another male. Hormones Hormones are made in different glands throughout the body and are secreted when there is a biological action is needed to take place. Hormones have an effect on the endocrine system that allows communications to and from the nervous systems. Hormones play such a big role in the human body that there are illnesses that occur when there is too little and too much secretion of hormones. Without these communications. there would be no way for the brain to tell the body how to move or react. An analogy of this is saying that hormones are in control of the performance of the body. Development Once the fetus has developed the reproduction system of the proper sex. The development of the neural circuitry that happens in this stage also seems to have an effect on the sexual behavior of the person in adulthood.Gender Identity of gestation. This means that the body is being maintained is a manner that is in specific physiological confines that are separate from factors that are in the outside world. a chemical test happens that sees if there is a Y chromosome in the fetus. this proves that every person has a gender identity. and the lack of testosterone does the same for a female. Another thing that can be said about hormones is that they help keep the body is a state of homeostasis. Even though a male has male reproduction parts. testosterone and 3 estrogen also have an effect of the development of the neurological system and then the behavior of the person later on. If it does the female reproduction system degenerates and if it doesn¶t the opposite happens. if there is a lack of testosterone. The same goes for . different hormones start to take the sexual development over to help degenerate the sexual organs of the opposite sex. These hormones. Testosterone will take over for men and help deteriorate the organs of a female. When thinking about DNA and the hormones that help a person develop.

In this test only 9 out of the 99 chose to have the sexual reassignment. Out of that five percent only a little over one and a half percent chose to have a gender change. it is just a thought that says there could be other factors that help decide the gender. If they have more testosterone then they may feel more masculine than other females. 2005). (or PAIS). There is also a belief that exposure to hormones at an early stage in life may affect the way the person reacts to hormones later on in their life. 4 There is a hypothesis that says that gender is affected by environmental powers like the way that they interact with their parents and other family members. There are several theories to why a person is heterosexual and another is homosexual. There is another case called partial androgen insensitivity. This belief does not mean that the affect the hormones have will be a lasting one. there has been thoughts that there are makers on parts of the X chromosome that helps . that 99 individuals participated in a study to see who would choose sexual reassignment and who wouldn¶t. There are also some people who are afflicted with an enzyme defect of the 5a-RD-2 enzyme. There really isn¶t any proof that the environment has anything to do with the development of gender identity. and 56% of the people tested decided sexual reassignment and 39% of people afflicted with the enzyme deficiency of 17b-HSD-3 also chose sexual reassignment. This may look like a large number of people that are afflicted by intersex conditions and gender confusion.Gender Identity females. For men. it just means that there could be a different reaction with the hormones than another person would have. while a little over five percent showed that they had gender related issues later on in their life. but gender and sex assignment that happens at birth is still the best way for a person to have long term gender identity. (or CAH). that 250 patients were raised as females and only 32 of them chose sexual reassignment after infancy. There have been cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (Cohen-Kettenis.

There are many different intersexual problems that can arise from hormones and the development that happens in the womb. but this is not always the case. There is also theories that if a women have had many male children that a biological mechanism may cause the sexual orientation of the individual. Other 5 thoughts to the reason a female turns to lesbianism is that there could be different structure to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The best thing that can be done is try to understand what is happening during the gestation period and look at all of the factors that involve a person growing into adulthood. There is no one explanation to why one person is one way and another is different. there are many different factors that play in the gender identity and sexual orientation of a person. (Swaab. This is not the same in females. With all of the theories that exist. Sexual assignment that happens during birth still seems like the best way for a person to be given a gender identity. but with the technology that is available now. 2004). and the commissural anterior.Gender Identity decide if they are homosexual or not. androgenic. and environment factors interact with social factors can help produce different gender identities and sexual orientations in people. but studies are giving us more clues to what may be causing this. the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus. Conclusion When looking at everything that happens from birth to the adult years of a person. (Swaab. If all of the evidence is looked at. There is thoughts that exposure to nicotine in the prenatal period could also affect the sexuality of the person. a person can be the gender that they feel like they were meant to be. there still has been no direct cause that has been proven to cause the differences between a heterosexual and homosexual. it shows that different genetic. 2004). Studies can help everyone in understanding the complex happenings of sexual .

Gender Identity orientation and help the world in their understanding that this is a natural thing and not something that should be shunned or punished for. 6 .

(2009). Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relevance for gender identity. Retrieved May 29.Gender Identity References 7 Cohen-Kettenis. D. transsexualism and sexual orientation. Gynecological Endocrinology. 2011. Biopsychology (7th ed. 64.). P. 2011. 19(6). Hormone Research. (2005). 27-30. (2004). from EBSCOHost Database. J. Retrieved May 29. Boston. from EBSCOHost Database. 301-312. Psychological long-term outcome in intersex conditions. . Pinel. MA: Allyn and Bacon. J. F. P. Swaab.

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