New Testament Theology September 12, 2006 @ 6:15 pm Alliance Theological Seminary Bill Crockett When I was a young kid I used
to ask my pastor questions about theology and he never seemed to have the answer and so that began my journey towards knowing. He would tell me to go to Seminary where I would find those answers but he never seemed to know the answers. The definition of a professor is someone who is answering the questions that no one is asking. Leon Morris was a good scholar from “down under”. NT theology is different from any other class. You are trying to figure out what that writer had in his head when he is writing to that community/audience (under the guidance of the holy spirit). The Bible becomes the foundation from which we judge and weigh all that pertains to the Christian life and truth. • What was NT theology like before Luther? Basically theology came from scholars of Roman Catholic and/or Greek Orthodox backgrounds. Their positions were basically dogmatic in approach. NT theology from the perspective of early Christianity derived in the mind from pictures and icons in the church as well as the dictates of the priests who knew the Latin manuscripts (the commoner did not know how to read the Latin). Theology was dogmatically taught meaning rote learning not careful examination or meditation. Martin Luther translated the Bible into German for the common folk. • Once there is the break with the Roman Catholic Church there is a response from them to the protestant. The Council of Trent is that response (1545-63). They declared that the Bible and Tradition are equal in authority, before it was only tradition. Luther notes that one day he walks by a ditch and sees a drunk and tells him get up you shouldn’t be drunk. The man reaches into his lapel and pulls out an indulgence from a priest that basically gave him license to sin and still remain in Gods grace because in his conception whatever the priest affirms he absorbs. That is why Luther is so passionate because he knew that it is by grace that one is saved through faith. Our culture and theology will always be conditioned and intertwined and subject to our interpretation of scripture. The culture your in will condition your interpretation of scripture. • During the Council of Trents time there is no true Biblical scholarship. That basically begins with Luther. John Scotus Erigena (810-77) believed that scripture was “colorful and fanciful” and therefore must be dogmatic because it is too out there. • Bonaventure (d.1274). Historical- a meaning in history, anagogical- spiritual meaning, allegorical-words=symbols, tropological-a double meaning (literal and figurative), symbolical-a symbolic meaning, synecdochial-a part stands for the whole, Hyperbolical-an overstatement. • After the Reformation the Reformers used Scripture not the Church as an authority. The Reformers called for the plain meaning of scripture (instead of Scholastic Mysticism). The study of scripture encouraged biblical languages (The reformers did not see value in studying each writer on his own merits). All the reformers had was the Vulgate and that is what encouraged the translation and
Change came with Johann Gables (1700’s German prof. “But” the reformers made a mistake. The diversity manifested itself in: Essenes. Matthew argues the Jewish-messianic-apocalyptic issues relating to the life of Jesus). Estimates of Jews in Jerusalem during Passover estimate anywhere between 250-300. Luther said “The Bible must be interpreted using the central portions of scripture and that once you know what they are interpretation will become clear.e. Most of the people that came to Passover were Jews with a sprinkling of proselytes. They argued that philosophy controlled the interpretation of scripture in their age.•
study of languages. Herodians.
. Luther smashed this guy to pieces. The reformers hated Aristotle because his philosophy controlled medieval universities. We should not be boastful and judgmental because we are all one temptation away from falling.000 people. The Saducees took care of the temple but were few in number.Pharisees. He believed that we needed to demystify the supernatural phenomena in the scripture (Bultman/Hegelian influenced). The Saducess are rich and somewhat astute. Gables approach to Biblical interpretation is: an interpreter must try to see what each writer had to say about divine things. The Saducees caused the most problems for Jesus because they didn’t believe in anything. Pharisees are basically common man-low budget relatively poor but powerful-some were rich religious leaders. An interpreter must arrange writer’s improper sequence in terms of circulation. “The sources of Jesus’ Gospel tradition” There were different dynamics going on in the different churches these writers are writing to. We are going to talk about the primitive Jewish Christian community. If you think that some people belong in Hell chances are your concept of Hell is not that well developed because “If you knew and fully understand Hell then you would run in nightmarish terror from it”-C. How? Why? Because all scripture was not allowed to stand on its own merit but leaned on another for its interpretation. at Aldorf). Most of the inter-testamental material was written by Pharisees. Luther debated Theodore Eck concerning the Catholic standards and he was called “The Hammer of Heretics”. Zealots. Christianity began as one of several parties that made up the diverse Judaism of the 1st Century. Interpreters must understand that there are only certain “hooks” with which to define certain experiences in their theology. The reformers themselves contradicted the concept of “Sola Scriptura”. The interpreter must determine which biblical ideas are permanent and which were spoken only to the people of that age. “A virtue is a virtue when it has been tested in the fire-Mark Twain”. That is why the officials had difficulty-finding Jesus because people were literally everywhere.S. Martin Luther considers James an epistle of straw because he felt that it was preaching works salvation. Samaritans @ believers in “Jesus”. We should not wish anyone to that place of separation and punishment. James and Matthew are dealing with two different audiences therefore they have two different emphasis and approaches to the questions being raised by these communities.
9/19/06 @ 6:15 a. that is why the emphasis tends to lean towards a specific argument or bend (i. Lewis.m. The stage just has not been set for us to fall. Saducees. Luther affirmed certain portions of scripture.
Paul The Traveler”. Colossians 1:15-20 also. Pirqe Aboth IV. The early creeds set in a very tight document the basic tenets of the faith. but if it is of God. What is key to identifying the core of poetry and The Gospel is the repetition of structures and nuances imbedded within the writings of the Apostles and secretaries (emanuansis-1 Peter 5:12. 11 “Every assembly which is in the name of heaven will in the end be established. which is a book written by a skeptic who traveled in the footsteps of Paul to verify his accounts.you may even be found fighting against God!” Paul. • Jesus is exalted and sitteth at the right hand of God. Gamaliel’s student is noted in (Acts 22:3). brothers.). See Romans 4:24-25 also sets forth the basic tenets of creedal content. I Thessalonians 1:9.
.c. • Jesus will return one day to bring Gods purposes full circle. Akiba (2nd c). Ambrose circumvented and countered the celebration of Mithra by Christians with the celebration Christmas on December 25th. Some think that the book of Hebrews were written to the Essenes to encourage them not to fall back into Essenism. The Antioch sources (early Acts). This is why the argument that the Christian Gospel grew and evolved is wrong because it was an oral society and cemented the tenets oral-cognitively. 21:1-18. Can we detect the earliest Kerygma? Luke is writing about events of Peter and Paul that happened 20 years earlier. Hillel (2nd b. Behind Acts are sources that can help us understand the locus from which the earliest Christian preachers taught. Gamaliel (1st c. Gamaliel is the only one called “Rabbon” meaning “Our Master-Teacher”.. believers. birth.). The speeches in Acts are the sources Luke uses in order to found his GospelLook up the book “St.John The Baptist was probably an Essene because of his light and dark theology. • This belief has been confirmed by the gift of the Holy Spirit. 1.S. Shammei. 2.”-Talmudic saying which expresses Gamaliels statement concerning “…if this plan or this undertaking is of human origin. the poor. The Way and the friends. it will fail. and Resurrection of Jesus. • The prophecies have now been fulfilled. 20:5-15.. But that which is not in the name of heaven will not in the end be established. There is the awkward introduction of Aramaic within fluent Greek 3. The core of the Gospel is imbedded in the Pauline writings. Redaction criticism is editorial criticism were the editors edited the material in preparation for the final product. • Until that time people have an opportunity to repent + receive forgiveness and the gift of the H. • This has happened in the death. The earliest Apostolic Kerygma.e. C. Acts 5:38-39. 27:1-28:16). See Phil 2:6-11 also is a formula.H. Rhyme scheme is used in the earliest Christian manuscripts that indicates that early poets and writers were noting Jesus narratives and experiences long before its reduction to text. is a good identification of one such tenet that made up the core content of the Gospel. Romans 16:22). Dodd finds common features of Kerygma in speeches of Acts and Creeds. See I Tim 3:16 also sets a formula forth in clear speech. The new believers after the Resurrection of Jesus were called: The Holy people. The “we document” Acts 16:10-17. Examine I Cor 15:3.
Tarsus was a very important city. Paul – Born was born in Tarsus in present day Turkey (a Greek city Acts 22:3). Paul learned under Gamaliel (Acts 22. Melchizedek and Elijah. He would set up shop and evangelize people from his shop (tentmaker) and begin a house Church. How does one get saved? Faith in YHWH-Christ. Tarsus was a city that was mostly on the ocean. Philippians 3:5 “The Law”. Mentions “Arabia” in Galatians 1:. 2. Abraham. Paul is appealing to a tradition they would have known at the time. What were the sources that Paul draws upon to develop his Philosophy of Theology? The Hebrew Scriptures. “Gospel comes from Jesus Himself”. Paul brings to bear all of his intellect upon the one question “how do you get saved and what is the connection between Jesus and my salvation”.2:. Paul is always thinking like a Rabbi even though educated in the stoic philosophy of the times. Pauls ministry in Petra (city of Nabateans) was a failure. Where does “rock” appear in the OT Scriptures as following the Israelites? Rabbinic traditions found in Talmudic-Mishnaic writings.9/26/06 @ 7:30pm “Paul’s Theology” If we take a theology of the NT then we must hear what the writers of the NT had to say to the early Church using the words of Jesus (when hear on earth) to address a situation happening currently from their locus. Paul draws upon the Stoic philosophical structures to also apologize Christ). therefore we must begin with that premise in order to understand the locus out of which Paul operates. Paul is an urban missionary through and through. 1st Century Christians ate in their Churches because their houses were their Churches. How does one lose their salvation? Continue to follow after other gods-live recklessly. If you are aware of the argument then you can debate intelligently.
. II Thessalonians 3:6-15).3). Paul was converted around 36-7 then travels to Arabia. Paul learned the Torah and oral traditions handed down not included in the OT canon (I Corinthians 10:4). were probably the most mythologically nuanced figures of the OT in the 1st Century. Galatians 1:. These parallels line up in questions regarding 1. Moses.2:. He is a 1stCentury Jew. If you grew up in an environment that flourished in Greek philosophy then you know all of the arguments. Paul is trained as a Rabbi and thinks like a rabbi. upon which he would leave as a thriving house church and go and plant another in another city (Romans 15:14-26. Paul struggles and does so very eloquently in arguing the parallels between the OT and NT.