21 Oct 04 10:51 Hello all! We are condidering the possibility of using welded alloy pipe A691 P91 Cl.

42 in a hot reheat system (30 bar, 575ºC) instead of semaless A335 P91 pipe. Manufacturer tell us that all its properties after normalized and tempering are the same than seamless pipe but we are not very sure. We have heard some things about creep properties of Heat Affected Zone that don't sound very well. Any comment or recommendation? Best regards, davefitz (Mechanical) Without the N+T the weld creep strength reduction factor is about 0.6. The N+T needs to be conducted correctly to ensure this alloy has full assumed creep strength, including that the rate of cooldown from 1800 F be faster than -5 F/sec ( to be confirmed ) to ensure formation of martensite. The QC should include a micro-hardness traverse of the weld HAZ to confirm no soft zone exists after N+T, and other tests may be needed to ensure no cracking exists ( photo micrographs). The weld area will still have different creep properties than the parent metal, since the weld electrode composition is different than theparetn metal, and ther is likely to be a detectable pre-existing shrink line at the ID if the weld. Usually large hot reheat pipes are large enough that a worker can crawl inside and grind away gross defects. carletes (Chemical) 21 Oct 04 11:29 Dear davefitz, So in your opinion a welded P91 pipe with a correct N+T can substitute a seamless pipe? I thought so, but, surprisingly, ASME B31.1 permits the use of A691 pipe for non-bolier external piping but not in the case of bolier external piping (ASME I)when the design conditions are the same. Strange? Thanks davefitz (Mechanical) 21 Oct 04 11:17

carletes (Chemical)

21 Oct 04 14:25 From what I have seen of the shops that fab and weld P91 piping in the USA, there is a big question as to whether they could be expected to treat this material properly- there is a significant risk that the average shop would make some error. Very few of these shops have a staff metalurgist that is familiar with P91, and simply following ASME rules is not adequate for P91. I would not use a creep weld strength reduction factor greater than 0.6 unless every aspect of the fab was reviewed and approved by a metalurgist that knows P91 inside and out. davefitz (Mechanical) 30 Dec 04 14:51 See the latest paper published by the ASME section II committee on materials " Issues of concern to ASME BPV committee TG on creep-strength enhanced ferritic steels , and remedies under consideration" by J Henry, M Gold(chairman), and J Tanzosh. Basically , the ASME code had assumed that the users, fabricators, and engineers would retain in-house metallurgists that would assume technical responsibility for understanding how to fabricate these alloys. The corpoate downsizing of the 80's and 90's led to a dumbing down of the technical expertise, such that correct fabrication of P91 /T23/P911/P92/P122 is the exception, and not the rule.

Basically. This montoring by itself willbe a big improvement in QC. I had asked ASME to post the paper on their website at <www. The authors can send you a copy. Implicit is the need to monitor and archive ALL time vs temp histories of the P91 parts during fabrication.hot bending) c)define the PWHT temp based on Ni + Mn content d) define max coldwork permitted without heat treatment e)define a broad harness range that. I read the second paragraph of davefitz post dated 30 Dec 04.K. so probably not there yet. and keep part dry between welding and PWHT g)define a tempering parameter.we normally see these cucrves provided if teh part is forged overseas. Yet again you have provided good info as regards P91 piping materials.org> . and define what operations will requrie a N+T ( ie . So we ended up with a system which is not consistent in its final condition but each says it's O. There seems to be so much that can go wrong with this material if QA is not 100% that it gives me real concern on a system that has recently been installed in our power station. athomas236 (Mechanical) 6 Jan 05 15:56 I tried today to find the paper in davefitz post dated 30 Dec 04 on the ASME web site but could not find it. f)worry about SCC. At the moment my company is invoved with 3 projects involving 10-12 HRSGs that use P91 extensively. they will finally read the Mannesman + Vallourec P91 book and follow those recommendations ( which were available circa 1990). soak times. if it is nto met. If ASME did make the assumption as stated then this clearly was a serious mistake not only for US based suppliers and fabricators but also for the fact that ASME is an internationally recognised national code that is widely used around the world.. but no reply yet on that front. DSB123 (Mechanical) 1 Jan 05 8:28 davefitz. On one project we are about to start site welding of main steam piping in P91 which leaves me . but it does not seem to be done by domestic foundries. temperatures.etc).New rules being proposed are: a) inital qualifying heats submitted for code acceptance must inlcude samples at both ends of the alloying range ( lean and rich) for testing b)redefining the normalizing and tempering temperatures . Where can I get a copy of the paper you quote? davefitz (Mechanical) 4 Jan 05 11:22 dsb123: The paper was presented at the summer 2004 PVP conference. and a range of acceptable values to qualify a part for hi-temp service.asme. I have a copy of the Mannesman+Vallourec P91 book and it is interesting reading. would then require further testing to ensure correct crystal sructure. One contractor wanted a modified A335 material with specific Al and Ni limits whereas the other Contractor did not and specified A335 material.e. Both had different heat treatment procedures (i.

Our P91 saga continues. athomas236 (Mechanical) 7 Jan 05 11:54 davefitz. athomas236 davefitz (Mechanical) 7 Jan 05 7:37 athomas236: You can get the paper from the authors. PWHT and QA/QC procedures. but the first author works for Alstom in Chatanooga Tennesee. a better desig would have included a PF91 transition piece. Weld procedure covers the welding of SA335-P91 to SA335-P91 upto 56mm thick and has been prepared in accordance with ASME 9. Ohio. or thru the ASME via the papers presented at the 2004 PVP conference. 1 and B31.1 should be reworded to require transition pieces when the 2 components have disparate creep strengths. . In both cases. I think the ASME wording on fig PG-42. but they use a 45 degree thickness transition between a 12" P91 nozzle and 12"x 22"F22 weldolet nozzle saddle.LLC in North Benton.1.the max slope at a weldolet thickness transition should not exceed 30 degrees. Personally. Our site staff have also been forewarned of the sensitivity of P91 and asked to provide details of the extent of welding supervision on site and copies of the weld.25Cr 1 Mo V turbine stop valve. athomas236 (Mechanical) 11 Jan 05 6:09 Gentlemen.wandering what to do about this potential problem. I have an action to provide them with more details of the potential problem by early next week so its all getting a bit hectic. What I have done today is request a copy of the T91/P91 book from Vallourec and Mannesman and asked our library to get a copy of the Summer 2004 PV&P proceedings from the British Lending Library so I can read the paper you mentioned. Thanks for the information. For your information I have now received the weld procedure spec and procedure qualification record brief details of which are shown below. Apparently Eng-tips will not allow posting of e-mail addresses or faxes anymore. the second works at Gold Metallurgical servicees. Another major P91 faiure detected 2 days ago. Min preheat temp = 204C Max interpass temp = 330C Preheat temperature is maintained during welding PWHT temperature range 710-750C If thickness <= 50mm hold time is min of 2 hours. as you say the saga continues. If thickness > 50mm hold time is min of 3 hours Note says that continuous or special heating where applicable should be recorded.Failure was similar to an earlier failure at the same plant that had a crack int he weld between the P91 HP main steam pipe and the 1. I am sure a review of all ASME records would show that the rules implied in that figure were based on the use of similar strength materials and the figure cannot be correctly used in the case of dissimilar metals. Ohio. and the third author at B+W in Barberton. I am not a welding engineer or metallurgist but I have tried to include information that seems to be important based up on various threads and posts. Apparently the fabricator did not meet sectionI fig PG 42.1. a 12" hot reheat riser in the boiler setting.

regards athomas236 athomas236 (Mechanical) davefitz. Preheat temp = 202C Max interpass temp = 274C Preheat temperature is maintained during welding PWHT temperature range 718-720C with hold time of 2 hours 10mins. At the moment I have not yet identified such a requirement. No hardness measurements specified. athomas236 davefitz (Mechanical) 14 Jan 05 8:14 athomas236: Is there specified a requirement to cool the weld to 100C prior to PWHT ( this is to ensure complete transformatin to martensite prior to PWHT ? athomas236 (Mechanical) 14 Jan 05 9:42 davefitz I am still studying the paper and at the same time preparing a document for our site team to use in discussions with the contractor. When I have finished I will post a summary in this thread. The procedure qualification was made on a 28mm thick pipe with base and filler metal as procedure specification. 15 Jan 05 9:44 .Filler metal AWS class ER90S-B9(solid) for first GTAW weld runs and E9016-B9 for other SMAW weld runs. 14 Jan 05 4:34 Thanks to the good advice from davefitz I have been able to obtain copies of the draft abstract and paper called Issues of concern to ASME B&PV Committee TG etc. Temperature history was recorded. Tensile ans bend tests described as satisfactory and Brinell hardnesses were: Base 103 to 143 HAZ 122 to 177 Weld 159 to 183 Naturally I would pleased to receive any comments. athomas236 athomas236 (Mechanical) Gentlemen.

Introduction General Code acceptance of ne materials Hot bending PWHT Cold bending Stress corrosion cracking regards athomas236 athomas236 (Mechanical) 1. 3. Introduction 18 Jan 05 7:15 This note reviews some of the problems of using P91 (X10CrMoVNb9-1) and the methods that could be used to overcome some of these problems where these are available. they should be cooled down to 100C prior to pwht in order to assure that all (95% +) magnetite is formed prior to PWHT . . Also. "In is anticipated that action regarding rules that would require cooling to some minimum temperature below the pre-heat temperature prior to PWHT will be considered when more definitive data is available. some folks interpret the current code rules as requiring maintenance of preheat unitl after PWHT is completed. the entire inventory of P91 piping since 1986) would not be prudent sort of suggests an ostrich philosophy. 1. The notes are in 7 sections as follows. the alternative is to cause magnetite to form after PWHT and that new magnetite would not be tempered. Also. 7. for that report to suggest that increased testing of as-built . in place pipework (ie. IN both cases it is embarassing to admit the past code rules are not optimum for these alloys. 2. there is a statement at the end of the section on PWHT that says. Although this note concentrates on P91 material." athomas236 davefitz (Mechanical) 17 Jan 05 7:26 athomas236: I think the report is trying to be diplomatic instead of technically rigorous. ASME Piping and Pressure Vessel Conference (called the ASME paper in this note) (b) the T91/P91 Book published by Vallourec and Mannesmann (c) ASME B31. 4.1. 6.With regard to your question of 14 Jan 05. The information in this note is taken from: (a) the draft of a paper presented at the 2004. Sme fabricators find that there is a savings in labor by conducting PWHT immediately following welding and do not cool down the piece prio to PWHT. 5. athomas236 (Mechanical) 18 Jan 05 7:13 Further to my post of 14 Jan 05. see in the following posts some notes I have made on P91.suspicious . the problems discussed are equally applicable to other creep enhanced materials such as P92 (X20CrMoV12-1). Power Piping (d) British/European piping code BS EN 13480-Part 4 (e) engineering websites. I guess it takes a major accident to wake some folks up.

Code acceptance of new materials (a) The problem Any material supplier that wants a new material included in the Code has to provide details of the mechanical properties from three batches of the material and make recommendations regarding the specified compositional ranges of the major alloying elements. 1%Mo. Without this information. The same would apply if the weld filler metal has poorer creep properties than the parent metal. Any event during manufacture. V ferritic steel with creep enhanced properties. the microstructure is sensitive to changes in composition. In such cases the premature failure of such components is unavoidable. For creep enhanced materials. Unlike carbon and low alloy steels. (b) The solution The solution proposed in the ASME paper is that Code specified compositional ranges should not be significantly wider than the three batches upon which the Code allowable stresses have been determined. P91 depends for its elevated creep strength on achieving and maintaining a specific microstructure. it is not possible to establish if the composition of the P91 pipes currently being installed at ??? project are in accord with those on which the Code allowable stresses are based. This specific microstructure is created by the transformation to martensite during cooling. So any degradation in base material properties caused by welding may not be recognised in the Code allowable stresses. athomas236 (Mechanical) 18 Jan 05 7:18 3. The paper does not state the compositional ranges of the three batches of P91 on which the Code allowable stresses are based. General 18 Jan 05 7:16 Grade 91 is a 9%Cr. where these are available.athomas236 (Mechanical) 2. Hot bending (a) The problem As previously mentioned P91 depends on a specific microstructure for its elevated creep strength properties. it is clear that the information provided by the material supplier will refer to the parent material itself and not to any weld that may be made in the parent material. In each of the following sections each of the problems with P91 materials is reviewed together with possible solutions. athomas236 (Mechanical) 18 Jan 05 7:20 4. Although not mentioned in the ASME paper. Any thermal process such as inter-critical heat treatment or tempering that changes the . The material was developed in the USA in the late 1970 s and was included in the ASME Code in 1983/1984. erection or operation that disrupts this microstructure will compromise the integrity of the material and prevent it from achieving the creep properties upon which the Code allowable stresses are based. So if the specified ranges are wider than those of the batches upon which the mechanical properties are based then it is possible for a subsequent batches of material to fall within the specified ranges but not have the mechanical properties upon which the Code allowable stresses are based.

1. If view of the above. Therefore. This agrees with the requirements stated in the T91/P91 Book.1 requires that hot bending/forming should be carried out at a temperature above the lower critical temperature minus 56°C. i. There have been cases in the USA when bends that were formed at 1090°C have not been re-normalised and tempered. we should require all hot bends should be re-normalised and tempered and that the necessary records should be provided to confirm that this has been carried out. 1%Mo.3.1.e. In the case of ??? project. clause 129. this process of transformations starts at the lower critical temperature and is completed by the upper critical temperature.e. we should request details of hot bending procedures together with details of any subsequent heat treatment. clause 129.3(A) states only that any post-hot bending/forming heat treatment should be specified by the designer. There is a recommendation in the ASME paper that if any pipe component is heated locally above 800°C then the component should be re-normalised and tempered in a manner that will eliminate the zones that have been heated into the inter-critical range.3. approximately 754°C.microstructure could substantially reduce the creep strength so that it approaches. (c) Other issues ASME B31. The ASME paper says that significant reductions in creep strength can occur if P91 is exposed to temperatures of the lower critical temperature minus 28°C. athomas236 (Mechanical) 18 Jan 05 7:25 5. that of 2 ¼%Cr. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) (a) The problem Research has shown that the upper and lower critical temperatures (together with the start and finish . The temperature ranges recommended for normalising and tempering are 1040-1080°C and 730-800°C respectively.) (b) The solution Recommendations are before the Code committees to ensure that if it is necessary to normalise and temper P91 material then this process is carried out in the most appropriate temperature ranges. There is the complication that the lower critical temperature is dependent upon material composition which will vary from batch to batch. If this temperature range were selected for hot bending then practical difficulties are expected in maintaining the material temperatures within this range. to comply with B31. It is understood that hot bending is usually carried in the range 750-950°C. approximately 782°C. in the worst case. During heating. (Note: Inter-critical heat treatment is heating of the material into the temperature range where the microstructure begins to transform from ferrite to austenite.1 and prevent reductions in creep strength while avoiding the need to renormalise and temper means hot bending should be carried out in the temperature ranges 754-782°C. B31. i.

The higher the manganese and nickel contents the lower these temperatures. P91 material has a specified maximum nickel content of 0.5 774 <1. preheat temperature shall be maintained until PWHT is carried out.5 but ?1. The recommendation to cool to 100°C before PWHT is also included in the T91/P91 Book. (c) Other issues In the ASME paper it is stated that requirements for cooling below the preheat temperature before PWHT will be considered when definitive data is available. B31.4% whereas the applicable AWS specification for weld filler metal has nickel content up to 1%. This requirement of B31.0 >0.14.1 is not mentioned in the Umm Al Nar weld procedure. The concern is that the high nickel content of the filler metal in combination with the effect on the critical temperatures could result in the incorrect microstructure being present in the welds.4 788 The PWHT requirements in B31.4 788 <1.1 PWHT requirements and those in the ??? project weld procedure are completely different to those being considered by the Code committees. (b) The solution Recommendations are before the Code committees to change the requirements for PWHT.5 but ?1.0 >0.1 are: Holding temperature Holding time t ? 50 mm t > 50 mm 700-760C 2 hours 2 hours plus 15 min per 25 mm over 50 mm It is evident that the B31. In Table 9.temperatures for martensite formation during cooling) are significantly affected by the manganese and nickel contents. There are. The effects of this are expected to be a reduction in the long term creep strength.1-1 of the British/European piping code BS/EN 13480-Part 4.4 800 <1.4 774 <1.0 ?0. There is evidence that after welding P91 should be cooled to 100°C before PWHT to achieve the required microstructure.0 ?0. This is a matter that clearly needs to be resolved with the contractor. The PWHT requirements before Code committees are: %(Mu + Ni) %Ni Max Temp C ?1. no details of how this should be done in terms of temperatures or cooling rates. .1 says that after commencing welding. however. states that welds in P91 materials should be cooled before PWHT to produce transformation to martensite.

5 OD > 142 mm Required ? 2. this is a matter that needs to be resolved with the contractor because the weld procedure does not include any requirement for cooling or the maintenance of preheat temperatures prior to PWHT. The British/European piping code BS EN 13480-Part 4 requires heat treatment as shown below. clause 129. . For ??? project.1. Stress corrosion cracking (a) The problem There is evidence that welds in P91 material may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The greater the cold working. In the case of ??? project. B31. the greater the effect on the microstructure. In addition.3.We should require all welds to be cooled in accordance with BS EN 13480-Part 4. we should require all cold bends should be re-normalised and tempered in accordance with BS EN 13480-Part 4 except that 142 mm should be replaced with 100 mm. There is a level of cold working that will cause significant reductions in the materials rupture strength.5 OD ? 142 mm Not required > 1.3.3 OD All Required > 1. Cold bending (a) The problem 18 Jan 05 7:27 Any cold working such as cold bending affects the microstructure of the material. athomas236 (Mechanical) 6.3 OD but < 2. Mean bend radius Pipe OD Heat treatment ? 1.5 OD All Not required If view of the above. (b) The solution The ASME paper recommends that when P91 has been welded the components should be kept completely dry until PWHT is carried out. (b) The solution ASME is considering placing a limit on the extent of cold working above which it will be necessary to renormalise and temper. requires all cold formed bends to be heat treated (in accordance with requirements for PWHT) if the pipe is 4 inch or larger or has a thickness of 0. the necessary records should be provided to confirm that this has been carried out. we should request details of cold bend procedures together with details of the subsequent heat treatment athomas236 (Mechanical) 18 Jan 05 7:29 7. Based on available data the likely limit for P91 is 15-20% (or less). In addition. the necessary records should be provided to confirm that this has been carried out.5 inch or greater.3 OD but < 2.

athomas236 MEMO4EVER (Mechanical) 12 Sep 05 8:17 what is the ideal fabrication & Erection Methode for A335-P91 Pipes (High alloy steel pipes)? And how could i weld these pipes? Welding "Grade 91" Alloy Steel This information is provided by Sperko Engineering based on information currently possessed by Sperko Engineering. See the TTT curves for this alloy. ´F-91µ and ´Grade 91.1. beware! These are not your father·s chrome-moly steels! . If you are going to weld or fabricate Grade 91 alloys. 1% Molybdenum.The T91/P91 Book recommends that the maximum period between welding and PWHT should be one week and that during this period the components should be kept dry. Page 1 of 1 One of the materials that has spread through the piping and boiler industry recently is an alloy. September 2002. referred to in various specifications as ´T-91.µ This is a specially modified and heat treated 9% chromium. davefitz (Mechanical) 18 Jan 05 8:16 Don't forget : the rate of cooling following normalization at 1900 F must be faster than -9F/min in order to avoid formation of ferrite. If we want to consider other requirements such as presented at the 2004 ASME P&PV conference or the T91 Vallourec and Mannesmann Book we should issue a variation to the contract. The weld procedure for ??? project does not mention this requirement which should be clarified with the contractor. ´P-91. It was first used in the mid-1980s and has ´picked up steamµ since then. Sperko Engineering accepts no responsibility for proper application of this information or for any consequential damages associated with application of this information. Vanadium enhanced (9Cr-1MoV) steel that performs quite well at elevated temperature ² usually 1000rF and higher. He says all piping is completely and wholey in accordance with B31. Inc. © Sperko Engineering Services. Promises to be an interesting time over the next few months. athomas236 (Mechanical) 18 Jan 05 11:02 Thanks athomas236 (Mechanical) 9 Feb 05 20:44 Well we had a response from the contractor today.

Thyssen Marathon 543. Bavaria-Schweisstechnik WP380 and Oerlikon OP 76). Other grades such as grade 92 and grade 911 (who says metallurgists don·t have a sense of humor?) are also under development. niobium and nitrogen. very important to use low residual filler metal. It is. tin. Two trade names of electrodes and filler that have low residuals are Metrode Chromet 9B9 electrode and Euroweld 9CrMoV wire. the filler is not low in residuals and you should send it back (or at least get some good stuff). and. The wire is suitable for GTAW. copper. since the weld metal is very hard. lead. EXX15 type electrodes have no extra iron powder in the coating like EXX18 electrodes. therefore. Since P/T-91 is modified with vanadium. the only FCAW wire that consistently provides more than 20 Ft-lbs absorbed energy at 70°F is Metrode·s Supercore F91. it will crack quite easily. therefore. For SMAW. GMAW and SAW (with a suitable flux. Tramp residual elements in this steel. and keep in mind that one batch of electrodes from a manufacturer may crack and another batch not crack. it is highly recommended that filler metals be purchased with test reports . Stay away from E9018B9 electrodes when welding Grade 91 steels unless the supplier can guarantee that the weld metal has low tramp residuals. If you routinely get crater cracks (also known as ´solidification anomaliesµ and ´rogue weld metal·).Development of Grade 91 began in 1978 by Oak Ridge National Labs for the breeder reactor and further developed by other researchers since then.com. Look carefully for crater cracks. Lincoln 882. eliminating one source of contaminants. The performance of Grade 91 welds depends entirely on having the correct chemical analysis in the weld metal.euroweld. nickel. Welding Grade 91 using FCAW requires even more care since many FCAW wires do not provide adequate toughness at 70°F (the lowest hydrostatic test temperature permitted by ASME). antimony and other elements will segregate to the grain boundaries during solidification of the weld. such as phosphorous. E9015-B9 electrodes are preferred. aluminum. such as Lincoln MIL800H. it develops very high hardness. sulfur. The above electrodes and filler metals are available from stock at Euroweld at 1-704-662-3993 or www.

the Mf temperature is above 212°F.. This is truly a very low hydrogen electrode ² exactly what is best for welding highly-hardenable steel like Grade 91. Manganese and nickel depress the lower transformation temperature.showing actual chemical analysis for the specific heat/lot combination that one has purchased. the sum of Mn + Ni should not exceed 1. narrowing the range in which heat treatment can be done safely. In addition. varying some with the grain size. this will result in hard. (although slightly lower Niobium can be accepted with flux cored wire since titanium is an effective substitute for Niobium) and a minimum nitrogen of 0. The ´H4µ designation indicates that the electrode exhibits less than 4 ml of hydrogen per 100 grams of weld metal. SAW wire/flux combinations and FCAW wire should be ordered with ´-H4µ designations also. Since this is a highly-hardenable alloy. If this is not done. In addition. A range of 400 to 550rF is recommended.09%. After welding is completed. In addition. it is subject to hydrogen cracking. Purchase of E9015-B9-H4 electrode is recommended. brittle welds. the joint should be allowed to cool slowly to at least 200°F after welding is completed to be sure that all the austenite has been transformed to martensite prior to postweld heat treatment (PWHT). although FCAW wire may not be available except as H-8. Preheat and interpass temperature are very important. increasing the possibility of retained austenite after PWHT. there is risk of martensite formation after PWHT. it is recommended that the electrodes be stored in heated portable rod boxes at the welding location rather than just distributed in the normal fashion. For the metallurgists out there. When using SAW. the transformation temperature drops below 1450ºF. a basic flux is preferred since other flux types will burn out carbon and permit elevated oxygen and nitrogen levels reducing the strength and toughness of the weld metal.03%. Even with diffusible hydrogen control of the electrodes. a minimum carbon content of 0.5%. . the Mf temperature goes down. a minimum niobium content of 0.02% should be specified to ensure adequate creep strength in the weld metal. and as it exceeds 1.5%.

for excellent direction on locating and attachment of thermocouples. narrow beads tend to crack. After PWHT. postweld baking. PWHT. Finally. etc. a long time at temperature PWHT temperature is necessary to form the required weld structure. When performing hardness tests. The lower transformation temperature can be as low as 1450°F. to ensure adequate toughness during hydrostatic testing and to ensure adequate service life. Since a wide. for SMAW and FCAW to promote tempering of previous passes. Since the base metal may have a layer of decaraburization on the surface. if this temperature is exceeded during PWHT. about 1/32 inch . postweld heat treatment is required for Grade 91 steels. particularly with SAW. Concave beads should also be avoided. not to give them a hard time. it is important to prepare the surface properly.The welding technique is also important. Even on small superheater tubes. and such joints should either be replaced or the part should be normalized and tempered. Do not perform hardness tests that will leave deep impressions in the surface of thin tubes. the extent of insulation needed. particularly for HAZ readings. a slight weave technique and high travel speed should be specified. SMAW and SAW weld metal will exhibit higher hardness when compared to GTAW and FCAW. heating coils arrangement. Ropy beads are bad since tall. etc) is going to be done. the weld should be allowed to cool to below 200°F followed by reheat treating or the condition of the joints should be evaluated by hardness testing. Hardness up to 300 Brinnell may be accepted. Hardness below 175 indicates overheating of the joint. regardless of what construction codes may permit. Bead thickness should not exceed 1/8 in. The holding range should be 1375 to 1425rF for a minimum of 2 hours. Recommended Practice for Local Heating of Welds in Piping and Tubing. if local heating (preheat. the weld hardness should be in the range of 200 to 275. but any hardness over 300 is an indication of inadequate PWHT. Refer to AWS D10. flat bead is best. These conditions of welding should specified in the WPS to provide correct guidance to welders.10. Be sure that your welders have been trained regarding these special requirements and that they comply with them.

The media has not been identified as yet. but it does happen. This preparation will also make readings more consistent and should also be followed when measuring the hardness of the weld metal. Pipes that are hot bent should be given a full-furnace normalizing heat treatment at 1900 to 1950°F for 30 minutes per inch of wall thickness. and that should be followed by polishing to a 120 grit finish. Grade 91 can be hot bent using furnace heating or induction heating between 1600 and 2000°F. and it does not happen for several days after the weld has cooled to ambient.of metal should be removed by grinding. air cooled to below 200°F and tempered in the PWHT range of 1375 to 1425°F for 1 hour per inch of thickness. Of specific concern is shop-fabricated This information is provided by Sperko Engineering based on information currently possessed by Sperko Engineering. Sperko Engineering accepts no responsibility for proper application of this information or for any consequential damages associated with application of this information. Another strange phenomenon with Grade 91 is that it is subject to stress-corrosion cracking in the as-welded condition. Cold bent pipe should be given a stress-relieving heat treatment at the above tempering temperature for 15 minutes per inch of wall thickness. but the low end of this range is preferred. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful