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New Concepts in Foot Function and Gait Analysis Assessments and Treatments
Foot Function and Gait Analysis?
Specific here, it is the examination, investigation and study of the function of the foot and gait during activities such as walking, running, jumping, standing and those other associated to sport events.
Presented By: Norman Murphy, PhD
Purpose of Presentation
Present biomechanical parameters obtained from pressure mapping. Illustrate the biomechanical parameters used i assessments and for treatment of d in t df t t t f foot function and gait. Present example applications. Follow-up with a hands-on practical demo session.
What are the Biomechanical Parameters For Assessment?
Pressure Profiles & Distribution Peak Pressure Values Force Curve & Load Patterns Center of Force (CoF) Location CoF Trajectory Timing Integral / Impulse Stability / Instability Measures Sway and Balance
What is Gait?
Gait refers to the manner and style of walking or running.
Oh la la… Don’t Worry… Be Happy…
Not all of the Biomechanical Parameters just listed are used when doing an assessment. Each event or activity and the nature of the y situation dictates the parameters to use in the assessment. So, how are the parameters obtained? As the subject stands, walks, runs, jumps, etc… on the pressure mapping system, the forces are recorded.
As the body moves over the weight-bearing foot. They are also referred to as maps. The weight-bearing foot also serves as the pivot point at which the body advances. Graph for one step Without orthotic With orthotic What are Pressure Profiles ? They are color representations (distribution) of the calculated Pressures over a period of time. and are being measured. • Three approaches in display are used: 1) Plantar pressure profiles 2) Graphs (curves) 3) Tables (numbers) What are Force Curves ? They are the graphic representation of the measured Forces over a period of time. Kg/cm2 The Force vs.5/24/2011 Specifically. Time (Load Pattern) Graph Force Time Force is represented by the vertical axis Time is represented by the horizontal axis Pressure Column Dark Red = high Dark Blue = low Dark Blue = low 2 . note that the body moves far more than the weight-bearing foot. the ground reaction vertical forces applied to the plantar foot change with body position. and then presented in visual displays for subsequent analysis and interpretation. Pressure Mapping Measures Compression Forces What is Peak Pressure ? It is the specific area (black box) where there is the highest amount of pressure. Display of the Biomechanical Parameters After the events have been recorded the biomechanical parameters are calculated. Weight bearing foot In the diagram above.
A 50% drop in force or loading. An increase to about 10% more than the 1st peak. Indicates a rapid initial loading. Without orthotic With orthotic Where = CoF = Trajectory For Example. Time curves What is CoF Trajectory ? It is the path that of which the Center of Force (CoF) follows over time (such as in during the stance phase). Assess on the Relationship Between the Force Curves and the Pivots What is Timing ? It is the amount of time the segments of the feet are in contact with the ground. Time (Load Pattern) Graph 2 3 4 What is Center of Force (CoF) ? It is the point where all Forces acting on the plantar foot may be considered to be concentrated. 4. Can Isolate Foot Segments to Analyze & Interpret Load Patterns Then concentrate on the actual foot and its pivots: Foot (Red box) Heel (Green box) Forefoot (Magenta box) A Graph is generated with the respective Force vs.5/24/2011 Example of a Force vs. A rapid decline in force to 0. At heel strike At mid-stance mid- Foot (Gait) Heel Forefoot 3 . At heel strike During stance Where = CoF 1 1. 3. This curve is also a sample pattern of the vertical force (Gait) curve during the stance phase of walking. 2. and the speed with which they move during the stance phase.
a distinction is often made between “posture”. “sway” and “balance”. Sway and Balance For example. With cushioning Without cushioning Standing on Individual Foot Example for the CoF ( ) Location Left Right 7. at intersection of the midline between the feet and at level of the mid-tarsal (mid-foot). optimal CoF location is located in a minimal area of displacement (sway).73 kg/cm2*sec Stability / Instability Measures Posture. and preserving equilibrium when in motion. Without orthotic 0.5/24/2011 What is Integral ? It is the relationship between the amount of Pressure (load) that is applied throughout a period of Time. Sway and Balance When applied to the human body. when standing up-right.22 kg*sec 10. The following defines these three concepts: Posture is the relative alignment and orientation of the segments of the body. Sway is the oscillating movement of the body.Ellipse Displacement of the CoF: Total Linear Distance A-P and M-L Variance (Variability in Displacement) Displacement Pattern Body Weight Distribution 4 .50 kg/cm2*sec CoF optimal plantar location MidMid-Line Pressure Profile Mid tarsal What is Impulse ? It is the relationship between the amount of Force (load) that is applied throughout a period of Time.68 kg*sec Stability / Instability Measures Clarification on Posture. Gravity Line Alignment Ali t Line With orthotic 0. It is the “sense of balance” that allows to stand upright or move. Balance is the harmony between the manner of swaying and maintaining posture. What are the Stability / Instability Measures? Area of Sway for the CoF . without falling over.
Left-Right CoF Movement Anterior-Posterior CoF Movement Following are some examples where pressure mapping and its related biomechanical parameters are applied. Posture misalignment Treated 5 . and the variability in its displacement during the event. Left vs. Posture misalignment Treated What is Body Weight Distribution ? It is the percent (%) of body weight bearing by segments of the feet during the event.5/24/2011 What is Ellipse ? It is the elliptical region (area) in which the CoF traveled (moved) during the event. Indicators to assess pre-post treatment (performance) outcomes. Forefoot Posture misalignment Treated What is Displacement ? It is the distance (excursion) traveled by the CoF during the event. Posture misalignment P t i li t Treated T t d In Summary for Application Biomechanical measures from pressure mapping are tangible & measurable parameters that can be used as: Desired performance and/or treatment outcomes to achieve. What is Displacement Pattern ? It is the graphic display of the manner in which the CoF traveled during the event. Right and Rearfoot vs.
5/24/2011 Example of Applications Example of Applications Example of Applications Example of Applications Example of Applications Example of Applications 6 .
5/24/2011 Example of Applications Example of Applications Example of Applications Example of Applications Outcomes of the study 7 .
• Applying the training and treatment as such. outcomes • Preparing the training program and/or treatment protocol such to meet the outcomes. • Analyzing.5/24/2011 In Conclusion What is the “magical recipe” for successful biomechanical based performance assessments and treatments? Skill and Science The Skill resides in: • Setting desired & expected biomechanical outcomes. THANK YOU! 8 . interpreting and ensuring that the biomechanical outcomes are met or achieved. The SCIENCE resides in: • Measuring biomechanical (parameter) outcomes.
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