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ENGLISH IN KINETOTHERAPY. A PRACTICAL ENGLISH HANDBOOK
Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine 2004
English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook
THE MAIN PARTS OF THE BODY IMPERATIVE SENTENCES USED IN RELAXATION TRAINING TECHNIQUES PREPOSITIONS
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS USED BEFORE THE VERB TO BE ASKING QUESTIONS
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE DESCRIBING A CERTAIN MUSCLE
EXAMINING THE PACIENT POLYSEMANTIC WORDS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – GREETINGS, IDENTIFICATION AND INTRODUCTORY DIALOGUES
TYPES OF INJURIES PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – PATIENT`S SYMPTOMS AND COMPLAINTS FORMAL AND INFORMAL MEDICAL TERMS
8 ADINA RĂDULESCU UNIT 6 THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – RECOMMENDING DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES UNIT 7 THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES IN HANDLING THE PATIENT PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – POSITIONING AND HANDLING THE PATIENT UNIT 8 MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS AND RECOMMENDING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES UNIT 9 POSTURAL PROBLEMS CONDITIONAL CLAUSES THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – IMPROVING COMMUNICATION UNIT 10 REVISION EXERCISES BIBLIOGRAPHY CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE .
din cadrul Facultăţii de Educaţie Fizică şi Sport a Universităţii Spiru Haret Bucureşti. tehnică. engleza economică. atât anului I cât şi anului II de studiu. În funcţie de specializarea pentru care studenţii optează. ei vor studia. medicală etc. El răspunde unei nevoi reale – aceea de a avea un instrument practic de lucru pentru desfăşurarea activităţii de seminar. . o ramură a englezei medicale – presupune din partea studenţilor un nivel mediu de cunoştiinţe de limba engleză. dintre care amintim: posibilitatea consultării unei bibliografii de specialitate în limba respectivă. eliberat în cadrul Centrului de Limbi Străine al Universităţii Spiru Haret. Manualul de faţă se adresează studenţilor secţiei de Kinetoterapie.English in Kinetotherapy. a unui nivel mediu de cunoştiinţe generale pe domeniul respectiv de specialitate. stăpânirea unor tehnici de muncă individuală şi. de asemenea. Conştientizarea avantajelor pe care le presupune stăpânirea unui limbaj de specialitate într-o limbă străină. juridică. poate cel mai important. în cazul nostru. Studiul limbilor străine aplicate pe un anumit domeniu de specialitate – în cazul nostru fiind vorba de engleza în kinetoterapie. publicarea unor materiale în revistele de specialitate şi. participarea studenţilor la conferinţe internaţionale. posibilitatea de a lucra într-o clinică sau cabinet de profil cu personal şi clienţi străini fie în România fie peste hotare – a constituit motivaţia principală pentru menţinerea interesului studenţilor faţă de această disciplină de studiu şi pentru obţinerea unui certificat de competenţă lingvistică pe specialitatea engleză medicală. A practical English handbook 9 Specificul studierii limbilor străine în cadru universitar este reprezentat de trecerea de la studierea limbii străine la modul general la aprofundarea ei pe diverse domenii de specialitate.
care-şi asociază diverse exerciţii de vocabular. testează capacitatea studenţilor de a se exprima liber şi firesc în limbajul de specialitate asimilat. 2) o selecţie a unor probleme de gramatică a limbii engleze. traduceri de text şi exerciţii de redare selectivă a informaţiei prezentate. exerciţiile de la fiecare sfârşit de Unit – “create your own dialogues”. etc a avut ca intenţie creearea unui cadru „profesionist” de lucru. nu în ultimul rând. Şi. . care completează limbajul formal în care sunt redate textele de specialitate. axându-se pe trei componente principale: 1) un corpus de texte de specialitate. Cu speranţa şi dorinţa că acest manual va răspunde nevoii practice a studenţilor de a aprofunda limba engleză pentru o viitoare practică kinetoterapeutică. într-un context socioprofesional artificial creat în sala de seminar. în conturarea suportului teoretic şi practic al acestui manual. Selectarea acestor texte din diverse materiale – atlase de anatomie. “consider yourself as a kinetotherapist” etc.10 ADINA RĂDULESCU Manualul este structurat pe 10 capitole (Units). având ca scop familiarizarea studenţilor cu utilizarea unui limbaj oral. închei prin a le mulţumi studenţilor din primele generaţii cu care am lucrat pentru ajutorul pe care mi l-au acordat. informal. axate pe tematica fiecărui capitol. precum şi stimularea interesului studenţilor pentru consultarea unor materiale de specialitate în limba engleză. prin consultarea unei bibliografii actualizate în limba engleză. constituind în acelaşi timp un stimulent pentru o perfecţionare permanentă. efectuată în funcţie de criteriul frecvenţei anumitor structuri gramaticale în limbajul medical şi 3) un set de „discursuri” kinetoterapeut-pacient. prin simpla lor participare activă la seminariile de limba engleză. cursuri de kinetoterapie. prin ceea ce în metodica limbii engleze se numeşte “Role playing”.
sirens.English in Kinetotherapy. No telephone can ring for you. Read the following texts containing relaxation techniques and write down the new words: “Trainer’s introduction: ‘This relaxation procedure is one that has been practised for many years now. You may hear sounds around you: voices. You will feel very relaxed and calm as a result. It has been studied by researchers and found to be effective. bangs and revs… think of them as being outside your world. horns.’ . Take one good breath and as you let it out. Create an imaginary bubble… think of the interior as your space… your own private space. about three feet from the centre. Feel how safe it is… safe to get in touch with yourself. With these thoughts in mind. A practical English handbook 11 Autoarea UNIT I THE MAIN PARTS OF THE BODY IMPERATIVE SENTENCES USED TRAINING TECHNIQUES PREPOSITIONS IN RELAXATION 1. It is not the same as hypnosis and you will not lose consciousness at any point. draw an imaginary circle around yourself. no doorbell disturb you. reflect on the idea that you are going to give the next half-hour to yourself. Turn your thoughts inward.’ The procedures: ‘Make yourself as comfortable as you can… become aware of the surface underneath you… let your body settle into it… notice how it supports you… notice the points of contact between you and the floor: your head… shoulders… spine… ribs… hips… heels… elbows… forearms and hands… feel your body sinking into the surface you are lying on… feel your body getting heavier as the tension ebbs away… feel at peace…. feel it carrying all your tensions away… then let your breathing settle into a gentle rhythm…’ ‘As you lie or sit. no one will call your name.
Payne – Relaxation Techniques) 2. noticing the sensations you get from the action… hold it… and… discontinue… let your jaw drop… feel the tension leaving you… and continuing to leave you… then repeat the action…. Using the vocabulary practice below write the Romanian equivalents for the terms indicating parts of the body. bare your teeth… feel the tension in the cheeks… hold it for a few seconds… and release the tension…. A. ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 4. Press your tongue against your teeth… feel the pressure and release it… Now pull the tongue back towards the throat. Feel the muscles drawing it back and note the sensations you get from this action… and… release it… ” (R. 3. For some notions two alternative terms have been provided: . Pronounce and learn the names of the main parts of the human body. Next.12 ADINA RĂDULESCU Trainer’s termination of the procedure: ‘I am going to bring this relaxation sesssion to an end… I’d like you gradually to become aware of the room… feel the floor/chair underneath you … open your eyes… give your limbs a few gentle stretches… have the feeling that you are alert and ready to carry on with your life…’ ‘With your eyes open. Read the text again. select the words that designate: a) parts of the body. spend a few minutes releasing tension in this part of your face… Close the jaws firmly. Make a tight ‘O’ with your lips… hold it. b)verbal constructions expressing commands and c) prepositions or other words indicating direction and place them in three different columns. while you register tension in the lips… and cancel the action…. raise your eyebrows… feel the tension… and release the tension… frown… feel the tension… and release it… shut your eyes tightly… feel the tension… and let it go… with your eyes still closed.
gum (gingie). bottom (şezut). navel/umbilicus (buric). . waist (talie). The body: . ring finger (deget inelar). thigh (coapsă). fingernail (unghie). calf . middle finger. .teeth. armpit/axilla (subsuoară).mouth. knuckle (articulaţia degetului).limb (membru). finger tip (vârful degetului). hand. under jaw (mandibulă). . little finger. cheek (obraz). The neck: - throat. arm/upper limb (braţ).hip (şold). fist (pumn). nostrils (nări). stomach. Adam’s apple/thyroid cartilage. tooth .biceps. fingers – thumb (degetul mare). nipple (mamelon). buttocks (fese). jaw (falcă). chin (bărbie). A practical English handbook 13 The head: . eyelids (pleoape). upper jaw /maxilla (maxilar). .ears. . crook of the arm (îndoitura braţului). abdomen. tongue (limbă). wrist/carpus (încheietura mâinii). forefinger (deget arătător).English in Kinetotherapy. eyebrows (sprâncene). shoulder blade/scapula (omoplat). ear lobe. leg. finger pad (perniţa degetului). dimple in the chin /fossette (gropiţă în bărbie). cheek bone (os maxilar). hollow of the throat (scobitura gâtului).shoulder. dimple (gropiţă în obraz). forearm (antebraţ). nape of the neck (ceafa). . elbow (cot). thorax/chest (torace). breast (piept). eyelashes (gene).forehead (frunte). lips (buze). palm. .eyes.nose.
ankle (gleznă). a) ankles b) legs c) knees d) toes 6. a) fingers b) hands c) palms d) arms 3. a) tongue b) toes c) fingers d) nails 4. He has had this nasty habit of biting his ………. I can’t move my left hand. a) stomach b) waist c) abdomen d) throat 9. This old lady can’t hear you very well. heel/calcaneus (călcâi). as he was not wearing his knee-pads when roller skating. shin/cannon bone (fluierul piciorului.. He is walking on the tips of his ………… so as not to awake the baby... a) feet b) toes c) fingers d) sole . You should not drink so much coffee on an empty …………….14 ADINA RĂDULESCU (gambă).. 5. Nobody is perfect and carelessness is his Achilles’………. a) neck b) eye c) jaw d) throat 8. a) ear b) throat c) tooth d) eye 5. sole (talpă). instep (scobitura gleznei). a) fingers b) armpit c) wrist d) fists 2.. ever since he was a kid. I ate an icecream yesterday and now I have a sore …………….. knee (genunchi). a) toe b) arm c) heel d) head 10. in your pockets. The underside both of a foot and a shoe is called a …………. I have problems with my ………. Choose the right word that best completes the sentence: 1. knee cap (rotulă). It is not polite to talk to somebody when you have your ………. He fell and hurt his ……… really bad. she has got an ……… infection. tibia). toes (degete de la picioare). a) heel b) sole c) shin d) toe 7.
formed skeletally by the frontal bone of the skull f. large muscle at the front of the upper arm. forehead 3.English in Kinetotherapy. bowels and digestive organs j. calf 6. k. tongue 5. either of the two external openings of the nose l. wrist 2. fleshy part of the back of the leg. containing the stomach. organ of taste that aids the mastication and swallowing of food. A practical English handbook 15 6. the joint between the forearm and the hand h. part of the human leg between the knee and the hip ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE . fingernail 10. translucent plate covering part of the dorsal surface of the end joint of each finger e. hip 4. armpit 7. biceps a. the back part of the human foot from the instep to the lower part of the ankle i. abdomen 12. horny. which bends the elbow c. part on either side of the body below the waist where the bone of a person’s leg is joined to the trunk g. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. between the ankle and the knee b. the thick. nostril 8. the small depression beneath the arm where it joins the shoulder d. thigh 9. the part of the face between the natural hairline and the eyes. part of the body below de chest and diaphragm. heel 11. a thin.
spre partea inferioară Forward (s) = înainte. către. indicând direcţia) Backward (s) = înapoi. printre under = dedesubt. vertical . sub (indicând contact cu suprafaţa superioară) Other words indicating movement and direction: -WARDS class (wards = spre. invers. de deasupra. deasupra onto = pe. înapoia in front of = în faţa in = în. străbaterea spaţiului) on = pe. sub (indicând existenţa unei suprafeţe superioare de protecţie. deasupra (indicând mişcare pentru atingerea poziţiei) over = peste. sub (fără a indica contact cu suprafaţa superioară) beneath/underneath = dedesubt. către. în direcţia Upright = drept. pe spate Downward (s) = descendent. în faţă Inward (s) = înăuntru.16 ADINA RĂDULESCU Here is a list of the most commonly used prepositions of place and position: above = deasupra. în interiorul into = în. mai sus de across/along = de-a lungul. înspre interior (indicând pătrunderea. deasupra through = prin. dinspre stânga Outward (s) = către/spre exterior. separare) between = între (două obiecte) behind = în spatele. în afară Towards = spre. către interior Leftward (s) = către stânga. transversal around/round = de jur împrejurul below = dedesubt.
• Bend your body sideways and give it a good stretch.English in Kinetotherapy. spre partea superioară Sideways = lateral. • Lean your forearms vertically on the wall. • Clasp both hands behind your head. • Rest your elbows on your thighs. • Place your fingertips on your shoulder. chair arm or thigh). Pause… Roll them now in an anticlockwise direction. • Hold your head forward and up. oblic. feel the tension in the hand and then let the tension . într-o parte ►◄Pair work 7. 8. • Bend your knees forwards. turn your eyes upwards behind your closed lids. • Roll your eyes in a clockwise circle… Now notice the sensations of tension…. • Arch your body backwards. change activities: • Place your hands around your ankles. • Stretch your arms upwards. let your hips sink forwards. drawing them towards your palm so that your hand gradually takes on the shape of a spider… Hold the position. press your fingertips into the surface. Read the following sentences and translate them into Romanian: • Without moving your head. With your heels on the ground and your knees straight. Then. • Place your palm downwards on a surface (table. • Raise your arms above your head and turn the palms towards the ceiling. A practical English handbook 17 Upward (s) = ascendent. • Lift your arms above your head. • Spread your arms sideways and lower them to your sides. Read the following commands to your deskmate and ask him/her to follow your indications and practise the exercises.
Staţi în poziţie 10 secunde şi apoi reveniţi în poziţia iniţială. Repetaţi mişcarea de cinci ori. cu capul aplecat şi cu mâinile atârnând pe genunchi. 4. Apoi ridicaţi mâna stângă şi îndoiţi corpul spre dreapta. ridicaţi mâinile deasupra capului şi arcuiţi-vă uşor trunchiul pe spate. 6. Apoi îndoiţi-le din coate spre în faţă. Rotiţi-vă trunchiul alternativ la stânga apoi la dreapta. 5. the comfort. la nivelul umărului. 10. Observaţi ce simţiţi la articulaţiile şoldului. using the new words: 1. cu mâinile pe lângă corp. plasaţi-vă ambele coate pe coapse. apoi gambele. apoi gleznele şi dacă puteţi chiar şi degetele de la picioare. 8. 9. Staţi ghemuiţi pe vârfurile picioarelor. Îndoiţi-vă uşor trunchiul în faţă.Stând pe un scaun. write down five examples of such exercises and then read them to your deskmates. Plasaţi-vă ambele mâini pe şolduri. Translate into English. Simţiţi cum vi se relaxează muşchii gâtului. Plasaţi-vă ambele mâini pe umeri. 3. Staţi în poziţie depărtată. întindeţi-vă antebraţele şi mişcaţi-vă degetele. Închideţi ochii.18 ADINA RĂDULESCU go and relax the muscles. • Keeping your toes firmly in contact with the floor. Menţineţi poziţia cât . Atingeţi-vă genunchii. Îndoiţi-vă uşor genunchii şi apoi rotiţi-vă corpul la stânga şi la dreapta. Create your own relaxation techniques. Ridicaţi mâna dreaptă şi îndoiţi corpul spre stânga. Reveniţi în poziţia iniţială. Repetaţi mişcarea de câte ori doriţi. Întindeţi-vă braţele lateral. the warm tingling sensation in your calves. 7. raise your heels up in the air… Now feel the tension in your calf muscles… Relax… drop your heels to the ground and notice the relief. 2.
Staţi cu picioarele depărtate şi cu mâinile pe şold. Read the following texts and write down the new words: . 9. Încercaţi rotirea braţelor în ambele direcţii. ridicând piciorul stâng. Apoi repetaţi în direcţia opusă. 10. Menţineţi poziţia pentru 5 secunde. Staţi cu picioarele depărtate şi cu mâinile întinse lateral şi cu pumnii strânşi. Înclinaţi-vă spre dreapta. UNIT 2 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS BEFORE THE VERB TO BE ASKING QUESTIONS AND ADVERBS USED 1.English in Kinetotherapy. Observaţi ce se întâmplă cu muşchii braţelor şi pieptului. A practical English handbook 19 doriţi. trasând un cerc mic în aer. Rotiţi-vă simultan braţele.
appear soon after. to enclose and protect some of the most important vital organs. The most active factor determining the formation of a joint after birth are the muscles which exert an action on the given joint. Descriptive and Surgical) “Almost all the elements of the joints of adults are also present in the joints of the newborn. The process of ossification is slow and not completed until adult life.D. Pronounce and learn the names of the main parts of the skeletal system. It commences first in the clavicle. Bone development takes place at a very early period. The ribs also. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 2. i. All the elements encountered in the joints of the newborn continue their formation and acquire the geometrical shapes of the articular surfaces characteristic of each joint of an adult. For a long period after birth. in which the primitive point appears during the fifth week. This temporary cartilage is an exact miniature of the bone which in due course is to take its place. and the long bones of the limbs. the work of a joint.” (Henry Gray – Gray`s Anatomy. The development of bone articulations is directly dependent on the formation of the bony and connective-tissue structures and muscular tissue. The period of ossification varies much in different bones. the parts destined to become bones consist of a congeries of cells which constitutes the simplest form of cartilage. a thin layer of unossified cartilage remains between the diaphysis and epiphyses. The next step is the ossification of the intercellular substance and of the cells composing the cartilage.e. ” (R.20 ADINA RĂDULESCU “The function of the bones is to form a hard skeleton for the softer materials of the body. In embryonic life. next in the lower jaw. Add more terms to the list: . until their growth is finally completed.
ossification = osificare .skull = craniu . sacral and coccygeal sections of the spine = secţiunile cervicale.fibrous joint = articulaţie fibroasă .English in Kinetotherapy.synovial joint = articulaţie sinovială .spine/spinal column/backbone = coloana vertebrală .ligament = ligament .pubis = pubis .spinal cord /marrow = măduva spinării .the cervical. A practical English handbook 21 The skeletal system: .ankle joint = articulaţia gleznei 3. dorsale.sternum /breastbone = stern .hip joint = articulaţia şoldului .sacrum = os sacral .articulation /joint = articulaţie .vertebra. Complete the following sentences using the nouns in the box.knee joint = articulaţia genunchiului . -ae /bony ring = vertebră .cartilage = cartilaj .scapula/ shoulder blade = omoplat.coccyx = coccis .thoracic cage = cuşcă toracică . dorsal.shoulder girdle = centură scapulară . lombare şi coccigiene ale coloanei vertebrale .rib = coastă .pelvis = pelvis .clavicle /collarbone = claviculă . lumbar. scapulă . The first one has been done for you as an example: .
the ____________ or palm and the ____________ or fingers. 4. thickest and heaviest bone in the skeleton. cartilage. The ____________ is a small triangular bone at the end of the spinal column. The ____________ is the longest. formed of a series of bones called _vertebrae_. 3. The structures which enter the formation of a ___________ are: bone. 5. Twelve pairs of curved bones extending . situated in front of the thorax to which are attached the collarbone and the first seven parts of ribs. The ____________ is a long. ligament and synovial membrane.22 ADINA RĂDULESCU sternum scapula tibia coccyx phalanges metacarpus carpus cranium femur calcaneus joint vertebrae 1. flat bone. 4. The ____________ is the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg. breastbone 2. The ______________ or heel bone is the largest tarsal bone. 8. 10. Triangular bone that forms the back of the pelvis c. two parietal. The ____________ is a large. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. Rings placed one above the other which form a single column. irregularly cuboidal in form and situated at the lower back part of the foot. 7. ligament 3. triangular in shape which forms the back part of each shoulder. frontal. fibro-cartilage. The ____________ is composed of eight bones: the occipital. 6. The hand is subdivided into three segments: the __________ or wrist. skull a. The spine is a flexuous column. articulating by its base with the apex of the sacrum. articulating with the pelvis above and the knee below. 2. and ethmoid. sphenoid. flat vertical bone. 9. two temporal. the spinal column b. between the knee and ankle.
Bone joining the breastbone and the shoulder blade j. Basin-shaped framework of bones at the lower end of the body f. A practical English handbook 23 4. clavicle 6. people. sacrum 9. between the ribs i. cartilage 10. flat. vertical bone in the chest. pelvis 8. etc from a limited number: . Tough white flexible tissue attached to bones and joints g.) / are (pl. vertebrae 5.English in Kinetotherapy. Narrow. ribs from the backbone round the chest d. etc from an indefinite number: What are the main causes of muscular weakness? What is the shape of the spinal column? WHICH . people. bony and curved column – as a cable for the spinal cord e. flexible tissue that connects bones and holds organs in position h.) / were (pl. Though. spine 7. Bony framework of the head under the skin AND ADVERBS USED ■ GRAMMAR INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS BEFORE THE VERB TO BE When forming interrogative sentences with the verb TO BE the rule to be remember is to place the words in the following order: WHAT WHICH WHERE + is (sg.) – present + object WHY + was (sg.is used to ask somebody to specify one or more things. places. Thin.) – past + object HOW HOW MANY WHAT – is used to ask somebody to specify one or more things.
placed in front of the knee. the tibia and fibula. There are twelve ribs on each side of the thoracic part of the spinal column.24 ADINA RĂDULESCU Which is the best treatment in this situation? Which is the shortest and the most curved of all the ribs? WHY . where. triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the knee joint. metatarsus and phalanges. How many ribs are on each side of the thoracic part of the spinal column? 2. why. The leg consists of three bones: the patella (knee cap). structure and development? HOW MANY – is used to inquire about the number of things: How many phalanges are for each finger. Ask questions for the underlined phrases using the interrogative words what. The patella is a small.means for what reason or purpose: Why is physical therapy better than surgery in my case? WHERE – means in or to what place or position: Where is the sternum situated? HOW – means in what way or manner: How is the sternum described in terms of shape. how many and the verb to be. The first two have been done for you as examples: 1. Which are the three divisions of the foot? 3. The foot consists of three divisions: the tarsus. ________________________________________________________ __? . position. flat. which. ________________________________________________________ __? 4. except the thumb? 5. how.
English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook
5. The scapula is situated between the first and seventh ribs. ________________________________________________________ __? 6. The sternum has the shape of an ancient sword, consisting of three parts. ________________________________________________________ __? 7. That form of cartilage which enters into the formation of the joints is called articular cartilage. ________________________________________________________ __? 8. The ligament is pliant and flexible, so as to allow perfect freedom of movement but strong, tough and inextensible, so as not to yield under a severely applied force. (ask three questions)
________________________________________________________ _? 9. There are 206 distinct bones in the entire skeleton of an adult. ________________________________________________________ _? 10. The superior extremity is the largest part of the humerus. ________________________________________________________ _?
6. Read the following extracts and translate them into Romanian: “Most bones of a human adult consist of a bony and cartilaginous framework, as a result of which a bony part and a cartilaginous part are distinguished in the skeletal system. The bony part makes up most of the bone. The articular cartilages, the epiphyseal cartilages and the costal cartilages form the cartilaginous part of the skeletal system. The long bones (humerus, clavicle, femur, phalanges, etc.) have a middle part, the diaphysis, and two end parts, the epiphyses. The epiphysis located closer to the axial skeleton is called the proximal epiphysis, while the epiphysis of the same bone but situated further from the axial skeleton is called the distal epiphysis. The wider parts of long bones between the diaphysis and the epiphysis are known as metaphysis. Their boundaries are visible only in the bones of children and adolescents when a cartilaginous layer, the epiphyseal cartilage still remains between the diaphysis and epiphyses. The red marrow possesses high functional activity and is capable of forming blood cells of the myeloid series. With the development and growth of the organism, the red marrow is gradually replaced by the yellow marrow. The yellow marrow is less active and plays a reserve role, but under certain conditions it may be activated.” (R.D. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) 7. Translate the following questions into English, using the new vocabulary. Providing an answer to these questions will also test your anatomy knowledge: 1. Care este ştiinţa care se ocupă cu studiul oaselor? 2. Care sunt principalele tipuri de oase? 3. Care sunt părţile constituente ale unei articulaţii? 4. Care sunt cauzele care determină traumatismele şi
English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook
fracturile coloanei vertebrale? 5. Din câte oase este format craniul şi care sunt acestea? 6. Care articulaţie este cel mai frecvent afectată în fracturi? 7. Câte vertebre are coloana lombară? Dar coloana toracală? 8. Unde este plasat acromionul? 9. Cum este descris sternul în atlasul de anatomie? 10. De ce este intervenţia chirurgicală mai potrivită în acest caz decât fiziokinetoterapia sau balnoeterapia? ►◄ Pair work 8. Question-answer exercise: Using your anatomy courses notes, ask your deskmate questions about the skeletal system.
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
and up to 45-55 per cent in athlets. Musculoskeletal disorders are major worldwide causes of chronic pain and severe physical handicap. the muscle is a peculiar ‘pump’ which forces the blood forward. structure and function. in response to loading and mechanical demands. this function of the skeletal muscles is excluded as a result of which the blood flows slower.e. and more health conscious.” (R. Each muscle has a developed network of blood vessels. under conditions of motor activity the reserve capillaries open. particularly as population becomes older. and nutrition of the skeletal muscles improves. metabolic processes are reduced and stasis occurs. peculiarly susceptible to local and systemic inflamatory disorders. Acute inflammation or tissue damage often becomes chronic. The contraction of a muscle promotes rapid flow of blood. Under conditions of reduced motor activity (hypokinesia) in an active mode of life or when prolongued bed-rest is necessary. D. Read the following texts about the muscular system and write down the new words: “There are more than 600 skeletal muscles in the human body and their total mass accounts for up to 28-35 per cent of the body mass in females. new capillaries form. generally fitter. The system is vulnerable to trauma.” . continually changing shape. perhaps because of continuous movement and mechanical stresses. and up to 20 per cent to the share of the muscles of the head and trunk. i. up to 40-45 per cent in males.28 ADINA RĂDULESCU ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE DESCRIBING A CERTAIN MUSCLE 1. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) “All elements of the musculoskeletal system are in dynamic equilibrum. Up to 50 per cent of the total weight of the skeletal muscles fall to the share of the muscles of the lower limbs. up to 30 per cent to those of the upper limbs. In contrast.
” (Henry Gray – Gray’s Anatomy.fibers = fibre . In the trunk.muscle = muşchi . the deep ones being generally broad. A practical English handbook 29 (The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy) “Muscles vary considerably in their form. Pronounce and learn the main terms and collocations related to the muscular system.muscular contraction /cramp = contracţie musculară .English in Kinetotherapy.nerves = nervi . they are broad. In the limbs. Add more terms to the list: .muscular hypertrophy = hipertrofie musculară .diaphragm = diafragmă .muscle bulk = masă musculară . especially the more superficial ones. flattened and expanded.musculature = musculatură .muscular tissue = ţesut muscular .muscle tone = tonus muscular .hypotonic muscles = muşchi hipotonici . they are of considerable length.blood vessels = vase sanguine .muscle fatigue = oboseală/ extenuare musculară .muscular endurance = rezistenţă musculară .skeletal muscle = muschi scheletic .tendon = tendon . Descriptive and Surgical) ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE 2.fascia = fascie . they surround the bones and form an important protection to the various joints. forming the parietes of the cavities which they enclose.
arthritis. … of the muscles. weak and flabby and is easily moved is a techique… laterally. If you have observed f…. a tumor or disorder characterized by …. A hypertonic muscle feels e.30 ADINA RĂDULESCU - hypertonic muscles = muşchi hipertonici muscle rigidity = rigiditate musculară muscle spasm = spasm muscular spasticity = spasticitate muscle sprain = luxaţie muscle strain = întindere musculară muscle strength = forţă musculară muscular tension = tensiune musculară muscular weakness = slăbire musculară 3. may be spastic or rigid and resists sideways movements. Electromyography (EMG) d. …very firm. … a muscle sprain or degenerative muscle strain. 6. Match the half-sentences in column A with their corresponding half-sentences in column B to form correct and complete sentences: A B 1. an evaluation of the condition and functioning muscle weakness. 5. joints and bones of the body. b. … a progressive loss of muscle strength in a variety of muscle groups.Muscle-setting exercise…. … gives an indication of the state of the … musculature. a. 4. Muscle bulk…. 3. a ruptured cartilage disk between vertebrae. … very soft. 2. Muscular dystrophy is a c. .
Wall of muscle. between the chest and the abdomen. fibres 5. Large muscle at the front of the upper arm. … is a method of contracting and relaxing a and tremors … skeletal muscle without moving that part of the body. Musculoskeletal sysytem i. Fibre or bundle of fibres carrying impulses of sensation or of movement between the brain and all parts of the body b. 9. 4. Strong band or cord of tissue that joins muscle to bone 2. capillaries . which bends the elbow c. A hypotonic muscle feels j. …then a detailed test will be necessary for each … muscle. … are signs of some neurological disorders. nerve 6. Match up the following words with their definitions: 1. that helps to control breathing d.English in Kinetotherapy. Low back pain at the base h. blood vessels 4. … that records changes of the spine can be caused in the electrical potential during muscle by … contractions. assessment is … 10. Very narrow blood vessels connecting arteries and veins in the body e. fasciae 3. 8. Involuntary movements g. tendon a. Fibrous membranes which form linings for body cavities and cover muscles and organs f. A practical English handbook 31 7.
expanded or the third form of irregular verbs: cut. pectoral muscle g. flattened. Tubes (arteries.Past Participle forms: short infinitive + -ED (for regular verbs): reduced. frozen. colour. thick. size. Broad. Qualificative adjectives include all types of adjectives denoting quality. shape. muscular dystrophy 8. age and general descriptions of objects (parts of the body. biceps 10. growing . diaphragm 9. diseases. hidden. relaxing. origin. situated at the upper and anterior part of the chest that draws the arm towards the body j. symptoms etc) and people: Example: . Example: This relaxing atmosphere and these stimulating exercises will have a pronounced effect on your back muscles. animal or plant tissues are formed h.Present Participle forms: short infinitive + -ING: increasing. Slender threads of which many human. veins or capillaries) through which blood flows in the body i. triangular muscle. Participial adjectives are participial forms used as adjectives: . Long-lasting illness in which the muscles become gradually weaker ■ GRAMMAR ADJECTIVES – BASIC KNOWLEDGE Participial and qualificative adjectives Considering the frequency of certain types of adjectives in medical language we shall deal only with participial and qualificative adjectives.32 ADINA RĂDULESCU 7.
trisyllabic or plurisyllabic which form their degrees of comparison by periphrastic means: more and (the) most (analytic comparison): extensive – more extensive – the most extensive 3) adjectives with irregular degrees of comparison: good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst little – less – the least many/much – more – the most old – older – the oldest (of people and objects) .(attributive position) The muscles become resistant to fatigue and the patients no longer look exhausted at the end of the session. both singular and plural (attributive position) or follow the noun. look.(predicative position) Degrees of comparison According to the way they form their degrees of comparison adjectives fall into three categories: 1) monosyllabic (or short) adjectives and bisyllabic adjectives ending in -er. Both participial and qualificative adjectives can either precede the noun. having the function of predicatives for copulative verbs such as: be. -y and –ly which form their corresponding degrees of comparison by adding –er and –est (synthetic comparison): thick – thicker – the thickest thin –thinner – the thinnest 2) long adjectives – bisyllabic (ending in -ful and -re). A practical English handbook 33 The first piece of the sternum has a triangular form. broad and thick above and narrowed below. turn etc: Example: Moderate exercises have a therapeutic effect on muscles. having the same form for all genders. become.English in Kinetotherapy. seem.
the better you will feel. choosing the appropriate suffixes in the box. Gradual increase or decrease is expressed by two comparatives joined by and: As your breathing becomes slower and slower you are feeling more and more relaxed. Reread the texts about the muscular system and extract all the adjectives. The larger the muscle. Sometimes the comparatives are placed at the beginning of the sentences: The sooner you practise the exercise. For instance. adjectives at superlative will be associated with perfect tenses: This is the most distressing pain I have ever had.34 ADINA RĂDULESCU old – elder – the eldest (of people) far – farther – the farthest (of space) far – further – the furtest (of time) Constructions with comparisons: The use of adjectives at different degrees of comparison requires the use of certain patterns. 5. Form derivational adjectives from the following nouns and verbs. which can be either a word or a sentence: I am not as useless as my blind brother /as you think I am. the greater its strength. Group them according to their attributive or predicative position. Sometimes more than one suffix can be attached to part of the words: . For derivational adjectives indicate the noun that they derive from and their suffix or prefix as in the following examples: systemic = system (noun) + -ic (suffix) skeletal = skelet (noun) + -al (suffix) 6. The comparative requires the specification of the second term of comparison. The injury was more severe than we thought.
Activitatea fizică prelungită cum ar fi mersul sau . 5. care poate duce la spasm muscular şi prin urmare la mai multă durere. Ce cauzează hipertrofia musculară? 2. 3. A practical English handbook 35 -al -ish -ible -ic -ive -ed -ous -ful -ing -less -able Example: Stern + -al = sternal thorax sphere muscle abdomen stomach anomaly fibre fever cure help comfort to identify to contract access memory to connect to digest health infection pain 7. cu atât mai mare va fi şi tensiunea noastră musculară. astfel. using the new vocabulary and grammar notes of this unit: 1. Translate the following sentenses into English. 4. Tensiunea musculară are strânsă legătură cu modul nostru de a gândi. cu cât suntem mai stresaţi. Cu cât rezistenţa musculară este mai mare cu atât va fi mai mare numărul de contracţii musculare. Tensiunea musculară prelungită poate produce durere.English in Kinetotherapy.
pasul alergător poate duce la oboseală musculară. 6. Care sunt cauzele principale ale extenuării musculare? 7. Muşchiul gastrocnemian este cel mai superficial muşchi situat în partea din spate a piciorului, care formează cea mai mare parte a gambei. 8. Tendonul lui Ahile este cel mai gros şi mai puternic tendon din corpul uman. 9. Muşchiul deltoid este un muşchi lat, gros, triunghiular, situat pe partea laterală şi posterioară a umărului. 10.Muşchiul abductor al policelui este un muşchi subţire, plat, îngust, plasat imediat dedesubtul tegumentului (integument). ►◄ Pair work: 8. Using your anatomy courses notes, choose a certain muscle and ask your deskmate to describe it. 9. Guessing game: Think of a certain muscle. Your deskmate will ask you as many questions as necessary to guess the muscle. Here are some examples of possible questions: • Is it a muscle of the trunk/head/upper limb/lower limb?→ for general location (It is a muscle of the upper limb) • Is it a muscle of the shoulder girdle or of the free upper limb?→ for specific location (It is a muscle of the shoulder girdle) • Where is it situated? (It arises from the clavicle and scapula.) • What is its function? (It helps the upper arm move forward, backward and horizontally.)
English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook
• Can you describe it? (It is a thick, triangular muscle with the base facing upwards and the apex downwards) • Is it the deltoid muscle? (Yes, it is indeed.) The following classification of muscles may prove useful for this exercise: A. The muscles of the trunk: • the muscles of the back • the muscles of the neck • the muscles of the chest • the muscles of the abdomen B. The muscles of the head: → the muscles of facial expression: • the muscles of the scalp • the muscles surrounding the eyes • the muscles surrounding the mouth • the muscles surrounding the nose → the muscles of mastication C. The muscles of the upper limb: → the muscles of the shoulder girdle → the muscles of the free upper limb: • the muscles of the upper arm • the muscles of the forearm • the muscles of the hand D. The muscles of the lower limb: → the muscles of the hip joint
→ the muscles of the free lower limb: • the muscles of the thigh • the muscles of the leg • the muscles of the foot 10. Complete the classifications above with all categories of muscles you have studied so far.
EXAMINING THE PACIENT POLYSEMANTIC WORDS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – GREETINGS, IDENTIFICATION AND INTRODUCTORY DIALOGUES 1. Read the following text and check the glossary below to translate the unknown words. Write down other unknown words and try to approximate their meaning:
It is important that current medications are noted for these may have some effect on selection of or precautions in administrating your treatments. in date order. former job and/or retirement status.English in Kinetotherapy. The initial examination leads to an assessment of the pacients` needs and a decision on the early treatment. marital status. divide your perusal into: ▪ Obtaining basic information about the pacient as a social entity: names. When examining the pacient some things need to be provided: a clean. To use such notes to the maximum. If the pacient has been previously examined by a diagnostician who provides full notes. test tubes containing hot and cold water. some useful and time-saving information may be obtained by their careful perusal. the clinical examination findings and the results of tests. sex. . ▪ Noting. as different variables such as the subjective assessment of the previous examiner or the change in patient`s condition from the last examination may influence the course of the treatment. current work. ▪ Reading. age.There are some small testing devices that the examiner needs: a tape measure. cultural background and family circumstances. quite important. including X-rays. verbal confidentiality. some cotton wool.Knowledge of normal parameters should be used to decide whether any of the test records show a need for care in examination and treatment. suitable coverings for the pacient. A practical English handbook EXAMINING THE PACIENT 39 “Examination of a pacient is a continuous process that starts with your first meeting and continues until treatment ceases prior to discharge. well ventilated. if available. adequately warmed area. a pin. the position of the examination couch or table in relation to the lighting and. Any abnormalities indicated by the medical examination sheet need to be checked by the present examiner. a reflex hammer. ▪ Obtaining a record of immediate past and current treatment and medication. the medical events that are former medical history and the events that have marked the development of the current illness/disability and its progress. a goniometer.
The following procedures are to be used when palpating for specific anatomical features: place more of your hand than you need in contact with the area to be examined.Hollis. in firm comfortable contact. In neither case will you feel or find anything. Always allocate sufficient time for an initial examination of the patient. and listening to the silences is equally important. instant awareness and interpretation. Listening to the patient`s answers requires patience. Remember that too hard a pressure will feel like a drill digging in and too light a pressure will feel like a butterfly coming to rest. Successful questioning produces maximum information with the minimum of questions and is a skill that improves with practice. estimare previously = mai înainte.40 ADINA RĂDULESCU Escorting the patient to the examination area can be an opportunity to observe his/her ability to walk unaided. It requires that your hands should be relaxed. în prealabil perusal = citire. a se opri prior to = înainte de discharge = externare assessment = evaluare.” (Adapted from M. Palpation is a skill that is acquired by practice. the general mien and posture.Yung – Patient examination and assessment for therapists) GLOSSARY to cease = a înceta.What the patient fails to say may have great relevance. complete only part of the tasks and conclude the examination at a further session. and if the examination turns out to be more time-consuming than your original estimate. P.Your fingers should be straight so that your nails are unlikely to be in contact. and aware of what is under them. so that only the finger pads are touching firmly enough. the type of gait abnormalities if any. lift your palm a little to reduce the contact. lectură atentă former job = slujbă anterioară retirement = pensionare .
Why does the examiner need to note the patient`s current medication? 5. invaliditate clinical examination findings = constatările examinării clinice medical examination sheet = foaie de observaţie clinică testing devices = instrumente de testare tape measure = ruletă. Why does the present examiner need to check the patient`s prior medical examination sheet? 4. Why is the patient`s initial examination important? 2. panglică de măsurat pin = ac cu gămălie goniometer = goniometru reflex hammer = ciocănel pentru testarea reflexelor cotton wool = vată test tube = eprubetă gait = umblet. What should basic information about the patient include? 3. Scan the text above so as to answer the following questions: 1. A practical English handbook 41 cultural background = formaţie culturală medical history = anamneză disability = incapacitate.English in Kinetotherapy. What testing devices does the examiner use? 7. What things need to be provided when examining the patient? 6. comportament posture = postură corporală instant awareness = înţelegere rapidă palpation = palpare finger pad = buricul degetului drill = burghiu to dig in = a înfige 2. What should the examiner observe while escorting the patient to the examination area? . mers mien = ţinută.
I think you should get to the heart of the matter. former medical history. elephant. clinical examination findings. including questions and answers regarding the patient`s basic information. When can we say that questioning the patient has been successful? 9. Create your own examiner – patient dialogues. ♣ VOCABULARY PRACTICE POLYSEMANTIC WORDS Many words that are pronounced and spelt in the same way can be used in different contexts with different meanings. He is my heart. has a semantic feature associated that of being the central part of a body. . with polysemantic words we can easily notice a semantic feature common to all the elements of a class. Polysemy is closely related to homonymy and it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between words that are homonyms and words that are polysemantic.that is carried over from one example to the next: Even if his heart stopped beating for several seconds. There is still a criterion that can help us distinguish one notion from the other: while with homonymy the words that have the same form do not share any semantic resemblance in their meanings. as a polysemantic word. he did not die. past and current medication.42 ADINA RĂDULESCU 8. What should be done if the first examination takes longer than expected? 3. giraffe and whale and calf as the thick fleshy part of the back of the leg between the ankle and the knee are two homonyms that have nothing in common. Calf as a young of cattle (viţel) or of certain other mammals such as the buffalo. etc. They are polysemantic words. semantically speaking. of one`s life or of something else . my reason of living. Here are two examples for each notion: Heart. What procedures are to be used when palpating the patient? 10.
English in Kinetotherapy. one can also distinguish between polysemantic words and homonyms as the former are listed with different numbers under the same lexical entry. b) physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body. training or experience. b) unloading (cargo) from a ship c) firing (a gun). conversation or the action of a film. c) the formal interrogation of a person on oath (an accused or a witness) by a lawyer in a lawcourt. scene or description that forms a setting for the chief objects. A practical English handbook 43 Moreover. lighting whose purpose is to be an unobtrusive or appropriate accompaniment to something else. c) a person’s social class. launching flying weapons (arrows) 3. discharge means: a) an official permission for (sb) to leave. oral questions or practical tasks. while the latter are listed and treated as separate words: calf1 and calf 2. . background means: a) part of a view. d) a low level of sound. people. by looking words up in a dictionary. a patient. examination means: a) written exercises. after he has carried out a duty (discharge a soldier. such as a social activity. Choose from among the meanings of the following polysemantic words the one that has been used in the text Examining the pacient: 1. 2. set to test a candidate’s knowledge and skill. in order to verify health or diagnose disease. b) information that is needed to understand a problem. education. 4. release a prisoner from custody).
printed or painted design or figure. trick. device means: a) a machine or tool adapted for a special purpose (timesaving device. Write your own contexts in which the polysemantic words above. an explosive device etc). 5. figures of speech used in literature to produce a certain effect on the reader. a clever or evil one. d) a plan or plot.44 ADINA RĂDULESCU 4. esp. except for the version of your choice. emblem. b) a particular pattern of words. are used with other meanings. trademark by a noble family. safety device. You can use the following expressions: . a scheme. used as a heraldic sign. c) a written.
English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 5 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • examination paper background music entrance examination working-class background to take an examination background on the company’s financial position pass/fail an examination time-saving device = aparat de uz caznic medical examination labour-saving device = dispozitiv mecanic to be under examination an explosive device = dispozitiv explozibil to stay/keep in the background stylistic device = figură de stil .
row of bones along the back of humans and some animals. a person capable of accepting delay that can still remain calm. the lowest. buttocks. 9. dialect or idiom. below the ankle. chief person of a group or organization. head f. 15. 13. 4. used in tasting. on which a person or animal sits. A practical English handbook 5 6. 17. a language. licking. Match each of the meanings below to one of the seven polysemantic words in the box: a. foot b. part of the body on which one sits. 12. ground under the sea. mouth and brain. any of the sharp needle-like parts on some plants (cactuses) and animals (hedgehogs). a person who is receiving medical care in hospital. the lowest part of the leg. 7. 2. containing the eyes. .English in Kinetotherapy. any of the bundle of fibres carrying sensory or motor impulses between the brain and all parts of the body. 8. backbone. a movable organ in the mouth. 10. lake or river. nerve 1. part of the body. 5. courage. foam on the top of a poured beer. swallowing and speaking. patient d. 6. 18. 16. 11. 14. nose. under the laces or buckles to protect the instep. tongue e. a measure of length equal to 12 inches. bottom c. the back part of a book that is visible when it is in a row on a shelf. deepest or farthest removed part of a thing. boldness. 3. a flap of leather on a shoe. spine g.
cifre at the foot/bottom of the stairs/hill/ mountain/list/page = în partea de jos a … a 7-foot high wall = un zid înalt de 7 picioare to fall on one`s bottom = a cădea în fund the bottom of the sea/lake/river = fundul mării/lacului/râului to go to the bottom = a se scufunda to lose/regain one`s nerve = a-şi pierde/redobândi curajul to have the nerve to do smth. mental ability or natural talent for something.= a avea curajul/tupeul de a face ceva to strain every nerve = a-şi încorda toate puterile . figures = a avea cap de afaceri. 20.6 ADINA RĂDULESCU 19. rib or vein in a leaf or any of the veins of an insect`s wing. You can make use of the following syntagms and expressions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • to be patient with sb. = a avea răbdare cu cineva mother tongue = limbă maternă to have lost/find one`s tongue = a-şi pierde/redobândi graiul the head of the family = capul familiei head office = sediu central to have a good head for business. 7. Write your own contexts for the different meanings of the polysemantic words above.
Green. Dr. • My name is Dr. identification and introductory dialogues Here are some examples of initial greetings and introductory dialogues used before the examination takes place: The therapist: • Good morning. Johnson. How can I help you? . Mrs. A practical English handbook 7 ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Greetings.English in Kinetotherapy. let`s see… what seems to be the problem? • Your brother. Mrs. Dr. Thomson`s sister. what`s troubling you? • Well. I will be with you in a second. I am your therapist. Redcliff. • Please come in and take a seat. Mr. • Make yourself comfortable. aren`t you? He told me all about you. Baum. what`s brought you here? • Well. You were my patient last year.Green. Let me introduce myself. what can I do for you? • Tell me. How is your back? • You are Dr. Mrs. How is your recovery going on? • I understand that you have seen several therapists before. Thomson tells me that you have been having low back pains… • I couldn`t help noticing your slight limp. I think we talked on the phone. Johnson. Inquiring about the patient`s problem: • Well. Can you tell me more about it? • I can`t tell you how sorry I am about your terrible accident. didn`t we? • I remember you.
• I am sorry. Pe toată durata examinării pacientul trebuie să se simtă relaxat. fiind asigurat de confidenţialitatea discuţiilor sale cu terapeutul. You can as well come up with your own examples. 3. ►◄ Pair work 8. 2. • I think we can have good results if you come to all your sessions. Translate into English. la un diagnostic anterior şi medicamentaţie se pot dovedi extrem de importante în recomandarea terapiei ulterioare. I will have to see you twice a week. • I will meet you for our sessions three times a week. • For the first two weeks we shall meet every day till your pain goes away. Recomandarea unui program de exerciţii terapeutice nu se poate face fără o examinare amănunţită a pacientului. using the new vocabulary: 1. 4. Terapeutul poate sesiza în mod indirect anumite caracteristici motrice ale pacientului. 9. • Bring me the X-rays and then I will schedule a meeting for you for next week. protejat. for at least three weeks. but you should have seen an orthopaedist before coming here. for six weeks. prin simpla observare a .8 ADINA RĂDULESCU Programming further sessions: • Considering your diagnosis. Practise therapist-patient dialogues using the examples above. Orice informaţii cu privire la datele personale ale pacientului. • We shall start on Monday and see how it is going.
UNIT 5 TYPES OF INJURIES PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – PATIENT`S SYMPTOMS AND COMPLAINTS FORMAL AND INFORMAL MEDICAL TERMS 1.English in Kinetotherapy. Adjacent joints should be mobilized as soon as possible. however.” (Adapted from Thomas A. Russell – General Principles of Fracture Treatment) . Immobilization of adjacent joints can be done by using splints. in open fractures motion of musculotendinous units over fracture surfaces will irritate the soft tissues and may decrease resistance to infection. Then translate these texts into Romanian: Patient rehabilitation after fractures “Patient rehabilitation should begin immediately. depending on the type of fracture and soft tissue stability. Palparea pacientului şi testarea gradului său de mobilitate sunt indicii clare în stabilirea afecţiunii prezente şi indicarea tipurilor de exerciţii corespunzătoare. braces or foot attachments to external fixation systems. Read the following extracts and check the glossary below for new words. A practical English handbook 9 posturii sale corporale. 5. a ţinutei generale şi a mersului acestuia. weight-bearing exercises. all practised under the close supervision of both the physician and the kinetotherapist. as well as range of motion and strengthening exercises. Physical therapy should include active exercises for joint mobilization.
followed by a gentle stretching and progressive strengthening program as symptoms resolve. including avascular necrosis of the femoral head and posttraumatic arthritis. Phillips . quickly relieves pain and may be beneficial in reducing the swelling. LaVelle – Acute Dislocations) Sprains or ligamentous injuries “Most sprains or ligamentous injuries can be treated by immobilization. diminua . Muscle strains are initially treated with ice. The longer the hip remains dislocated. Failure to regain full flexibility and normal strength of the muscle-tendon unit results in increased risk of further recurrent injury. Terry Canale – Ankle Injuries) Rupture of muscles and tendons “The most frequent cause of partial or complete rupture of a muscle or tendon is eccentric overload of the muscle-tendon unit. It occurs primarily in conjunction with severe multiple trauma from high-speed motor vehicle accidents.” (Adapted from David G.Rupture of muscles and tendons) GLOSSARY rehabilitation = reabilitare fracture = fractură adjacent joint = articulaţie adiacentă to decrease = a reduce.” (Adapted from Barry B.” (Adapted from S. many specialists report that early mobilization for these injuries produces superior results to immobilization. the more likely is the possibility of complications. Most dislocations of the hip can be reduced by close manipulation and this treatment should take precedence over treatment of all other skeletal injuries. Even though immobilization allows the stretching of ligaments.10 ADINA RĂDULESCU Hip dislocation “Hip dislocation is an orthopaedic emergency and must be reduced immediately. rest and antiinflammatory medication.
A practical English handbook 11 to increase = a mări. adiţional 2. Then. a avea loc in conjunction with = în legătură cu avascular necrosis = necroză avasculară femoral head = cap femural arthritis = artrită to take precedence over smth = a avea loc înainte. hernie overload = încărcare excesivă muscle strain = întindere musculară failure = eşec. must etc) and write them down. may. insuficienţă further = ulterior. a avea prioritate faţă de skeletal injury = leziune a sistemului scheletic sprain = luxaţie. underline the passive ones as in the examples below: Example: Should begin Should be mobilized . intensifica splint = atelă brace = orteză foot attachment = dispozitiv de fixare a piciorului weight-bearing exercise = exerciţiu de susţinere a greutăţii corporale range of motion = grad de mobilitate strengthening exercises = exerciţii de întărire musculară to occur = a se petrece. Scan the texts above for modal constructions (can.English in Kinetotherapy. should. scrântire to relieve pain = a alina durerea swelling = umflătură rupture = ruptură.
+ ED ) . The pathologic anatomy must be carefully defined before treatment is determined. avoid mentioning unknown or indefinite subjects and focus on action and effect rather than on the agent that caused them. With modal verbs the transformation from active voice to passive voice is made by keeping the modal unchanged and using a passive infinitive: Active Voice → Passive Voice Should avoid → should be avoided (modal + BE + past participle – short inf. it may prove to be useful and practical in situations when passives are preferred to active constructions.12 ADINA RĂDULESCU ■ GRAMMAR PASSIVE MODAL CONSTRUCTIONS All scientific languages make use of passive constructions to express impersonal observations. on an empty stomach. These pills must be taken twice a day. Clinical instability may be caused by trauma. neoplastic or infections disorders. Spinal alignment can be obtained by skeletal traction. Here are some examples of passives constructions illustrated for modal verbs: Excessive flexion and extension of the neck should be avoided in spinal injuries. Even though the process of converting active constructions into passive ones seems to be artificial.
6. Insert the following modal constructions in their corresponding context. Both the examiner and the patient …………. in a hurry.. choosing the active or passive form that best completes the sentence: must be applied should wear first direct should be confirmed must be covered should not be done should not be rubbed must be used should may be selected may be 1. 8. A practical English handbook 13 Must take → must be taken (modal + BE + past participle – the 3rd form of irregular verbs) 3. Cleaning the wound ……………………. tendons and nerves. 10. Open hand wounds ………………. 3. Rewrite the following sentences in the passive voice. immediately with a sterile dressing to prevent further contamination. 2. The examiner …………… his attention to the circulation and skin and then to bones. manual or digital pressure …………… to the wound through the dressing. 7. 9. making the . Sterile instruments and gloves …………………….English in Kinetotherapy.. 4. 5. If bleeding continues. At times it ………… helpful to elevate the arm with the patient lying supine. Suspected damage to tendons and nerves …………………. 4. by direct vision. A regional block or general anesthetic …………… depending on the patient`s age and the severity of the injury.. masks when the wound is examined. The depth of the wound ……………………… with a sponge or a brush.
3. The examiner should advise the patient as to the extent of his injuries. . 1. 2. During weeks after nerves repair operation the patient should pay careful attention to avoid fixed contractures. The patients should also make monthly clinical evaluations. 8. Pacientul suspectat de fractură a coloanei vertebrale nu trebuie mutat până la sosirea ajutorului calificat.14 ADINA RĂDULESCU words in italics the subject of the sentence and placing. The surgeon must evaluate the extent of the skin loss from the injury. 4. the agent at the end of the sentence: Example: The surgeon should closely follow the progress of patient`s regeneration. After the operation the patient should begin progressive strengthening exercises. If suitable instruments are available and if the surgeon is rested he may undertake repair of severed nerves on the day of injury. 6. 7. 5. Surgeons can master microsurgical techniques only after countless hours of practice. Translate into English using passive modal constructions: 1. Dacă este imperativ ca pacientul să fie mutat. 9. The progress of patient`s regeneration should be closely followed by the surgeon (agent). 2. 10. The surgeon must avoid coffee just before surgery. During surgical procedures the assistants should use a double binocular microscope. The surgeons may delay the repairs of nerve and tendons. 5. when necessary.
dope sedativ pain killer analgezic. Această plagă ar trebui curăţată imediat iar fractura deschisă ar trebui imobilizată. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Patient`s symptoms and complaints Formal and informal medical terms Patients and therapists/doctors do not always use the same language. calmant 6. gâtul şi toracele lui trebuie susţinute în poziţia lor iniţială de către mai multe persoane. There is a certain difference between a formal medical language used between doctors and medical care takers. Here are some examples of the same notions with different formal vs. Primul ajutor în caz de rănire trebuie să fie întotdeauna rapid. 5. the scientific language of all medical texts and an informal medical language that non-specialists (patients) use to describe their symptoms or disabilities.English in Kinetotherapy. informal medical terms: Formal term contusion tenosynovitis arteriosclerosis sedative analgesic Informal term bruise Translation contuzie. Programul de recuperare motorie a pacientului ar trebui început la câteva săptămâni după operaţie. 3. A practical English handbook 15 capul. vânătaie inflamed tendons tenosinovită hardening of the arteroscleroză arteries sleeping pill. 4. Match the formal term in column A with its corresponding informal term in column B: . eficient şi de preferinţă efectuat de către personal calificat. In therapist-patient communications a common informal language should be used to ensure proper communication. even if they are speaking about the same things.
mandible 8. (Am o întindere musculară la deltoid.) . tachycardia 7. thyroid cartilage 2.) I have torn a ligament in my right knee.16 ADINA RĂDULESCU A 1. backbone k.ankylosing spondylitis 10. uterus 15. bad breath i. some examples of common complaints are presented below: Patient`s symptoms and complaints: • • • • • I have sprained my left ankle.) I have pulled a hamstring muscle. chest m. heart attack f. low blood sugar h. alopecia 5. dislocation n. myocardial infarction 9. maxilla 4. (Mi-am întins un tendon muscular. (Mi-am răsucit/ luxat glezna stângă) I have strained my deltoid muscle. bamboo spine c. womb j. palpitations e. spine 6. (Am o ruptură de tendon la coapsa dreaptă. hypoglycaemia 14. thorax 12. vertigo B a. upper jaw o. halitosis 3. influenza 13. flu l. baldness Without assuming to cover at least part of the symptoms and problems that patients may have when coming to see a kinetotherapist. (Am o ruptură ligamentară la genunchiul drept.) I have snapped a tendon in my left thigh. subluxation 11. lower jaw d. dizziness b. Adam`s apple g.
Identify each tense in the sentences above and say how they are formed. A practical English handbook 17 • • • • • • • • • I have got a cartilage problem in my left knee joint. torn) .) I have pins and needles in my feet all the time. formation: the auxiliary verb have + past participle of the regular verb sprain (short infinitive + -ed) Have torn = Present Perfect Simple. (Am o problemă la nivelul cartilajului articulaţiei genunchiului stâng. (Am o durere puternică în călcâiul stâng. tore.) I feel a tingling sensation in my fingers. (Simt o senzaţie de furnicături în degete. Example: Have sprained = Present Perfect Simple.English in Kinetotherapy.) I have got chilblains in my toes. (Am degetele/picioarele amorţite când mă trezesc. formation: the auxiliary verb have + past participle of the irregular verb tear (tear.(Îmi tremură degetele şi chiar şi mâinile.) My fingers tremble a lot and even my hands have started shaking. (Am suferit degerături la degetele de la picioare. 7.) I have got a severe pain in my left heel. (Am gleznele umflate. (Simt furnicături în picioare tot timpul. (Am crampe la gambe.) I have got swelling of my ankles.) I get cramp in my calves.) I have got numb fingers/legs when I wake up.) ■ GRAMMAR Present Perfect and Present Tense Simple are the tenses normally used to express complaints in the above sentences.
18 ADINA RĂDULESCU Present Perfect Simple is used in the above-mentioned complaints to express previous causes/injuries that still have a certain effect in the present. 2. I ________ already _________ (practise) this stretching exercise three times. . the symptoms presented are something felt as usual. My aunt`s fingers always __________ (tremble) when she ________ (give) me my monthly allowance. 4. _______ it _________ (hurt) if I touch your swollen ankle? ______ you _______ (feel) a burning sensation? 3. 4. Mi-am dislocat umărul stâng. I am still in hospital. Yes. I always ______ (get) cramps in my calves in the morning. 3. Translate into English using Present Perfect Simple and Present Tense Simple as in the above-presented examples of patient`s complaints. sometimes modal verbs are to be used as well: 1. Mi-am rupt trei coaste într-un accident de schi. Cred că mi l-am luxat. Am fost în spital şase săptămâni. _______ you ever ________ (sprain) your ankle? It`s not so bad but you have to stay in bed for a while. 5. I ________________ (not recover) yet. Mi-am fracturat şoldul şi am nevoie de exerciţii de reabilitare. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Tense Simple or Present Perfect: 1. Aş dori să am un grad mai mare de mobilitate. 9. 5. but you still ___________ (not do) it right. 2. Am adesea crampe durerose în ambele gambe după terminarea meciului de fotbal. Nu pot să-mi îndoi cotul drept. while Present Tense Simple makes these complaints a general fact. 8.
Am contracţii musculare în gamba stângă iar forţa mea musculară nu mai este aceeaşi. 10. improvement. A practical English handbook 19 6. THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES “The goals of therapeutic exercises include the prevention of dysfunction as well as the development. Am dureri de spate acute. endurance and cardiovascular fitness. Am o întindere musculară supărătoare la nivelul gâtului. 7. then translate it into Romanian. asking your colleagues – future kinetotherapists for help and advice. relaxation. Când mă scol dimineaţa nu-mi simt picioarele de la genunchi în jos. Am nevoie de câteva exerciţii de întindere pentru a-mi redobândi flexibilitatea. 8. mobility and flexibility. Am fost la mulţi doctori şi m-am horătât să încerc şi nişte exerciţii terapeutice. UNIT 6 THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – RECOMMENDING DIFFERENT THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES 1. Place yourself in a patient`s situation and complain about your symptoms.English in Kinetotherapy. Am o ruptură de tendon în deltoid şi nu-mi pot continua programul de antrenament pentru Olimpiadă. balance and . restoration or maintenance of strength. using the glossary below. coordination. Read the following text and write down the new words. stability. 10. 9.
with all body parts well supported and be taught to progressively contract and relax the musculature. either dynamically or statically. but for a relatively low number of repetitions. Stability is usually required in more proximal structures.the major goal of cardiac rehabilitation programs. the patient should be placed in a comfortable position. such as the trunk. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or generate tension. maintain a stable. at the same time. swimming and cycling and are to be prolonged and performed for 15 to 45 minutes or more. sustain that tension and resist fatigue over a prolonged period of time. well-aligned position while carrying out functional activities. a high-intensity exercise (exercise performed against heavy loads) must also be used. Strength is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to produce tension and a resulting force during a maximal effort. Thus. Relaxation refers to a conscious effort to relieve tension in muscles. It is necessary for performing repeated motor tasks in daily living. hips and shoulder girdle.Exercises promoting relaxation are based on the therapeutic use of reflexive and conscious processes.20 ADINA RĂDULESCU functional skills. for effective positioning and motion of the arms and hands or legs and feet. Exercises are usually directed to large muscle groups. as in walking. running. such as walking or climbing stairs. To produce greater muscular tension. To increase strength. lengthen and yield to a stretch force. Active exercises that challenge the oxygen transport system will increase endurance . in the relation to the demands placed upon it. It is dependent upon the extensibility of muscles. which allows muscles that cross a joint to relax. pain-free range of motion. a load that exceeds the metabolic capacity of the muscle must be used during exercise. Mobility of soft tissues and joints is necessary for the performance of normal functional movements. Flexibility is the ability to move a single joint or series of joints through an unrestricted.Stabilization exercises are the means by which a patient can learn to control proximal areas of the body and.This .
Foundations and Techniques) GLOSSARY dysfunction = disfuncţie restoration = refacere. Coordination.English in Kinetotherapy. restabilire maintenance = menţinere strength = forţă. Balance refers to the ability to maintain the center of gravity over the base of support. It is the basis of smooth and efficient movement that can occur on a voluntary or involuntary level. Finally.” (Adapted from Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise. It is a dynamic phenomenon that involves a combination of stability and mobility. visual) to enhance motor performance and as the quality of movement improves. use of sensory cues (tactile. so should the speed and timing of movements. balance and the acquisition of functional skills are all interrelated and are complex aspects of motor control. usually while in an upright position. vigoare endurance = rezistenţă fizică cardiovascular fitness = tonus cardiovascular balance = echilibru functional skills = abilităţi funcţionale load = greutate a high-intensity exercise = exerciţiu cu intensitate crescută fatigue = oboseală motor tasks = sarcini motorii . Coordination refers to the ability to use the right muscles at the right time with appropriate intensity. A practical English handbook 21 process is often coupled with deep-breathing exercise to further promote relaxation. functional skills refer to the varied motor skills necessary to function independently in all aspects of daily living. Learning functional motor tasks involves constant repetition of simple to more complex motor activities.
intensifica motor performance = randament motoriu timing = sincronizare ►◄ Pair-work 2. . strength is defined as ………. Question-answer exercise: Reread the text above on paragraphs. the goals of therapeutic exercises are…………. relaxa deep-breathing exercise = exerciţiu de respiraţie profundă acquisition = dobândire. întinde to yield to = a ceda.. obţinere smooth movement = mişcare lină. How is strength defined in the text? Well. if I remember corectly. One student will ask his/her colleague one or two questions for each paragraph and he/she should answer it either by reproducing fragments from the text or by freely expressing a summary of that fragment. a nu rezista la stretch force = forţă de întindere stable = stabil well-aligned position = poziţie corect adoptată carry out = a îndeplini. Here is an example for the first paragraph: Example: What are the main goals of therapeutic exercises? Well. let my see. a realiza to relieve = a destinde.22 ADINA RĂDULESCU to challenge = a solicita range of motion = grad de mobilitate to lengthen = a se lungi. fără întreruperi upright position = poziţie verticală sensory cues = indici senzoriali to enhance = a mări.
As for my mobility and flexibility. in your answers you can make use of the following assessment patterns or come up with new ones: • • • • • Well.). refusal.English in Kinetotherapy. Ask your deskmate to make a self-evaluation of his/her physical abilities (strength. Generally. muscular endurance etc. it says here that a high-intensity exercise…. if you get my meaning.). educational. there are some typical noun/ adjective/ adverb/ verb – forming suffixes and prefixes. usually). you either have it or not. it goes without saying that all I need is a little practice. Well.) or as an adjective (He was reading a very amusing novel. as a noun (Walking can sometimes be very relaxing. proposal and adjectives like in functional. For instance the suffix –al is used to form both nouns like in arrival. I have always had problems with balance. there are some adjectives . it is sometimes that does not improve with practice. 3. my strength is quite bad/ is not so bad/ is actually quite good/ is excellent…. Question-answer exercise: Try to find out how much you really know about your physical abilities. Still. my stability depends a lot on my mental stability. Muscular endurance is not my stong point. A practical English handbook 23 What should be done to produce greater muscular tension? Well. a state of nervousness will certainly be detrimental to my stability. WORD FORMATION – DERIVATION Derivation with suffixes and prefixes is one of the means of word formation. but there are cases when the same prefix or suffix is used to form different categories. daily.). to me. The suffix –ly is the most common adverbforming suffix (rapidly. to get back into shape. The suffix – ing is used to form the present participle that can be used as a verbal category (She came walking across the field.
Find the corresponding base forms (verbs. The following exercises are meant as forms of practising the word formation process. 4.24 ADINA RĂDULESCU that contain the –ly suffix: daily schedule. Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational nouns and include them into their corresponding suffix category as shown in the example: Example: -ion: prevention -ment: development -ance: maintenance -ness: fitness -ity: mobility -ing:walking 5. adjectives) and the corresponding suffixes for every derivational noun in the same text: Example: prevention ← prevent (verb) + -ion (suffix) mobility ← mobil (adjective) + -ity (suffix) 6. monthly payment. Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational adjectives and include them into their corresponding suffix category: Example: -ic: therapeutic -al: functional -ing: resulting -ed: prolongued -ive: effective -ly: daily -(i)ous: conscious -able: comfortable .
Extract from the text above (Therapeutic exercises) all the derivational adverbs and include them into their corresponding suffix category: Example: -ly: relatively -ally: dynamically 9.English in Kinetotherapy. Find the corresponding base forms (nouns. sometimes there are some slight spelling differences between the noun and its corresponding verb that can easily pass unnoticed: Verbs To practise To respond Nouns practice response . Find the corresponding base forms (adjectives) and the corresponding suffixes for every adverb: Example: relatively ← relative (adjective) + -ly (suffix) There are many nouns in English that have an identical form with their corresponding verbs: Verbs to pressure to question to estimate to exercise Nouns pressure question estimate exercise Yet. verbs) and the corresponding suffixes for every adjective in the text: Example: therapeutic ← therapeut (noun) + -ic (suffix) 8. A practical English handbook 25 -y: sensory 7.
12. 2. 10. Dean`s inclusion in our clinical study was more than vital. 9. examine prescribe operate assess decide retire interpret confirm immobilize rehabilitate swell treat dislocate inclusion_ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 12. Write in the second column the corresponding nouns for the verbs listed in the first column. 11. . Rewrite the sentences below using the nouns in the second column (exercise 11) instead of their corresponding verbs. 3. 6. 13. Give other examples of nouns that have the same form as their corresponding verbs and write contexts in which the same word functions both as a noun and as a verb.26 ADINA RĂDULESCU 10. Do not change the meaning of the sentences: Example: It was more than vital to include Mr. 1. Dean in our clinical study. The first one has been done for you as an example: include 1. 5. 11. 8. 4. Mr. 7. I will be able to tell you more after I examine the patient.
he will probably confirm your need for surgery. Strauss retires next month. Our clinic is specialized in rehabilitating patients who suffered severe injuries. To immobilize the patient`s fractured leg is one of the first aid measures to be taken. A deep-breathing exercise will help you relax. Here are some examples of such kinetotherapy exercises that therapists may recommend to their patients: Kinetotherapist`s recommandations: • • You should start with a very simple relaxation technique. What can I do if my ankle swells over night? 10. an emergency intervention is needed. she will have more time for her therapy. After the therapist assesses the patient`s needs. A practical English handbook 27 2. I cannot treat patients without their full consent and cooperation. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Recommending different therapeutic exercises Listening to the patients`complains and symptoms will normally be followed by the therapist`s recommandations regarding different therapeutic techniques and exercises. 5. 8. he will also decide a further treatment. 9. After the doctor interprets the results of your X-rays. 3. The surgeons operated on the injured man immediately. As Mrs. . 6.English in Kinetotherapy. If the patient`s shoulder is dislocated. 4. 7. You should not take these pills if the doctore did not prescribe them. 11.
Translate the above sentences into Romanian and say whether you are familiar with these exercises. 14. The best solution for you to regain your balance is to practise weight-bearing exercises. 15. As a gymnast. You can practise these self-stretching exercises as part of your home exercise program. In treating your spine injury. you need to practise strengthening exercises every day.28 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • • • • • • • Some massage sessions will be good for your local circulation. Passive stretching exercises will lengthen your shortened tissues. 16. give examples of such types of exercises. Consider yourself as a kinetotherapist. choose one type of the exercises above and explain the basic procedure to a colleaguepatient of yours. do not forget to practise your overstretching exercises. Considering your long-term immobilization. Este foarte important să-ţi alegi un program de exerciţii care să-ţi fie cu adevărat de ajutor. Translate into English using the new vocabulary: 1. . I recommend you to continue with joint mobilization techniques to treat your muscular stiffness. traction techniques are a good option. 13. Consider yourself as a patient with a certain dysfunction (you can choose one of the symtoms presented in Unit 5) and ask your colleague-therapist what exercises he would recommend you.
a. Exerciţiile de întindere sunt recomandate persoanelor în vârstă. Dacă vrei să-ţi corectezi postura corporală defectuoasă ar trebui să începi cu exerciţii de întărire a musculaturii slăbite. a hipomobilităţii articulare ş. Tehnicile de mobilizare a articulaţiilor sunt folosite în tratarea atrofiei cartilajului articular. forţa. Tehnicile de tracţiune sunt practicate pentru a se redobândi flexibilitatea. 10. Creşterea rezistenţei musculare va duce implicit la îmbunătăţirea tonusului cardiovascular. 4. Rezistenţa musculară nu este intotdeauna rezultatul antrenamentelor susţinute. Urcatul şi coborâtul scărilor într-un bloc fără lift. 3. 5. 6. alergatul după autobuz sau mersul pe jos ne ţin în formă în fiecare zi. A practical English handbook 29 2.m. UNIT 7 THERAPEUTIC PATIENT PROCEDURES IN HANDLING THE . Poţi să-ţi menţii echilibrul timp îndelungat pe o suprafaţă îngustă şi fiind legat la ochi? 9.d. a slăbirii ligamentoase. Exerciţiile de menţinere a greutăţii corporale ar trebui să înceapă cu reînvăţarea schimbării greutăţii corporale. 7. rezistenţa şi stabilitatea coloanei vertebrale. 8. indivizilor sedentari şi persoanelor care se refac după operaţii sau o imobilizare prelungită.English in Kinetotherapy.Toate capacităţile noastre fizice pot fi perturbate atunci când sunt nevoiţi să fim imobilizaţi la pat pentru o perioadă prelungită de timp.
D. in which case the movement is made in the frontal plane. side to side.” To increase flexion of the hip with the knee extended Hand placement: “With the patient`s knee fully extended. Stabilize the opposite extremity along the anterior aspect of the thigh with your other hand or a belt or with the assistance of another person. Manual resistance to the motion is added with pressure against the patient`s pelvis. For instances. flex the hip as far as possible. With the knee in maximum extension. Place both of your hands along the anterior aspect of the distal femur . begin in the parallel bars with part of the weight borne on the hands. and finally. Kneel on the mat and place the patient`s heel against your shoulder. Sinelnikov – Atlas of Human Anatomy) Weight-bearing control and stability “Develop ability to shift the body weight.30 ADINA RĂDULESCU PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE – positioning and handling the patient 1. Read the following extracts and then solve the tasks that follow them: “Movements at a joint are determined by the shape of the articular surfaces. If the patient cannot bear full weight. rotation about the vertical axis including pronation (medial rotation) and supination (lateral rotation). abduction and adduction about the anteroposterior axis. the following movements are possible at the shoulder joint: flexion and extention about the transverse axis with the movements occurring in the saggital plane. The patient shifts anteriorly. Alternate position. with the movement occurring in the horizontal plane. and obliquely.” (R. support the patient`s lower leg with your arm or shoulder.
extend the patient`s wrist. Name the type of therapeutic exercise that deals with controlling body weight. Foundations and Techniques) TASKS 1. Pull the calcaneus downward with your thumb and fingers and gently push upward on the heads of the metatarsals.English in Kinetotherapy. 2. The opposite extremity is stabilized in extension by a belt or towel and held in place by the therapist`s knee. Enumerate the movements that are possible at the shoulder joint. What is hand placement? 4.” To increase wrist extension Hand placement “Pronate the forearm and grasp the patient at the palmar aspect of the hand.” (Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise. To lengthen the wrist flexors. What should the therapist do to to lengthen the wrist flexors? 6. A practical English handbook 31 to keep the knee extended.” To increase dorsiflexion of the ankle with the knee extended Hand placement “Grasp the patient`s heel (calcaneus) with one hand. 3. What is recommended if the patient has a severe wrist flexion . Which parts needs to be stabilized in: hip flexion. ankle dorsiflexion and wrist extension? 5. Stabilize the anterior aspect of the tibia with your other hand. Alternate position: Support the patient`s forearm on the table but allow the hand to drop over the edge of the table. Stabilize the forearm. This may be more comfortable for the therapist or necessary if the patient has a severe wrist flexion contracture. allowing the fingers to passively flex. Then passively extend the wrist.
Complete the missing correspondent in the following adjectiveadverb pairs: ADJECTIVE possible manual ADVERB anteriorly to pronate to supinate . describe it to your audience. Pair work: Choose one of the last three therapeutic procedures and illustrate them.32 ADINA RĂDULESCU contracture? 7. Pair work: Repeat the task at point 8. first practise it with your deskmate and then. Invent one type of exercise for a certain purpose. 2. What objects does the therapist use in handling the patient? 8. this time with the therapist describing the procedure (in his /her own words) while illustrating it in front of the class. 10. 9. respecting the indications offered in the texts. Complete the missing correspondent in the following verb-noun pairs: VERBS NOUNS flexion extension abduction adduction rotation resistance pressure to stabilize to lengthen to support 3.
↓ ↓ subject agent Read the chart below to see how the active to passive . while the subject of the active verb becomes the agent of the passive verb. Learning how to use the passive forms of the most frequently used verbal tenses is the objective of this unit. As a general rule.English in Kinetotherapy. the passive voice is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the verb in the active voice and adding the past participle of the active verb. Example: Therapists sometimes hypnotize their patients. ↓ ↓ subject direct object The patients are sometimes hypnotized by their therapists. A practical English handbook 33 obliquely comfortable necessary gently passively fully horizontal severe ■ GRAMMAR PASSIVE VERBAL CONSTRUCTIONS In Unit 5 we have already introduced the issue of Passive Voice and exemplified its use in dealing with passive modal constructions. The direct object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb.
The ankle ___________________ (immobilize – Present Tense Simple) in a short cast for 3 to 4 weeks. 1.34 ADINA RĂDULESCU transformation works for the main verbal tenses: TENSES Present Tense Simple Present Tense Continuous Past Tense Simple Past Tense Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Simple Future Perfect Conditional Perfect Conditional Gerund ACTIVE VOICE treat PASSIVE VOICE am/is/are treated is/are being examined was/were injured was/were being transported has/have been found had been discharged will/shall be included will/shall have been healed would be recovered would have been saved being practised is/are examining injured was/were transporting has/have found had discharged will/shall include will/shall have healed would recover would have saved practising 4. The patient`s lower leg ___________________ (elevate – . Put the verbs in brackets into the passive voice of the tense indicated: Example: The range of motion of the ankle is restored (restore – Present Tense Simple) by performing stretching exercises. 2.
Change the following sentences from Active Voice into Passive Voice. 7. Injury or degeneration of the disk affects spinal mechanics in general. Successive weight-bearing stresses ________________ (impose – Past Tense Simple) on the feet. 10. 5. 6. the therapist will first take measures to alleviate the pain. 8. 1. Little effort _______________ (require – Present Tense Simple) to maintain this position for extended periods. These faulty foot postures __________________ (cause – Present Perfect) by the excessive adduction of the forefoot. Many balance activities _________________ (practise – Past Tense Simple) but without any result. the underlined direct objects will become the subjects of the passive sentences: Example: The patient sometimes describes pain from muscle spasm as a headache. Muscular endurance _________________ (increase – Present Perfect) by performing the same exercises for a repeated number of times. A practical English handbook 35 Present Tense Continuous) now. 3. 9. 3. 2. Pain from muscle spasm is sometimes described as a headache. If a disk lesion is the cause of the acute back pain. he should be placed in a less irritating position.English in Kinetotherapy. 5. If the patient is experiencing acute inflammation. The same motion ____ now ____________ (repeat – Present Tense Continuous) with the patient in alternate position. . The rehabilitation program ________________ (start – Future Tense Simple) as soon as possible. Ankle and foot motions ________ previously ____________ (perform – Past Perfect) by the patient. 4.
Read the following positioning indications to your colleaguepatient who will then illustrate them in front of the classs: • • • • • • • • • The patient is supine. In one of my patients with spondylosis. Imbalances in the shoulder girdle will perpetuate faulty postures. with the forearm supported on the treatment table. The patient is cross-sitting. The patient is on hands and knees. 6. The therapist will instruct the patient to avoid flexion activities that increase intradiskal pressure. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Positioning and handling the patient ►◄ Pair work 6. with hands placed under the shoulders. 7. 5.36 ADINA RĂDULESCU 4. The patient is side-lying. . The patient with acute disk lesions has avoided sitting with the hips and knees flexed or leaning forward. with arms in resting position. The patient is heel-sitting. The patient is sitting. 10. with the affected hip up. 8. The patient performs elongation exercises only within tolerance during the early healing phase. Many patients have often expressed emotional stresses as increased tension in their lumbar region. The patient is prone. wrist over the edge of the table. traction exercises temporarily relieved the pressure. The patient is supine. 9. The patient needs bed rest during the first 2days when symptoms are highly irritable. with the foot pointing upright to keep the hip neutral to rotation. The patient is hook-lying.
Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and abduct the shoulder to 90 . ☺Team work 7. stabilize the leg between your knees and place one hand on the anterior aspect of the tibia. Read the following hand placement and stabilization procedure indications to a therapist-patient pair who will then illustrate them in front of the classs. Stabilize the patient`s pelvis with the top hand or arm. Flex the patient`s hip and knee to 90 degrees. support the knee with the top hand. ☺Team work 8. Stabilize the patient`s pelvis by flexing the opposite hip and holding the thigh with the hands. with the hands placed in the low-back area. The hip to be mobilized is in resting position. Place a belt around your shoulder and under the patient`s thigh to help hold the weight of the lower extremity. Read the following therapeutic techniques to a therapist-patient pair who will then illustrate them in front of the classs: • • • • Perform elbow flexion and extension with the forearm pronated as well as supinated. Pull the foot away from the long axis of the leg in a distal direction by leaning backward.English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook 37 • The patient is standing. • • • • • • • Grasp the patient`s wrist with your lower hand. Support the patient`s leg with the fingers of the top hand under the patient`s knee and the lower hand under the heel. Sitting on a low stool. Place your thumb on the anterior surface of the proximal end of the clavicle.
The task for the other student is to write down the content of the exercise while watching it. He or she will read the text and then start illustrating the stages of the exercise. Plasaţi pacientul în poziţie de supinaţie. The patient bends his body sideways with one hand over his head. The movement is repeated three times for each side. 12. Rotate the humerus by moving the forearm like a spoke on a wheel. 7 and 8 above. The exercise will be repeated several times. using the examples provided in this unit and read them to your colleagues. 9. Here is an example of a hand out: Example: The patient is standing. cu . One student will be given a hand out containing indications for a therapeutic exercise. Translate into English. 11. Translate into Romanian all the sentences from the exercises 6. At the end the teacher or a third student will compare the two texts and comment on their degree of similarity. Flex the patient`s knee until discomfort is experienced in the anterior thigh.38 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • • degrees. Create your own therapeutic exercises. Then the patient returns to the initial position. Instruct the patient to arch the back by pressing against the floor with the back of the neck and the sacrum. ►◄Pair work 10. using the new vocabulary of this unit: 1. with the hands placed on the shoulders.
Aceeaşi mişcare se va repeta pentru braţul opus. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul aflat în sprijin pe mâini şi genunchi. Indicaţi-i pacientului să se aplece în faţă. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul este în poziţia stând pe călcâie. pe masa terapeutului. Read the following definitions and match the names of the . 6. 3. UNIT 8 MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS AND RECOMMENDING THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES 1. până ce abdomenul se va odihni pe coapsele anterioare. cu capul plasat la marginea mesei. cu capul între braţele întinse. 8.English in Kinetotherapy. lăsând-o să atârne pe lângă masă. Prindeţi încheietura mâinii pacientului şi rotiţi-i braţul. Indicaţi-i pacientului să-şi întindă mâna de deasupra peste cap. Poziţia trebuie menţinută pentru câteva minute. cu pacientul aşezat în poziţie simetrică. Poziţie iniţială: pacientul este aşezat pe-o parte. 5. 9. Indicaţi-i apoi pacientului să încerce să facă aceeaşi mişcare singur. 10. 2. 7. 4. Indicaţi-i pacientului să-şi menţină greutatea corporală pe mâini şi genunchiul stâng şi să-şi întindă uşor genunchiul drept în spate. Greutatea corporală va fi apoi mutată pe mâini şi pe genunchiul drept iar piciorul stâng va fi întins. A practical English handbook 39 mâinile întinse lateral.
Seventy percent of individuals die within 5 years of diagnosis. Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis Osteoporosis Low Back Pain Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis A. . and. 3. E. D. A rapidly progressive. arthritis. a tumor. or excessive physical effort involving the back muscles. A generalized. A systemic inflammatory disorder affecting primarily the spinal column and the large peripheral joints and eventually resulting in hardening and deformity of the affected skeleton. progressive reduction of bone mass as bone resorption outstrips bone formation. the entire body. B. 6. or a ruptured cartilage disk between vertebrae. arms. May be caused by a muscle sprain or strain. 4.40 ADINA RĂDULESCU disorders listed below with their corresponding definitions: 1. sagging abdominal muscles. A chronic degenerative disease process occurring primarily in the hips and knees and characterized by deterioration of the joint cartilage. eventually. causing skeletal weakness and fractures. 5. enlarged prostate gland. degenerative disease of the upper and lower motor neurons characterized by atrophy of the hands. formation of new bone in subchondral areas and joint margins. legs. Other causes are poor posture. 7. and joint hypertrophy. C. obesity. sitting for prolonged periods of time. 2.
A chronic systemic degenerative disease characterized by inflammation of the connective tissues and manifested primarily in and around peripheral joints.English in Kinetotherapy. afecţiune. întrece subcondral areas = zone subcondrale ruptured cartilage disk = disc cartilaginos rupt poor posture = postură defectuoasă sagging muscles = muşchi căzuţi. lăsaţi lining = îngroşare tendon sheath = teacă/înveliş al tendonului ♦ PRONOUNCING TONGUE-TWISTERS Mastering stress-emphasis is one of the keys to pronouncing multisyllable medical terms. boală primarily = în primul rând to harden = a întări bone resorption = resorbţie osoasă to outstrip = a depăşi. A practical English handbook 41 F. An inflammation of the tendon and lining of the tendon sheath characterized by pain on movement of the associated joint. especially in multi-syllable words. English makes use of a primarily/strong stress ( that has this graphic symbol: ') placed before the stressed syllable and of a secondary/weaker stress (that has this graphic symbol¸ ) that usually precedes the primarily stress. G. Example: . 2. using the words in the glossary: GLOSSARY disorder = disfuncţie. Translate the definitions above into Romanian.
column. fracture. spondylitis. disorder. excessive.te . discharge. progressive. emergency. deformity. weakness. systemic. pneumonia. endurance. pulmonary. Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ □ a . rotate. combination. cartilage. treatment. arthritis.42 ADINA RĂDULESCU circulation [¸s∂: kju'leiſn ] inflammation [¸infl∂'meiſ∂n ] □□■□ □□■□ Note – for the following pronounciation exercises each student should make use of an English dictionary that contains phonetic transcription. Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ spi . alternative. diagnosis. phenomenon. effective. independent. 3. disease. restoration.tro – phy □■□ sys . saturated. sclerosis. hypertrophy. peripheral. Place the following two-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern:spinal. tendinitis. resistance. maximum.nal □■ ro . skeleton. reduction. voluntary. posture. ability. muscle. lateral.tate 4. ankle. bandage. relaxation. surgery. . acute. tumor. compatible. physical. Place the following four-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern: vaccinated. penicillin. formation. prostate. Place the following three-syllable words in their corresponding stress-emphasis pattern: atrophy.mic 5. circulation.
deterioration. osteoarthritis. stiffness following inactivity. osteoporosis. Men and women are equally affected. Find the corresponding stress-emphasis pattern for the following multi-syllable words and draw their graphic reprezentation: degenerative. A practical English handbook 43 Example: first syllable stress second syllable stress ■□ □ □ vac-ci-na-ted third syllable stress □■□□ pneu-mo-ni-a □□■□ in-de-pen-dent 6. musculoskeletal. cardiovascular. amyotrophic. tenosynovitis.English in Kinetotherapy. rehabilitation. individual. but the Symptoms early symptoms: deep. aching joint pain that is aggravated by exercise and that worsens as the day progresses. pathophysiologic. midcourse symptoms: . extensibility. Example: De-ge-ne-ra-tive □■□□□ AND RECOMMENDING DESCRIBING SYMPTOMS THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES Read about the main causes and symptoms of the musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders in the following chart: The disorder 1. Osteoarthritis Causes The etiology is unknown but is believed to be related in some way to aging and genetics.
reduced joint motion. and stiffness in affected joints (most often the fingers) that occurs in a bilateral. joint deformity and subluxation. knees. the incidence increases after menopause. pain with passive range of motion. grating sensation. limited motion of lumbar spine 2. midcourse symptoms: tenderness. tenderness.44 ADINA RĂDULESCU onset in men occurs earlier. increase in degree and duration of pain. diminished joint function. weight loss. low-grade fever. malaise. early symptoms: nonspecific symptoms of fatigue. joint contractures and deformities. In women. stooped posture. and ankles. elbows. flexion contractures. and a familial link is suspected. paresthesia. anorexia. crepitus. A higher than expected level of HLA-B27 tissue antigen is seen in 90% of individuals with the disease. morning stiffness that is relieved by activity.Ankylosing Spondylitis the exact cause is unknown. It is three to four . pain. women are three times more likely than men to be affected. joint enlargement late symptoms: tenderness on palpation. symmetric pattern and spreads to the wrists.Rheumatoid Arthritis The etiology is unknown but the disease is often characterized as an autoimmune disorder. 3. early symptoms: recurrent pain in the lower back or large peripheral joints.
English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook times more common in men than in women, and onset typically occurs between 20 and 40 years of age. or limited range of motion in affected joints; fatigue; fever; anorexia; weight loss; diminished chest expansion; red, painful eyes. late symptoms: kyphosis, fixed flexion of hips, vertebral fractures, impotence, incontinence, diminished bladder and rectal sensation, angina, pericarditis, pulmonary fibrosis (rare). A dull, aching, constant pain and spasm; column diminishes, lordosis leading to compression in the the bones, back muscle spinal mass dorsal increase, multiple fractures particularly chest; the
Inadequate calcium intake, early menopause, sedentary life-style, a familial hystory of the disease, endocrine disorders, prolongued immobility
kyphosis and cervical
of the spine and a 5. Low Back Pain Muscle sprain or strain, arthritis, a tumor, or a ruptured cartilage reduction in height. The pain may be accompanied by muscle weakness or spasms. It may radiate down the
ADINA RĂDULESCU disk between vertebrae; poor posture, obesity, enlarged prostate gland, sagging abdominal muscles, sitting for prolonged periods of time, or excessive physical effort involving the back muscles. Repetitive movements, strain, or excessive, unaccustomed exercise; underlying systemic disease (rheumatoid arthritis, gout, sclerosis); middleaged and older adults and athletes or individuals with occupations requiring repetitive motion are at greatest risk. The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unknown, but proposed explanations include genetics, metabolic disturbances, and back of one or both legs, as in sciatica. It may be started or increased by coughing, sneezing, rising from a seated position, lifting, stretching, bending, or turning.
6. Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis
The involved tendons usually show visible swelling; the joint may be tender and hot to the touch; motion of the joint causes pain.
7.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
early symptoms: weakness, cramps in the hands and forearms. midcourse symptoms: fatigue; dyspnea; slurred speech; dysphagia; asymmetric spread of muscle weakness to the rest of
English in Kinetotherapy. A practical English handbook external agents. the body; spasticity; fasciculations; hyperactive deep tendon and extensor plantar reflexes. late symptoms: paralysis of vocal cords; paralysis of chest muscles, necessitating ventilatory support.
►◄Pair work 7. Check if your deskmate has attentively read the chart by asking him/her questions like these: What are the main causes of low back pain? What are the early symptoms in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis? • What are the late symptoms in Ankylosing Spondylitis? • The symptom of which disease is the visible swelling of tendons? • Which parts of the body are affected by pain in Ankylosing Spondylitis? • In which diseases does stiffness affect various parts of the body? Take turns in asking and answering various questions. 8. Extract or create sentences using the chart above and ask your deskmate to say if they are true or false. Example: Athlets or individuals with occupations requiring repetitive movements are very likely to suffer from Tendinitis and Tenosynovitis. → True • •
Rheumatoid Arthritis 3. Osteoporosis 5. The patient should use a straight-backed chair and not cross or extend the legs.48 ADINA RĂDULESCU Men are three times more likely than women to be affected by Rheumatoid Arthritis. muscle relaxants. d. Physical therapy. e. 10. postural training. Therapy and exercise to increase range of motion. rest of joint with controlled progressive exercise program. canes. paraffin gloves to reduce pain and edema. walkers to aid mobility. Check the symptoms in the chart above so as to make the appropriate choice of the therapeutic exercises: The disorder 1. Low Back Pain . Translate the content of the chart above using a medical dictionary. moist compresses. Osteoarthritis Therapeutic exercises a. Match the disorders in the first column with their corresponding therapeutic exercises in the second column. splints. strength. and tranquilizers may help. Physical therapy to maintain muscle 2. traction/back brace in special cases. the patient may increase activity if fatigue is avoided. b.Ankylosing Spondylitis 4. c. The patient should sleep on a firm mattress with the knees flexed and supported. → False 9. and endurance. Moist heat compresses to joint. exercise. balance of activity and rest. Pain killers. as may applying dry or moist heat. A corset or back brace may be required. When the pain subsides.
the difficulty and the expected results of such an exercise programme. recliners. Consistent exercise regimen. A practical English handbook strength. balance exercise. wear sturdy. f. occupational therapy for activity of daily living support. including weight-bearing hyperextension and resistance exercises to slow calcium loss and strengthen musculature. Consider yourself as a kinetotherapist and choose the best way to recommand the corresponding therapeutic exercises to your colleague . splints for neutral joint alignment. Here are some examples to help you: Example: Therapist`s recommandations: • Considering your aggravated joint pain and your stiffness . canes. pillows under knees. Use the charts with medical information. canes. Exercise: isometric. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ►◄ Pair work 11. strengthening. leg braces. 49 6. walkers to aid mobility. walkers to aid ambulation. rest. heat and massage for muscle spasm. speech therapy to aid communication. orthopedic supports for back and neck to prevent stress fractures.patient who may ask you many questions regarding the duration. isotonic. massage.English in Kinetotherapy. moist heat for pain. Avoid: soft chairs. isokinetic. Tendinitis Tenosynovitis and 7. lowheeled shoes. use firm bed and hard chairs. stretching. g. elastic bandages for support. symptoms and treatments above. range of motion.
you should really take some urgent measures and start your therapy. Your low back pain now radiates down the back of both your legs. Patient`s questions: • In what way will my general condition be improved after starting these therapeutic exercises? • How long will this therapy be and how many sessions a week are necessary? • Will this therapy be painful? How difficult are the exercises? • Do I have to make any changes in my diet or in my daily routine? • Will this short-term therapy prevent the disease from getting worse? . it is to your best interest that you should start these therapeutic exercises. I do not want to put any pressure on you. And as things are not getting better. but I do believe that you should consider starting your physical therapy as soon as possible.50 ADINA RĂDULESCU • • following inactivity.
the pain is usually relieved with activity. consult the glossary below and translate the text into Romanian: POSTURAL PROBLEMS “Posture is a position or attitude of the body. A postural fault is a posture that deviates from normal alignment but has no structural limitations. The postural pain symdrome refers to the pain that occurs from mechanical stress when a person maintains a faulty posture for a prolongued period. strength and flexibility imbalances will eventually develop. .English in Kinetotherapy. or a characteristic manner of bearing one`s body. Lordotic posture This posture is characterized by an increase in the lumbosacral angle. A practical English handbook 51 UNIT 9 POSTURAL PROBLEMS CONDITIONAL CLAUSES THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE COMMUNICATION – IMPROVING 1. the relative arrangement of body parts for a specific activity. There are no abnormalities in muscle strength or flexibility. Read the following text. but if the faulty posture continues.
” (Carolyn Kisner&Lynn Allen Colby – Therapeutic Exercise. Foundations and Techniques) .52 ADINA RĂDULESCU an increase in the lumbar lordosis. sits down for a meal. enters a room. Relaxed or slouched posture This posture is also called swayback. resulting in flexion of the thorax on the upper lumbar spine. The entire pelvic segment is shifted anteriorly. with periodic shifting of weight to the opposite extremity. waits at a red light while driving a car. This results in an increased lordosis in the lower lumbar region. If the patient becomes aware of his/her daily routines. and a posterior tilting of the pelvis. depressed scapulae. It is not normal for a person to always maintain good posture. and usually a forward head. a decreased lumbar lordosis. or begins talking with someone. resulting in hip extension and the thoracic segment is shifted posteriorly. and a flat-neck posture. It is associated with an exaggerated military posture but is not a common postural deviation. This is often seen with an increased thoracic kyphosis and forward head and is called a kypholordotic posture. Flat upper back posture This posture is characterized by a decrease in the thoracic curve. hip extension. they can be used as reminders to practise maintaining a good posture. and an increase in the anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion. an increased kyphosis in the lower thoracic region. the patient can be instructed to check the posture every time he or she walks past a mirror. Flat low-back posture This posture is characterized by a decreased lumbosacral angle. depressed clavicle. the person usually assumes an asymmetric stance in which most of the weight is borne on one lower extremity. the patient should be instructed to use cues throughout the day to check posture. For example. When standing for prolongued periods. Therefore.
After reading about the four faulty postures. borne = a purta. When does postural pain syndrome occur? 4. What postural habit does the slouched patient manifest while . schimba stance = poziţie. Check your reading comprehension by solving the following tasks: 1. What are the visible signs of kypholordotic posture? 6. a duce flat low-back posture = postură aplatizată a zonei inferioare a spatelui flat upper-back posture = postură aplatizată a zonei superioare a spatelui thoracic curve = curbură toracică depressed scapulae = omoplaţi căzuţi. 3. postură bear. cocârja swayback = înclinare spre spate to shift = a deplasa. What happens if a patient continues to maintain a faulty posture? 5. try demonstrating each of them in front of the classroom. lăsaţi flat-neck = gât întins cues = indicii throughout the day = pe toată durata zilei 2. A practical English handbook GLOSSARY 53 to bear one`s body = a-şi susţine corpul postural fault = defect postural mechanical stress = solicitare mecanică imbalance = dezechilibru eventually = în cele din urmă pelvic tilt = înclinare/aplecare pelviană forward head = cap împins către anterior to slouch = a se gârbovi. bore. 2.English in Kinetotherapy. Define in your own words what a postural fault is.
There are three main types of conditional clauses and various mixed types. 8. using certain pairs of tenses. present/past conditions. 9. . 10. present or future oriented Present tense simple If you get tired. Each type is used to express different real/unreal. Imperative take a break and then start again. in your opinion? How do you correct your faulty postures when you become aware of them? ■ GRAMMAR CONDITIONAL CLAUSES Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the subordinate clause or the if-clause and the main clause. tense pain Main clause Future tense simple strength imbalances will develop. Present simple If the increases. Meaning Real situation. standing? What are the characteristics of flat upper-back posture? What methods can a patient use to correct a faulty posture? What are the causes of faulty postures. Modal verbs the patient must/should see a doctor. There are also many exceptions from each type but students dealing with conditionals for the first time should simply concentrate on the basic rules that will be presented in the following chart: Types Type I If-clause Present tense simple If the faulty posture continues.54 ADINA RĂDULESCU 7.
wishes to change the past) 55 If I were you. A practical English handbook Type II Past tense simple/continuous would could + short should infinitive might I would try the new procedure. he could come to his sessions. If you had practised your therapeutic exercises. hypothetic situation. you would have felt better. If the patient ……………. past oriented (regrets. If he had more time. If she did what the doctor says. present or future oriented. unlikely to happen Imaginary situation. to feel discomfort. 2. If you were able to notice what posture causes your low back .English in Kinetotherapy. Unreal. Fill in the gaps with the verbal constructions in the box to complete the following conditional clauses: may simply disappear would not have felt had performed is begins knew check should get up cannot relax could control 1. TypeIII Past perfect simple/continuous If I had known anything about first help. would could + have + should past might participle I could have helped the injured cyclist. unfulfilled plans. 3. she might have a chance to avoid surgery. ask him to corret the faulty posture.
If the mattress ……. (not fall) on ice and (2) ……………. 3. I had fallen on ice and broken my leg. 5.. some measures (9) ……………………. (rest) comfortably on the floor. 4. 6. (express) their complaints. (not be) so high. If she had slept in a comfortable bed.. 8. If he ………………. …………. your morning pains ……………………… . posture. (not brake) my leg. I should complain about all these to our personnel manager. If you have a sedentary job. you ……………. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: a) I met my wife in hospital ten years ago. my feet (7) ……………. 7. too soft. My back is killing me! Not to mention the chair! If it (6) ……. 10. he would not have got stiff-necked. I would not hesitate to immediately adopt it. his relaxation exercises..56 ADINA RĂDULESCU pain. b) If this desk height (4) ………… (be) adequate. Just imagine! If I (1)…………. you …………………… it. so tired in the morning. If I ………… what my ideal sleeping posture is. If you are experiencing any pain. If more employees (8) ………….. (not have to) lean over my work. and walk every hour. So I could say that there is nothing so bad as not to be good for something. 4. the patient sags and stresses ligaments.. If you modify your sleeping posture. I (3) …………………. (never meet) her.. She was a nurse in my orthopaedics ward. I (5) …………………. If the mattress is too firm. (passive – . she ……………………. some patients ………………. 9.
that it all happens for a reason… Take my example. The old man got panic-striken. 5. 4. If the patient had slept on a firm mattres. A practical English handbook 57 take). b) The patient did not sleep on a firm mattress. But here I am now… working in this rehabilitation clinic… If people (12) ……… (know) how to deal with their disabilities. My mother has a low resistance. Rewrite the following sentences. (be able) to accept them more easily. I worked hard to finish my science project. If (10) ……………. he will need physical therapy. c) You know what they say. they (13) ……………. He had to take pain killers and muscle relaxants for his poor back. That is why the patient may run the risk of paralysis. 5. he would not have had to take pain killers and muscle relaxants for his poor back. If the patient suffers from osteoporosis.English in Kinetotherapy. (passive – not be) injured in that car accident last year. exercise and postural training. exercise and postural training. 3. then he will need physical therapy. His heart started beating more rapidly. . She catches diseases very easily. He got injured in a football match. Then. He had his left leg broken.. This injury is severe. I had mild low back pain for a week after. 1. I (11) …………… (accept) that job offer in Paris. 2. using an if construction: Example: a) The patient suffers from osteoporosis.
That is why he needed that urgent treatment. Dacă persistaţi în a vă menţine defectele posturale pentru mult timp. 6. 5. These therapeutic exercises are to be practised every day. You do not spend enough time relaxing. trebuie în primul rând să-ţi modifici obiceiurile posturale. 9. Translate the following conditional sentences into English: 1. 7. 6. Nu poţi obţine stabilitate posturală dacă nu înveţi să-ţi controlezi greutatea corporală. Dacă vrei să-ţi uşurezi acestă durere acută. corectează-ţi imediat această tendinţă nesănătoasă. Dacă meseria vă solicită să staţi aplecaţi pentru perioade îndelungate de timp. The infection spread. 10.58 ADINA RĂDULESCU 6. 4. 3. That is why you are always complaing about being tired. Dacă aş fi ştiut că oboseala musculară măreşte riscul de accidentare. 8. Dacă eşti obosit şi te simţi mult mai relaxat într-o poziţie gârbovită. He has the surgery right now. 2. nu m-aş mai fi antrenat atât de mult. Dacă practici aceste exerciţii regulat. nu uitaţi să faceţi o pauză scurtă din oră-n oră şi să vă faceţi . 7. The diagnosis is correct. The family will have to evaluate their options. aceasta va duce la slăbire musculară şi la rezistenţă musculară redusă. They prevent the patient`s condition from getting worse. The chances of success may increase to about 20%. vei dobândi flexibilitatea şi rezistenţa necesare pentru menţinerea stabilităţii spinale.
9.GETTING A POST-PRACTISE FEED-BACK FROM THE PATIENT Example: Do you see my point?→B. Dacă pacienţii ar fi mai conştienţi de programul lor de mişcări sigure. 8. nu le-ar mai fi teamă de o nouă accidentare. locul de muncă etc. Dacă un pacient cu handicap fizic vrea să fie independent.Dacă pacienţii doresc ca programul lor de exerciţii să fie eficient. 10. THERAPIST`S INSTRUCTIONS B. scaunul din maşină. ar trebui să cunoasă mai întâi foarte bine tehnicile posturale şi numai apoi să le şi execute. CHECKING IF THE PATIENT GOT THE MESSAGE C. A practical English handbook 59 exerciţiile de întindere. BUILDING MUTUAL TRUST F. scaunele.English in Kinetotherapy. OFFERING ASSISTANCE FOR THE PATIENT D. ENCOURAGING THE PATIENT E.(CHECKING IF THE PATIENT GOT THE MESSAGE) 1. Insert the sentences below in their corresponding semantic class: A. ☼ THERAPIST-PATIENT DISCOURSE Improving communication 7. el va trebui să înveţe cum să-şi modifice mediul înconjurător: patul. Lean backward and hold the stretch! .
26. 16. 21. 3. Create your own therapist-patient dialogues using the semantic classes above and the examples provided for each class. 8. 23. Follow the logical order of asking questions (first the instructions. 9. 12. 22. 29. 4. 18. 19. 27. 28. Tuck in your chin and lift your head. 13. 15. resting your abdomen on the anterior thighs. 5. 7. 25.60 ADINA RĂDULESCU 2. 17. 24. Did you get it right? Is this too difficult for you? I`m right here if you need me! Don`t worry! I`ll keep an eye on you! You can do it! Give it another try! Need I say this again? You have to trust me on this! Have the cramps gone away now? Lean forward. Did you get my message? Do you still feel pins and needles in your feet? I give you my word on this! Don`t you doubt it! Lift both arms simultaneously. Did you take my hint? If you need a helping hand… I`m not going anywhere! Do your best! It`s worth trying! Does it still hurt when you flex your knee? You will have to learn to trust me. Are your fingers still numb now? 8. 14. then the . 20. 10. 6. 30. 11. Does this make any sense to you? Don`t hesitate to ask for my help! You had to deal with worse than this before! Can you manage practising this exercise by yourself now? You have to take my word for it! Are you with me on this? Don`t give up! One more try! Have you experienced any muscle spasms during this exercise? Bend your trunk laterally and hold the position.
I am calling to fix an appointment.English in Kinetotherapy. Read the following types of dialogues and match them with their corresponding titles: 1. are you married? Mr. hello. Let me check his schedule. Dr. but they are no longer living with us. And my father suffers from osteoarthritis. 6. Mr. A practical English handbook 61 checking part and so on so forth). Thomson: What about your parents? Are they in good health? Mr. may I help you? Mr. 9. Stiff: Yes. Wilkinson. . B. Dr. 5. at 11 a. it would not be the case. Fixing an appointment Changing an apointment Returning a call Taking a family history Taking a social history Examining a patient A.? Mr. Dr. Thomson: Do you have any children? Mr. Jones: Yes. thank you. please. Hello. Secretary: Right. Stiff: My mother died last year. Thomson: Well. Secretary: Call us. of course. Secretary: Wilkinson Rehabilitation Centre. Jones: Oh. 3. what about 21st of September.Stiff: Yes. to see Dr. that`s better. Jones: Thank you. you see… Secretary: Well. who isn`t ? Dr. Thomson: I`m sorry to hear that. 2. 4. Er… how about 25th of September? Mr. I `m afraid it is a bit late. I have an urgent matter. Bone cancer. in case you can`t make it.m. Jones: Oh.
I`m Jones. I called you a couple of days ago… Secretary: Yes. Walsh? Dr. Mrs. come to see me tomorrow and we`ll discuss more about it. Mrs. Jones. Dr. doctor? Dr. Hello. Slender: Oh. D. Mrs. in my left thigh. It is good that you returned my call. Spike: Right here. Dr. hello. What can I do for you? Mr. Dr. Jones: It is about my appointment. Mr. I wonder if we could possibly move it to the 25th of September? Secretary: First of all. Mrs. but just sprained. Walsh: No. I have done this many times… Dr. Slender: Hello. Mrs. Spike: Okay. Walsh: Yes. I have just received your Xrays and it looks that your ankle is not broken. Richards: Could you just take off your clothes so that I can examine you? Mr. Richards: Would you. Jones: Yes. Jones. lie flat on the couch for a few minutes? Can you now show me where it hurts? Mr. Walsh: Speaking. I won`t be able to make it. Dr. Slender: Is there anything wrong. please. hello. Slender here. Mr. Secretary: Wilkinson Rehabilitation Centre. what a relief! Dr. Slender. Walsh: Please.62 ADINA RĂDULESCU C. nothing to worry about. E. when I return to the initial position. Richards: Can you raise your left leg for me? And hold it for a second? Does it hurt when you rotate it? Mr. Mrs. you change your appointment at . may I help you? Mr. Slender: Ah. Spike: A little bit.
. How to focus your effort. The first examination. Thomson: Have you pushed yourself too hard lately? Mr. Explaining how the devices work.. Proposing a new experimental programme. Create your own dialogues. Stiff: Yes. Dr. Dr. etc. Stiff: You know how things are. Dealing with home exercises programme. isn`t it? Mr. Jones: I`m very sorry if I have cause you any inconvenience. two more years till my retirement. you are still working. Recommending a better treatment. ►◄ Pair work 10. Otherwise…. starting from the following titles: Introductory dialogues. Stiff: I`m afraid this is not an option in my field. but you should consider retiring…. I am no longer young and keeping up with the newly hired …… Dr. I hate to bring you the bad news. Thomson: Yes. Dr. Thomson: Then. Shall I call back another time? Secretary: We have your phone number and if someone cancels an appointment we`ll let you know. Jones: Thank you for your trouble. Thomson: What about your working hours? Have you considered working part-time? Mr. Programming the first session.English in Kinetotherapy. Mr. A practical English handbook 63 short notice and then you want to fix the day for your future appointment? Mr. F.
64 ADINA RĂDULESCU UNIT 10 REVISION EXERCISES 1. Complete the following sentences using the nouns in the box: dislocation cartilage balance postural fault muscular dystrophy fracture spinal column joints cardiovascular disease range of motion exercise .
and movements in natural directions of arms and legs. any body action involving the muscles.. 3. 8.English in Kinetotherapy. A …………………… is a posture that deviates from normal alignment but has no structural limitations. is made up of 33 vertebrae that are separated by spongy disks and protects the spinal cord that runs inside of it among other things. nose. 5. may cause problems with the heart and blood vessels.. The ………………. and ear. . Being placed in a supine position means: a) lying flat or face downwards. as the voicebox (larynx).. 7. or synovial. that connects and supports. windpipe (trachea). the chest. this applies most often to a bone moved from its normal position with a joint. A practical English handbook 65 1. A ……………… is an injury to a bone in which the tissue of the bone is broken. In all forms of …………………… there is a slow loss of strength with increasing disability and deformity. 10. 9. ……………… is the displacement of any part of the body from its normal position.. The ………………. It is found mostly in the joints. The connections between bones are called ………… each being classified according to structure and movability as fibrous. ………………………. 2. 4. Choose the right version that best completes the sentence: 1. A …………………………. cartilaginous. usually while in an upright position. refers to the ability to maintain the center of gravity over the base of support. joints. ………………. 6. is a tissue made of cells and fibers. and stiff tubes of all sorts.. 2.
b) Ankylosing Spondylitis. d) to turn the arm around its own axis. is a generalized. d) side-lying. c) Rheumatoid Arthritis. a) strenghtening exercises. To adduct the arm means: a) to draw or pull the arm towards the median axis of the body. sedentary lifestyle. c) slouched posture. …………………………. .. c) sitting cross-legged. b) lordotic posture. An abnormal. c) Osteoporosis. 4. with one arm up.66 ADINA RĂDULESCU 2. Inadequate calcium intake. with the face. 5. d) Osteoporosis. palm.. a) Osteomyelitis. b) to flex and elongate the arm successively. reversible joint hypomobility. a) Osteoarthritis. d) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. prolongued immobility are some of the causes of ……………. a) kypholordotic posture. are necessary to treat joint dysfunctions such as stiffness. b) Osteoarthritis. 6. c) to pull away the arm from the median axis of the body. early menopause. progressive reduction of bone mass as bone resorption outstrips bone formation. causing skeletal weakness and fractures. or pain. endocrine disorders. …………………. b) lying or resting on the back. d) flat low-back posture. 3. etc upwards. increased degree of forward curvature of any part of the spine is the characteristic of …………….
immobilize. palpation Example: examination ← examine (the root-verb) 4. questioning. selection. decision. development. increase. diminish. repeated. compress. interpretation. repetitional adverb repeatedly 5. adjectives and adverbs from the following verbs: affect. explain. disturb. adjective repeatable. ……………………………… is the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly or generate tension. d) mulcular extensibility. suspect. Find the root-verbs that the following nouns are derived from: examination. repeater. include. c) muscular contraction . propose. diagnostician. repeating. sustain that tension and resist fatigue over a prolonged period of time. expect. information. treatment. reduce. repeat. A practical English handbook 67 b) stretching exercises. 3. aggravate. contract. limit. radiate.English in Kinetotherapy. a) muscle strength . d) joint mobilization exercises. paralyse. retirement. c) weight-bearing exercises. swell. Example: verb repeat noun repetition. assessment. function. b) muscular endurance . 7. Derive the corresponding nouns. Find the corresponding stress-emphasis pattern for the .
decrease. A. Warm muscles relax and (2)……………. fasciculation. Complete each space with a word formed from the words in capitals. Warming up soft tissues prior to stretching will increase the (1) …………… of the shortened tissue. As the temperature of muscle increases. compression. making stretching more (3) ………………….. kypolordotic. tranquilizer. 6. more easily. strengthening. Although stretching is often thought of as a warmup activity and performed prior to (5) …………… exercise. duration. aggravated. EXTEND LENGTH COMFORT APPLY VIGOUR PREPARE DEBATE . the amount of force required to elongate noncontractile and contractile tissues and the time the stretch force must be (4) ………………. contracture. the clinician and patient must always remember that an appropriate warm-up must also occur in the (6) …………………. It is (7) ………………… whether heating should occur prior to or during the stretching procedure.. lumbosacral. stiffness. inactivity. deformity. alignment.68 ADINA RĂDULESCU following two/three/four/multi-syllable words and pronounce them accordingly: affected. subluxation. pericarditis. for the patient. hyperextension. for stretching. disease. recliner.
experience and any measurement must .. view. to the patient who may find that it is making his or her life (2)…………… .. as it is part of being human to make mistakes (7)……………. The energy that goes into its arousal could often be more (3) ……………….. Always remember that pain is a/an (1) ……………. of other people. A practical English handbook 69 B. one can try stepping back mentally to get a more (8) …………………. Some anger may serve a (1) ………… purpose. to be made.. Pain is a/an (3)…………. response takes over. • giving oneself (6)……………… to make a mistake. many situations contain ambiguities which allow (4) ………………. much anger however. is purely (2)………………. • introducing humour at (9)…………. Read the text below and choose the version that best completes the empty spaces: Pain is often the reason why the patient has come for attention in the first place.English in Kinetotherapy. spent in solving the problem. Here are some ways in which anger can be controlled: • reinterpreting the stimulus in a more positive light. USE DESTRUCT PROFIT REINTERPRET EXPECT PERMIT OCCASION OBJECT SUIT RELAX 7. when a person smiles and laughs the (10) …………….. • being realistic in our (5)………………. moments... if circumstances seem to be overwhelming. • distancing oneself.
Patients will describe pain (8) ………. or in terms of its evaluative qualities. If pain lasts for many days. . cold sweat. Severe pain causes pale skin. even with some pain. pain (7) …………. the (13) ………… to fight infections may be lost. face and body movements. for example shooting. speed of speech. a) on 7. Specific diseases and injuries and the health. "(9)……. sickening. groans.a) bulk 12. a) intolerable 3. and blood pressure may not go up much. but a patient can learn to live almost (15) …………. a) to 6. a) talent b) reality b) impossible b) objective b) doubt b) among b) of b) limit b) either b) road b) relation b) tension b) rhythm b) volition c) dream d) perception c) easier d) irritating c) personal d) subjective c) subjectivity d) error c) with d) from c) in d) with c) degree d) level c) neither d) nor c) goose d) heat c) test d) pressure c) spasm d) strain c) beat d) tempo c) ability d) capacity . bumps. a) group 11. a) or 9. When brief.. annoying. a) individual 4. for example vicious. the pulse (12) ……. a) illusion 2. fear and anxiety. 1. sharp. a) point 8. unbearable..70 ADINA RĂDULESCU incorporate a degree of (4) ………………. many different physical and mental factors. It is hard to (14) ………… strong or long-term pain. different people and depend (6) ……. in terms of its sensory qualities." wide pupils. a) rate 13.. a) hen 10. the pulse may be slower and the blood pressure lower than before the pain began. cries.. Reactions to pain vary widely (5) …………. and muscle (11)………… .. and higher levels of pulse. a) objectivity 5. breathing rate.. or attempts to withdraw are noted by the physician. blood (10) ………. cruel. for example intense. If pain occurs often or is long term. or other sounds. strong pain starts to go away. and ethnic background all affect reactions to pain. The patient's tone of voice. burning or in terms of its affective qualities.
such as toe touches. An effective stretching or flexibility routine should not cause pain or excessive stress to tissues. a) relieve b) cure c) release d) solace 15. 3. A practical English handbook 71 14. (not stress) joints and ligaments at the end . 9. may maintain or overstretch a mobile area. 2. 3. You would have avoided overuse symdromes if you ………………… (perform) proper warm-up. 9. To avoid injuries from stress. Strengthening programs tend to overemphasize flexion exercises. When performing this kind of stretch. People often use inappropriately the phrase “No pain. you should use appropriate equipment. You will warm up the tissues with gentle rhythmic activities. Patients should slightly bend their knees when performing forward-bending exercises. 10. Identify the type of the following conditional sentences and fill in the missing tenses or modal constructions to complete them: 1. Begin the passive sentences with the underlined words: 1. Total body streching. she …………………. 7.. Increase the pace of activity so that you can maintain the target heart rate for 10 to 20 minutes. Turn the following sentences from active voice into passive voice.. such as correct footware. 2. 5. you ………………… (decrease) effort and rest between sessions. If pain begins while exercising. If she really wanted to protect vulnerable joints. no gain” as the guideline for intensity of stretch.English in Kinetotherapy. 8. Patients should perform flexibility exercises prior to and after a strengthening program. you must keep your shoes on. 6. 4. a) usually b) patiently c) regularly d) normally 8.
10. without using a dictionary: a) Inability to reverse the normal lumbar lordosis on flexion occurs in degenerative arthritis. primary or metastatic cancer. and thus they are managing dysfunctions better and with less trauma. (be) stretched. Limited lumbar flexion is characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis.72 ADINA RĂDULESCU of the range. Muscle elongation or active inhibition techniques are used to counteract the loss of flexibility in the contractile elements of . 9. the soleus ………. therapists have identified and learned techniques that deal more directly with stretching the source of limitation. b) Normally. If he wanted to increase his muscular endurance. 4. Over the past 30 years. the therapeutic approach was to stretch the region with passive stretching techniques. compression fracture or herniated disk. jogging or aerobic dancing on hard surfaces such as asphalt and concrete. leukemia. If you do not want to be injured during your aerobic program. 7. 10. 6. (perform) the exercises with many repetitions and minimal resistance to the point of muscle fatigue. it ………………… (be) safer to selectively stretch tight structures than the total body. (keep) your knee straight. 8. Concentrate on stretching the tight muscles. If you …………. she …………………. Localized bone pain suggests such disorders such as osteomyelitis. 5. he ……………………. If your patient were excessively mobile in a segment of his body. If you bend your knee.. Translate intoRomanian. you …………… (avoid) running. the gastrocnemius is stretched. (feel) much better. If your sister had practised aerobic activity 3 to 5 times per week. if there …… (be) decreased flexibility between antagonistic muscle groups. when a patient had limited range of motion.
Simţiţi cum începeţi să vă relaxaţi. Ar trebui să simţiţi o întindere plăcută în zona şoldului. cu tălpile unite către interior şi cu genunchii îndreptaţi lateral către exterior. Health care professional increasingly find themselves faced with groups of people who are struggling to give up cigarettes and for whom relaxation training hes been prescribed. Quitting is associated with stress. în primul rând .English in Kinetotherapy. b) Staţi aşezaţi. 11. Observaţi priveliştea. Translate into English: a) Staţi întinşi sau aşezaţi într-o poziţie pe care o simţiţi comodă. eliminând tensiunea de peste zi. However. and joint mobilization and manipulation techniques are used to safely stretch or snap structures to restore normal joint mechanics with less trauma than passive stretching. which means that the same people may be seeking relaxation training. c) It could be argued that smoking has more to do with relaxation than smoking abstinence has. Plasaţi-vă mâinile în jurul gleznelor şi odihniţi-vă coatele pe coapse. many such people then wish to quit smoking. Închideţi ochii. Apăsaţi apoi din nou. c) Pentru a învăţa să conduceţi relaxaţi. permiteţi-i locului dumneavoastră special să ia contur în imaginaţia dumneavoastră. încercaţi să simţiţi cum muşchii se relaxează. cross-fiber massage techniques are used to increase mobility in selected ligaments and tendons. Apoi odihniţi-vă. sunetele şi mirosurile acestui loc. Pe măsură ce trupul şi mintea se calmează. Apoi. A practical English handbook 73 muscles. and many people become smokers because they perceive cigarettes as being a source of mental calm. Apăsaţi uşor cu coatele asupra coapselor.
obişnuim la modul inconştient să ne întindem. Dacă observaţi că aceste grupe sunt tensionate. Elasticitatea este una dintre proprietăţile ţesutului muscular care nu numai că permite muşchilor să funcţioneze mai bine.74 ADINA RĂDULESCU identificaţi grupele musculare de care aveţi nevoie pentru condus. Se pare că trupul nostru ne-o cere. după ce stăm cu orele la birou. relaxaţi-le. d) Exerciţiile de întindere sunt atât de utile pentru că ajută la menţinerea elasticităţii. cum ar fi muşchii feţei. sunt relaxaţi. Nu uitaţi zona umerilor. dar îi şi protejează faţă de o posibliă accidentare. De multe ori. Verificaţi dacă şi muşchii pe care nu-i solicitaţi când conduceţi. Menţineţi-vă relaxaţi şi atunci când viraţi sau schimbaţi viteza. -ae/bony ring = spinal cord/marrow = rib = articular cartilage = sternum/breastbone = thoracic cage = shoulder girdle = coloana vertebrală vertebră măduva spinării coastă cartilaj articular stern cuşcă toracică centură scapulară . după ce am stat mult timp în aceeaşi poziţie. după ce lucrăm aplecaţi în grădină… GLOSSARY spine/spinal column/backbone = vertebra. Ne întindem după ce dormim.
scapulă claviculă os sacral coccis articulaţie articulaţie fibroasă articulaţie sinovială articulaţia şoldului articulaţia genunchiului articulaţia gleznei craniu ţesut ţesut conjunctiv călcâi membru nară cartilaj tiroidian ceafă axilă. calves = shin/cannon bone = patella. subsuoară încheietura mâinii articulaţia degetului şold coapsă gambă. -ae/knee cap = instep = sole = bowels = diaphysis = epiphysis = epiphyseal cartilage = blood vessels = muscle bulk = muscular contraction /cramp = omoplat. A practical English handbook 75 scapula/shoulder blade = clavicle/collarbone = sacrum = coccyx = articulation/joint = fibrous joint = synovial joint = hip joint = knee joint = ankle joint = cranium/skull = tissue = connective tissue = calcaneus/heel = limb = nostril = thyroid cartilage/Adam`s apple = nape (of the neck) = axilla/armpit = carpus/wrist = knuckle = hip = thigh = calf. -e tibia. fluierul piciorului rotulă scobitura gleznei talpă intestine diafiză epifiză cartilaj epifizar vase sanguine masă musculară contracţie musculară .English in Kinetotherapy.
panglică de măsurat goniometru ciocănel pentru testarea reflexelor vată eprubetă umblet. mers ţinută.76 ADINA RĂDULESCU muscular endurance = muscle fatigue = muscular hypertrophy = muscle tone = hypotonic muscles = hypertonic muscles = muscle rigidity = muscle spasm = spasticity = muscle sprain = muscle strain = muscle strength = muscular tension = muscular weakness = hypokinesia = hyperkinesia = stasis = muscular dystrophy = electromyography = cartilage disk = arthritis = medical history = medical examination sheet = testing devices = tape measure = goniometer = reflex hammer = cotton wool = test tube = gait = mien = rezistenţă musculară oboseală/extenuare musculară hipertrofie musculară tonus muscular muşchi hipotonici muşchi hipertonici rigiditate musculară spasm muscular spasticitate luxaţie întindere musculară forţă musculară tensiune musculară slăbire musculară hipokinezie hiperkinezie stază distrofie musculară electromiografie disc cartilaginos artrită anamneză foaie de observaţie clinică instrumente de testare ruletă. comportament .
calmant myocardial infarction/heart infarct miocardic attack = halitosis/bad breath = halitoză alopecia/baldness = alopecie tachycardia/palpitations = tahicardie hypoglycaemia/low blood sugar hipoglicemie = hyperglycaemia/ high blood hiperglicemie sugar = ankylosing spondylitis/bamboo spondilită anchilozantă spine = sprain one`s ankle/wrist= a-şi luxa glezna/încheietura mâinii strain one`s muscle = a suferi o întindere musculară a-şi întinde un tendon pull one`s hamstring muscle = splint = brace = weight-bearing exercise = . hernie sterile dressing = pansament steril anesthetic = anestezic contuzie.English in Kinetotherapy. vânătaie contusion/bruise = tenosynovitis/inflamed tendons = tenosinovită arteriosclerosis/hardening of the arteroscleroză arteries = sedative/sleeping pill/dope = sedativ analgesic/pain killer = analgezic. A practical English handbook 77 atelă orteză exerciţiu de susţinere a greutăţii corporale range of motion = grad de mobilitate exerciţii de întărire strengthening exercises = musculară avascular necrosis = necroză avasculară skeletal injury = leziune a sistemului scheletic umflătură swelling = rupture = ruptură.
78 ADINA RĂDULESCU tear/pull a ligament = snap a tendon = chilblain/frostbite = cardiovascular fitness = plaster bandage = plaster cast = sticking plaster = muscular a suferi o ruptură ligamentară a suferi o ruptură de tendon degerătură tonus cardiovascular pansament gipsat formă/matriţă de gips leucoplast .
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L. B. R. Musculoskeletal Disorders. M. A practical English handbook 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY Buschbacher. Diagnosis Butterworth –Heinemann. . Practical Guide to and Rehabilitation. Randall.. 2002.English in Kinetotherapy.
Payne. 1985.A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. . Hutchinson. D. . Greenbaum.Effects of immobilization on the extensibility of periarticular connective tissue. Human Kinetics. McCarthy. T.Relaxation Techniques.Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.Vocabulary. Haeper Collins Publishers. Word Formation. R. . ..ESP ideas. J. . 1991. . Oxford Advanced Learner`s Encyclopedic Dictionary.English Phonetics and Phonology.International Medical Communication in English. 1990. London. Philadelphia. Saunders Company. L.. T. New York. D. Churchill Livingstone. 1997. . Longman. and Yung. S. Ed.86 ADINA RĂDULESCU Cobuild. C. 1981. Pârlog. . Garrison. A Workbook for . S. Champaign.Anatomy. Blackwell Scientific Publications. I. Davis Company. R. 2000. F. Lippincott Company. first published 1996.Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Basics. E. J. Edinburgh University Press. second edition. R. Edinburgh. H. first published 1985.Health/Fitness Instructors Handbook. M. W. . Recipes for teaching professional and academic English. . Foundations and Techniques. Hollis.English for Specific Purposes.1991. Descriptive and Surgical. . Leech. B. R. C. B. M. first published 1989. L. and Waters. A... G. Bucureşti. Svartvik. and Owens-Burkhart. Maher. Cambridge University Press. H. the Promotional Reprint Company Ltd. Riley. . B. 1996. L. Howley. . C. 1995 Quirk. Randall. and Franks.. . A Practical Handbook for the Health Care Profesional. P.English Guides. A. Donatelli. Kisner. Oxford University Press. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. Gray. . . J. A. 1986. Oxford:Oxford University Press. J. A. first published 1987.Check Your Vocabulary for Medicine. ALL. first published 1990. and Colby. Holme. H.Patient Examination and Assessment for Therapists. B. 1995.Therapeutic Exercise. Longman.
A Practical English Grammar. . Oxford University Press. 1992. Moscow. Science and Medicine. Merk Research Laboratories.1 – The Science of Bones. A. vol. MIR Publishers. Oxford University Press. A.V. R. Peter Collin Publishing. Paideia.J. . Joints. The Oxford-Duden Pictorial English Dictionary. Zaharia. Thomson. A..Elemente de patologie a aparatului locomotor. D.Atlas of Human Anatomy. 1986. Ligaments and Muscles. U. C. The Merk Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Sixteenth Edition. . S. and Martinet. A practical English handbook 87 Users. .. Bucureşti. 1994. first published 1988. Ed.English in Kinetotherapy. Sinelnikov.
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