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Influence of Microstructure & Environment on CO2 Corrosion

Vicky Indrafusa 0806455906 Teknik Metalurgi dan Material FTUI

Introduction
CO2 and H2S gases in combination with water are the main cause of corrosion in oil and gas production. It results from the practice of pumping CO2 saturated water (seawater or fresh water) into wells to enhance oil recovery and reduce the viscosity of the pumped fluid. As field ages, the ratio of water/oil in the produced fluids increases and can reach levels of 95% or higher. increase of the corrosion problems. Approximately 60% of oilfield failures are related to CO2 corrosion. CO2 can produce not only general corrosion but also localized corrosion.

CO2 corrosion basic reactions


Cathodic Reaction

Anodic Reaction

Introduction
Due to these processes, a corrosion layer is formed on the steel surface. Because of its low solubility, FeCO3 precipitates out of solution. The corrosion rate will depend on the properties &

protectiveness of FeCO3 scale. The protectiveness of FeCO3 scale depend on the nature of the base alloy (microstructure, composition) and on the properties of the environment (temperature, pH, CO2 partial pressure, etc.).

Objective
Dari 2 jurnal yang dibahas, akan diamati karakteristik FeCO3 scale terhadap pengaruh dari mikrostruktur base metal dan kondisi lingkungan (pH dan temperatur).

The influence of microstructure of carbon steels in CO2 corrosion

Introduction
The aim of the present work is to discuss the effect of carbon steels J55 Grade microstructure on corrosion resistance performance in CO2 environments. Microstructure material mempengaruhi characteristics of corrosion layers (morphology, thickness and composition) yang terbentuk. Different microstructure is resulted from two different heat treatments (annealing and quench and tempering). The microstructure is considered to have an important effect on how firmly the corrosion scale sticks to the surface. The corrosion layer formed on carbon steel is also composed of cementite (Fe3C).

Experimental
The characterization was made by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The test solution was 5 wt.% of NaCl (analytical-reagent grade), saturated with deoxygenated CO2 at pH 6 and 40oC. Sample J55 Grade for both microstructure (F/P and M) immersed in corrosive media during 144 h, then the tested sample is characterized.

Result and Discussion

Result and Discussion

Result and Discussion

Result and Discussion

Electrochemical

impedance

spectroscopy

(EIS)

and

linear

polarization resistance (LRP) results showed that Q and T samples present higher resistance polarization (Rp) values and, therefore, have a better corrosion resistance than the annealed ones.

Conclusion
The adherence of the scale to the metal depend on the microstructure of the metal specimen. The adherence of the corrosion product film was higher in the quenched samples. From the results, it was concluded that the microstructure of the steel influences the properties of the corrosion layers, such as morphology and proportion of the various chemical compounds present.

The effects of temperature and pH on the characteristics of corrosion product in CO2 corrosion of grade X70 steel

Introduction
Tujuannya mengamati the effects of environmental parameters such as temperature and the in situ pH on the characteristics of iron carbonate lm formed on the CO2 corrosion of grade X70 steel.

Experimental procedures
Samples X70 steel have cylindrical shape with the exposed surface area of 5.4 cm2. The samples polished using SiC papers 60-2000 grit, then degreased in acetone using an ultrasonic cleaning device. The experiments were carried out in a glass cell lled with 2.5 L of deionized water and 3 wt.% NaCl at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 55-850C and pH 5.5-6.5 for 72 h. Before testing, the solution was deoxygenated by purging CO2 for at least 2 h. CO2 purging was continued throughout test. pH was monitored throughout the test and adjusted using NaHCO3 or HCl.

Results and discussion


T = 55oC At 55oC, from XRD pattern, FeCO3 has not formed on any of the samples. 55oC is lower than the threshold temperature for forming FeCO3. At 55oC, from SEM image, shows that no corrosion product lm was formed on the surface of steel.

Results and discussion


T = 65oC From XRD pattern, FeCO3 has formed in all samples. 65oC is equal or higher than the threshold temperature of FeCO3 formation. From SEM image, rhombohedric FeCO3 crystals are precipitated in all samples. The apparent compactness of layer with pH; the highest compactness was seen at pH 6.5. T = 75oC From XRD pattern, show that FeCO3 has precipitated in all pH conditions pH , the number of FeCO3 peaks the amount of FeCO3 Compared to 65oC, at 75oC there are more grains with a compact arrangement in all pH conditions, which formed an apparently dense layer.

Results and discussion


T = 85oC From XRD pattern, it can be seen that the intensities of characteristic peaks of FeCO3 with pH , which shows an increase in the amount of FeCO3. From fig. 9 altering pH from 5.5-6 caused FeCO3 grains to get ner, but changing pH from 6-6.5 did not change the grain size.

Results and discussion


Cross section SEM micrograph The mean thickness of iron carbonate lm was 23 m at 65oC; it increased to 32 m at 75oC and reached 39 m at 85oC.

Conclusion
Growth of FeCO3 lm is due to the interaction of, the corrosion of steel and the precipitation of FeCO3. For the precipitation of FeCO3, the role of temperature is more pronounced than that of pH. According to both XRD and SEM results it could be concluded that the thickness, compactness and amount of FeCO3 layer has increased with increasing pH In CO2 corrosion of grade X70 steel, the threshold temperature for forming FeCO3 layer was 65oC below which no carbonate was detected. At 65oC in the pH range of 5.5-6.5, iron carbonate phase precipitated as an apparently porous layer.

Conclusion (2 journal)
Karakteristik (protectiveness) dari FeCO3 scale dipengaruhi oleh mikrostruktur dari base alloy dan lingkungan (temperature, pH). Increasing pH, will increase thickness, compactness and amount of FeCO3 layer. Corrosion Rate There is threshold temperature for forming FeCO3 layer (scaling temperature), which below this temperature FeCO3 layer doesnt formed. Below scaling temperature (i.e. 65oC), the uniform corrosion rate increases with temperature. Above scaling temperature protective films are formed more easily during increasing temperature. Corrosion Rate