This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
( Reaffirmed 1996 )
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS, RAILINGS AND TOE BOARDS
( First Revision )
Second Reprint SEPTEMBER 1996
8 Copyright 1979
9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARC
NEW DELHI 110002
1978 Indian Standard SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS. s. Dhanbad DIRECTOR. P. . New Delhi SHRI G. HEODE ) ( Continued on pqc 2 ) @ Cojyight 1979 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Izdion Cofivright Acf (XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the oubliaher ahall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act. KARODE SHRI R. MENON ( Altemnfe The Institution of Surveyors Ministry of Home Affairs India. DEaHYUVH SRRI P. SHARMA( Alternate ) Bureau of Public Enterprises. KIJMAR SHRI P. N. N. Maharashtra. &lMAL Hindustan Construction Co Ltd.ilding Research Institute ( CSIR ).1s I 4912 . P. Bombay Government of M. CANU (Alternate ) Central Water Commission DIRECTOR. MINXS SAFETY (Aitcmate ) Directorate SHRI H. N. 1). RAILINGS AND TOE BOARDS ( Safety First Revision ) Sectional Chairman SERI D. B. KAU~HISH SHRI R. VIDWANR ( Alternate ) Cent. MEHROTRA Snot G. VAIDYANATHAN ( AIlernale ) National SHRI V. CGPC DEPUTY DIRECTOR. CGPC ( Al&mote ) Directorate General of Mines Safety. SHRI J. BDC 45 A-9/33 Vasant Vihar New Delhi 110057 and Institution of Engineers ( India). CHOPRA in Construction Committee. N. L. M. New Delhi SHRI J. L. New Delhi SERI s. G. Bombay SHR~ W.~or~e. MINES SAFETY JOINT DIRECTOR. GUPTA General of Factory Advice Labour Institute ( Ministry of Employment) Service and Labour & Buildings Organization. Members DKPUTY C w IRF ( BRIDGES ) SHRI Calcutta Represznting E N QI NEER Ministry of Railways Irrigation & Power Department.
PUNJ New SHRI K. C. Bombay SHRI S. PATEL M. VBRMA SHRI P. MEHTA Director ( Civ Engg ). UNWALLA SHRI Y. SWAMINATHAN SHRI TILAK RAJ TAKULIA SHRI B. R.1978 ( Confinuedfrom #uge 1 ) Rcprasenting Engineer-in-Chief3 New Delhi Branch. NARIJLA ( Alternate ) SHRI D. K. Ranchi SHRI K. Bombay Geological Survey of India. T.t Projects Construction Corporation. Members DR H.IS. B. N. BHATIA ( Altcrncltc ) SHRI C. 4912. BRIG S. Calcutta SHRI P. REDDY Builders’ Association of India. Director ( Civ Engg ) New Central Road Research Institute ( CSIR ). SEN~~PTA ( Allrrnafc ) NatEeior. SALVI SIIRI K. AGARWALA (Alternate) SUPERINTEN~NG S u R v E Y o R o P Central Public Works Department. AJITHA SIMHA. PARME~WARAN SHRI 0. IS1 . TANEJA ( Altmofe ) Hindustan Steel Limited. Bombay REPRESENTATIVE SHRI J. C. A. L.hiBuildings Construction Corporation. Bombay Concrete Asrociation of India. G. N. Army Headquarters. RAMAMURTHY SHRI S. &RI SUSHIL KUMAR PROF C. New Delhi SHK~ K. R. C. Calcutta IS1 ( Ex-o&io Membn) Director General. New Delhi WORKS ( NDZ ) SURVEYOROF WORKS V ( NDZ ) ( Alternate ) Natige. K. N. New Delhi Indian Institute of Architects. OBEROI ( Alkrnafe) Hindustan Prc-Fab Limited. G. Deputy SHREJ. S. RAO ( Al&n& ) Gammon India Limited. hX. N. MEETA ( Altemafe) SHRI R. P. Dastur & Co ( P) Ltd.
value should be the same as that of the specified value’in this standard.5 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. 6. 0.3 This standard was first published in 1968. height of guard railings.1978 Indian Standard SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS.IS : 4912. observed or calculated. the final value. especially for use by those whose health and limbs are no more in the perfect and sound condition.1 This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 16 November 1978. besides modifying the definitions of some of the standard. after the draft finalized by the Safety in Construction Sectional Committee had been approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council. 6. railings. 0. shall be rounded off in accordance with The number of significant places retained in the rounded off IS : Z-1960*. RAILINGS AND TOE BOARDS ( First Revision) 0. FOREWORD 0. 3 . modifications have been incorporated in the scope and in the provisions relating to stairways. In case of children. due weightage has been given to international coordination among the standards and practices prevailing in different countries in addition to relating it to the practices in the field in this country. *Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised). expressing the result of a test or analysis. This is the first revision of In this revision. special precautions are to be taken for their safety inside the buildings particularly when the buildings rise higher than one storey and staircase and other means of lifting and lowering are involved inthe use of the buildings.4 In the formulation of this standard. etc.2 Buildings when not provided with proper safety precautions may be hazardous. the terms.
Is : 4912 . elevated above the surrounding floor or ground.1 Authority . pit. conveyors. employer/owner 2. 2. or yard. the following definitions or the shall apply.An opening measuring 30 cm or more in its least in any floor. to prevent fall of persons.An opening in any wall or partition having height of less than 75 cm but more than 2’5 cm and width unrestricted.5 cm in its least dimension.2 The recommendations laid down in this standard apply to buildings under construction as well as to buildings after their completion. SCOPE 1. or large manhole ( floor opening occupied by elevators.7 Guard Railing . ramp. through which materials but not persons may fall. through which dime&n. dumb waiters. machinery or containers are excluded from this standard ). along exposed edge of a floor or ramp to prevent fall of 2.A member erected stairways or on openings. or catwalks. persons may fall.A vertical barrier erected platform.Governmental agency absence of governmental jurisdiction. etc. wall opening.6 Platform . 2.1 This standard deals with the safety requirements to be provided in buildings where there is danger of persons or materials falling through floor or wall openings. 2. 2. pavement.A working space for persons. such as a belt hole. erected along exposed sides of a stairway 2. 4 . 1. TERMINOLOGY 2.1978 1.3 Floor Hole . such as a balcony or platform for the operaticn of machinery and equipment. 2. platform. etc. in the 2. in any floor.10 Wall Hole .9 Toe Board .8 Stair Railing . or from stairways.4 Floor Opening .A passageway for persons. or catwalk or balcony. such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings. materials or persons. platform. opening. or yard. pavement.A barrier to prevent fall of persons.An opening measuring less than 30 cm but more than 2. platform. to act as hand grip on edges of a floor. elevated above the surrounding level. pipe opening. or slot opening. such as hatchway.0 For the purpose of this standard. wall opening. stair or ladder opening. 2.2 Catwalk . 2.5 Handrail . catwalk.A barrier erected along exposed edges of an open sided floor opening.
3 Every hatchway and chute.1 to 7. the cover shall be closed or the exposed side shall be guarded at both top and intermediate positions by removable railings. The removable railing should preferably be hinged or otherwise mounted so as to come into use automatically with the opening of the cover. GUARDING having both OF FLOOR OPENINGS AND FLOOR HOLES 3. protection shall be provided to prevent a person falling through the opening. the pit or trap opening hinged in place.5 Every pit and trap-door floor opening.1. floor opening. the guard shall consist of a hinged floor opening cover of adequate strength and removable railings on all exposed sides ( except at entrance to stairway ). This does not preclude greater protection than that prescribed in 7. shall be guarded by one of the following: 4 Hinged floor opening cover of adequate strength equipped with railings or permanently attached thereto so as to leave only one exposed side. 3. by a skylight 3. b) A removable railing with toe board on not more than two sides of the opening and fixed railing with toe boards on all other exposed sides.2. Where operating conditions necessitate the feeding of material into any hatchway or chute opening. When the opening is not in use.2. for infrequently used stairways located in passageways ( such as aisle/spaces. and hole shall be guarded screen or a fixed railing on all exposed sides.IS : 4912 0 1978 -2. 3. 3. The railing shall be provided on all exposed sides. 5 . 3. The removable railings shall be kept in place when the opening is not in use and should preferably be hinged or otherwise mounted so as to be conveniently replaceable.1 However. shall be guarded by floor opening cover of adequate strength which should be When the cover is not in place. etc ) where traffic across the openings prevents the use of fixed railings. opening or platform shall be guarded by a on all exposed sides ( except at entrance to through the railing either provided with a that a person cannot walk directly into the 3. floor guard railing with toe board opening).2 Every ladderway. shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected on all exposed sides by removable railings. with the passage swinging gate or so offset opening.1 Every stairway floor opening shall be guarded by a railing as specified in 7.11 Wall Opening .4 Every skylight. infrequently used. except at entrance to stairway.3.An opening in any wall or partition height of at least 75 cm and width of at least 45 cm. floor opening.
the guard shall be kept in position regardless of a door on the opening. and the swing of the door shall not reduce the effective width to less than 50 cm. the floor hole shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected by a removable railing. ling materials. 4. 3.5 cm. 3.CS I 4912 . a platform shall be provided.6 Every manhole floor opening shall be guarded by a manhole cover tihich need not be hinged in place. It shall be of full length of the opening. When the cover is not in place. Picket Fence.9 Every floor hole into which persons cannot accidentally walk (on account of fixed machinery. shall have railings.lSi8 3. or (b) a floor hole cover of adequate strength that should Abe hinged in place. The cover shall be securely held in place to prevent tools or materials from falling through.7 -Every temporary floor opening constantly at tended by someone.5 cm wide. Roller. a removable toe board or the equivalent When the opening is not in use for handshall also be provided.8 Every floor hole into which persons can accidentally walk shall be guarded by either: (a) a railing with toe board on all exposed sides. or as required by the conditions.10 Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway. b) Extension platform into which materials may be hoisted for handling. the Ymanhole opening shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected by removable railings. 4. there is danger to persons working or passing below on account of the falling materials. Half Door 01 Equivaht Barrier-The guard may be removable but should preferably be hinged or Where otherwise mounted so as to be conveniently replaceable.2 Every chute wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 120 cm shall be guarded by one or more of the harriers specified in 4. GUARDING OF WALL OPENINGS AND HOLES 120 cm 4. a grab handle shall be provided on each side of the opening with its centre approximately 120 cm above floor level and of adequate strength and mounting.1 Every wall opening from which there is a drop of more than shall be guarded by one of tke following: a) Rail. or shall be 3. The opening should have a sill that projects above the floor level at least 2. 6 . 3. and which shall have side rails or equivalent guards of standard specifications. In addition. equipment or walls ) shall be protected by a cover that leaves no openmg more than 2. When the cover is not in place.1.
or platform. a toe board shall also be provided on each exposed side. or fixed ladder.1938 4. floor. 4. or c) there is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard. stairway. degreasing units. or -filling tank cars) may have the railing on one side omitted where operating conditions necessitate such omission provided the falling hazard is minimized by using a catwalk of not less than 42 cm wide. a toe board shall be provided. GUARDING CATWALKS OF OPEN-SIDE FLOORS. the hazard is adequately guarded. 5.4 Every temporary wall opening shall have adequate guards. b) there is moving machinery.2 Every catwalk shall be guarded by a railing (or the equivalent as specified in 7.3 ) on all open sides. shafting. and the far side of the hole more than 150 cm above the next lower level.5 Where there is a hazard of materials falling through a wall hole.tS t 4912 . dangers other than falling hazard. The railing shall be provided with a toe aboard beneath the open sides wherever: a) persons may pass. Wherever tools. or catwalks above the adjacent to dangerous equipment. platform. or balcony from which there is a.3. platforms. machine parts. 4. and similar hazards shall be guarded with a railing and toe board. grill work as specified in 7. or materials are likely to be used on the cat-walk. walkways. 5. AND 5. PLATFORMS.2. . or an enclosing screen either of solid construction or as specified in 7.1 Every open-sided floor or platform 120 cm or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a railing (or the equivalent as specified in 7. except where there is entrance to a ramp.10. where. the hole shall be protected by a toe board. open-sided floors. electrical equipment. This requirement may be waived. shall be guarded by slabs.3 ) on all open sides 120 cm or more above floor or ground level.1 Catwalks used exclusively for special purposes ( such as oiling. 5.F Where the window opening is below the landing. 5. and the lower edge of the near side of the hole is less than 10 cm above the floor. 5.10. pickling or galvanizing tanks. in the opinion of the administrative authority. 4.9 &wry window wall opening at a stairway landing.3 Regardless ofheight.2. drop of more than 120 cm and where the bottom of the opening is less than 90 cm above the platform or landing.2 Where persons upon entering catwalks become exposed to machi_ nery. additional guarding shall be provided.
7. The ends of the rails shall not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard.1 The ~anchoring of posts and framing members for railings of all shall be of such construction that the completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a point load of at least 90 kg applied in any direction at any point on the toprail. at least one handrail. 8 . at least one stair railing on the open side.4. one stair railing on each side.3. etc. closer spacing of posts. trucking or handling materials.2 Stairways used principally by children.3. CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF SAFETY MEASURES 7. bracing or by other means. preferably on the right side descending.3 Minimum requirements for railings under various types of construction shall conform to the requirements given under 7. c) On stairways less than 150 cm wide having both sides open.1 Every flight of stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with stair railings or handrails as specified below. NOTE -Provisions on each only one residence. The width of the stair measured clear of all constructions except handrails: a) On stairways less than 150 cm wide having both sides enclosed.1 A railing shall consist of top rail? intermediate rail.3. 7. types 7. playgrounds.2 A stair railing shall be of construction similar to a railing but the vertical height shall be not more than 85 cm nor less than 75 cm from upper surface of top rail to surface of tread in line with face of riser at forward edge of tread. runway.3. as in school-houses. The top rail shall be smooth surfaced throughout the length of the railing. 7. or ramp level. STAIRWAY RAILINGS AND GUARDS 6. under (a) and (d) shall not be applicable to staircases serving 6.1 to 7. and posts. 7. additional strength should be provided by use of heavier stock. In staircases used by toddlers the openings in the stair railing shall be suitably designed to prevent children from falling through. shall be provided with additional handrails mounted on the stairway wall of railing at less than standard height. and shall be not less than 90 cm vertical height from upper surface of top rail to floor.2 Where railings are likely to receive heavy stresses from crowds. b) On stairways less than 150 cm wide having one side open. platform.Is : 4912. d) On stairways more than 150 cm wide one handrail enclosed side and one stair railing on each open side.1978 6.
they will not deflect downward sufficiently to break the glass below them.6 Floor opening covers may be of any material requirements of the surrounding floor. or vertical 7.4 Overhangs shall be eliminated at the rail ends unless such overhangs do not constitute a hazard. platform.5 A handrail shall consist of a lengthwise member mounted directly on a wall or partition by means of brackets attached to the lower side of the handrail so as to offer no obstruction to a smooth surface along the top The handrail shall be rounded or be of and both sides of the handrail. or to top rail shall be provided.3. such as baluster railings. that meets the strength 7. 7. or ramp having rise of more than 60 cm.4 A toe board shall be 15 cm nominal in vertical height from its top edge to the level of the floor. such other section that will furnish an adequate handhold for any one The ends of the handrail should be turned grasping it to avoid falling.4. 7. scroll work railings and panelled railings.5. They shall also be of such construction and mounting that under ordinary loads or impacts. into the supporting wall or otherwise arranged so as not to constitute a projection hazard.IS : 4912 .35 The maximum distance between any two horizontal members should not exceed 20 cm in one direction. pane&g from floor to intermediate rail.55 The mounting of handrails shall be such that the completed structure is capable of withstanding a load of at least 90 kg applied in any direction at any point on the rail.1971 7. 7. The construction shall be of grill work with openings not more than 10 cm long or of slat work with openings not more than 5 cm wide and length unrestricted.5 cm in greatest dimension. It shall be securely fastened in place and with not more than 6 cm clearance above It may be made of any substantial material either solid or floor level. 7.2 The sizes of handrails. clearance between handrail and wall or any projection thereon of at least 7. shall be at least The length of brackets shall be such as will give a 5 cm in diameter.5.5 cm.1 The height of handrails shall be not more than 85 cm measured vertically above pitch line. runway. 7.1 Where material is piled to such height that a toe board -does not provide protection. with openings not over 2. or ramp. a handrail is required for all stairs. 9 . 7.7 Skylight screens shall be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding a load of at least 90 kg applied perpendicularly at any one point on the screen. when made of hardwood. 7.
They may be of solid contruction of grill work with openings not more than 20 cm long. 10 .5 cm clearance from the side framing of the The size. material. and anchoring of the grab handle shall wall opening. when in place at -the shall be o I” such construction opening. half doors ) and mounting that. be such that the completed structure is capable of withstanding a load of at least 90 kg applied in any direction at any point of the handle. or of slat work with openings not more than 10 cm wide with length unrestricted. picket fences. and. 7. 7. the barrier is capable of withstanding a load of at least 90 kg in any direction ( except upward ) at any point on the top rail or corresponding member.10 Wall opening screens shall be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding a load of at least 90 kg applied horizontally at any point on the near side ~ofthe screen.8 Wall o nings barriers (rails.IS I 4912 . rollers.1978 7.9 Wall opening grab handles shall be not less than 30 cm in length and shall be mounted as to give 7.
KANPUR 298995 Seth Bhavan. CALCUTTA 700954 337 86 62 693843 23523 15 Northern : SC0 335-336. Khanpur. C-Scheme. TT Nagar.I. NAGPUR 4409lO Institution of Engirwrs (In&a) 8*ldng. IV Cross Road. 62-63. 1st Stags.BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS Headquartem: Manak Ebhavan. Nurmohamed Shaikh Marg. Sector 16 A. lndls . Chitaranjan Marg. JAIPUR 392991 1171418 8. GHAZIABAD 201901 53l5 Ward No. PATNA 860913 T. Gupta Marg.91 11 3239399 Telegrams : Manaksanstha (Common to ail Oftices) Telephone 8-779932 cwIwlaborawy: Plot No. 2919.T Road. NEW DELHI 110092 9 Telephones:3230131. Unit VI. MUMBAI 48W97 $Safes Offfce is at‘F Bbck. COIMBATORE Savitri Complex. No. Behind-Mar01Telephone Exchange. Sector 34-A. Maniktola. THlRUVANANTHAPURAM695034 /~fwrcffon OffTees (Wti Safe Point): Pushpanjafi. Road. 295-A. Pafayam. LUCKNOW 226091 Patliputra Industrial Estate. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg.N.P0. Naval Kishore Road. 832 92 95 5581348 839 49 55 554621 463627 210141 8-288801 8-71 1998 541137 291083 372925 216876 238923 26 23-95 621 17 52 5171 323635 ‘SatesOfficeisat55rirt#meApproadl. MADRAS 609113 fWestern MUMBAI 498993 Branch OVkxs: ‘Pushpak’. 2nd Floor. E9. Nampaiiy Station Road. Sarvodaya Nagar. Shankar Nagar Square. 140421.G. Barua Road. BHUBANESHWAR 751001 Kaiaikathir Buikfings~670 Avinashi Road. V. GUWAHATI 781003 C&56C. 116 0. Sahibabad 261010 Regional OiYYces: Central *Eastern 323 76 17 : ManakBhavan. Bhadbhada Road. BANGALORE 560958 Gangotri Complex. Site IV. 29. L. Campus. Ganga Nagar. 5th By-lane. Bangalore-Tumkur Road. 43. PUNE 411995 641037 Plot No. 1332 Shivaji Nagar. Grant Road. BANGALORE 569992 271085 3996528 2223971 printed al New lndls Priathg Press. Khurja. University PO. NEW DELHI 119892 : 1114 CIT Scheme VII M. 1st Floor. AHMEDABAD 380991 Speenya Industrial Area.3238375.PrincepStreet. FARIDABAD 121001 : Manakaiaya. Sahibabad Industrial Area.3239492 Fax : 91 11 3234962. 5th Floor. R. West Hfgh Court Road. Mathura Road.C. Andhen’(East).I.P.T. CALCUTTA 7ooO72 $%fes Office is at Novefty chambers. Unity Buik%q Narashimaraja Square. BHOPAL 462693 Plot No. CHANDIGARH 160922 Southern : C. HYDERABAD500001 E-52. Behind Leeks Cinema. Bahadur Shah &far Marg.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.