Worked solutions to textbook questions

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Chapter 3 Volumetric analysis
Q1. Calculate the molarity of these solutions: a 1.5 mol of HCl dissolved in 3.0 L of solution b 0.64 g of H2SO4 dissolved in 500 mL of solution c 2.1 g of NaHCO3 dissolved in 1.00 L of solution A1. a Molarity is concentration in mol L±1. Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n c= V Step 2 Calculate the concentration to the correct number of significant figures. 1.5 mol c(HCl) = 3.0 L = 0.50 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n c= V m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the concentration, remembering that the volume must be in litres, to the correct number of significant figures. 0.64 g/98.076 g mol 1 c(H2SO4) = 0.500 L = 0.01305 M = 0.013 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n c= V m = MV Step 2 Calculate the concentration to the correct number of significant figures. 2.1 g/84.008 g mol 1 c(NaHCO3) = 1.00 L = 0.02500 M = 0.025 M

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Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education, a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd

Worked solutions to textbook questions

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Q2. Calculate the amount, in mol, of solute present in: a 20.00 mL of 0.255 M KOH solution b 2.50 L of 1.05 M sucrose (C12H22O11) solution c 25.00 mL of 0.0200 M AgNO3 solution A2. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n=cvV Step 2 Calculate the amount of KOH, remembering that volume must be in litres. Express the answer with the correct number of significant figures. n(KOH) = 0.255 M v 0.02000 L = 5.10 v 10±3 mol Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n=cvV Step 2 Calculate the amount of sucrose. Express the answer with the correct number of significant figures. n(sucrose) = 1.05 M v 2.50 L = 2.625 mol = 2.63 mol Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n=cvV Step 2 Calculate the amount of AgNO3 to the correct number of significant figures. n(AgNO3) = 0.0200 M v 0.02500 L = 5.00 v 10±4 mol

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Q3. Calculate the mass of solute present in these solutions: a 100.0 mL of 0.50 M NaOH b 20.00 mL of 1.50 M CuSO4 c 10.00 mL of 0.10 M KSCN A3. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. m =cvV n= M m=cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass of NaOH to the correct number of significant figures. m(NaOH) = 0.50 M v 0.1000 L v 39.99 g mol±1 = 1.9995 g = 2.0 g

Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education, a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd

79 g Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.097 g Q4.00150 g per 1 mL ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of benzoic acid in g L±1. in g L±1.0% w/v as g L±1.0% w /v means 6. 1. m(CuSO4) = 4.e. a Step 1 Rewrite 6.0 g per 100 mL ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of sucrose in g L±1. 6.0 v 100 = 60 g L±1 Step 1 Rewrite 1. 1000 g L±1 c(sucrose) = 6.7862 g Step 3 Express the answer with the correct number of significant figures. m(CuSO4) = 1. of the following solutions: a sports drink containing 6.102 g mol±1 = 0.95 M solution of ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) A4.10 M v 0.50 mg per 1 mL 0. 6.50 mg per 1 mL as g L±1. m n= =cvV M m=cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass of CuSO4.0% w/v sucrose) b mouthwash containing 1.50 mg of benzoic acid per mL c vinegar that is a 0. Calculate the concentration.Worked solutions to textbook questions 3 b c Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.01000 L v 97. m =cvV n= M m=cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass of KSCN to the correct number of significant figures.097102 g = 0. m(KSCN) = 0.02000 L v 159.00150 v g L±1 1 = 1.50 M v 0.54 g mol±1 = 4. 1000 c(benzoic acid) = 0.0 g of sucrose in each 100 mL (i.5 g L±1 b Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .

so m = n v M 0.155 M b Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. n= M 5. Calculate the molarity of solutions with the following concentrations: a 5. remembering that n = M . m .6 g mol per 1 L 74.884 g L±1 K2Cr2O7 as mol L±1. 5.95 mol CH3COOH per 1 L (0. n= M 11.196 g mol 1 Step 2 Calculate the concentration of K2Cr2O7 in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. using the formula for amount.6 g L±1 KCl as mol L±1.95 v 60) g L±1 = 57 g L±1 Q5.02000 mol L±1 Step 1 Rewrite 11.Worked solutions to textbook questions 4 c Step 1 Step 2 m Rewrite 0.50 mg of benzoic acid (C6 H5COOH) per mL of solution A5.6 g KCl per 1 L 11. 11.884 g c(K2Cr2O7 ) = mol L±1 294.95 M CH3COOH as g L±1.602 g mol = 0.15549 mol L±1 = 0.6 g L±1 KCl c 1.196 g mol 1 = 0. m .95 M CH3COOH means 0.884 g L±1 K2Cr2O7 b 11.884 g mol per 1 L 294.6 g mol L±1 c(KCl) = 1 74. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . c(CH3COOH) = (0.95 mol v 60 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of CH3COOH in g L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.884 g K2 Cr2O7 per 1 L 5. a Step 1 Rewrite 5. using the formula for amount.602 g mol 1 Step 2 Calculate the concentration of KCl in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.

calculate the number of moles of: a potassium ions. What total mass of sodium chloride is present in the water when the pool is completely full? A7.20 × 0.20 M solution of potassium sulfate. SO42± c oxygen atoms A6.050 mol Step 2 Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. K2SO4.Worked solutions to textbook questions 5 c Step 1 Rewrite 1.50 mg mL±1 C6H5COOH as mol L±1.050 mol n(K+) = 2 × n(K2SO4) = 2 × 0.050 mol n(S) = n(K2SO4) = 0. using the formula for m amount. m(NaCl) = 0. a b c Q7.0123 M Q6.048 M.6 g = 1.50 mg C6H5COOH per 1 mL 0.250 = 0. For a 0.00150 g mol per 1 mL 122 g mol 1 ? mol per 1000 mL Step 2 Calculate the concentration of C6H5COOH in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. m =cvV n= M m=cvVvM Calculate the mass of NaCl to the correct number of significant figures. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . The seal enclosure at the Melbourne Zoo contains 455 000 L of salt water. The water in the pool is maintained at a sodium chloride concentration of 0.44 g mol±1 = 1276329.10 mol n(SO42-) = n(K2SO4) = 0. K+ b sulfate ions.00150 g v 1000 mol L±1 c(C6 H5COOH) = 1 122 g mol = 0.050 = 0. M 1.01229508 mol L±1 = 0. Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.3 × 103 kg (two significant figures) n(K2SO4 ) = C × V = 0. 0.048 M v 455 000 L v 58. n = .3 ×106 g = 1.

63 g. f Does the variation in volumes indicate a random error or systematic error? Another burette was selected.90 g. 49. The average volume is 49. A student noted that her 50 mL burette was dirty and that droplets of liquid stuck to the inside surface of the tube.01 mL for every 1 mL delivered by the burette. 49.00 mL titre into a flask that had previously been weighed.50 mL for every 50 mL or 0.4. The student then calculated the volume of water by assuming that the density of water is 1.95 g. She decided to investigate if this would affect the burette¶s accuracy. This time the following masses of water were obtained: 50.92 g. The flask was weighed again and the mass of water calculated. During the preparation of the standard solution shown in Figure 3.93 g. E1. Since molar concentration is measured in mole of solute per litre of solution. e Calculate the average volume of these samples.Worked solutions to textbook questions 6 Q8. c Is the use of a dirty burette a source of random error or systematic error? d How can the source of this error be removed? The burette was cleaned and the experiment repeated. systematic error Cleaning the burette will remove any error caused by dirty glass. This procedure was repeated another four times.000 00 g mL±1. there is often a slight change in volume due to the attractions between the solute and solvent particles. a b c d e f g h The average mass is 49. Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. g Is this a systematic error or random error? h How should the measurements taken from this burette be adjusted? AE1. The same procedure was used and the average titre was found to be 49. why is water added to the level of the calibration mark on the flask after the solid has dissolved. When a substance is dissolved.01 g.00 g. 49. 50.50 g rather than the expected 50.00 mL random error systematic error Add 0. 49. it is necessary to accurately measure the volume of solution rather than the volume of water used. Before testing.93 g and 49. rather than before? A8.99 g. 50. 50. The masses of water for the five trials were 49.02 g.98 g. 49. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . She filled the burette to the zero mark and drained a 50. it was cleaned thoroughly. The error was thought to be due to a poor standard of calibration.63 mL.00 g. a What is the average mass of the five water samples? b Calculate the average volume of these samples.

Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.00 mL). Explain the difference between the following terms: a standard solution and primary standard b equivalence point and end point c burette and pipette d aliquot and titre A9.Worked solutions to textbook questions 7 Q9. A burette is a piece of equipment capable of delivering variable volumes of a liquid accurately (generally up to 50.g. A few drops of methyl orange are added and the mixture is titrated against dilute hydrochloric acid. The equivalence point in a titration occurs when the reactants have been mixed in the mole ratio shown by the reaction equation. has a known formula and can be stored without deteriorating or reacting with the atmosphere. b c d Q10. A few drops of methyl orange are added and the mixture is titrated against dilute hydrochloric acid.00 mL). Use the list of words in the box to fill in the gaps.0 mL. a A standard solution is a solution of accurately known concentration. A 20. The end point occurs when the indicator changes colour. Some of the key words are missing. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . The following paragraph describes an acid±base titration. 20. while a titre is delivered by a burette and is the volume needed to reach the end point of a titration. pipette measuring cylinder beaker volumetric flask primary standard indicator base standard solution burette indicator titre desiccator aliquot A sample of anhydrous sodium carbonate of approximately 2 g is weighed accurately. A primary standard is a substance that is readily obtained in a pure form. A10.) The solid is tipped into a volumetric flask and shaken with about 50 mL of distilled water until the solid dissolves. More water is added to make the solution to a volume of exactly 100. while pipettes usually deliver only a fixed volume of liquid (e.00 mL ____________ of the solution is taken by using a _____________ and placed in a conical flask. More water is added to make the solution to a volume of exactly 100. (The solid must be dry if it is to be used as a primary standard. A 20. An aliquot is the volume of liquid delivered from a pipette.) The solid is tipped into a _____________ and shaken with about 50 mL of distilled water until the solid dissolves. (The solid must be dry if it is to be used as a _______________.0 mL.00 mL aliquot of the solution is taken by pipette and placed in a conical flask. It should also be cheap and have a high molar mass. A sample of anhydrous sodium carbonate of approximately 2 g is weighed accurately.

63 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 ) c 250.0762 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.63 g c(Na2CO3 ) = 105.01194 mol L±1 = 0. 0.400 g of sodium oxalate (Na2C2 O4) A11. m n= =cvV M m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the molarity (concentration in mol L±1) to the correct number of significant figures.059 M Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. 0.1000 L = 0.42 g of potassium chloride (KCl) b 100. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.55 g mol 1 v 0. 1.0119 M b c Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.07619 mol L±1 = 0.0 mL solution containing 1.96 g mol 1 v 0. m =cvV n= M m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the molarity (concentration in mol L±1) to the correct number of significant figures.250 L = 0. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .400 g c(Na2C2O4) = 133. m n= =cvV M m c= MV Step 2 Calculate the molarity (concentration in mol L±1) to the correct number of significant figures.42 g c(KCl) = 74.99 g mol 1 v 0. Calculate the molarity of: a 250.0 mL solution containing 0.0 mL solution containing 0.Worked solutions to textbook questions 8 Chapter review Q11.05944 mol L±1 = 0.2500 L = 0.

4 g of Fe(NO3 )3.10003 mol Step 3 From the formula. Find the concentrations of the following ions in the solution: a iron(III) ions b nitrate ions A13.10 g b Q13.96 g mol±1 = 16.1 g mol±1 = 5.9H2 O is dissolved in sufficient water to make up 1 litre of solution.Worked solutions to textbook questions 9 Q12.100 L v 204. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. n(Fe3+) = 0. m =cvV n = M m =cvVvM Step 2 Calculate the mass required to the correct number of significant figures.10003 mol/1 L = 0.7 g Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .250 M v 0. What mass of solute is required to prepare the following standard solutions? a 250 mL of 0. m(Na2C2 O4) = 0. a Step 1 Write the appropriate formula.250 M potassium hydrogen phthalate KH(C8 H4 O4) A12.500 M sodium oxalate Na2C2 O4 b 100 mL of 0.500 M v 0.9H2 O.9H2 O) = 403.10003 mol Step 4 Calculate the concentration of Fe3+ ions in 1 L of water.847 g mol 1 = 0. to the correct number of significant figures.100 mol Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. m n= M Step 2 Calculate the amount to the correct number of significant figures. m =cvV n= M m= c v V v M Step 2 Calculate the mass required to the correct number of significant figures. 40.4 g n(Fe(NO3)3. c(Fe3+) = 0. m(KH(C8 H4O4)) = 0.250 L v 133. 40.745 g = 16. 1 mol of Fe3+ ions are formed from 1 mol of Fe(NO3)3.

a i Step 1 Step 2 ii Step 1 Step 2 Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.44 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of NaCl in g L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. 0.30009 mol/1 L = 0.0036 M Ca(OH)2 solution ii 2. a b c A14.3 v 10±5 mol Pb(NO3)2 per 1 L = (6.0024 mol NaCl per 1 L = (0.068 g L±1 dissolved O2 in tap water ii 0.44) g L±1 = 0.10003 mol Step 3 From the formula.9H2 O. i 0. c(NaCl) = (0.9H2 O) = 403. c(NO3±) = 0.847 g mol 1 = 0. remembering that n = M .0024 M NaCl means 0.22) g L±1 = 0. c(Pb(NO3 )2) = (6.3 v 10±5 M Pb(NO3)2 as g L±1.32 g L±1 cadmium ions in seawater Convert the following molar concentrations to units of ppm: i 0.3 v 10±5 M Pb(NO3 )2 means 6.Worked solutions to textbook questions 10 b Step 1 Write the appropriate formula. to the correct number of significant figures.10003 mol = 0.300 M Convert the following molar concentrations to units of g L±1.0024 M NaCl as g L±1. so m = n v M.3 v 10±5 v 331.0024 M NaCl solution ii 6. 6. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .0024 v 58.021 g L±1 Q14. n(NO3±) = 3 v 0.3 v 10±5 M Pb(NO3 )2 solution Convert the following concentrations in g L±1 to units of mol L±1.30009 mol Step 4 Calculate the concentration of Fe3+ ions in 1 L of water. 40. i 0.140256 g L±1 = 0.4 g n(Fe(NO3)3.14 g L±1 m .0024 mol v 58.9 v 10±6 M Cd(NO3)2 solution m Rewrite 0.3 v 10±5 mol v 331. remembering that n = M so m = n v M. 3 mol of NO3± ions are formed from 1 mol of Fe(NO3)3.22 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of Pb(NO3)2 in g L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.02086686 g L±1 = 0. Rewrite 6. m n= M Step 2 Calculate the amount.

using the formula for m amount.002125 mol L±1 = 0.688 ppm = 270 ppm Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. 0.068 g O2 per 1 L 0.0036 M means 0.32 g mol per 1 L = 112. n = .068 g mol L±1 c(O2) = 1 32 g mol = 0.266688 g L±1 Ca(OH)2 in ppm.32 g Cd2+ ions per 1 L 0.40 g mol = 0.0021 M Rewrite 0. Assume that 1 g = 1 mL.40 g mol 1 Calculate the concentration of Cd2+ ions in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures.08) g L±1 = 0.0029 M Rewrite 0.266688 g per L = 0. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .32 g c(Cd2+ ions) = mol L±1 1 112.0036 v 74.08 g mol±1 ) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of Ca(OH)2 in g L±1. using the formula for mass. 10 6 c(Ca(OH)2) = 0.068 g = mol per 1 L 32 g mol 1 Calculate the concentration of O2 in mol L±1 to the correct number of significant figures. 0.266688 g L±1 Rewrite 0.0036 mol per 1 L = (0.0036 mol v 74.Worked solutions to textbook questions 11 b i Step 1 Step 2 ii Step 1 Step 2 c i Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Rewrite 0. m = n v M. using the formula for amount. 0. M 0.00285 mol L±1 = 0.068 g L±1 O2 as mol L±1.266688 v 3 10 = 266.266688 g per 1000 mL = 0.266688 g per 103 g = ? per 106 g Calculate the concentration in ppm to the correct number of significant figures. c(Ca(OH)2) = (0.0036 M Ca(OH)2 as g L±1. which means grams per million (106) grams. 0. M 0.32 g L±1 Cd2+ ions as mol L±1. m n= .

67396 v 10±3 g L±1 Cd(NO3 )2 in ppm. 1000 g L±1 c(carbohydrates)= 8. 0. in mol.4) g L±1 = 0.5 g/100 mL Vitamin C: 40 mg/100 mL a Express the concentration of each solute in g L±1.5 g per 100 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of carbohydrates g L±1.68556 v 10±3 g per 1000 mL = 0.Worked solutions to textbook questions 12 ii Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Rewrite 2.9 v 10±6 v 236. Assume that 1 g = 1 mL.68556 v 10±3 g per 103 g = ? per 106 g Calculate the concentration in ppm to the correct number of significant figures.5 v 100 = 85 g L±1 Step 3 Rewrite 40 mg/100 mL as g L±1. 1000 c(vitamin C) = 0.040 g per 100 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 4 Calculate the concentration of vitamin C in g L±1.68556 v 10±3 g per L = 0.5 g mixture of carbohydrates.68556 ppm = 0.9 v 10±6 M Cd(NO3 )2 as g L±1. a Step 1 Rewrite 8. 10 6 c(Cd(NO3)2 ) = 0.9 v 10±6 mol per 1 L = (2.4 g mol±1) g per 1 L Calculate the concentration of Cd(NO3 )2 in g L±1.040 v g L±1 100 = 0.68556 v 10±3 g L±1 Rewrite 0. which means grams per million (106) grams. b Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. whereas the term µcarbohydrates¶ refers to a group of compounds including glucose (C6H12 O6). Thus the amount. b Why is it also possible to express the concentration of vitamin C as a molarity. m = n v M. c(Cd(NO3)2 ) = (2. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .9 v 10±6 M means 2.69 ppm Q15.5 g/100 mL as g L±1. 40 mg per 100 mL = 0. of vitamin C present in 40 mg can be calculated but this is not possible for the 8. sucrose (C12 H22O11) and others. A carton of orange juice lists among its contents: Total carbohydrates: 8.68556 v 10±3 v 3 10 = 0. using the formula for mass. but not possible to do so for the carbohydrates? A15.9 v 10±6 mol v 236. 2.40 g L±1 Vitamin C is a single chemical compound. 8.

0.56 g/200 mL of C6H12 O6 as g L±1.30 g of potassium chloride (KCl) and 3. b Calculate the molarity of each compound. in mol L±1. 1000 c(C6 H12O6 ) = 3.8 g L±1 Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. Each 200 mL of an electrolyte solution designed for treating dehydration contains 0.30 g per 200 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 4 Calculate the concentration of KCl g L±1. A16.47 g per 200 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 2 Calculate the concentration of NaCl g L±1.4 g L±1 Step 3 Rewrite 0.47 g/200 mL NaCl as g L±1. in g L±1.Worked solutions to textbook questions 13 Q16. 0.5 g L±1 Step 5 Rewrite 3.30 v 200 = 1.56 v g L±1 200 = 17. 1000 g L±1 c(NaCl) = 0. a Calculate the concentration of each compound. c Calculate the concentration of potassium ions in the solution.47 g of sodium chloride (NaCl). d Calculate the concentration of chloride ions in the solution.35 g L±1 = 2.56 g per 200 mL = ? g per 1000 mL (1 L) Step 6 Calculate the concentration of C6H12O6 as g L±1. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . 3.30 g/200 mL of KCl as g L±1. 0. a Step 1 Rewrite 0.47 v 200 = 2.56 g of glucose (C6 H12O6 ). in mol L±1. 1000 g L±1 c(KCl) = 0.

remembering to use n = c d c(NaCl) = 2.09889 mol L±1 = 0.020 M Step 3 Calculate the concentration of C6H12O6 in M.5 g = mol L±1 1 74.041) M = 0.041 M Step 2 Calculate the concentration of KCl in M. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .020 + 0.020 M and as there is 1 mol of K+ ions in 1 mol of KCl. The concentration of KCl is 0.061 M m .44 g mol = 0.020 M There are Cl± ions from KCl and NaCl. c(Cl± ions) = (0. and 1 mol of Cl± ions in 1 mol of NaCl.0989 M As the concentration of KCl is 0.4 g L±1 2. then calculate the concentration of Cl± ions. c(KCl) = 1. As there is 1 mol of Cl± ions in 1 mol of KCl.8 g L±1 17.8 g = mol L±1 1 180 g mol = 0. c(K+ ions) = 0.041 M.Worked solutions to textbook questions 14 b Step 1 Calculate the concentration of NaCl in M. M Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.602 g mol = 0.041068 mol L±1 = 0. the concentration of K+ ions will be 0.020 M. c(C6 H12O6 ) = 17.020 M and NaCl is 0.5 g L±1 1.0201067 mol L±1 = 0.4 g mol L±1 = 1 58.

080 mol V(HCl) = 0.0 M HCl be added in order to prepare a 0.0 g mol±1 50 n(H2 O2) = = 1. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .0 + 2 × 16.0 = 1. What is the molarity of the hydrogen peroxide? A18. V(water) = (160 ± 10) mL = 150 mL = 0. n(HCl) = 0. 1.010 L v 8.47 mol 34 Calculate the concentration of H2O2 in mol L±1.50 M HCl solution? A17.0 = 34.16 L = 160 mL Calculate the volume of water needed to be added to the initial 10 mL of concentrated HCl.080 mol Calculate the total volume of the dilute HCl solution. The label on a laundry stain remover indicates that it contains 50 g/L hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2).5 M (two significant figures) Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education.50 mol L1 = 0.15 L Step 3 Step 4 Q18. Step 1 Convert the mass of H2 O2 to moles using n = m M Step 2 M(H2 O2) = 2 ×1.47 = 1.0 mol L±1 = 0.Worked solutions to textbook questions 15 Q17. To what volume of water must 10 mL of 8. 0.47 c(H2 O2) = 1. n=cvV Calculate the amount of HCl used to make the solution. Step 1 Step 2 Write the appropriate formula.

0 L of 0. A student wishes to prepare 500 mL of a standard solution of any base of concentration 0. 3 Add distilled water until the flask is about half full and shake until the solid dissolves.25 g of anhydrous sodium carbonate. Step 1 Calculate the amount of dilute HNO3 required. = 14 M = 0.0214 L = 21.90 ppm (1 ppm = 1 g in l06 g).30 mol V(HNO3 )conc.15 M acid? A19.0 g of Melbourne water? b How many fluoride ions would you swallow if you drank a 200 mL glass of Melbourne water? (1 mL of water weighs 1 g. 1 Weigh accurately a mass of 13. 2 Transfer the solid to a 500 mL volumetric flask.0 L = 0. b Q21. of fluoride is present in 1. n(HNO3)diluted = 0. it is readily obtained in pure form. Schools normally purchase concentrated (14 M) nitric acid and then dilute it for use. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . to the correct number of significant figures.15 M v 2. Unlike sodium hydroxide. a What amount. 0. in mol.) Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. Fluorine compounds are added to Melbourne¶s supplies of drinking water to give a concentration of fluoride ions of about 0. a A standard solution can be prepared using anhydrous sodium carbonate because it acts as a primary standard.30 mol Calculate the volume of concentrated acid which contains this amount of HNO3. washing all traces of the solid from the container used for weighing into the flask. b Write instructions to the student for making up the solution.2500 M.4 mL = 21 mL Step 2 Q20. 4 Add more distilled water until the bottom of the meniscus is exactly level with the calibration mark. 5 Shake the flask to thoroughly mix the solution. a Would it be better to prepare the solution using solid sodium hydroxide or anhydrous sodium carbonate? Explain. What volume is required to prepare 2. Sodium hydroxide is deliquescent (absorbs water from the atmosphere) and also reacts with carbon dioxide in air.Worked solutions to textbook questions 16 Q19. A20.

90 ppm means 0.90 g mol per 106 g of water = 18.Worked solutions to textbook questions 17 A21.7 v 10±8 mol g±1 as mole per 200 g. using n = m M Step 2 b Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 . showing the calibration line. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd .0 = 9.7 v 10±8 mol g±1 means 4.0 g of water Calculate the concentration of F± ions in mol g±1 to the correct number of significant figures.7 v 10±8 mol of F± ions per 1.66162 v 1018 = 5.9984 10 = 4.0 0.7 v 1018 Q22.73724 v 10±8 mol g±1 = 4.0 g water Calculate the concentration of F± ions in mol per 200 g. Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. Clearly indicate the positions of the curved surface (meniscus) of a liquid in the pipette before and after the liquid is delivered.0 g of water.023 v 1023 = 5.40 v 10±6 mol per 200 g Convert this concentration to particles per 200 g.7 v 10±8 mol g±1 Rewrite 4. 200 c(F±) = 4.90 g F± ions per 106 g of water 0.0 g water = ? mol of F± ions per 200. 0. 4. A22. a Step 1 Rewrite 0.40 v 10±6 v 6. to the correct number of significant figures.90 c(F±) = v 6 mol g±1 18. using the formula: Number of particles = n v NA Number of F± ions = 9.7 v 10±8 v mol per 200 g 1.9984 g mol 1 = ? mol per 1. 1. Sketch a pipette.90 ppm fluoride ions as mole per 1.

34 mL.30.90. VIII Hydrochloric acid was discharged from burette until the end point was reached. a. a What is meant by the term µstandard¶ in µa standard solution of hydrochloric acid¶? b Sodium hydroxide solution should not be left standing in a glass burette. The following steps (not in the correct order) were used when carrying out the titration: I The burette was filled with hydrochloric acid. VII A pipette was rinsed with sodium hydroxide solution. 25. Explain what is meant by a rough titration and why it is used. 25. e Titrations are repeated until concordant results are obtained. 25. 25. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . considering the values given above? g For the titration values 25. what sort of error explains the differences²random or systematic? Explain your answer.34. The titration was repeated several times and the following values were obtained: 25. Explain what is meant by the term µconcordant¶ in this context. state if it should be: i rinsed with de-ionised water only ii rinsed with sodium hydroxide solution only iii rinsed with hydrochloric acid only a pipette b burette c conical flask A23. II The conical flask was rinsed with water. Explain why.32. list the steps required to complete a titration in the correct order. c From the list above. Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. 25. 25.32. a b c ii iii i Q24. IV An aliquot of sodium hydroxide was placed in the conical flask.5. the student does not wish to wait until the glassware has dried before using it. the student rinses the glassware that is to be used in the analysis.Worked solutions to textbook questions 18 Q23. f What is the best value to use for the titre of acid. III The burette was rinsed with hydrochloric acid. IX An indicator was added to the sodium hydroxide solution. Before beginning. VI The level of acid in the burette was read. d A µrough¶ titration is usually carried out before the first accurate titration.30.30 mL. A student is to perform an analysis of sodium hydroxide solution by titrating it with standard hydrochloric acid. V The level of acid in the burette was read. For each of the following apparatus. b and c. However. as shown in Figure 3. The concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide was found by titration with a standard solution of hydrochloric acid.

Anhydrous sodium carbonate is used as a primary standard in determining the concentration of hydrochloric acid by volumetric analysis. 25. VIII. A rough titration is carried out if the volume of the titrant is not known. a b A standard solution of hydrochloric acid is one of accurately known concentration. Other correct answers are possible but I comes after III. It allows the titration to be carried out faster. filling of the pipette. 25.Has a very high level of purity . Concordant results are titres that are very close in volume.Has a known formula .Has a high molar mass to minimise errors in weighing .34 and 25. 25.20 M? c How would you prepare this standard solution? A25.30 mL should be used. VI. Concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide react with the silica of the glass.g. a What criteria are used to determine whether or not a substance is suitable for use as a primary standard? b What mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate is required to prepare 200 mL of a standard solution of sodium carbonate that has a concentration of 0. will not react with atmospheric gases (e. etc. e. For subsequent titrations the titrant is added quickly to within 1±2 mL of the end point and then the titrant is added dropwise until the end point is reached. The variation is due to random errors giving answers above and below the true value. VII. IV after VII and II. judgement of the end point. The 25. II. IV.32 mL. IX.Is relatively inexpensive n(Na2CO3) = cV = 0.20 = 0.90 mL titre may have been a rough titre or due to a mistake in the titration. c d e f g Q25.040 ×106 = 4. The titrant is added quickly to the conical flask until end point is reached. VIII after IX and V. V.30.25 g b Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. This gives an inaccurate or rough value. reducing the accuracy of the glassware. These may result from slightly different views when reading the burette.32.Is stable. III.040 mol m(Na2CO3) = nMr = 0.Worked solutions to textbook questions 19 A24. Burettes with glass taps may stick or µfreeze¶. For example.Is readily available . a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . I. IX after IV. water vapour) .20 × 0. giving an average titre of 25. carbon dioxide.g. a A primary standard: .

Worked solutions to textbook questions 20 c Accurately weigh an empty weighing bottle. Transfer the weighed sample to a volumetric flask using a glass funnel. Heinemann Chemistry 2 (4th edition) © Harcourt Education. Determine the concentration of the primary standard. Half fill the volumetric flask with water and shake to dissolve the sample. When the sample has dissolved add water to the calibration mark and shake the flask again. a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd . Rinse out the weighing bottle and glass funnel using a wash bottle. add the primary standard and reweigh.

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