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The study Stability can be grouped into two broad field intact Stability & Damage Stability. Intact Stdability Booklet: A booklet approved by Administration containing sufficient information to enable Master to operate in compliance with “ Code of intact Stability” in various service conditions. Damage Stability Booklet Reg. 25 Ch II – 1 of SOLAS deals with subdivision & damage stability of Cargo Ships. Reg.25-8: Master shall be supplied with such reliable information so as to have raid & simple means to obtain accurate guidance as to stability under varying conditions of service. Information to include 1. 2. 3. 4. Minimum operational GM Vs Draft maximum allowable KG Vs Draft Instructions regarding ‘Cross-flooding Arrangements’. Data & aids necessary to maintain ‘Stability after Damage’ On the bridge following to be available a) Details of W/T compartments b) Closing arrangements/controls c) Control of list due to flooding
Other statutory instruments viz MARPOL. LL rules etc also talk about damage stability & survivability. Reg. 25-1 of SOLAS states, ‘If any ship complies with damage stability requirements of any other instrument (under Organisation) then she need not comply to SOLAS requirements. Annex 1 MARPOL Master of every new oil tanker & in – charge of new self propelled oil tanker to which annex applies should be supplied with a) Data on ability of ship to comply with criteria as determined by this reg. Including the effect of relaxations that may have been allowed under 1 (c). Effect of Damage (bilging): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. loss of buoyancy & hence reserve buoyancy Reduction of freeboard Change in transverse stability (may increase, decrease or remain same). List (development or change in) More exposure to weather & hence more free surface on exposed decks.
Intact condition KB =6/2 = 3m Bm = 1/V = 120x153/12 = 120 x 6 x 15 152 = 3.125 m KG = 4.125 – 4. Loss of longitudinal strength (Loss is more if damage is on DK on Bottom and less when on ship side) Collisions of 3 types High energy – Foundering may be instant or over a period of time Moderate Energy – May allow lot of time to repair.925 M Damage Condition Lost buoyancy = 18 x 15 x 6 = 1620 m3 .2 m GM = 6.125 = 6. assess proceed to port of shelter Low energy –hit by barge.125 m 12 x 6 KM = KB + BM = 3 + 3.2 GM = 1. wharf etc. Lost Buoyancy calculations Box ship 120 m 6m Damage compartment length 18 m Breadth 15 m Vertical extension unrestricted.Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai 6. Where lot of time is available like is Moderate Energy Collisions knowledge of Master regarding “Analysis of Damaged Condition” is most important.
2 m. (4) (Note GM is increased) Real ship to understand let us assume the bilged compartment to be rectangle and amidships.Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai Lost buoyancy . KG = 4. To find KM in final condition KM = KB + KB .. GM = 1..(2) New BM (reduces as WPA is lost) (120-18) x 151/12 120 x 6 x 15 After damage the displacement. U/w intact volume and KG are unchanged BM = 2.529 m………. ( 3 ) KM = (2) + (3) = 6.185 m …. Final W/L Initial W/L KG and underwater volume does not change with damage hence calculate for initial conditions..985 m ……….059 m ….059 m New Draft 7.Sinkage x Intact water plane Singkage = LB = LWPA 1620 (120-18) 15 = 1.656 m ……………. Uniformly damaged and Box vessel KB = draft/2 KB = 3.
532) ………………………… (A) Original u/w vol (11374.3 1b) If 1 = 14m b = 1 g m New draft = g + 1.025 = 13658.5m3 Damaged compartment = 14 x18 x 9.064 /2 = 2284m3 x 4.5 X 4.025) Thus M1 of undamaged intact WPA is found for the new draft. 7 x 8 1 b is lost ) WPA can be found as follows At required draft check TPC from tables WPA = TPC X 100/1.025 The gross u/w vol = 14000 t/1.(B) (A) + (B) – KG = new GM .046m To find BM For new draft 9. Loss of M2 = 14 x 18 3/12 = 6804 m3 New BM = MI of intact area at new draft – 6804 / original vol …………….Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai To find new KB Use GA plan to find volume of lost compartment below water level (original draft) say draft was 8 m LB = 1 x b x 8 = 8 1b ( If permeability is 70% then.5) = 5. New KB = (13658.3 m2 Lost water plane = 1b ( .532m above keel.0654 m say it is = 4.025 Thus if TPC was 22 then WPA = 22 x 100/1.064m check KM from table For new draft check KB from table KM = KB = BM = MI/ Vol at new draft (Displacment/1. Find gross u/w volume (disregarding the damage) as equal to displacement / 1.98) – (2284 X 4.064 m Note KB for draft 9.064 = 9.96 m For new draft find gross underwater volume as follows: Read displacement from tables against new draft.025 = 2146..7 1b if permeability = 70%) Sinkage = LB/ Intact water plane = g 1b / (2146.
. B is moulded breadth & T is true rolling period. 1. f varies between 0. hence loss of BM is more. Virtual loss of GM very high 3. More loss of moment of inertia as the compartment is away from COF. 2. GMT is very low if with small transfer of fluid from one side to other changes the list. Danger of capsizing due to excessive list 2. 3.9.(d measured in fore & aft direction ) V x d/ UW V (intact) = [ BB’ is horizontal shift of b in fore & aft direction ] BB’/GM’ = t/LBP or trim or ‘t’ = BB’ x LBP / GM’ ( thus trimean be found ) Why side (wing) compartment damage is more dangerous than middle compartment damage ? 1. IMPORTANT TIPS TO MASTER Approximate determination of transverse stability without doing detailed calculations. 4. Sine Heel = W x (Velocity in m/s)2 x ( KG – half draft) / 50 Length w –line .7 & 0.Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai To Find Trim Take moments of lost buoyancy wrt new centre of floatation Moment + v x d ………………. . Ship develops excessive heel when a weight is lifted using ship’s gear at an offcentre position or from the wharf. GMO = ( f x B/T )2 ….
Longitudinal: 0.P) B/6 OR 5 M.3L from F.5 m. Vertical Full depth MARPOL Side Damage Longitudinal : 1/3 (L) 2/3 or 14. Transverse : B/3 Vertical : Breach of outer hull 3) Dwt ¸ > 75.5 m. Bottom Damage: 1) Dwt ¸20.5 m.5 m. Transverse: B/3 Vertical : Breach of outer hull Location of cargo tanks is limited beyond the side and bottom damage in Type 1 ship and beyond only the bottom damage in Type 2 ship. (aft of above) Transverse: B/6 or 10 m. IGC CODE Side Damage Longitudinal : 1/3 (L) 2/3 or 14. (0.5 m. 00 tonnes Longitudinal : 1/3 (L)2/3 or 14. (aft) Transverse: B/6 or 10 m.3L from F. Bottom Damage: Longitudinal : 1/3 (L)2/3 or 14.5 m (0.000 < Dwt. Transverse: B/5 or 14.P) 1/3 (L)2/3 OR 5m.000 Ts.5 m (over 0. < 75. Transverse: B/5 or 14.5 m.3L from F.P. Transverse: B/5 or 14. 00o Ts Longitudinal: 0. .Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai TABLE 1 IMO REGULATIONS – EXTENT OF DAMAGE The damage caused is assumed to have following ILLC’66 Side Damage Longitudinal : 1/3 (L) 2/3 or 14.6 L from F.4 L from F. Vertical Full depth IBC. (aft) Vertical : B/15 or 6 m. (aft of above) Vertical : B/15 or 6 m.(IBC) B/15 or 2 m (IGC) 2) 20.P.3L from F.P) B/6 or 5 m. Vertical Full depth Bottom Damage: Not considered.P) 1/3 (L)2/3 or 5m. (over 0.
Hindustan Institute of Maritime Training Chennai TABLE 2 IMO REGULATIONS – SURVIVAL CRITERIA AFTER DAMAGES AS ABOVE SHIP SHOULD HAVE FOLLOWING CRITIERIA Final Water line Angle of Hell: a) Deck edge immersed b) Deck edge not immersed Range of stability Maximum residual arm Area under the curve Intermediate stages of flooding ILLC ‘66 MARPOL.0175 m .radians in the range Required to be satisfied . IBC. 150 170 250 300 > 200 beyond the equilibrium location > 0. IGC Below any opening through which progressive flooding can occur.1 m within the range > 0.