An Inconvenient Past



An Inconvenient Past: Post-Communist Holocaust Memorializationl
Jeffrey Blutinger California State University at Long Beach This article examines the difficulties faced by three Eastern European countries in commemorating the Holocaust in the post-Communist era. Since 1989, many of these countries have sought to fashion new national identities by looking to their pre-Communist past. In the case of Slovakia and Hungary however, their pre-Communist predecessors were Nazi allies, and while Poland never collaborated with Nazi Germany, the Home Army had a difficult and complicated relationship with Jews and Jewish underground organizations. I identify three basic approaches taken by these countries' memorials regarding the fate of their Jewish communities during the war: aphasia (an unwillingness to speak about the Holocaust),"deflective negationism" (shifting blame to others), and finally, an open examination of the Holocaust. In February 1999, just months after the fall of the Berlin Wall, members of the local Association of Home Army Soldiers in Krakow decided to liberate their own past. They entered what had been the Lenin Museum, removed all the displays on Lenin and the October Revolution, and set up their own exhibit on the Armia Krajova,the Home Army. Forty-five years after their heroic struggle for Polish independence was crushed by the combined forces of Hitler and Stalin, and after decades of official propaganda describing the Home

'An early and abbreviated version of this paper was presented at the WesternJewish Studies Association conference at Loyola Marymount University inLos Angeles in April 2008. Vol. 29, No. I * 2010

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Jeffrey Blutinger

Army as a reactionary and oppressive force, a museum dedicated to the leading Polish World War II resistance movement was finally opened in Poland. "Theformer soldiers who created these exhibits were not trained in historiography or theories of commemoration; they simply wanted to recover a past that had been officially forgotten and to celebrate a national rebirth by remembering their great struggle. The question they faced was which parts of the national past should be remembered and which should be forgotten. Specifically: to what extent should the Holocaust, and the role of Poles and the Home Army in the Holocaust, be included in the museum's exhibits? The problems faced by these former Polish Home Army soldiers were not unique; across Eastern Europe, the new governments that emerged in the years following 1989 faced the difficult task of creating new post-Communist national identities. As with the creators of the Home Army Museum in Krakow, many countries looked back to the pre-Communist states that existed before Soviet occupation as a potential source of a renewed national identity. But as with the Krakow museum, this attempt to restore a national self through identification with the historical past raised serious problems regarding memorialization of the Holocaust. This is because any discussion of the Holocaust often raises difficult questions of how the pre-Communist state treated their Jewish citizens before, durin& and even after the war years. In many cases, the pre-Communist predecessors were Nazi allies who actively collaborated in the spoliation, enslavement, deportation, and murder of their Jewish population. Thus, attempts to memorialize the Holocaust call into serious question the moral fitness of these pre-Communist states to serve as models for their new post-Communist successors. As a result, how a country chooses to memorialize (or forget) the Holocaust says as much, if not more, about how the organizers of the museum or memorial see their national present as it does about how they remember their national past. One of the reasons that this problem has only emerged since 1989 is that under Communist rule, the Soviet Union was typically depicted as the primary victim of Nazi aggression, and those imprisoned, tortured, and murdered in the concentration camp system were usually described as opponents of fascism, and rarely, if ever, as Jews. Two examples, one from Poland, the other from East Germany, should suffice. In 1964, the Polish government erected a memorial on the site of the Plaszow Slave Labor Camp. The camp had been placed on top of the Krakow Jewish cemetery, and while some Polish Catholics were imprisoned there, most of the inmates were Jews. The monument has five enormous abstract figures carved from stone, their heads bowed from the burdens of enslavement, and a large horizontal crack partially severing their Journalof Jewish Studies Shofar * An Interdisciplinary

"The original text at Auschwitz-Birkenau stated. 2005].'Institutionalization of Memory: From BeIzec to a Paradigm' paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. set up by the local Krakow Jewish community. In memory of the murdered. The Texture of Memory: HolocaustMemorials and Meaning [New Haven: Yale University Press. all-caps lettering for the word "Jews" constitutes an angry rejoinder to the enforced silence embodied in its larger. 1993]. In Polish on one side and Hebrew on the other. whose final scream of despair is the silence of this Plaszow cemetery. The human tongue does not know the words to describe the hideousness of this crime. I * 2010 2 . We do not know the names of the murdered. Wben Hope Prevails:71e PersonalTriumph of a Holocaust Survivor (Livonia: First Page Publications. Here in this place. its incredible bestiality. Montreal. 10 August 2006. many of these Communist-era monuments in Poland have been amended or replaced. the JEWS. The text on the reverse side refers to the 'martyrs murdered in the Hitlerite genocide in the years 1943-45. but more ambiguous neighbor. Quebec. one can find similar examples at other Holocaust sites. and cruelty. and were tortured. exterminated. the survivors of this fascist pogrom. more Jewishly specific monument was first erected.html). In Plaszow. Sam Offen. and incinerated.allacademic. such as the original memorials set up at Auschwitz-Birkenau and BeIzec."In memory of the victims of Hitler's terror murdered from 1942 to 1943* (Susanne Bleiberg Seperson. in the years 1943-1945. the original memorial stilf stands but has now been supplemented by a smaller. The original text at Belzec stated. however. It is not dear when the smaller. online PDF. several tens of thousands of Jews were brought from Poland and Hungary. its text states Here in this place. The version standing at that time does not appear to have included the index. "Four million people suffered and died here at the hands of the Nazi murderers between the years 1940 and 1945* (James E. 29. described what appears to be an earlier version of the text of the monument when he visited the site in 1985. We shall name them with one word:JEWS. Young. 141).An Inconvenient Past * 75 upper bodies. No. 94). p.' Since 1989. We shall name it with one word: HITLERISM.3 The use of large. 3 Observed by the author in July 2006. we pay homage. The omission or minimalization of the Jewish victims was typical of Polish Communist-era memorials. Canada. ruthlessness. a survivor of Ptasz6w. eliding the fact that most of those murdered there were Jewish. 2008-06-27 ht://www. all-cap lettering for "Jews" and"Hitlerism" (Sam Offen. tombstone-shaped plinth. an exceedingly horrible crime was committed. p. Vol.

' in Randolph L. the 'asocial" or JehovahVs witnesses.. JournalofJewish Studies Shofar 4 An Interdisciplinary . ed. But the ability to create new. the government placed a statue of a Soviet soldier liberating imprisoned freedom fighters. quoted in Uhrike Kopp. see Michael Shafir. 2004). Braham. 7be Treatmentof the Hoocaustin Hungaryand Romania Duringthe Post." In fact.' As of 2007. the new states that emerged were free to create more inclusive memorials and museums.76* Jeffrey Blutinger T"he monument erected by the East German government in 1961 at the Sachsenhausen Concentration camp represents a slightly different way memory of the Holocaust was suppressed under Communism. and the artist was asked to make the prisoners not appear so weak and helpless. the East German government erected a monument at the camp that celebrated the role of the Soviet army in liberating the camps and defeating Nazism.4 In front of the memorial. ed. more historically accurate accounts did not mean that such memorials were actually built An examination of memorial sites in Poland. gay men. but the audio tour provided by the museum counters its silences by analyzing its history and omissions. the original Communist-era memorial still stands unchanged. but rather by their countries of origin." p. Slovakia. pp. The Nazis opened Sachsenhausen in 1936. 1996). With the end of Communism. and Hungary reveals three basic approaches taken by governments since 1989 to address their war-time Jewish pasts: aphasia (either a total or partial unwill- 4 For other examples of what has been referred to as"organized forgettingj by Commu- nist governments.'Die Projektierung der Gedenkstirte Sachsenhausen. 4 5. tens of thousands of Russian POWs were imprisoned there. 225.CommunistEra (New YorkL Columbia University Press. thereby omitting Jews from the ist. depicting "the victory over fascism. victim groups were listed. Von der Erinnerung zum Monument: Die Enstebungsga d)ick der Nationaken Malm. large numbers of Jews were also sent to the camp.und Gedenkstftte Sacbsenbausen (Berlin: Edition Hentrich. p. 5 Letter from Rudi Wunderlich (1958). not according to the reasons for their imprisonment. one of the organizers of the Sachsenhausen Memorial committee. 6Kopp. and during the war. In 1961." in Gainter Morsch. "Die Projektierung der Gedenksatte Sachsenhausen und die Diskussionen im Wissenschafrlich-Krinstlerischen Beirat beim Ministerium ffir Kulur. After the November pogrom of 1938.54 . and at the beginning&most of the inmates were either political opponents of the regime.22 5.. As on many other memorials from this period. "Between Denial and 'Comparative Trivializatiori: Holocaust Negation in Post-Communist East Central Europe. the original design of the statue was rejected because it depicted the liberated prisoners too realistically-1as some sort of wretched figures"-instead of the resistance fighters the commitree requested.

In fact. negating the Holocaust. I + 2010 . 1. In 1992. Not only does the museum not deal with the relationship between the Polish underground and the Jewish underground during the war. in Poland. and set up their own exhibits on the Home Army. the museum even ignores the positive work of the Home Army.Aphasia After the events of the fall of 1989. No. even the presence ofJews in Poland during the war is only hinted at twice in the museum. Yet despite its complete focus on the Second World War in Poland and the struggle against Nazism. and more pro-Soviet. after the building housing this collection was returned to its original owners. in many Eastern European countries there has been a shift over time from the aphasic approach to a greater willingness to confront the past directly.8 As one might expect. either by shifting blame to others or by trivializing it). and fate of the Home Army. members of the local Association of Home Army soldiers entered what was then the Lenin Museum in Krakow.. few Eastern European countries were prepared to face the difficult parts of their national February 1990. the museum is totally devoted to the history. 63-94. deflective negationism77 (Le. Polish textbooks had derided the Home Army in favor of the much smaller. Vol. For example. structure. The first museum to the Home Army was rather ad boc. an open examination of the Holocaust and the role that the local population played in it. 'Observed by the author on a visit to the museum inJuly 2007. or museums to the Home Army. For decades. leadership.'Between " Denial and 'Comparative TrivializationrC pp. with exhibits on weaponry training. The first is a display containing a diagram of the vari- 7Shafir. As we shall see. People's Army (the Armia Ludoua). memories that had been deeply repressed by Communist rule finally f6und their voice. and publications. achievements. there is virtually no mention ofJews in the entire museum. becoming a municipal museum of the city of Krakow in 1997. There are large displays on the organization of the Home Army.An Inconvenient Past * 77 ingness to speak about the Holocaust). removed all the displays of Lenin and the October Revolution. its resistance work. the museum was moved to the former staff quarters of the Austrian army where it remains to this day. memorials. Instead. despite its valiant role in fighting Nazi occupation. 29. there were no official monuments. and its efforts to rally the Polish people against Nazi occupation. and finally.

For example. where Soviet forces stood by and allowed the Germans to raze Warsaw to the ground." and this led to the destruction ofJewish life in Slovakia. The next sentence indicates that most of the few Jews who survived left the country by 1949. is extremely brief. It also contains a special exhibit on the Warsaw'Rising of 1944.78 + Jeffrey Blutinger ous badges worn by prisoners in Nazi concentration camps that includes the Star of David. the Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava. such as the role of some Polish partisan groups in killing Polish Jews. "Observed by the author on a visit to the museum in 2007. 0 " Observed by the author on a visit to the museum in 2007. Instead. it is the frequent destination both for school groups and for foreign tourists who visit Slovakiais capital. 'the Slovak state emerged under the tutelage of Berlin. The museum's description of the Holocaust. the museum displays complete aphasia regarding the genocide of the Jews that the Nazis carried out in Poland. there is a special exhibit on the KatyA massacres of 1940. featuring prominent Slovakian rabbis who were murdered. Located in the former Jewish district. the antisemitism that swept through the region in the 1930s was the result of 'national tensions between Czechs and Slovaks: After the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in 1939.V° Other than these two oblique references. the museum also has a small Holocaust memorial. various Jewish religious and cultural items returned to Slovakia from the Jewish Museum in Prague. so one should not be surprised that it omits discussion of difficult topics. displays partial aphasia." which indicate the 'ruins of the ghetto. however.1' The aphasia 'The revolt of 1944 is referred to as the'Warsaw 'Rising' to avoid confusion with the more well-known Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943. This museum constitutes one of the first efforts to counter these decades of silence. In addition to the interior of a synagogue." by blanking out streets destroyed in the ghetto uprising of 1943. If the Home Army Museum in Krakow is an example of complete aphasia. the museum focuses particularly on the Soviet role in Polish suffering during the war. when thousands of Polish Army POWs were killed by Soviet forces. were either completely or partially suppressed by the Polish Communist government. Both events. Journalof Jewish Studies Shofar * An Interdisciplinary . According to the text displayed in the museum. a display on Jewish publishin& and exhibits on both the Jewish life cycle and the yearly holiday cycle. It includes material on the history of the Jews of Slovakia. Slovakia. so critical to the Polish experience of the Second World War. The second are the various maps showing the stages of the Warsaw 'Rising of 1944.

Vol. Anti-Semitism in Slovak Politics. 29. In fact. since it has always been a corrupting element in Slovakia and the most important vehicle of Marxist and liberalistic ideas. trans. fewer than 17. 1 * 2010 . No. 2003). focusing specifically on the Holocaust in Slovakia. the Museum ofJewish Culture opened a new museum in a restored synagogue in the town of Nitra." In September 2005. he sponsored a special month-long exhibit on the Slovakian anti-Jewish laws in the Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava. in 1942. "Melian. it passed a law requiring the deportation ofJews from Slovakia and paid the Nazis 500 RM for each Jew to cover their expenses in shipping them to the death camps. and his paramilitary Hlinka Guards. The Slovak People's Party was strongly fascist and antisemitic. "MMelan. p."Around Slovakia.p. the partial aphasia displayed in his museum is even more curious. the war-time Slovakian state was led Father Jozef Tiso. Anti-Semitism in Slovak Politics (1989-1999).VoL 15 (September 2006).16 Given Megian's strong activism against Holocaust denial in Slovakia. "sSrephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism.000 survived to liberation. the museum's director. and in 2006. Anti-Semitism in Slovak Politics.' 4 In 2004. Dr. "Slovakda 2001-2: in Annual Report (Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University. Out of the 89. In 2000. Tiso stated that he looked forward to the day when 'Jewishness is finally excluded from our national ife. which he published with the financial support of the Slovak Ministry of Culture. The forerunner of the museum was founded in 1991 in what was still Czechoslovakia. Upon coming to power. and Jews from Slovak territory. Martin R." The Slovakian legislature adopted anti-Jewish laws modeled on Nazi legislation.An Inconvenient Past * 79 here is the complete omission of any discussion of bow and why Slovakian Jews died. 31. his fascist Slovak Peoplis Party. has been one of the leading figures in Slovakia fighting for a more open discussion of Slovakiads past and its role in the Holocaust. 9 September 2005. he reorganized the exhibit in Auschwitz on Slovakia's Jews. he wrote a comprehensive study of antisemitism in Slovakian politics since the end of Communism. 2000).000 Jews in Slovakia in 1942. 30. as a 2 1Quoted in Pavol Melfan. What is striking is that despite the omission of this history from its exhibits. 3 Roma." 2 Tiso6s policy of 'Slovakia for the Slovaks" ultimately led to the expulsion of Czechs. Ward and Jo Eliot (Bratislava: Museum ofJewish Culture and Tel-Aviv University. Pavol Meg&n. "6"Slovaida Gets its First Permanent Holocaust Exhibition: AP Worldwide.* The Slovak Spectator.

the following year it became an independent specialized museum affiliated with the Slovak National Museum. dated 7 April 2008. Even today. the argument that it does not matter that the Bratislava museum omits these details since they are covered in the Nitra museum is rather problematic. when the rightwing government that came to power in 1993 was replaced with a more moderate government. The current museum opened in 1993. He answered that our permanent exhibition in Bratislava regarding Tisols government is limited to Jewish laws (signed by (President Jozef] Tiso. the aphasic display is located in the capital city and is often visited by tourists. Mei&ran's assistant wrote the following: I asked Dr. the holocaust has an important place in our museum. and much less seen by visitors to Slovakia. Meftan whether there was a political pressure on our museum in this regard."7 In response to my query if there had been any political pressure on the museum not to go into detail about how and why Slovakian Jews died in the Holocaust. While the Nitra museum represents a welcome supplement. Jeffrey Blutinger.80 + Jeffrey Blutinger Department of Jewish Culture within the Historical Museum of the Slovak National Museum. The Nitra museum was only opened eleven years (and a change of government) after the Bratislava museum. dated 17 March 2008. while the new Holocaust museum is in Nitra. not to go in details on each specific chapter. Jeffrey Blutinger. a small city located an hour and a half away by train. the museumds designers could have expected that visitors would be able to get the missing information there. "E-mail from Michal Vanek. However. The key factor here appears to be the change in the political situation in Slovakia between the time when the Bratislava museum opened and when the Nitra museum opened. Museum of Jewish Culture to Dr. the year Slovakia separated from the Czech Republic.'s While this is a clear denial from Melin of any political pressure on him to suppress references to Tiso and his fascist state. Journalof Jewish Studies Shofar * An Interdisciplinary . (Prime Minister Vojtech] Tuka. Museum of Jewish Culture to Dr. 'VE-mail from Michal Vanek. and [Hlinka Guard Commander Alexander] Mach) due to an intention to describe history of SlovakJewry in general (including every important part such as Jewish life. it is hard to believe that when the Bratislava museum was opened. and. with the turning point being 1998. religion and the memory of holocaust). and it isbeing described in detail (including Tiso's role and criticism ofhis politics towards Jews) in our exhibition in Nitra synagogue dedicated specifically to holocaust.

2Meian. Vojtech Tuka.2 One of the participants in this conference.22 This whitewashing of the war-time past was not limited to a few plaques." p. A5. the book idealized the Tiso state and was published with the support of the Slovak Education Ministry in late 1996.'War Criminal Gets Slovak Memorial. Prague." CTK News Agency. members of the far right-wing Slovak People's Party (which took its name from the same fascist party that had governed war-time Slovakia). after widespread protests. and a few months later a statue of Tiso was unveiled in Cajakovce. the president of what was still Czechoslovakia. 80-89. there was a concerted campaign in Slovakia to rehabilitate Father Tiso and the first Slovakian Republic. that in fact he tried to rescue Slovakian Jews.20 Although Vaclav Havel.' New York Times. 25 April 1997 (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts). later wrote the textbook on Slovakian history for use in elementary schools.An Inconvenient Past * 81 At the time when the Bratislava museum exhibit was prepared. At a conference on Tiso in 1992. Milan Stanislav 1burica. The inscription compared him to Svatopluk. However. In July 1990. 1 The following year. 21 Kamm. support" ers of Tiso installed a commemorative plaque on the home in which he was born. contrary to the historical evidence. n'Jews Criticize Cardinal For Serving Mass For World War 11 Criminal" CTK News Agency. 19 June 1997 (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts). New York Times. 22 July 1990. several participants argued." daiming that Tiso"served as a brake against greater Germanization. CardinalJan Chryzostom Korec led a memorial service for Tiso on the fiftieth anniversary of his death. Entitled Sloyak Historyfor Slovaks. "2'Henry Kamm.A5. that Tiso was not guilty of organizing the mass murder of Slovakian Jews through deportation to the death camps. Prague. L9. the plaque was first covered and then removed. 3 December 1991.pp."2' In April 1997. p. along with the support of the leadership council of the Christian Democratic Movement. Anti-Semitism in Slovak Politics. put up a plaque honoring Tiso on the walls of the teachersd college he had founded. several Slovak scholars tried to repackage Slovakian history to dear Tiso and the Slovak state. Vol. No.24 The book ""Plaque to Fascist Unnerves Slovaks. 29. objected to the honoring of a war criminal. 1 * 2010 . p. and that the main guilt for the extermination should fall on the Nazis and Tisols prime minister. a ninth-century prince who established a small empire in what would eventually become Slovakia. 'Jews Angry at Ruling Movement's Approval of Book Idealizing Pro-Nazi War State."War Criminal Gets Slovak Memorial. and who is seen by some Slovak nationalists as the putative father of the country. the Slovak prime minister thought that Tiso's war-time actions required"further study.

Slovakia be- "sPeter Smith. In 1997. 2'Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism. It is the same as a house. Rudolf Shuster. 2Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism. "Dr." In 2005. "3StephenRoth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Report (1998). members of the Slovak parliament debated whether the war-time state was actually fascist. and the Education Ministry strongly supported teaching about the Holocaust in Slovakia. a member of the Slovak National Party. the day in 1941 when war-time Slovakia adopted its anti-Jewish laws. 10 February 1999. "Disputes Over How to Treat Nazi Regime Still Haunt Slovak Schools: Prague Past. arguing that Tiso only did what he did because he was pressured. the Slovak National Party appealed to Slovaks to'honor the memory" ofTiso. which was one of the three parties that made up the governing coalition. Jozef Prokes."' In 2000. "Slovakia: Annual Report (Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University. -'7imeaSpickova." and claimed that conditions in Jewish labor camps were "dose to the normal living conditions of the Slovak people. "Disputes Over How to Teach Nazi Regime Still Haunt Slovak Schools. and described him asla great son of the church and the nation:2 MAs official support for the rehabilitation of Tiso only came to an end after the elections of 1998."2 In May 1995.JozefTiso decided to solve the Jewish question in conformity with Christian moral principles. b)urica's textbook was withdrawn from'Slovakian schools. "2Smith. While far-right groups continue to agitate on behalf of Tiso and his fascist state. participated in the Stockholm Forum on the Holocaust and then later traveled to Israel and visited Yad Vashem. a house cannot be fascist.82 * Jeffrey Blutinger blamed the deportation and massacre of SlovakianJews on Tisds deputies and 5 emphasized the positive aspects of the fascist state." Ann." PraguePost. the political situation has significantly changed. 1998). the new Slovakian president. argued that "a state cannot be fascist. partly in response to the efforts by fascist groups to put up plaques in Tis's honor. 10 February 1999. "Slovakia. 2001). "Slovakia 2000-1" Annual Report (Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University."• Several Slovakian Catholic officials supported the effort to rehabilitate Tiso and the Slovak state.25 According to b urica. to be a memorial day to victims of the Holocaust and racist violence."Father Tisds Rehabilitation Sparks Slovak Dispute. Shofar * An Interdisciplinary Journalof Jewish Studies . 10 May 1995. Shuster also helped enact a law declaring September 9.' Prague Post.

Deflecting Negationism If the early response of many post-Communist governments was aphasic. The entry way features identically sized symbols of the Arrow Cross and the Hungarian Communist Party and the promotional materials for the museum feature both images equally. recounts the various calamities that befell Hungary after the end of the First World War: the"tragedy of Trianon7 the 1920 treaty under which Hungary lost two-thirds of its territory. the heavy losses suffered on Hungarian soldiers during their participation in the invasion of the Soviet Union (which was sparked. and the occupation of Hungary by both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1944.32 Admiral Mild6s Horthy.I * 2010 11 "Stephen . Me1tan not only published his book on antisemitism in post-Communist Slovakia. "Slovakia 2006. organized a series of new museum exhibits on the Holocaust in Slovakia. the murder of the Jews of Hungary. displays all three of these techniques. No. the leader of Hungary from 1919 Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism.' or to trivialize the Holocaust. the next one was to deflect blame away from the war-era government on to others. With government support. after the elections of the 1998. the Holocaust is only mentioned in two and a half rooms in the four-story museum. 2007). Remembrance and Research.An Inconvenient Past * 83 came a member of the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education. 1 Similarly. but as mentioned above. including the new Holocaust museum in Nitra. by bombings by the Soviet air force).7 Annual Report (Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University. the House of Terror Museum provides a handout with an English translation of the principal text at the enVol. however. the museum at first seems to give equal weight to both. either the Germans or a"fringe. on the site of first the headquarters of the Hungarian fascist Arrow Cross party and then the headquarters of the Communist government's secret police. We already saw an example of this type of deflection in lburica's Slovakian textbook mentioned earlier. In fact. it appears that the partial aphasia displayed in Museum of Jewish Culture in Bratislava is simply a vestige from the difficult political climate that existed in Slovakia in the early 1990s when the museum opened. 2. Opened in early 2002. Thus. the museum alleges. as well as reorganizing the Slovakian pavilion in Auschwitz. Meiian became much more active in combating antisemitism and Holocaust denial in Slovakia. The House of Terror Museum in Budapest. labeled "Double Occupation. The opening room. 3 1Ahile almost all the museum's displays are in Hungarian only. and then only in passing. 29.

over 40. the "final solution' took its course with the active co-operation of the Hungarian authorities. June 2007. one might mistakenly conclude that the murder of Hungarian Jews began only with the Nazi occupation of 1944. June 2007. death-camps under the jurisdiction of the Third Reich.402 Jews from country regions were transported to Labour-iLe. In fact. the deportation of Hungarian Jews to AuschwitzBirkenau was coordinated and managed by the Hungarian government. The majority was deported to Auschwitz. were now in direct peril of their lives. ""Double Occupation:" handout provided by the House of Terror Museum. Journalof Jewish Studies Shofar # An Interdisciplinary . As we shall see in greater detail below. The Jews. Almost all of them perished"M The bulk of the text in trance to almost every room in the museum. 1944 the dreaded deportation trains began to roll. The second room. The texts quoted here are from the handouts distributed by the museum to visitors in June 2007.000 Hungarian Jews had already died at the hands of the Hungarian government as members of slave labor battalions sent to the Eastern front. Blame for the persecution and murder of Hungarian Jews is deflected away from Horthy and the Hungarian state and on to the Germans and a local"fringe" element: the Arrow Cross fascist party. members of the infamous Judenkommando-succeeded each other with lightening speed. Measure after measure-time-tested all over Europe by"experts. "Themuseumns description of the Holocaust in Hungary is limited to a few paragraphs. who had already suffered from the restrictions of the Jewish Laws enacted in 1938." From the museum's text. the Horthy government stripped Jews of their rights and seized Jewish men for slave labor. is presented as a noble figure who sought to safeguard Hungary from the twin threats of Hider and Stalin and recover the territories it had lost at Versailles." handout provided by the House of Terror Museum. Terror HIA. and 1941. Budapest. In addition to the anti-Jewish measures referred to in the text but never defined (they were modeled on the Nazi Nuremberg Laws). Within two months 437. 1939. Budapest.84 + Jeffrey Blutinger until October 1944.: which simply states that the new government that came to power in March 1944 "handed over the countryside's Jewish population to the Nazi's murderous racial hatred. Terror HzL. is called "Passage of Hungarian Nazis. 'Passage of Hungarian Nazis. The decree ordering Jews to wear the yellow star was followed by the worst possible scenario: on May 15. reallyjust a short corridor connecting two larger rooms. The most complete is in the first room of the museum: After the Germans occupied Hungary the National Socialist'regulation of the Jewish question.

36 In fact.. eds. in addition to many Hungarian Christians.000 to 10. 36 "An estimated 45. Rosenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies.. the head of the Arrow Cross. 2006). and the Nazi-instigated coup by the Arrow Cross that deposed Horthy in October 1944.An Inconvenient Past * 85 this room is devoted to the struggle for control of Hungary in the summer and fall of 1944. Graduate Center of the City University of New York. the Hungarian Communists killed about 3.000 Jews were killed in Hungary prior to the German 3 occupation of 1944. Braham. 27-28. ed." the museum shows videos of actors changing out of their"Arrow Cross" uniforms and putting on the clothes of the Hungarian Communist Party essentially arguing that the former was merely prequel to the latter." in Randolph L. Chamberlin. As SzAlasi's speech is in Hungarian only and no translation is provided. Between April and July 1944. The last reference to the Holocaust is in the third room.000 who died indirectly because of Communist rule (Braham.000 Jews were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Vol."Changing Clothes. twice as many Hungarians were killed by the Arrow Cross than by Hungarian Communists or Soviet forces between 1949 and 1956.000 Jews. 31. one might think it is an example of his antisemitic or fascist beliefs."Hungarian Politics and the Post-1989 Legacy ofthe Holocaust. pp. "NMichael Shafir. labeled'Hungarian Nazis:.000 to 60. n 3. n. The Treatment of the Holocaustin Hungaryand Romania Duringthe Post-CommunistEra (New York. The Holocaust in Hungary: Sixty Years Later(New York: Rosenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies. with perhaps another 9. In fact. No. Braham and Brewster S. p. The Nationalist Drive to Whitewash the Past. this despite the fact that at a minimum. some 437. 31). "Hungary and the Holocaust. Another 20. but one paragraph describes Eichmann's activities in Budapest after the Arrow Cross takeover in October 1944." in Randolph L. This is the only room of the museum devoted to the four-month reign of the Arrow Cross. as well as the establishment of the Budapest ghetto and vague references to shootings and lootings prior to the defeat of the Arrow Cross by Soviet forces (pointedly not using the term "liberation7). in the speech he is calling for a patriotic defense of Budapest against Soviet forces. plays in the background. 2004). The room itself designed to look like a conference room and a speech given by Ferenc Szilasi. in the fifth room of the museum. 1 * 2010 . p. 29. By contrast. Graduate Center of the City University of New York. were killed by the Arrow Cross between October 1944 and January 1945. 35 Most of the text provided to museum visitors concerns the government and actions of the Arrow Cross. 277.000 people. The remaining sixteen rooms of the museum are devoted to the sufferings of Hungary under Communist rule.

The reburial of Imrte Nagy in 1989 was followed by the reburial of Admirial Horthy in 1993. the center-right FIDESZ party won the parliamentary elections. This trivialization was not accidental.' One member of the Auschwitz planning committee who continued to work on this subject was Miria Schmidt. 11. the exhibit downplayed Hungarian antisemitism in favor of more positive depictions of cultural symbiosis. his model for how to lead Hungary was Pil Teleki." p. who had been prime minister during the interwar period. Schmidt gave a speech to a right-wing political party in which she said that 37 Shafir. one of the most troubling aspects of the museum: its comparative trivialization of the Holocaust. Shofar # An Interdisciplinary Journalof Jewish Studies . and it referred to the antisemitic laws of the interwar period as part of the European "Zeitgeist. became prime minister.17 In addition to pursuing a policy of trying to recover Hungarian territory lost at the Trianon. helped draft the First Anti-Jewish Law of 1938-39." Ha'arez." p. As in Slovakia. and then significantly tightened the definition of Jew during his second stint as prime minister between 1939 and 1941. Orbln1s chief counselor. 264. unanimously rejected them on the grounds that the text of the new pavilion (a) basically falsified the history of the Jews in Hungary in general and the Holocaust era in particular and (b) appeared to have a political objective: the rehabilitation of the Horthy era by transferring almost all responsibility for whatever crimes were committed in Hungary almost exclusively to the Nazis.' Upon becoming prime minister in 1998. Teleki also introduced the first numerus clauses in post-war Europe in 1920. however."Weeks End: In the Spirit of the Zeitgeist."Hungarian Politics. it underlay the history of this museum and its leadership. 3 "Randolph L. After the scandal broke about the proposed revisions to the Auschwitz pavilion. and its leader. Outside experts brought in to review the proposed changes."The Ministry of Cultural Heritage was forced to shelve these plans after the criticism of them became public." In addition.'Hungarian Politics. "Shaflr. Braham. He began with the Hungarian pavilion at Auschwitz. Viktor Orbin. 259. which dated from the Communist era.7 January 2000."Hungary and the Holocaust:' p. The existing plans to update the pavilion were scrapped in favor of a more radical reworking. there has been a concerted effort in Hungary to rehabilitate the country's war-time leadership. In 1998. 4OYehuda Lahav. Orbin began a policy of reconstructing Hungary's historical past.86 # Jeffrey Blutinger And this is perhaps. According to Orbin.

" p. but also to the genocide committed by the Communists.An Inconvenient Past + 87 "World War II was not about the Jews or genocide" and said that the extermination or rescue of the Jews"was a secondary issue-we may even call it a marginal one-which did not feature among the war aims of either side in the conflict:' 4' Schmidt also argued that the term "holocaust" should apply not only to the extermination of the Jews during World War II. 43 Shafir. 275.'Hungary and the Holocaust. Schmidt gave an interview to the InternationalHerald Tribune where 41 Lahav. Schmidt was'shouted down" after she tried to prove that the post-war Communist government was more oppressive than the pro-Nazi government that oversaw the mass deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau. 40.'Hungarian Politics. 1 * Institute for the Study ofContemporary Antisemitism and Racism. and it opened in February 2002. 42 Shafir. The House of Terror museum has been controversial from the beginning." p. Schmidt argued that in many countries. all of whom were executed for their involvement in the deportations and murder of Hungarian Jews. 42 While the Orbin government had agreed to fund the creation of a Holocaust museum to be part of a reconstructed synagogue in Budapest. and she condemned the lack of focus on Communist crimes." p."Week's End: In the Spirit of the Zeitgeist. see also Stephen Roth Annual Report (Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University 2001).33. Not only does this museum absolve the Hungarian state for the crimes of the Horthy regime. Vol. 4 'Braham. Shafir.27 5. n.'Hungarian Politics. 29. No. The House of Terror museum is the fruition of the work that began on the Auschwitz pavilion project. 277. just prior to the parliamentary elections scheduled for April. n. 39. "44Braham.' p. appear later in the museum as victims of Communist atrocities (this despite the fact that they were put to death prior to the 3 4 Communist takeover). the photographs of Ferenc SzAlasi. Communism claimed more victims than the Holocaust." Ha4aretz."Hungaryand the Holocaust. Schmidt was made its general director." p. his deputy. it even subtly whitewashes the Szilasi government as well Although the museum describes the Arrow Cross as Hungarian Nazis. At a conference in London."Hungarian Politics. it instead focused its efforts on creating the House of Terror museum."Hungary 1999-20007' 2010 . 45 After the museum opened.33.44 This was not a new position for her. In response to charges that the museum puts too much emphasis on the crimes of Communism and not enough on the Holocaust. and two other Arrow Cross officials.

'Stark History: Some See a Stunt: Memory Becomes Battleground in Budapestes House of Terror. The opening room of the museum describes the history of the Jews and Roma in Hungary.Gy6rgy NovAi.47 While the Orbin government originally agreed to open such a museum by early 2002. the permanent exhibition did not open until February 2006 (Adam LeBor. 21 April 2006. 12. the House of Terror was part of the reelection strategy of the Orbin government.*Budapest's Holocaust Museum Offers Ethereal Journey. 5 . this new museum confronts Hungary's difficult past directly. 2006). Unlike the House of Terror."Hungary and the Holocaust. wLiszl6 Karsai."46 One of the reasons given by Schmidt for the lack of material on the Holocaust in the House of Terror museum was that"this will be the task of the future Holocaust museum. opened in Budapest in 2004. and ZokAn Vigi.' marks a shift to a much more open examination of the persecution ofJews and Roma in Hungary before and during World War II. most of the funding for it was shifted to the House of Terror museum instead.4 As noted above. but then only singled out the Communists for examination: "Finally. International Herald Tribune. 4 'While the memorial opened in April 2004. 2 August 2002."50 This theme 6 "4Mhomas Fuller. unlike the House of Terror. According to the museum.'Hungary and the Holocaust" p. "¢Braham. "Forward. p. 13 April 2004. Gdbor K&UAr. on the 60' anniversary of the ghettoization of Hungarian Jewry. The construction of a new museum concerning the Holocaust in Hungary was taken up by the Socialist government that won the April 2002 elections. Liz Szabo."Holocaust Memorial Opens as Hungary Faces Up to Past: 7e Times [London]. we can say this out loud: The Communist regime was inhuman." in From Deprivation of Rbs to Genocide. where signs are in Hungarian only. which systematically negates the Holocaust through deflection and trivialization. (Budapest: Hungarian National Museum-Holocaust Memorial Center. the Holocaust Memorial Center anticipates an international audience with signs in both Hungarian and English. Shofar * An Interdisciplinary Journalof Jewish Studies . 8D). p. Finally we can teach children the truth.88* Jeffrey Blutinger she explained that the focus of the museum was accountability. Experience is Moving and Haunting" USA Today. p. However. trans.This book is a collection of the main texts and images displayed in the museum. and seems designed as a conscious rebuttal to the House of Terror Museum across town. Open Examination The new Holocaust Memorial Center. 13. "4Braham. "the underlying theme of the exhibition is the relationship between the state and the citizen. 3.

anti-Semitic." chronicles the violence and persecution inflicted on Jews and Roma between 1920 and 1942 by the "right-wing. some live in the countryside. 2 U LWszl6 Karsai.. 18. others in the city.. while some simply broke into and ransacked the sealed homes of deportees:54 The museum expressly states that large segments of Hungarian society realized the benefits of economic discrimination and expropriation of the Hungarian Jewish community. 29." p." The second room. that took Jewish men out of the Hungarian armed forces and sent them to forced labor companies. Various cultural items associated with Jews and Roma are displayed while 1 music from a wedding plays in the background. on the role of individual Hungarians in robbing their fellow citizens.. et aL.. the floor slants suddenly downward.An Inconvenient Past # 89 is developed over the course of the exhibition through stories of nine diverse families and individuals.I * 2010 ."Deprived of Property" in From Deprivation of Rights to Genocide.. labeled"Deprived of Property. the museum focuses on the spoliation of Hungarian Jews after March 1944. et aL. throwing the visitor off balance. et aL. and while most are Jewish. Just as one enters the second room and without any warning. where over 40." in From Deprivation of Rights to Geno- cide. one moves to the third room. with the sound of marching soldiers.." Here. From there. p. Hundreds of thousands of people applied forJewish property. as if to illustrate the way Jews and Roma were thrown off balance by various discriminatory decrees enacted during the interwar period. 16. and.000 died. others are assimilated." The fourth room. "Deprived of Freedom. including the forced military labor service adopted in 1939. et aL. p.20. 4LWszl6 "U Karsai." 1 "5 Based on the author's visits to the museum inJune 2006 and June 2007. nationalist and anticommunist regime ."Deprived of Property."3 After reviewing the early economic restrictions imposed by the Horthy regime. S5 Liszl6 Karsai. labeled "Deprived of Rights. Some are Orthodox. the visitor walks down a darkly lit corridor."Gendarmes often plundered Jews at the railway station. one is Roma. p."Deprived of Rights.11. established under the leadership of Mikl6s Horthy:'" To reach the second room. in particular. Vol. The museum lays out the various anti-Jewish and anti-Roma laws adopted in the 1920s and'30s. "ULszl6 Karsai. No. the museum text explicitly describes the Hungarian government as "an accomplice in the greatest act of robbery in Hungarian history."Deprived of Property. even 5 before the German occupation.

But the main phase of killing took place in a two-month span in the spring of 1944. save the army-that is. with the text stating that"thanks to the effident collaboration of the Hungarian authorities. as well as the efforts of both national and local administrations to hunmiliareJews and Roma.000 Jews from the countryside were deported "ULszI6 Karsai.000 Jews from territories annexed by Hungary. the Holocaust Memorial Center describes how the murder of HungarianJews began well befiare 1944. and all blame for their ghettoization and deportation is deflected to the Germans and their Arrow Cross supporters."5 Simply put.oDeprived of Freedom:"p. in one county. "ULiszl6 Karsai. 30. This includes the killing of tens of thousands ofjewish men in Hungarian forced labor battalions and the deportation in 1941 of some 18. et aL. from cabinet members down to the lowliest clerk of the smallest village-was actively engaged in organizing the despoliation and expulsion of Jews:s7 All this stands in direct contrast to the approach of the House of Terror. Unlike the House of Terror Museum. This includes a discussion of the popular antisemitism of the 1930s. '7LIszI6 Karsai. and deportation of Hungarian Jews without the active assistance of the Hungarian government. The museum exhibition reaches its nadir in the sixth room. "During the spring and summer of 1944. the Germans could not have organized the ghettoization. here the blame is shared by both the Germans and the Hungarians."Deprived of Human Dignity* in From Deprivation of Rights to Genoide. p. p. the entire state apparatus of wartime Hungary. For example."Deprived of Freedom: in From Deprivation of Rights to Genocide. "the local branches of the Red Cross were forbidden to accept blood given by Jews since deputy prefect Liszl6 Endre considered Jewish blood as 'infected' and'filthy" Again. more than 437. "Deprived of Life. Before covering the murder of Hungarian Jews and Roma. expropriation. In contrast to the House of Terror. and states unequivocally that"the collaboration of the [Hungarian] civil administration and law enforcement agencies was the engine of the Hungarian Holocaust. et aL.who were sent to the Ukraine where they were shot on arrival. 31. when most of the Jews of Hungary were sent to Auschwitz. this museum takes pains to counter the effort to deflect blame onto the Germans or only a fringe element.90 * Jeffrey Blutinger examines the various policies that stripped Hungarian Jews and Roma of their dignity. in which the economic persecution of Hungarian Jews is only hinted at. 38." which covers the murder of the Jews and Roma. Shofar * An Interdisciplinary Journalof Jewish Studies . the museum's fifth room deals with their loss of dignity. et aV.

" words that ring hollow in this context. so we wanted the space to be discordant and uneasy" (Adam LeBor. The final two rooms of the museum. 54. for example."Responses. So while. The Times [London].62 Instead of comforting the visitor by shifting blame and guilt for the '9Usz16 Karsai. and then 6 to deport them."You will hear the plea of your servant and your people Israel. 13 April 2004). 67. the Holocaust Memorial Center spokesman.. 2 6Balint Molnar.An Inconvenient Past * 91 between May 15 and July 9 in the fastest deportation operation in the history of the Holocaust. and particularly in its texts." continue the focus on the responsibility of the wider Hungarian society for the suffering ofJews and Roma during the Holocaust. often exceeding what was required of them. Taken as a whole. et aL. in From Deprivation of Ri•gts to Genocide. p. "there were thousands who risked their lives trying to help."Deprived of LW" in From Deprivation offtbis to Genocde.46.."Holocaust Memorial Opens As Hungary Faces Up to Past. 1 * 2010 . No. 29." ' While standing in this last room.p. et aL."76 The text of the museum makes dear. the museum is designed to disturb and unsettle the visitor.*there were many individuals within public administration.' the museum notes. reminding the visitor of all that was lost during the Holocaust. above the ark. in the efforts first to deprive Jews of their rights and property. coming from the memorial room: the restored Pava street synagogue. the visitor hears three sets of sounds. dt al. one can read the synagogue's original Hebrew inscription. from its uneven flooring to its discordant sounds. The third is the distant echo of the melody of prayer."9 This sort of open examination of Hungary's role in the Holocaust is a rebuttal to the deflecting negationism of the more popular House of Terror Museum. how- ever.. . "61L1szl6Karsai. which comes from the opening room of the museum (which is next to the final room). that any rescue by individuals cannot be imputed to the wider society. "Responses. p. There. Vol. While"most of the majority society looked upon the sufferings of their compatriots with indifference. said in an interview that the museum was designed in a way to be intentionallyjarring to the visitor: The Holocaust was an event with no reason."Liberadon and Calling to Account' From Deprivationof Rigbts to Genocide. The first is the video of the liberation of inmates from the camps-the surviving remnant." and "Liberation and Calling to Account. 6'LAszl6 Karsai. The second is the sound of a Jewish wedding. law enforcement agencies and the army who stood up against inhumanity the museum text first notes that'the public administrative apparatus as well as the gendarmerie and police did their best.

with both texts and images. the interactions between Jews and non-Jews in Poland during the war has been the subject of intense and emotional debate. the last surviving member of the Warsaw Ghetto's Jewish Fighting Organization.92 * Jeffrey Blutinger Holocaust onto either the Germans or a fringe. but despite this. the uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto and the annihilation of Polish Jews in Nazi death camps are all covered in detail. Unlike the Home Army Museum in Krakow discussed earlier. Journalof Jewish Studies Shofar * An Interdisciplinary . the Polish government and the Home Army did not collaborate with the Germans. however. and deporting another 700.000 from the city. the museum states that the Nazis executed anyone helpingJews. the new Museum of the Warsaw 'Rising does not ignore the Holocaust. and then trivializing it through comparison with later oppression of the Communist period. an enraged Hider ordered Warsaw to be wiped off the map. "many brave Poles try to save Jews by offering them food and shelter. the persecution of Polish Jews. the Germans leveled Warsaw to the ground. and Poles were subjected to a slow-moving genocide designed to reduce them to enslavement." But the text then goes on to add that"unfortunately. there are others who blackmailJews or hand them over to the Germanse (observed by the author on visits to the museum in June 2006 and July 2007). It is this very difficult subject that the museum addresses openly. Another example of open examination is the new Museum of the Warsaw 'Rising. After the Poles successfully pushed out German forces. this museum commemorates the heroic fight of the Home Army to liberate Warsaw from Nazi Germany in August 1944. many to camps. Opened in 2006. the museum does not shy away from some of the more difficwlt aspects of Poland's war-time history regarding Jews. who describes (in Polish with English subtides) what happened when he and other Jews sought to join the Home Army during the 'Rising: 3 "'In its discussion of conditions in the Warsaw Ghetto. Poland was under an extremely harsh military occupation.63 More significantly. the Holocaust Memorial Center openly examines the Hungarian past. and while the Soviet army sat and watched across the river. It took sixty years and the fall of Communism for a memorial to the city's destruction to be erected in Warsaw. stripping away the veneer left by those who would whitewash it. a monitor displays an interview with Marek Edelman.000 civilians. killing as many as 200. their ghettoization. particularly the charge of antisemitism in the Home Army. In a section on Jews in the Warsaw 'Rising. In contrast to the situation in Slovakia or Hungary. before Soviet forces could take over and impose a pro-Soviet government. However.

the inclusion of Edelmanrs critical testimony. 29."you should go where you are welcome and not where you are not welcome. 1 * 2010 . What was he doing. In spite of dismissal from work he continued his scientific activity."No. At the same time. No.An Inconvenient Past * 93 On the first day." Edelman then described how Jews liberated from the camps in Warsaw were weak and frail. but no one would give them weapons. in a museum organized around celebrating the Home Army and commemorating the terrible sacrifices of Poles in the destruction of Warsaw.* he said. with black hair of a Jew? So they shot him in the courtyard. unlike "4Observed by the author on visits to the museum inJune 2006 and July 2007. states that"Polish Jews who were saved from exter- mination and hid in Warsaw join [sic) the Rising. It not only describes his combat in both the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 and the Warsaw'Rising of 1944. the museum provides information on him for the visitor." He is interned during the Martial Law. Kaminski came and said"you're still here? Do you want to join the Rising?" and we said"yes. Furthermore. "An adjacent wall plaque. the persecution of Edelman by the Polish government after the war parallels the persecution of Home Army members after the war. it also recounts his experience in Poland after the war. "66Observedby the author in July 2007.7 Where should we go? So we went to the People!s Army. and were used to dear away unexploded shells. but the Communists welcomed us. noting that [h]e got persecuted under pressure from the waves of anti-Semitic purges 19671968.% The museum here is creating a series of interesting connections. Most important. Edelman's story links the Polish wartime resistance to the rise of the Solidarity movement. though. a civilian with a gun. Jews were killed by Polish participants in the'Rising. Since 1980 he is a member of the board of the L6d&region'Solidarity. They were small and weak. On the second day. You should join a group that will take you. This museum is not afraid to admit that some Home Army members disliked Jews and opposed their participation in the'Rising&and that in at least in the case discussed by Edelman. All grammatical errors are in the original Vol. with forged ID papers."s In a pull-out drawer beneath the monitor with Edelman's account. On the one hand. Jurek went outside and was stopped. Since 1976 he is connected with the Workersi Reform Committee (KOR). through his continuing activism. is a sign of Polish self-confidence in being willing to examine unpleasant aspects of their own past. however. A large number-among them insurgents from the Warsaw Ghetto-join the Home Army" (observed by the author in July 2007). a remarkable inclusion in such a museum.

there has been a marked movement towards greater openness and willingness to examine the war-time behavior of the preCommunist states. Shofar * An Interdisciplinary Journalof Jewish Studies . "The former Home Army soldiers who set up the first museum in 1999 exemplify an early approach to how post-Communist societies have confronted or avoided the treatment ofJews in their countries during the Holocaust. Yet over time. it does bode well for the future of Holocaust memorialization in Central Eastern Europe. other. in part. Poland. in all three countries we find that early memorials and museums either avoid discussing the Holocaust or negate it by deflecting blame onto either the Germans or a 'fringe element. or the Museum of the Warsaw 'Rising in Warsaw. these countries are beginning the process of confronting their difficult pasts. tied to the relative decline in influence of right-wing nationalist parties (at least in Slovakia and Hungary). the Holocaust Memorial Center in Budapest. and Hungarians looked back to pre-Communist national leaders and institutions as a source of a renewed national identity. Slovaks. As a result. and outside Polish history the Museum of the Warsaw'Rising presents the Polish Jewish past as an inextricable part of the wider Polish past. Many Poles. Whether it is in the new permanent Holocaust exhibition in Nitra. or through comparative trivialization with Communist oppression. which implicitly distinguishes the Jewish experience of the war in Poland as something foreign.94 + Jeffrey Blutinger the Krakow Home Army Museum. Hungary. While this move is also. Siovakia.

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