# Worked solutions to textbook questions

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Chapter 3 Volumetric analysis
Q1. Calculate the molarity of these solutions: a 1.5 mol of HCl dissolved in 3.0 L of solution b 0.64 g of H2SO4 dissolved in 500 mL of solution c 2.1 g of NaHCO3 dissolved in 1.00 L of solution A1. a Molarity is concentration in mol L±1. Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n c= V Step 2 Calculate the concentration to the correct number of significant figures. 1.5 mol c(HCl) = 3.0 L = 0.50 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n c= V m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the concentration, remembering that the volume must be in litres, to the correct number of significant figures. 0.64 g/98.076 g mol 1 c(H2SO4) = 0.500 L = 0.01305 M = 0.013 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n c= V m = MV Step 2 Calculate the concentration to the correct number of significant figures. 2.1 g/84.008 g mol 1 c(NaHCO3) = 1.00 L = 0.02500 M = 0.025 M

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Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education, a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd

Worked solutions to textbook questions

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Q2. Calculate the amount, in mol, of solute present in: a 20.00 mL of 0.255 M KOH solution b 2.50 L of 1.05 M sucrose (C12H22O11) solution c 25.00 mL of 0.0200 M AgNO3 solution A2. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n=cvV Step 2 Calculate the amount of KOH, remembering that volume must be in litres. Express the answer with the correct number of significant figures. n(KOH) = 0.255 M v 0.02000 L = 5.10 v 10±3 mol Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n=cvV Step 2 Calculate the amount of sucrose. Express the answer with the correct number of significant figures. n(sucrose) = 1.05 M v 2.50 L = 2.625 mol = 2.63 mol Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n=cvV Step 2 Calculate the amount of AgNO3 to the correct number of significant figures. n(AgNO3) = 0.0200 M v 0.02500 L = 5.00 v 10±4 mol

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Q3. Calculate the mass of solute present in these solutions: a 100.0 mL of 0.50 M NaOH b 20.00 mL of 1.50 M CuSO4 c 10.00 mL of 0.10 M KSCN A3. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. m =cvV n= M m=cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass of NaOH to the correct number of significant figures. m(NaOH) = 0.50 M v 0.1000 L v 39.99 g mol±1 = 1.9995 g = 2.0 g

Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education, a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd

79 g Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.097 g Q4.00150 g per 1 mL ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of benzoic acid in g L±1. in g L±1.0% w/v as g L±1.0% w /v means 6. 1. m(CuSO4) = 4.e. a Step 1 Rewrite 6.0 g per 100 mL ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of sucrose in g L±1. 6.0 v 100 = 60 g L±1 Step 1 Rewrite 1. 1000 g L±1 c(sucrose) = 6.7862 g Step 3 Express the answer with the correct number of significant figures. m(CuSO4) = 1. of the following solutions: a sports drink containing 6.102 g mol±1 = 0.95 M solution of ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) A4.10 M v 0.50 mg per 1 mL 0. 6.50 mg per 1 mL as g L±1. m n= =cvV M m=cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass of CuSO4.0% w/v sucrose) b mouthwash containing 1.50 mg of benzoic acid per mL c vinegar that is a 0. Calculate the concentration.Worked solutions to textbook questions 3 b c Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.01000 L v 97. m =cvV n= M m=cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass of KSCN to the correct number of significant figures.097102 g = 0. m(KSCN) = 0.02000 L v 159.00150 v g L±1 1 = 1.50 M v 0.54 g mol±1 = 4. 1000 c(benzoic acid) = 0.0 g of sucrose in each 100 mL (i.5 g L±1 b Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .

so m = n v M 0.155 M b Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. n= M 5. Calculate the molarity of solutions with the following concentrations: a 5. remembering that n = M . m .6 g mol per 1 L 74.884 g L±1 K2Cr2O7 as mol L±1. 5.95 mol CH3COOH per 1 L (0. n= M 11.196 g mol 1 Step 2 Calculate the concentration of K2Cr2O7 in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. using the formula for amount.6 g L±1 KCl as mol L±1.95 v 60) g L±1 = 57 g L±1 Q5.02000 mol L±1 Step 1 Rewrite 11.Worked solutions to textbook questions 4 c Step 1 Step 2 m Rewrite 0.50 mg of benzoic acid (C6 H5COOH) per mL of solution A5.6 g KCl per 1 L 11. 11.884 g c(K2Cr2O7 ) = mol L±1 294.95 M CH3COOH as g L±1.602 g mol = 0.15549 mol L±1 = 0.6 g L±1 KCl c 1.196 g mol 1 = 0. m .95 M CH3COOH means 0.884 g L±1 K2Cr2O7 b 11.884 g mol per 1 L 294.6 g mol L±1 c(KCl) = 1 74. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . c(CH3COOH) = (0.95 mol v 60 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of CH3COOH in g L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.884 g K2 Cr2O7 per 1 L 5. a Step 1 Rewrite 5. using the formula for amount.602 g mol 1 Step 2 Calculate the concentration of KCl in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.

calculate the number of moles of: a potassium ions. What total mass of sodium chloride is present in the water when the pool is completely full? A7.20 × 0.20 M solution of potassium sulfate. SO42± c oxygen atoms A6.050 mol Step 2 Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. K2SO4.Worked solutions to textbook questions 5 c Step 1 Rewrite 1.50 mg mL±1 C6H5COOH as mol L±1.050 mol n(K+) = 2 × n(K2SO4) = 2 × 0.050 mol n(S) = n(K2SO4) = 0. using the formula for m amount. m(NaCl) = 0. a b c Q7.0123 M Q6.048 M.6 g = 1.50 mg C6H5COOH per 1 mL 0.250 = 0. For a 0.00150 g mol per 1 mL 122 g mol 1 ? mol per 1000 mL Step 2 Calculate the concentration of C6H5COOH in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. m =cvV n= M m=cvVvM Calculate the mass of NaCl to the correct number of significant figures. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . The seal enclosure at the Melbourne Zoo contains 455 000 L of salt water. The water in the pool is maintained at a sodium chloride concentration of 0.44 g mol±1 = 1276329.10 mol n(SO42-) = n(K2SO4) = 0. K+ b sulfate ions.00150 g v 1000 mol L±1 c(C6 H5COOH) = 1 122 g mol = 0.050 = 0. M 1.01229508 mol L±1 = 0. Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.3 × 103 kg (two significant figures) n(K2SO4 ) = C × V = 0. 0.048 M v 455 000 L v 58. n = .3 ×106 g = 1.

63 g. f Does the variation in volumes indicate a random error or systematic error? Another burette was selected.90 g. 49. The average volume is 49. A student noted that her 50 mL burette was dirty and that droplets of liquid stuck to the inside surface of the tube.01 mL for every 1 mL delivered by the burette. 49.00 mL titre into a flask that had previously been weighed.50 mL for every 50 mL or 0.4. The student then calculated the volume of water by assuming that the density of water is 1.95 g. She decided to investigate if this would affect the burette¶s accuracy. This time the following masses of water were obtained: 50.92 g. The flask was weighed again and the mass of water calculated. During the preparation of the standard solution shown in Figure 3.93 g. E1. Since molar concentration is measured in mole of solute per litre of solution. e Calculate the average volume of these samples.Worked solutions to textbook questions 6 Q8. c Is the use of a dirty burette a source of random error or systematic error? d How can the source of this error be removed? The burette was cleaned and the experiment repeated. systematic error Cleaning the burette will remove any error caused by dirty glass. This procedure was repeated another four times.000 00 g mL±1. there is often a slight change in volume due to the attractions between the solute and solvent particles. a b c d e f g h The average mass is 49. Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. g Is this a systematic error or random error? h How should the measurements taken from this burette be adjusted? AE1. The same procedure was used and the average titre was found to be 49. why is water added to the level of the calibration mark on the flask after the solid has dissolved. When a substance is dissolved.01 g.00 g. 49. 50.50 g rather than the expected 50.00 mL random error systematic error Add 0. 49. it is necessary to accurately measure the volume of solution rather than the volume of water used. Before testing.93 g and 49. rather than before? A8.99 g. 50. 50. The masses of water for the five trials were 49.02 g.98 g. 49. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . She filled the burette to the zero mark and drained a 50. it was cleaned thoroughly. The error was thought to be due to a poor standard of calibration.63 mL.00 g. a What is the average mass of the five water samples? b Calculate the average volume of these samples.

63 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 ) c 250.0762 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.63 g c(Na2CO3 ) = 105.01194 mol L±1 = 0. 0.400 g of sodium oxalate (Na2C2 O4) A11. m n= =cvV M m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the molarity (concentration in mol L±1) to the correct number of significant figures.059 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. 0.1000 L = 0.42 g of potassium chloride (KCl) b 100. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.55 g mol 1 v 0. 1.0119 M b c Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.07619 mol L±1 = 0.0 mL solution containing 1.96 g mol 1 v 0. m =cvV n= M m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the molarity (concentration in mol L±1) to the correct number of significant figures.250 L = 0. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .400 g c(Na2C2O4) = 133. m n= =cvV M m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the molarity (concentration in mol L±1) to the correct number of significant figures.42 g c(KCl) = 74.99 g mol 1 v 0. Calculate the molarity of: a 250.0 mL solution containing 0.0 mL solution containing 0.Worked solutions to textbook questions 8 Chapter review Q11.05944 mol L±1 = 0.2500 L = 0.

4 g of Fe(NO3 )3.10003 mol Step 3 From the formula. Find the concentrations of the following ions in the solution: a iron(III) ions b nitrate ions A13.10 g b Q13.96 g mol±1 = 16.1 g mol±1 = 5.9H2 O is dissolved in sufficient water to make up 1 litre of solution.Worked solutions to textbook questions 9 Q12.100 L v 204. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n(Fe3+) = 0. m =cvV n = M m =cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass required to the correct number of significant figures.10003 mol/1 L = 0.7 g Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .250 M v 0. What mass of solute is required to prepare the following standard solutions? a 250 mL of 0. m(Na2C2 O4) = 0. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.250 M potassium hydrogen phthalate KH(C8 H4 O4) A12.500 M sodium oxalate Na2C2 O4 b 100 mL of 0.500 M v 0.9H2 O.9H2 O) = 403.10003 mol Step 4 Calculate the concentration of Fe3+ ions in 1 L of water.847 g mol 1 = 0. to the correct number of significant figures.100 mol Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. m n= M Step 2 Calculate the amount to the correct number of significant figures. m =cvV n= M m= c v V v M Step 2 Calculate the mass required to the correct number of significant figures. 40.4 g n(Fe(NO3)3. c(Fe3+) = 0. m(KH(C8 H4O4)) = 0.250 L v 133. 40.745 g = 16. 1 mol of Fe3+ ions are formed from 1 mol of Fe(NO3)3.

a i Step 1 Step 2 ii Step 1 Step 2 Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.44 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of NaCl in g L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. 0.30009 mol/1 L = 0.0036 M Ca(OH)2 solution ii 2. a b c A14.3 v 10±5 mol Pb(NO3)2 per 1 L = (6.0024 mol NaCl per 1 L = (0.068 g L±1 dissolved O2 in tap water ii 0.44) g L±1 = 0.10003 mol Step 3 From the formula.9H2 O. i 0. c(NaCl) = (0.9H2 O) = 403. c(NO3±) = 0.847 g mol 1 = 0. remembering that n = M .0024 M NaCl means 0.22) g L±1 = 0. c(Pb(NO3 )2) = (6.3 v 10±5 M Pb(NO3)2 as g L±1.32 g L±1 cadmium ions in seawater Convert the following molar concentrations to units of ppm: i 0.3 v 10±5 M Pb(NO3 )2 means 6.Worked solutions to textbook questions 10 b Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. to the correct number of significant figures.10003 mol = 0.300 M Convert the following molar concentrations to units of g L±1.0024 M NaCl as g L±1. so m = n v M.3 v 10±5 v 331.0024 M NaCl solution ii 6. 6. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .0024 v 58.021 g L±1 Q14. n(NO3±) = 3 v 0.3 v 10±5 M Pb(NO3 )2 solution Convert the following concentrations in g L±1 to units of mol L±1.30009 mol Step 4 Calculate the concentration of Fe3+ ions in 1 L of water. 40. i 0.140256 g L±1 = 0.4 g n(Fe(NO3)3.14 g L±1 m .0024 mol v 58.9 v 10±6 M Cd(NO3)2 solution m Rewrite 0.3 v 10±5 mol v 331. remembering that n = M so m = n v M. 3 mol of NO3± ions are formed from 1 mol of Fe(NO3)3.22 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of Pb(NO3)2 in g L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.02086686 g L±1 = 0. Rewrite 6. m n= M Step 2 Calculate the amount.

using the formula for m amount.002125 mol L±1 = 0.688 ppm = 270 ppm Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. 0.068 g O2 per 1 L 0.0036 M means 0.32 g mol per 1 L = 112. n = .068 g mol L±1 c(O2) = 1 32 g mol = 0.266688 g L±1 Ca(OH)2 in ppm.32 g Cd2+ ions per 1 L 0.40 g mol = 0.0021 M Rewrite 0. Assume that 1 g = 1 mL.40 g mol 1 Calculate the concentration of Cd2+ ions in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.08) g L±1 = 0.0029 M Rewrite 0.266688 g per L = 0. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .32 g c(Cd2+ ions) = mol L±1 1 112.0036 v 74.08 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of Ca(OH)2 in g L±1. using the formula for mass. 10 6 c(Ca(OH)2) = 0.068 g = mol per 1 L 32 g mol 1 Calculate the concentration of O2 in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. 0.266688 g L±1 Rewrite 0.0036 mol per 1 L = (0.0036 mol v 74.Worked solutions to textbook questions 11 b i Step 1 Step 2 ii Step 1 Step 2 c i Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Rewrite 0. m = n v M. using the formula for amount. 0. M 0.00285 mol L±1 = 0.068 g L±1 O2 as mol L±1.266688 v 3 10 = 266.266688 g per 1000 mL = 0.266688 g per 103 g = ? per 106 g Calculate the concentration in ppm to the correct number of significant figures. c(Ca(OH)2) = (0.0036 M Ca(OH)2 as g L±1. which means grams per million (106) grams. 0. M 0.32 g L±1 Cd2+ ions as mol L±1. m n= .

67396 v 10±3 g L±1 Cd(NO3 )2 in ppm. 1000 g L±1 c(carbohydrates)= 8. 0. in mol.4) g L±1 = 0.5 g/100 mL Vitamin C: 40 mg/100 mL a Express the concentration of each solute in g L±1.5 g per 100 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of carbohydrates g L±1.68556 v 10±3 g per 1000 mL = 0.Worked solutions to textbook questions 12 ii Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Rewrite 2.9 v 10±6 v 236. Assume that 1 g = 1 mL.68556 v 10±3 g per 103 g = ? per 106 g Calculate the concentration in ppm to the correct number of significant figures.5 v 100 = 85 g L±1 Step 3 Rewrite 40 mg/100 mL as g L±1. 1000 c(vitamin C) = 0.040 g per 100 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 4 Calculate the concentration of vitamin C in g L±1.68556 v 10±3 g per L = 0.5 g mixture of carbohydrates.68556 ppm = 0.9 v 10±6 M Cd(NO3 )2 as g L±1. a Step 1 Rewrite 8. 10 6 c(Cd(NO3)2 ) = 0.9 v 10±6 mol per 1 L = (2.4 g mol±1) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of Cd(NO3 )2 in g L±1.040 v g L±1 100 = 0.68556 v 10±3 g L±1 Rewrite 0. which means grams per million (106) grams. b Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. whereas the term µcarbohydrates¶ refers to a group of compounds including glucose (C6H12 O6). Thus the amount. b Why is it also possible to express the concentration of vitamin C as a molarity. m = n v M. c(Cd(NO3)2 ) = (2. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .9 v 10±6 M means 2.69 ppm Q15.5 g/100 mL as g L±1. 40 mg per 100 mL = 0. of vitamin C present in 40 mg can be calculated but this is not possible for the 8. sucrose (C12 H22O11) and others. A carton of orange juice lists among its contents: Total carbohydrates: 8.68556 v 10±3 v 3 10 = 0. using the formula for mass. but not possible to do so for the carbohydrates? A15.9 v 10±6 mol v 236. 2.40 g L±1 Vitamin C is a single chemical compound. 8.

0.56 g/200 mL of C6H12 O6 as g L±1.30 g of potassium chloride (KCl) and 3. b Calculate the molarity of each compound. in mol L±1. 1000 c(C6 H12O6 ) = 3.8 g L±1 Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. Each 200 mL of an electrolyte solution designed for treating dehydration contains 0.30 g per 200 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 4 Calculate the concentration of KCl g L±1. A16.47 g per 200 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of NaCl g L±1.4 g L±1 Step 3 Rewrite 0.47 g/200 mL NaCl as g L±1. in g L±1.Worked solutions to textbook questions 13 Q16. 0.5 g L±1 Step 5 Rewrite 3.30 v 200 = 1.56 v g L±1 200 = 17. 1000 g L±1 c(NaCl) = 0. a Calculate the concentration of each compound. c Calculate the concentration of potassium ions in the solution.47 g of sodium chloride (NaCl). d Calculate the concentration of chloride ions in the solution.35 g L±1 = 2.56 g per 200 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 6 Calculate the concentration of C6H12O6 as g L±1. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . 3.30 g/200 mL of KCl as g L±1. 0. a Step 1 Rewrite 0.47 v 200 = 2.56 g of glucose (C6 H12O6 ). in mol L±1. 1000 g L±1 c(KCl) = 0.

remembering to use n = c d c(NaCl) = 2.09889 mol L±1 = 0.020 M Step 3 Calculate the concentration of C6H12O6 in M.5 g = mol L±1 1 74.041) M = 0.041 M Step 2 Calculate the concentration of KCl in M. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .020 + 0.020 M and as there is 1 mol of K+ ions in 1 mol of KCl. The concentration of KCl is 0.061 M m .44 g mol = 0.020 M There are Cl± ions from KCl and NaCl. c(Cl± ions) = (0. and 1 mol of Cl± ions in 1 mol of NaCl.0989 M As the concentration of KCl is 0.4 g L±1 2. then calculate the concentration of Cl± ions. c(KCl) = 1. As there is 1 mol of Cl± ions in 1 mol of KCl.8 g L±1 17.8 g = mol L±1 1 180 g mol = 0. c(K+ ions) = 0.041 M.Worked solutions to textbook questions 14 b Step 1 Calculate the concentration of NaCl in M. M Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.602 g mol = 0.041068 mol L±1 = 0. the concentration of K+ ions will be 0.020 M. c(C6 H12O6 ) = 17.020 M and NaCl is 0.5 g L±1 1.0201067 mol L±1 = 0.4 g mol L±1 = 1 58.

080 mol V(HCl) = 0.0 M HCl be added in order to prepare a 0.0 g mol±1 50 n(H2 O2) = = 1. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .0 + 2 × 16.0 = 1. What is the molarity of the hydrogen peroxide? A18. V(water) = (160 ± 10) mL = 150 mL = 0. n(HCl) = 0. 1.010 L v 8.47 mol 34 Calculate the concentration of H2O2 in mol L±1.50 M HCl solution? A17.0 = 34.16 L = 160 mL Calculate the volume of water needed to be added to the initial 10 mL of concentrated HCl.080 mol Calculate the total volume of the dilute HCl solution. The label on a laundry stain remover indicates that it contains 50 g/L hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2).5 M (two significant figures) Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.50 mol L1 = 0.15 L Step 3 Step 4 Q18. Step 1 Convert the mass of H2 O2 to moles using n = m M Step 2 M(H2 O2) = 2 ×1.47 = 1.0 mol L±1 = 0.Worked solutions to textbook questions 15 Q17. To what volume of water must 10 mL of 8. 0.47 c(H2 O2) = 1. n=cvV Calculate the amount of HCl used to make the solution. Step 1 Step 2 Write the appropriate formula.