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Dear students, below are study questions for test two.

They may be useful guide for your preparation for test 2. Especially students who got below 60 percent on test one must study hard and be able to answer all these questions. Test two will be of the same format and the same difficulty as test 1. Rome: 23. Who were the founders of Rome? Latins along the tiber river 24. What were the two major social groups in ancient Rome? Patricians and plebians 25. What was the role of the Etruscans for ancient Rome? Formed political structure 26. What were the major political developments in Rome during the centuries between 509 and 287 B.C.E.? res republica was established, then changed to a democratic republic 27. What was the Concilium Plebis? Principle popular assembly of the ancient roman republic made up of plebians 28. Who were the tribunes? Ten elected officials. Had the power to convene the plebian council and veto the senate if they didnt like a certain law. 29.What power did tribunes have? veto 30. What were plebiscites? Plebeian decree 31. What were the chief religious deities in Rome? Jupiter, mars, isis, and cybele 32. Who invaded the Latium in 387 and what was the result of this invasion? 33. What was the Latin League?

A confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region near ancient rome organized for mutual defense 34. What city in northern Africa was the most powerful commercial center in western Mediterranean that became the chief rival of Rome? carthage 35. What was the result of the Punic Wars? Carthage no longer existed and rome expanded and took over all of their land. 36. What were the causes of Roman territorial expansionism? Carthage was defeated 37. What was the major economic and political impact of Roman territorial expansion? Decline of small farmers because of frequent warfare and a rise of latifundias 38. What were the latifundias? Large plantation that used slaves and produced cheaper goods 39. Why did Tiberius Gracchus propose the land reform? Poor people were granted more land 40. What were the major developments in Rome under the emperor Octavian Augustus? Egypt was annexed 41. Who were the so-called barbarians? Germanic tribes and the huns 42. Why did Diocletian try to reorganize the Roman Empire? To prevent invasions 43. What were the major developments in the Roman Empire under Constantine? Edict of Milan, moved capital to Constantinople 44. Why did the Roman Empire collapse? Barbaric invasions disturbed commercial activities 45. What were the major differences between literary traditions of the Golden and Silver ages? The golden age focused on philosophy, political theories, and ethics, while the silver age mostly comprised of satire. 46. What were the major achievements of the Romans in architecture and building? Roman arch and road building 47. Compared to the Greeks, what Roman cultural achievements tended to be? 48. What Roman historian wrote about the Germanic people in the 1st century? 49. Who wrote The Aeneid? virgil 50. Who wrote On the Nature of Things? lucretius Christianity: 51. What were the Dead Sea Scrolls?
Scrolls discovered by bedoine boys, were in Hebrew and contained some Essenes reglious practices. Contained fragments of the old testament

52. What were the Sadducees, Pharisees, Zealots and Essenes? These were all different sects in Judaism (Sectarianism) 53. What people did Jesus address in His teaching? Followers (the essenes sector, founded his own Sect.) 54. How the word messiah is translated into Greek? Christos (Christ) = Messiah The People Jesus preached to now viewed him as the Messiah (all during Roman dominancy) 55. What was the significance of Paul of Tarsus? Converted to Christianity, introduced idea of universality (Jesus died alone for sins of everyone and not only those he preached to) 56. What were the reasons for the spread of Christianity? Receptive spiritual environment (people seeking spiritual balance), monotheistic world view now appealing, universal appeal and strong idea of resurrection 57. Why did the Romans persecute early Christians? Viewed them as a threat, they refused to sacrifice to the official Roman Gods and they were pacifists (refused to work in Roman military) nonviolent 58. Why did early Christians refuse to sacrifice to the official religions cults of Rome? They believed in one God, belief in the God father and that Jesus was his son 59. What was the role of the emperor Diocletian in persecution of Christians? Introduced laws to reinforce Roman religion, laws said that anyone who refused to sacrifice to the official Roman Gods was to be sentenced to death. He was responsible for the numerous persecutions of christians 60. What Emperor issued the edict of toleration and when? Emperor Constantine in 313 (during his rule) Edict of Milan 61. What did the edict of toleration propose? It tolerated all religious practices and it made Christianity the official Roman Religion (Constantine and Helen converted) 62. What does the Latin expression Hoc vinces mean? In this, you will conquer 63. What were Christians granted in 319? Freedom of worship by Emperor Constantine 64. What Emperor gave Christians freedom of worship? Constantine 65. How did Constantine change the course of Roman history? Made Christianity an official Roman religion (Replaced the worship of official Roman Gods) 66. Who were presbyters? Early leaders in Chrisitan churches (referred to as Bishops) 67. What does the word patriarchate mean?

Leaders of the churches in largest cities (Milan, Rome, Alexandria etc.), higher ranking bishops in the church 68. What does the word dogma define? Established belief or acceptance of belief in a doctrine 69. What did the Christian church address at the Council of Nicaea? Addressed issue that arose between Arians and roman church representatives. Issue was weather Jesus was of the same essence/substance as the God father 70. What was the resolution of the Council of Nicaea? Doctrine of Trinity (The father, the son and the holy spirit) 71. What doctrine defined the theoretical and biblical basis of papal authority? Doctrine of Petrine succession (authority of the pope) 72. What was the significance of St. Jerome for the early Christian church? Translated bible to latin (Romans could now use the as they were latin speaking people) 73. What was the significance of Cyril and Methodius for the Eastern Christian church? Made the Slavic translation of the Bible, now all Slavic speaking people could use the bible. Slavic people = Russians, USSR, Slovakia, Chezk Republic, etc.) 74. What does the word heresy refer to? Proposal of change to an established belief/religion The Byzantine Empire. 76. What city became the most vigorous religious and cultural center of the late Roman Empire? Constantinople (Byzantine initially) 77. What were the major political and religious institutions of the Byzantine Empire? Mainly followed Christianity, emperors were heads of the church (however this was opposed by many including the pope), Christian institutions were created and doctrines were passed, split occurred and two sections emerged in the church (ie. Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthadox) 78. What does the word strategoi mean? Military leader/governor 79. What were the achievements of the emperor Justinian? Responsible for most of the Byzantine expansion and reclaimed old roman colonies, introduced centralized authority and paid professional bureaucracy to the muslims from the Ottaman empire 80. What was the Corpus Juris Civilis? They were a set of roman laws collected into numerous volumes (replaced 12 tables)

Were a body of civil laws available to everyone and used throughout the lands (Roman lands) 81. What Byzantine emperor began to systematize and codify the Roman law? Heratius (part of his bia for centralized authority) 82. Who was Theodora? Was part of the Orthodox church and was empress of Byzantine in the later part of Byzantines existence 83. What did iconoclasm mean? Removal of icons, statues and pictures from churches, belief that worship of icons is pagan and was stated in the old testament, dispute when Leo the asaurian ordered removal of all pictures and icons. Pope Gregory II opposed this and brought it to and end when emperor argues that iconoclasm should not be practiced. 84. Why did the iconoclasts want to destroy images? Believed it was pagan 85. What issues further contributed to the split between the Western and Eastern Christian churches? Dispute in the doctrine of petrine succession, iconoclasm, dispute in interpretation of Peter/Pieter. Now 2 parties competed for converts (using missionary efforts to win converts) 86. What did the bishop of Rome and patriarch of Constantinople issue in 1054? Split occurred between the east and west churches, issued this split 87. What were the major cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire? Silk trade was prominent, revenue came mostly from industries. Missionary efforts emerged, corpus Juris civilizations Secular and theological universities were created Developed medicines 88. Who was Procopius? A prominent Byzantine scholar 89. What were the major factors that led the Byzantine Empire to decline? Ottoman (muslim) takeover, many disputes involving the church that led to a divided empire. Foreign invasions from Germanic tribes and Persians 90. What was the major significance of the Byzantine Empire for Eastern Europe? Contributed largely to religion and laid down the foundations of Christianity Brought about missionary efforts which are still going on today Spread Christianity through western and central Europe as well as the western middle east Islam and Islamic Civilization

General Questions: 1. Describe the Arabian Peninsula before the Prophet Mohamed. What was Arabian society like before Islam? What were the basic political and social institutions? What were the basic characteristics of the Arabian economy? What where the main features of the religious beliefs of people in Arabia? What was the prime problem of Arabia before the coming of Islam? What were the prime targets of the Quaranic message in Arabian society? a. small clans existed, settled in mobile settlements in areas near a water source. Cities existed with little/no central route b. followed polytheistc and animistic views, and also had influence from Christianity and Judaism. Was more domestic and less developed c. Had clans with leaders. United to form tribe in times of crisis. Communities were mixed (Bedonins, Christians and Judaists) d. Trade prominent, sedentary agriculture and herding (animal wealth) e. Animistic and polytheistic beliefs. All clans had their specific Gods, generally believed in God among Gods named Allah f. Frequent warfare and disunity (disorganized society) g. Believe in Allah and you will achieve salvation 2 Describe the main features of the Islamic world view and compare them with these of Christianity and Judaism. What were the main features of the Islamic faith and law? a. many parallels between Christianity, Judaism and Islam. All have the idea of salvation and judgement day b. Islam recognized Jesus as a prophet. All these religions came from the abrahamic belief at this time 3.Describe early Islamic society. What where the primary institutions and kinds of leadership in that society? Discuss the spread of Islam and the conversion of the subject populations. h. traders were not violent people, were united until death of Muhammad i. Caliph was the head and ruled as deputy of the phrophet, Elders were highly respected and they chose the Caliph j. Easily accepted and very appealing all over Euroasia,

missionary efforts in Africa and now we have muslim natives all over N. Africa due to these efforts 4. Discuss the intellectual, cultural and scientific achievements of Islamic civilization. What role did other cultures play in it? What where some of its chief accomplishments? a. great medicine achievements with Auicenna and Al Razi., Chemisty excelled with emergence of evaporation, distillation and crystilizatoin, Great philopopher Al- Husum b. provided basic knowledge that could now be expanded and used as a starting point, greek medicine achievements (Hospital), Pharmacy, Math and Astronomy Specific Questions: 1. How did the geography of Arabia influence forms of social organization? Clans were located primarily at the sites that had water, had mobile settlements and sedentary agriculture 2. What are the major characteristics of Arabian society before the prophet Muhammad? Polytheistic/Animistic beliefs, lived in Clans that had specific Gods, clans united in times of crisis and voted leaders, Bedouins (herders) hence mobile settlements (searched for Pasteur) 3. Who were the Bedouins? Herders/pastoralists 4. What are the principal features of Bedouin economy? Cattle, sheep, camels, goats. Trade also played a big part 5. What were the chief cities in Arabia before Muhammad? Mecca (religious and commercial center) and Medina (Birth City of Islam) 6. What were the major economic activities in Mecca and Medina? Herders, agriculture, most prominent factor was trade, Industries also emerged as Islamic empire grew 7. What was the Umayyad? Was the clan that Muhammad came from, these people had the first dynasty in the Islamic civilization 8. What were the principal features of religion in Arabia before the rise of Islam? Polytheistic/Animistic religion. Each clan had specific goals. Christianity and Judaism also existed 9.What Kaba was before the rise of Islam? Shrine where people came to pray. All kinds of religions entertained in this shrine 9. What happened to Muhammad during one of his meditations

in the hills near Mecca? He received revelations from God. 10. What is Quaran (Koran) and when was it first written in Arabic? Islamic religions text that contained the revelations that Muhammad received 11. What did God reveal to Muhammad? God chose Muhammad to be his greatest and last prophet, and he would better the work of all previous prophets including Jesus 12. What does the word Islam mean? Submission to the will of God 13. What was Mohammads message to the people of Mecca? Preached and gained support from friends and family in Mecca, he said the the Meion people that they should follow Islam and by following Islamic faith and law they will be awarded Salvation by Allah 14. How did Mecca receive Muhammads teaching? Initially viewed it as a threat but on his return welcomed his new ideas and took up Islam. 15. How did Medina receive the message of Muhammad? Accepted Muhammad well and many took up Islam ad they were fond of the monotheistic idea. Later when numerous people converted, viewed as a threat and so removed all followers of Islam from Medina lands. 16. What happened in Medina after Muhammad and his followers settled there? Viewed as a threat be Medina Authority lead to expulsion 17. On what issue did the Islamic community split into the Shiites and Sunni? Weather the Caliph should come from Muhammads line. Shiites believed that Caliph should be related, while Sunnies never cared weather Caliph was related to Muhammad 18. What are the principal features of Islamic law? Shovia (law of Allah) and pillars of Islam 20 What are the Five Pillars? Shadu (there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet) Salat Prayer 5 times a day Zakat- Charity contributing/Alms giving Fasting- during the month of Ramadan Pilgrimiage (every muslim should go to Mecca at least once) 21. What are some major similarities among Islam, Judaism and Christianity? Parrallels between Bible and Koran 22. In what parts of the world did Islam spread during the late seventh and eighth centuries? Spain, N. Africa, N. India, and parts of Europe.

Due to Ottoman (gunpowder) dominance 23. What were the principal features of political organization of the Muslim Empire? Led by Caliphs voted into power by elders, Caliph had Amir (Provincial governors) in each province to rule 24. What were the major economic, scientific and cultural accomplishments of Islamic civilization? Trade was greatest ever seen, great achievements in Medicine and Pharmacy as well as Math and Astronomy, brought about banking and joint stock companies, industries flourished, esp. Persian rugs 25. Why did the Muslim Empire decline? Too large to rule, disputes and disagreements in the ruling of key territories (Spain and Egypt) Be able to identify the following terms and names: Bedouin herders in the Arabian peninsula Zakat One of the five pillars Charity Sheiks Rulers on the Arabian Peninsula Salat Prayer 5 times a day (one of the five pillars) Banu Hashim Muhammads clan Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca Abu Talib Head of the Banu Hashim, Muhammads Uncle Sharia The law of Allah Sufis Leaders that helped to promote Islam, traveled and taught about the Islamic faith Hijra Immigration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina Emir Provincial governors Jihad Struggle in the path of God Al Rhazes Discovered ways to prevent small pox and measles Abu Bakr

First Caliph after Muhammad Avicena Also worked with Medicine, wrote book the Canon of Medicine Caliph Deputy of the Prophet Ali Caliph who questioned other Caliphs because they werent a part of Muhammads family Shahda There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet Ramadan One month of fasting Mount Hira The name of the Cave where Muhammad received his revelations? Islamic Gunpowder Empires 1. What were the most powerful Islamic states during the sixteenth and seventeenth century? Ottoman (turks), Safavid (Persia), Monguls 2. What powerful Islamic state emerged in Anatolia in the late fifteenth century that encompassed southeastern Europe, western Asia and North Africa? The Ottoman Empire 3. Who was Osman? Warrior and the leader of the Sunnis, led the army and was the founder of the Ottoman empire, known for great expansion 4. Who was Sultan Mehmed and what was his historical significance? Conquered Constantinople, Romania and Crimea, leader of the Ottoman Empire known for the greatest expansion of the empire 5. What city did Mehmed conquer in 1453? Constantinople 6. Who was Sultan Salim I and what was his historical achievement? Became the ruler of the Ottoman Empire, conquered Kurdistan and northeren Iraq 7. Who ruled the Ottoman Empire during 1520-1566 and what were the empires greatest achievements during these years? Suleiman the Magnificant and conquered Hungry, Southern Poland and the Rest of Iraq 8. What where two powerful European states that challenged the Ottoman Empire in Europe? Habsborg and the Russian empire 9. Who were the pashas and what was their role in the Ottoman Empire?

Provincial Governors, controlled provinces on behalf of the Sultan 10. What was the chief purpose and functions of the slave system that emerged in the Ottoman Empire? Kul system not a system based for economic purposes, rather it was used for creating a fluent and functioning aristocracy, it was used to repay human tax 11. What was devshirme? A human tax, a tax on Christian families where the first born son or sons were given to the Sultan, these boys were converted to Muslims 12. Who were the janissaries? The boys that were taken went to these schools and they attended these schools throughout their childhoods. They were trained to be either aristocrats, serve for the military or serve as professors 13. What were the policies of the Ottoman state toward its non-Muslim subjects? They had to pay the jizya 14. What was the jizya? A tax on non muslim subjects 15. What were the principal features of the Ottoman economy? Trade, vast agriculture. Income came primarily from trade 16. What were cultural achievements of the Ottoman Empire? Architecture, culture was great, Topkapi Palace during the time of Memhed II, the Faith Mosque 17. What powerful Islamic empire emerged during the early sixteenth century in Persia? Safavid Empire Shiites 18. What areas beyond Persia did this empire include? Entire Persia, Northern Iraq and Parts of Uzbekistan 19. Who was Safi al-Din? Founder of the Safavid Empire 20. What was the dominant Islamic religion in Persia before Ismail? Shiites or Zoorastrianism 21. Why did the Safavid Empire conclude alliances and cooperated with the Europeans? They received military assistance from Europe to help them in their long war with the Ottoman empire 22. Who were the shahs? The rulers of the Safavid empire king 23. What social group or individual had power and dominated the Safavid society at large? The tribal chiefs who had complete power over their cheifdoms 24. Who was Shah Abbas and what were his achievements? Leader of the Safavid Empire during the Golden Age, became

emperor at 17 25. What powerful Islamic empire emerged in northern India during the first half of the sixteenth century? Moghul Empire 26. Who was Babur and what was his historical significance? Known as the tiger and became the ruler of the Moghul empire, and was the founder of the Moghul state 27. Compared to most contemporary European states, what was the Moghul Empire in terms of economic wealth? Got wealth from agriculture and industries, they were self sufficient and highly prosperous. Trade was prominent 28. What were the general policies of the Mughal state toward the Hindu population? Dominated by Muslims. Hindu Muslim cultural Sunthesis under Akbar as he noticed that the majority of the population was hindu 29. In what areas of culture did Hindu-Muslim cultural synthesis was most reflected? 30 Who was Shah Aurangzeb and what was his role in the Mughal Empire? Early African Civilizations General Questions: 1. Discuss African geography and its influence on economy and society. How did geography affect the diffusion of peoples in Africa? How did geography influence economic activities of peoples in Africa? Which regions of Africa developed agriculture and why? Sahara desert in the north, Kalahari in the south (no farming) Egypt and Ethiopia had the nile and were able to thrive off of an agricultural based society. 2. Discuss general cultural patterns that developed in most African societies. What cultural values, beliefs, and aesthetic styles did most African societies share in general? What where the principal institutions of social organization in Africa? What patterns characterize African religions in general? 3. What regions of Africa engaged in world trade? Which products were traded abroad? How did trade with other civilizations in the Mediterranean, the near East and India affect

African civilizations? Specific Questions: 1. In what regions of Africa did agriculture first began? Ethiopian Highlands, Central Sudan, West African Savanna, West African Forests 2. What factors led to the growth of population in ancient Africa? The spread of agricultural activities made it possible for civilization and the growth of population, also Ironworking 3. What group of people in Africa migrated and spread throughout most of the continent? The Bantu People, they brought knowledge, agriculture and iron working which spread throughout Africa with them. Eventually to S. African and both coasts. The Bantu People influenced language, and despite its great diversity, most languages in Africa have a hint of Bantu language within them 4. What were the principal forms of social and political organization in African society? Agricultural societies, labor demanding therefore polygamy was sometimes practiced to produce more children. Purely economic rationale. Clans, a lot of societies were ruled by females 5. What were the major characteristic of the African family? Extended Family, polygamy, 85% of families were patrilineal and 15% of families were matrilineal. Female dominated household. Males played no role in terms of decision making or political power 6. What were the chief features of African religion? Polytheistic, Animistic, Idea of High God creator of all things, Ancestral worship, believed in afterlife. Each Clan has a specific God that they worship. 9. What group of people arrived in Africa around 800 B.C.E. and established the kingdom of Daamat? Established by semetic traders from the Arabian Peninsula 10. Who established the kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia)? 11.How did the location of Ethiopia influence its economy? 12. With what areas of the world did Ethiopia trade? 13. What where the principal goods in trade between Ethiopia and other civilizations? 14. Why did Aksum (Ethiopia) become the dominant power on the Red Sea? 15. When and how did Aksum embrace Christianity? The bible was translated into Geze around 320 CE.. this is more significant than the European embrace of Chrsitianity because

they had scripture in their own language, where Europeans did not. 16. Why did Aksum decline in the eighth century? Because trade on the Red sea began to dcline and because of the advance of Islam. Muslims attacked, invaded and destroyed their most critical red sea ports. 17. What kingdom emerged as the powerful state of western Sudan around 800 C.E.? Ghana 18. What were the principle bases of Ghanas economy? Agriculture and Trans-Shaharan trade 19. What where the principal commodities that Ghana sold in the Trans-Saharan trade? Salt, Gold, Kola Nuts, Slaves, Bambuk 20. When and how did Islam penetrate into Africa? 1203 CE 21. What social groups first embraced Islam in Africa? 22. How did Islam affect the general population of the states that embraced the religion? Be able to identify the following terms and names: Sudan Aksum Bantu Ezana Polygamy Sundiata Animism Swahili people of the coast Geez - new language of ethiopia savanna grasslands Early Americas General Questions: 1. Discuss the rise of ancient civilizations in the Americas. What does it have in common with the rise of civilizations in Africa and Eurasia (the Mesopotamia and the near East)? What were the major forms of social and political organization of ancient societies in the Americas? What where the principal features of religious beliefs of people in the Americas? What were the chief accomplishments of civilizations of the Americas? Specific Questions 1. What are the chief problems in reconstructing the history of

Native American civilizations? Lack of evidence(records of their system of writing were destroyed) (Conquistdors destroyed every part of culture that to them appeared Satanic), European Terminology and categories 2. In what periods Mesoamerican history is divided before the European conquest? Archaic Period, Formative Period, Classic Period, Post-Classic Period 3. When did first agricultural settlements begin to appear in Mesoamerica? 3. What civilizations developed in Mesoamerica during the Formative (Pre-Classic) period? 5. What are the major features of these civilizations? 6. What are the major cultural characteristics of the Classic period in Mesoamerica? 7. What civilizations developed during the Classic period? Teotihuacan, Mayan 8. What civilization of pre-Spanish Mesoamerica developed the most advanced writing system? Mayan they already existed and the Mayans just further developed them 9. What were the major features of the Mayan civilization? Centers ( Tikal, ChichinItza), calendars, Human Sacrifice 10. What were the chief scientific accomplishments of the Maya civilization? Advances in math and the calendars 11. What are the principal characteristics of the Post-Classic period? Centralized states formed, central authority, arts, human sacrifice, agriculture (farmed on Chinampas [land thats been raised]), civilizations that raised in the period were more expansionist 12. What civilizations emerged during the Post-Classic period? Toltec and Aztec (Mexica) 13. What were the forms of social organization in the Aztec Empire? Calpulli (aristrocracy), Pititin (commoners, subjects, everybody else) 14. What were the principal elements of Aztec religion? Human sacrifice, ancestral worship, animistic and polytheistic beliefs 15. What civilizations developed in the Andes? Inca civilization

16. What were the major features of the Inca civilization? Animistic polytheistic. Very similar to the other empires. Kuzco- an Incan King Be able to identify the following terms and names: Mesoamerica Olmec Maya Toltec Aztec Tenochtitlan chinampas calpulli Lady Zac Kuk Chichen Itza pipltin Inca Andes quipu