Alaska Hooch

The History of Alcohol in Early Alaska
By Thayne I. Andersen

Library of Congress Catalogue Card 88-71043 © Copyright 1988 and 1999 Produced by Thayne Andersen CMR 407, Box 183 APO AE 09098

PREFACE
A close look at the history of our society can dispel some of the stereotypes that invariably form our impressions. This is particularly true of the subject of alcohol use by Alaska’s Natives. The problems associated with it have been observed and discussed for generations to establish a certain, fixed response. Thayne Andersen addresses himself to an historical overview with useful results. Mr. Andersen concerns himself primarily with the early period of white- Native impact from the Russian experience through that of American military, traders, whalers, and others. His use of an impressive number of published sources gives his work a particular value. William Hunt

PREFACE
The history of Western development has been heavily influenced by the availability and use of alcohol. The Puritans set sail for the New World with 14 tons of water, 42 tons of beer, and 10,000 gallons of wine. The gradual movement south along the eastern U.S. coast and into the West Indies was motivated to some degree by a search for better beverage alcohol “production” environments. As pioneers moved west and then north, they coped with the harsh environments as well as their loneliness and frustrations by using alcohol. Drinking, even to excess, became an accepted part of the “pioneering spirit.” What makes this book so interesting is not just the relationship it documents between alcohol and the development of Alaska, but the awareness the book creates of the extent to which alcohol actually influenced Alaskan history. The establishment of trade, systems of government, and relationships with the Native People were especially influenced by the trafficking and importance of alcoholic beverages. This attitude of excess, sometimes called the “pioneering spirit,” may have been required during the early years of Alaskan development. This “pioneering spirit” and subsequent risk-taking behavior remain a part of the Alaskan mystique today. In light of the continuing high rates of alcohol consumption in this state, this book, with the added perspective it provides, becomes essential reading for every student of Alaskan history. Matthew Felix Director Alaska Office of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

Native of Kodiak, Alaska (period 1785-1793) Sarychev

S. No one could tell me. and will deal with several misconceptions about drinking in early Alaska. I need also to mention the help of my wife. I realized that if so few knew about Alaska’s alcohol history as recently as 1917. History In the first chapters. It is impossible to understand issues about the role of the U. Somehow. I asked several people who worked in the alcoholism field in Alaska what the term. I heard the term. The reader is encouraged to refer readily to the endnotes for they have been designed to add considerably to the meaning or perspectives you may get as you read this book. were greatly affected by beverage alcohol issues from other areas.S. It is about alcohol. the same was true in previous centuries. Anchorage School of Alcohol and Addiction Studies for their invaluable assistance. Dennis Kelso was particularly encouraging in this work. “Bone-Dry Law. I will include information about health and violence. I wish to thank the faculty of the University of Alaska. the Russians and the people who came to Alaska after its purchase by the United States from Russia. I have organized the material into three sections: 1. Not having heard of this term before. The final section contains one chapter on related U. I will review how those who controlled various governmental and private organizations dealt with beverage alcohol in the early years and demonstrate the frustrations and ambiguities that they constantly had to face. Just as not everyone who drinks alcohol today becomes an alcoholic. 2.S.FORWARD This book is NOT about alcoholism. “Bone-Dry Law” referred to. Army in Alaska territory in controlling alcohol. In the next chapters. Dr. 3. for example. When I finally learned about this law. Early Introduction of Alcoholic Drinks Governmental Reaction to Alcohol Related U. I will give information about early alcohol among the Northwest Coast Indians.” as it referred to early Alaska. My personal interest in Alaska’s alcohol history was inaugurated several years ago when I attended several meetings with representatives of the Alaska legislature in Juneau while they debated the possible need for a higher alcohol tax. without knowing the problems they faced in the early 1800's in using alcohol themselves while trying to totally eliminate its use by others during the various Indian Wars that they were involved in. Research has been used from numerous areas. and world history. I have included this section because Alaskans. This book has been organized to give you a considerable amount of interesting information about how alcohol was used in early Alaska. Ann. in encouraging me to continue the research that at times was extremely exciting and at other times at the other end . to a large extent. then the years before that were also holding issues and information that ought to be better known than they apparently are.

Andersen Native woman of Kodiak (1785-1793) from Sarychev .of the interest continuum. Thayne I. Thanks also needs to be given to the Southeast Alaska Regional Health Corporation who allowed me to do much of this work while I worked with them in other capacities. last of all to thank Matt Felix and others in the Alaska State Office of Alcoholism And Other Drug Abuse for their encouragement and support. I need.

even when it has to do with events that happened well over 100 years ago. army officers and ne'er-do-wells that came to Alaska. is the "Firewater Myth. references had to be considered "with a grain of salt" because of ulterior motives and biased conclusions. I spent literally hundreds of hours reviewing references often referred to by other writings on the subject of alcoholic beverages in Alaska and the Northwest. According to this myth. government officials. It is difficult sometimes to read about alcohol with an open mind." "The firewater myth probably deserves the endurance record for unfounded folklore about American Indians. The first people to introduce alcohol to the indigenous natives of Alaska were the Russians who sailed to Alaska from Siberia."1 This and other attitudes still exist about alcohol's effects on Native Americans in Alaska. The impact of these contacts is assumed by most of us to have had some effect on the drinking patterns observed among the descendants of early Alaskans now living in Alaska. for example. missionaries. trappers. Alaska Natives did not use alcohol as a valued beverage before these first white settlers from Russia arrived. traders. Some groups of Alaskan Natives are separated by literally thousands of miles of some of the most rugged terrain on the continent. Researching the history of alcohol use in Alaska from the initial white contact until roughly the time of the national prohibition era. Other times. even though the origin of learning to drink by many of Alaska's Natives is widely dissimilar from those of other Native Americans. yet writers of Alaskan history often lump them together with Indians of the Eastern Atlantic. Indians are constitutionally prone to develop an inordinate craving for liquor and to lose control over their own behavior when they drink. Midwest and Southwest as far as their supposed susceptibility to alcohol over-indulgence and learned drinking behavior is concerned. PRECONCEPTIONS SURROUNDING ALASKA'S ALCOHOL HISTORY Many misunderstandings and preconceptions exist about the impact of the first contacts between Alaska's Natives and the early miners. In researching this work. Alaskan Natives. sources seemed to contradict each other. . A common assumption. are actually heterogeneous groups that only recently have been identified collectively.CHAPTER #1 INTRODUCTION The history of alcohol use in Alaska can be traced from the earliest arrival of sailors from foreign lands in 1741. From all indications. when more historical information becomes available. is a difficult and time-consuming task. sailors. though combined for convenience to one term. In order to understand alcohol use in Alaska today some commonly-held ideas should be examined. Often.

" . MOTIVATION OF AUTHORS The average reader of Alaska history is likely to be unaware of the background of its historical authors. military officers and government officials as well as fur traders and "ruff-scruff." Inhabitants of the Pribilof Islands saw virtually only Russians and other sea-faring hunters who were after the now-extinct Steller's sea cow. Natives seldom saw whites (except a few whalers) until well into the 20th century. It depends. One historian might have a tendency to claim that Alaska's Natives were "demoralized" by the liquor brought into the territory by the Russians. One person's perspective is likely to be quite different from another's even when the same thing is described. swell. and luxurious. in part. while the Athabascan Indians saw virtually no whites but miners during the same time. A store-keeper who sells "good whiskey" might blame the liquor problems on home-brewed liquor that wasn't as good in quality as what he sold. diversified state that any or all of these claims may be true or false to an extent. Alaska is such a large. conclusions reached may be slanted or inaccurate. sparkling glasses. walrus and valuable seal pelts. palatial. Without this information. efficient and polite bartenders. pretty waitresses and smashingly beautiful female dancers. with clean. for example.STEREOTYPES OF EARLY ALASKA AND ALCOHOL DRINKING Some preconceived notions about early Alaska settlement and drinking behavior exist. Comments such as these seem to be easily accepted by most of us as true. miners. A government official might lay the "blame" on "bad" white men who cheated the Natives out of their furs using whiskey. Missionaries who were strongly against the behavior of the crews of whaling ships might blame liquor problems on the example set by whaling crews that victimized Alaska's Natives in their opinion. If the average Alaskan were asked about his thoughts on the use and abuse of alcohol in Alaska's early years. if is probable that one of several stereotypes might be offered. Take for example the description of a western saloon by one thirsty visitor: It was "gleaming. on exactly what groups or villages are referred to. elaborate spittoons. In Point Barrow. A miner might blame Indian drinking problems on the guilt laid on the Natives by prohibition-minded missionaries. Indians in Southeast Alaska coastal areas [the Tlingits] had early contact with Russians.

unlike Russians. drank the liquor before burying the bottle. At Sitka I used up five bucketsful. sometimes we make wine out of them. EARLY RUSSIAN ALCOHOL HISTORY The first foreign visitors to the shores of Alaska (other than those by circum-polar Eskimos) were from Russia. not leaving a drop. raw-boned. to drown our sorrows. however. having as you can guess a supply of vodka. over-sized boots protruding from beneath their long. Liquor bottles were commonly used to mark boundaries of land claims by both American and Russian colonizers. a letter from Governor Baranov to Larinov stated: "Neither I nor anyone else has any vodka or balsam left. unshaven trailhands with their hats on. stark. The current stereotype of hard-drinking Russians who love vodka is well known. mismatched chairs. Enough was shipped with the last transport but owing to my weakness it was all used up. dogs on bar and tables. unadorned.A temperance-minded visitor to the same saloon wrote a very different description of what he saw. It was "sleezy[sic]. It is sometimes amplified by letters about the Russians in Alaska. gawky.'"4 Bering . a splintering floor."2 Such differences of opinion make sorting through information about Alaska Natives' first alcohol contacts difficult and time-consuming. dirty calico skirts. Americans. Baranof stated: "We spent the fall and winter with men of distinction without boredom. As the scripture says: 'one who drinks wine does not keep chastity. with rough tables."3 In another letter. For example. Russians came to Alaska looking for furs and claimed the land by international law after planting a boundary marker alongside a liquor bottle at the fringes of the new land. horse-faced women with clumsy. expecting that the new transport would have arrived already or will arrive this summer. The raspberries are just beginning to ripen. and a few awkward. Even if we drank it only at times we were not very temperate as to quantity.

Few people understand Russian alcohol history beyond the simple, single stereotype quoted above. Fact and fiction about early Russian alcohol history can be separated only by digging into the information available about Russia prior to Alaskan contact. Not-so-distant relatives of Alaska's Eskimos are found in the coastal areas of Russia nearest to Alaska. As the European Russians worked their way east, their efforts to control the evils (as well as the benefits) of alcohol went with them. It is true that many Russian merchants used liquor to take advantage of the Natives they encountered as they moved eastward to the Kamchatka Peninsula just west of the Aleutian Islands. It is also true that Russian authorities in no way countenanced these practices.5 “FARMING” ALCOHOL FRANCHISES The first meaningful efforts to control alcohol in Russia came during the reign of Tzar Alexis (1645-1676). In addition to introducing the now-famous Russian ballet, he attempted to control the distribution of alcohol by granting monopolies to the highest bidder. This concept was known as “farming,” and provided the greatest benefit to the government in the form of revenue. Farming effectively authorized only the social elite to control and profit from the drinking habits of everyone else. By 1705, this pattern became well established. In 1779, liquor license farming brought seven million rubles into the treasury per year, and by 1811, over 30 million rubles were realized by the government from farming liquor. The first liquor concessions were occasionally made to Jewish businessmen, but prejudice against these merchants caused them to be stripped of the concessions for fear they would soon control more and more resources of Russia. "...in 1856 the Jews of Russia, while being permitted to reside in villages and hamlets, were forbidden to live in any house where wine, beer or spirits were sold, or to meddle with that trade, or possess any distillery or dispose of any liquor in any way."6 It was under the farming system that the first Russians came to the shores of Alaska. Ivan Larionovich Golikov was entrusted with the alcohol concession monopoly that extended to Russia's American colonies. "So respected was he that he had been entrusted with the administration throughout the province of the government liquor monopoly, a highly profitable assignment."7 It was through Golikov that a man named Grigorii Ivanovich Shelikov was to rise to the top of the Russian-American Company, and it was through Shelikov that Aleksandr Andreevich Baranov, a fur trader in the Anadyr country among a group of Indians called the Chukchi, was recruited for work in the American colonies. FUR TRADERS IN SIBERIA

Baranov, like other fur traders in the Anadyr country, traded alcohol as well as other items of general merchandise to get the furs he wanted. "Like all savages, the Tungus, Iakuts and others were addicted to vodka, and would willingly dispose of their furs to anyone from whom they could get it."8 The Chukchi were enough dissatisfied with Baranov's trading methods that in 1790 they burned and plundered his posts, leaving him facing bankruptcy. This experience caused Baranov to become very careful to prevent untrusted Natives from obtaining liquor and firearms. He was greatly offended whenever other traders willingly sold both of these items of contraband to Natives within his jurisdiction. This concern for keeping alcohol and firearms from Natives was probably not based upon Baranov's feelings about improving the Natives' welfare, but was simply good business sense, selfpreservation and social control.

Baranof’s Castle in Sitka

RUSSIAN-AMERICAN COMPANY POLICY AND ALCOHOL Taverns and saloons existed in Russia, as they had in Revolutionary America in the 1700s, but it would be wrong to think that the Russian-American Company encouraged drinking in Russian-Alaska any more than the Americans or the British did in the lands under their jurisdiction. As early as 1808, the Russian government lodged protests with the American ConsulGeneral in St. Petersburg against selling guns and alcohol to the Alaskan Indians by American merchants. The Company set limits on the amount of liquor given their own men as well as to Natives. In fact, it was the Russian's alcohol rationing that encouraged the British and the Americans to take advantage of the restrictions to increase their own trade throughout RussianAmerica.9 In the early years of the Company, however, liquor was used to control company workers' behavior and keep them from making their own liquor or from buying it from foreigners who often visited the colonies. Article II of their employment contract declared: "Everyone in the service of the Company is forbidden, under any pretext whatsoever, to distill liquor from herbs, roots, berries, Company grain, and so forth; or to buy or barter liquor from visiting foreigners and trade in it on Company premises, to make loans or give

money to each other for drinking purposes, then drink liquor or use it in any way at all."10 This doesn't mean that the company didn't allow its workers to drink alcohol. They allowed and even encouraged their own workers to drink company-purchased liquor. This is not much different than any similar American company might have done in the same situation. Alcohol was even sometimes used to get and keep employees in debt. Baranov admitted: "Here there is no need of gold, silver, or precious stones. Among the provisions there is only one which is more expensive and more important. . . . Next to articles of clothing and footwear liquor is dearer to the workers than anything else in the world. And if it is a question of getting people in debt, just send over some [liquor] and have it sold in moderation when necessary, especially at times when the income is being divided up ['half-share' system], and you will see how much of the income will be passed out and how many people will get into debt."11 The Russians also allowed their workers to brew virtually all the beer that they wanted to drink. They made a type of a beer called "quass" or "kvass" which was given freely to employees. Workers also received a small, regular issue of vodka at Company expense. This vodka issue was extended to some of the more trusted Aleut hunters at times, particularly at the end of successful hunts. CONTROL OF THE ALCOHOL TRADE Historian Hubert Howe Bancroft, while denouncing Indians for a perceived love of drink, observed that gains by fur traders who cheated Indians out of furs by using alcohol for leverage were only a temporary advantage. He pointed out that a drunken hunter neither hunts very well nor very long. A drunken hunter is also not safe in managing hazardous situations. "Drink destroyed his energies, absorbed his property, and left him hungry and naked."12 He contended that for this reason, companies that enjoyed a monopoly of trade in any area not only regulated themselves, but readily formed compacts with their neighbors prohibiting traffic in alcohol. "It was only when opposition was rampant that prudential principles were thrown aside, and the fragrant forest air was thickened with the fumes of vile distillations." The Russian-American Fur Company only from time to time enjoyed what could accurately be called a monopoly. This concession was intended to be a monopoly by the

None of the traders that exploited the trade along the Alaskan coast were particularly kind to the aboriginals of Alaska."15 EFFORTS TO STOP DISASTROUS COMPETITION . They were forced to rely on ships that all-too-often did not arrive at their assigned destination. .13 UNETHICAL CAPITALISTS By far the worst traders in liquor were the first Americans to come to Alaska.For innate wickedness and cold-blooded barbarities in the treatment of savage or half-civilized nations no people on earth during the past century have excelled men of Anglo-Saxon origin. not from within their own system.14 American traders enjoyed the benefits of this uncontrolled trade in alcohol and firearms until 1824 when the Russian government entered into the first treaty with the United States. . Their competition came. They travelled along the Pacific northwest coast in large trading ships without Russia's permission while Russia officially controlled the Alaskan territorial waters. 18 ships had been lost at sea. The Americans were trying to make a profit for their businesses in any way they knew how. ships regularly disappeared beneath the waves with valuable resupply cargoes. but it didn't work out that way in practice. Due to bad weather. but from the Americans (who hated monopolies) and the British. By 1819. ". They were viewed by the Russians as not being interested in anything more than turning a quick profit and then sailing home. poor navigation or other hardships. Russian America's very existence was threatened by frequent shipwrecks.government and those who owned the company. The Russians' situation was worsened by logistical barriers to supplying their outposts from Russia.

1824. The Russian. Those who were caught violating this prohibition lost all their earnings and were sometimes exiled to Okhotsk. a Russo-American treaty went into effect which allowed American traders in Russian.American waters. On April 27.American ten-year treaty was not renewed when it expired because American merchants showed no interest in policing their own trading ships to ensure obedience with the treaty. but they could do without the cut-throat competition and illegal liquor trade the foreigners brought. Even . firearms.16 EMPLOYEE LIQUOR RATIONS The Russians generally adhered to a policy of allowing spirituous liquors only to Russian workers. creoles (mixed culture individuals) and trusted Natives. A similar treaty with the British went into effect in 1825. powder and munitions of war of all kinds. They needed the foreigners to help supply their posts. The treaty. however. American trading boats were often accused of violating this treaty by the Russians. The Russians were in a predicament.17 Russian workers in the colonies were frequently charged with drunkenness. The United States government was reluctant to interfere with their own merchants just to make things easier on Russian fur companies. did not allow the Russians to seize or even search American vessels suspected of violating the treaty.The Russian government sought a treaty with the United States because foreign competition from unscrupulous merchants could cause the collapse of the Russian-American Fur Company. but excluded the use of spirituous liquors.

received word of charges made against him. We get so used to living without it. "It is not true that we drink vodka all the time. I added six puds of the company's flour in your honor. Besides. Nobody with the exception of myself and Izmailov makes it. I could have plenty. and this is all. Instead of tea. on my birthday." The Americans and French often relied on beer made from spruce needles to protect them from scurvy. and thanks to the Lord. "Limeys. The British found a successful antidote by mixing lime juice with their rum earning them the nickname. molasses and beer made from fir cones. I do so only once or twice per year: first when I return from a tour of inspection or a journey and find a barrel or two of raspberry and bilberry juice prepared for this occasion. The men drank a glass or two. when we were laying out and launching a ship in Chugach I made twice a bucket of vodka out of berries and roots. then it was vice. and like them were troubled with scurvy. He defended his drinking habits with the following statement. and to keep them healthy. certain roots. And now that I remember it. The second time. but the Russians tried several other kinds of beer trying to hit on the proper scurvy cure: "The number of sick was increasing every day. "See that the seamen from the three ships belonging to the company have plenty of exercise every day as a protection from scurvy. and we all had drinks and I was drunk.Alexander Baranov. and some became intoxicated. If you can call it vice. But when I make it. like the Americans and British. But I never make it more than two or three times per year. If I wanted. Making wine with mercury. I make a bucket of vodka and treat everyone to it. and second. it is done in such secrecy that I never hear of it. that we do not even think of it. I ordered them given wheat. it is beyond the Russian boundaries and in a new part of the world. out of forty very sick Russians. the chief manager. and bracken are very suitable for making wine."19 The general manager of the Russian-American Fur Company was instructed to prepare beer for the workers to help them maintain a resistance to scurvy. I have rescued from death many who were perishing from venereal diseases. only three died."18 HEALTH AND BEER The Russians. because berries. We all drank this beer as an anecdote from scurvy. It seems that the law does not prohibit the manufacture of wine from berries and roots if it is for one's own use. they must drink a brew made of leaves of . were concerned about their workers' health. or at least if the hunters make it too. Sometimes on Christmas and Easter I make a bucket out of snakewood roots. They must go to work and in their spare time play games.

.green grass which purifies the blood and improves health."20 The use of much of the early alcohol beverages in Alaska was done often with the thought by the drinker that he was improving his health by drinking rather than doing the very opposite.

Honolulu. 12. Oxford University Press (1976).545. 140-143 Letter from Baranov to Demid Il'ich Kulikalov. Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies. P. Ontario (1979) p. Among the first things that were built the first year after the battle of Sitka was a brewery. 66.118.2.H. 484-502. New York (1979). Ibid. Alfred A. History of the Northwest Coast. New York. Basil and Crownhart-Vaughan. Knopf. 200. p. 144. H. Kingston. 10. Oregon Historical Society (1979) p. Tikhmenev. 6. July 24. p. 159. Kingston. 9. Vol. 1. 95. Melvin Governance of Alaska: Some Aspects. Craig. Re. Golovnin. New Jersey (1976). see . as there is no reference in the scriptures to this phrase. Richard Saloons of the Old West. A History of the Russian American Company. p. 1805. p. 7. 80. Imperial Russia In Frontier America. Hector Russian America: The Great Alaskan Adventure. Kansas. Chevigny. 2. p. Gibson James R. p. 158. Bancroft. Commander of the Andreianov.Footnotes to Chapter #1 1. 546. Binford and Mort (1965). 8. Bancroft. Hector Lost Empire: The Life and Adventures of Nikolai Rezanov. History of Alaska: 1730-1875.xxix. p. 13.M. V. "The Tavern And Saloon In Old Russia". 1800. Vol 16. April 29. The End Of Russian-America. 120-122 Letter from Baranov to Larionov. 4. New York (1880). Edited by Richard A.published in 1979 by The Hawaiian Historical Society and The University Press of Hawaii. Pierce and Alton S. The Limestone Press. Also see Dmytryshyn.A. Vol. Tikhmenev. Erdoe.2. Rat and Near Islands Detachment. P. 316. Donnelly. The Bancroft Company. Joy Firewater Myths: North American Indian Drinking and Alcohol Addiction. A History of the Russian American Company. p. p. This is really a Russian proverb. Antiquarian Press. University of Southern California (1957). 11.130.P. Leland. Also see Chevigny. New York (1961) p. E.A. p. Ontario (1979) p. Donnelly. p. p. New Brunswick. Binford & Mort (1965). Pierce and Alton S. Ibid. For more information about alcohol and early Russian-American relations. The Limestone Press. Edited by Richard A. 66.117. Vera Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Efron. Ibid. Around the World on the Kamchatka 1817-1819. 3. Hubert Howe. 97.A. 1955. 5. 54 in describing a saloon in Dodge City.

p. Beer on each ship that left Bristol. The Russian-American Company. 17. 20. Putnam's Sons. p. The Beginnings of Russian-American Relations.A. For a more complete discussion of this treaty. New York (1965). 179. 19. see Hildt. Hubert Howe History of Alaska: 1730-1885. . P. Tikhmenev. Scurvy is a disease that we now know is caused by poor nutrition -. p. 20. Nikolai N. Also see Chevigny. Harvard University Press. G. A History of the Russian American Company. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum.I. Harvard University Press (1951). Ontario (1979) p. Pierce and Donnelly (1979). Donnelly. 37 The Americans also believed that beer warded off the effects of scurvy. Vol. "Water--flavorless. Okun. Bancroft.P. S. p. R. 14. 11. was taken in the belief that it helped ward off scurvy. 67. 15. Gibson (1976). Early Diplomatic Negotiations of the United States and Russia. 171-185. work in RussianAmerica was very difficult in itself and exile to the "Motherland" might have been welcomed by some. Edited by Richard A. R. A History of the Russian-American Company. 248. Vol II. colorless. S. 67-68. and Donnelly. The Limestone Press. 157. 175. Pierce and Alton S. We have no way of knowing if this type of exile was very serious. 541-542. 18. 16. p. Limestone Press. Okhotsk is located on the Okhotsk Sea just east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Kingston. J. New York (1965). Ibid. Antiquarian Press. p.2.C. J. p. Cambridge (1975). Hector (1965)." Furnas. p. 112-113.C.A. p. Ontario (1979). p.B.A. proverbially weak--was suspected of diluting physical vigor and settling cold on the stomach.a lack of adequate vitamin "C". Certainly. Pierce.Bolkhovitinov.

and endanger the welfare of the community." West. .Family Spirits. robbery and blood. and by doing so diminish the comfort. p. 70. University of Nebraska Press (1979). which will incite men to deeds of riot. Elliott The Saloon on the Rocky Mountain Frontier. augment the expenses.

CHAPTER #2 FIRST CONTACT Alcohol use was prevalent in the first contacts between Alaska's aboriginals and the whites who came north in search of riches. fellowship was often symbolized by consuming liquor. All these newcomers to Alaska used alcoholic beverages for one purpose or another. Many Indians who lived in the American southwest had their own fermented drinks that could cause inebriation. BUT NOT IN DRINKABLE FORM . Natives likely displayed friendship by exchanging nonalcoholic gifts of value such as clothing.'"1 The Indians of Southeast Alaska. which they claimed. finding oil (whaling). black chitons. 'made them dizzy. Eskimos and Aleuts. Afterwards. however. probably had no intoxicating beverages at all before white traders introduced them."2 Whether or not Alaska Natives had much access to alcohol before the Russians arrived in their land is not as important as what the act of drinking alcohol meant to them if they used it. which was obtained cheaply by whites and could be used to barter for nearly anything the Indians had. who made a beverage of elderberry juice. Chewing pitch. "All available evidence seems to concur in placing the native peoples of the Northwest coast of America among American Indians who in aboriginal times were without knowledge and techniques for brewing or distilling intoxicating beers or liquors. may have made a form of intoxicant out of roots. called the Kolosh by the Russians. on the other hand. gold. furs and other trade items. food and supplies. Alaskan Indians. was thought to induce "a form of intoxication. Before whites came to Alaska. it could not have carried the same significance as that attributed to it by the whites. This gave the Alaska Natives a bewildering display of drinking behavior that attached meaning to swallowing liquids containing alcohol. also made from roots. If the Natives had alcohol at all. and tobacco. ALCOHOL EXISTED. INTOXICANTS BEFORE THE RUSSIANS It is generally accepted that North American Indians did not use intoxicating beverages before white adventurers and settlers arrived. One exceptional note comes from reports on the Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island.

therefore. The common . sugar and miscellaneous other items were often exaggerated . drunk in a half-fermented state. In his book. The destitution from this source alone last winter in this [lower Yukon] region was something dreadful. The historical data make this preeminently clear. instead of being used for human sustenance. but it existed in forms other than in intoxicating beverages. It was toward the abolition of this evil that I concentrated my efforts during my short trip in the month of June. English and Americans. leaving the Native totally impoverished."3 It is clear that the necessary raw elements for brewing alcohol were and are easily obtained throughout Alaska. The consequences of drinking this beverage made from yeast. . Sourdough starters were used to make beer or mash for distilling as well as leavening for bread.particularly when talking about its effects on Natives. These definitely were the reactions of the more northerly. made from flour and sugar fermented. even in the Arctic regions. Lemert said: The absence of intoxicants in the Indian cultures of the area under consideration means that the study of drinking behavior becomes a study of white-Indian contact and acculturation. An early alcoholic drink called "Sourdough" got its name from sourdough starter. Liquor was introduced into the Aleutian Islands and the northern coastal cultures sometime after 1741 by the Russian explorers and colonizers. particularly during the summer months when hillsides teemed with innumerable berries. There is evidence that the first reaction of the aborigines to liquor were those of distaste and suspicion of the motives of the persons who provided the liquor. the Tlingit. contained alcohol. Alcohol and the Northwest Coast Indians. This beverage. . Alcohol is the natural consequence of yeast from berries and other foods interacting on fermentable materials such as sugars and starches. This is the "cold whiskey" or "sourdough" beverage. flour. and. is used for this vile purpose. The old sourdough starters used by miners to make pancakes and muffins contained yeast. which.Alcohol was available throughout Alaska before the whites arrived. Yeast (a necessary ingredient for the production of alcohol) has always naturally existed in the air. and later in the south by the Spanish. In all likelihood they sprang from the easy perception of drunkenness as causing special vulnerability to attacks and raids by enemies. warlike tribes. produces stupefaction and sickness of the stomach simply indescribable. "But a worse and far more injurious method [than straight whiskey] has been introduced which reduces the Native to the uttermost depths of poverty and human degradation. Tsimpsian and Haida.

surprise and trickery in dealings with persons outside their own tribe led the natives to refuse liquor offered to them lest it "put them in the power of the Russians. some historians have noted the opposite reaction among some Indian tribes that were offered liquor. to obtain which they will sometimes sacrifice nearly everything in their possession.9 When Captain James Cook offered alcoholic drinks to Indians he met in Nootka Sound in 1778. as late as 1839." When Cook's crew offered liquor to some Natives at Unalaska. but by being brought into contact with unprincipled white men are soon found to adopt and imitate their manners and ways. military men who came to Alaska had contact with Indians of the "lower 48.S.. and like all other Indians easily become fond of ardent spirits." and readily made comparisons between Alaska Natives and their counterparts to the south. For example. . s'pose plenty of whiskey and presents. and seemed to be more interested in whiskey than in other items aboard the Lincoln. the Shoshoni Indians in Oregon territory had the reputation of refusing to indulge in intoxicating drink even though they had free access to it."5 Not all the whiskey exchanged by fur traders was furnished by the whites. Many stereotypes of Indians in the American southwest were applied to the Alaska Natives. Of course."4 FIREWATER COMES TO ALASKA Some writers have written about the supposed love of drink among North American Indians.. One trader who met chief "Shakes" in 1838 claimed that it was the chief (rather than himself) who produced whiskey and a cup. ingenious. One chief was said to observe.expectations of encountering surreptition. Most of the U.."10 A Spanish trader who visited Nootka Sound in 1792 also claimed that the Indians he met were not particularly interested in liquor.They are very fond of coffee. and labor well and faithfully. General Howard felt that the Indians were in his words. A representative sample of these comments include the following: On a side trip to Chilkat by the Lincoln in 1869. sugar and molasses. "saucy and quarrelsome".6 "A member of the Vitus Bering expedition in 1741 recorded that an Aleut was offered a sip of brandy but that he spit it out and left the ship feeling socially insulted. then talk good. "Talk without whiskey was nothing. the Indians "rejected them as something unnatural and disgusting to the palate."8 In spite of the bias by whites toward the Indians' perceived love of drink."7 "They [Southeast Indians] are very docile and friendly. one of them named Yermusk "shewed great aversion. the trader claimed that he only "tasted" the drink while observing that all the others drank heavily. giving us to understand by reeling & staggering the effect it would have upon [him] and he refused even to touch it.

"14 The Aleuts may have taken to alcohol as a form of acculturation and blending of the Russian and Aleut cultures after decimation by the first Russian conquerors. Langsdorf met some Tlingit Indians and traded with them. and last but not least. they reject it because they see the effect it produces. blankets. and are afraid that. they should fall into the power of the Russians."11 "The Tlingit may have refused liquor in very early contacts with the Russians because of an awareness of the way in which it was used to keep the fur hunters under peonage in the Aleutian colonies. but satisfied their thirst with water only until they began to trade with the Europeans. In addition to bringing enough alcohol to barter with. the most accurate way to document the Natives' first contacts with alcohol is to describe the whites' behavior and motives and the significance of that impact on the Natives. but as they began seeking some of the high status attached to the whites. of whom he stated: "Though they would like brandy very much. EXPLORERS AND ADVENTURERS The first explorers came to the shores of Alaska by ship."13 This attitude of being proud of maintaining their senses in the face of perceived enemies was also found among many Indians of the Columbia River. They all had dealings with Native peoples in other areas during their journeys prior to coming to Alaska. "and liquor. Because of Alaska's great size and its inhabitants varied cultural and social backgrounds. the traders had alcohol on board ship for their own use."They had no fermented drink. that drunkenness is degrading to free men. guns and ammunition. It is estimated that only 20 percent of the original population remained following the Russian attack. they started accepting the items that conferred white man's high status. some would add." The Tlingits of Southeast Alaska had an initial aversion to alcohol that was noted by Lemert. if deprived of their senses. scarce and valuable soon became a prime prestige item. about whom one writer in 1832 observed: "They allege that slaves only drink to excess."12 In 1805. to their own . for their health and happiness and. and all were prepared with items of trade and barter to use along the way. alcohol. The international "currency" familiar to all cultures served by the crews of the worldwide trading ships included trinkets.

he came across the out-of-the-way islands that now bear his name. for example. Sailors were. Such was the case. his favorite "black-jack" drinking mug was nearly stolen. the excessive drinking of sailors during the early years of the United States caused them to be included with other lower classes whenever disgust about immoderate drinking was brought up. forbidden credit for alcohol in Virginia in 1769.17 Sometimes sailors offered liquor to Indian men to entice them to allow the sailors to obtain sexual favors of the Native women. but this didn't stop other traders from profiting as well. for many ships had disastrous experiences while their crew or officers were "in their cups. One of three ships sailing for the original founding at Kodiak --the Saint Michael-. liquor was given by explorers to Indians and Eskimos in a spirit of hospitality and curiosity. FUR TRADERS AND HUNTERS It didn't take long for curiosities sharing to develop into an outright trade between visiting ships and the Alaskan Natives. By a happy coincidence. it was still a fact . of Pribilov. for example." In fact. During one of Portlock's encounters with Natives while anchored in Portlock Harbor. these islands may not have been discovered by the Russians for many years to come and certainly would now be called by another's name. Olesov. because of their tendency to charge to their credit more than was good for them and their employers. many navigators were notorious for getting drunk. Vagabond sailors who had spent long months on board ship were often very open in their desire to have sexual relations with Native women. The Russians had established their right to trade the Alaska resources for profit.16 At first. The culprit was caught only because of the stain caused when the beer that remained in it sloshed out. a navigator and officer of a RussianAmerican Company ship.disgrace.15 Among the Russian ships' crews.lost her way en route because of a drinking navigator. Whether the first non-Russian ship to trade liquor was the French ship LaFlavie or not. Portlock Harbor on Chichagof Island is named in his honor because he stopped there to brew a fresh supply of spruce beer on one of the inside beaches. Native women were stereotyped by these sexually predatory men as being highly accessible when intoxicated. Pribilov veered far off course due to drunkenness. Had he been sober. While navigating on one trip. Such was the case during English sailor Nathaniel Portlock's visit to Southeast Alaska in August of 1787. They used alcohol to induce women aboard ship and to get them and their Native men drunk.

unprincipled and vicious. in order to cheat him with his furs.. For example. New York. mix it with one third water and then exchange it for a beaver skin weighing a pound and a half. "The fur trade was in the hands of a great number of individuals. "We think you sell it with no other Design than in order to destroy us.. The unscrupulous trader did not hesitate to debauch the red man with liquor. That record claimed it was rather easy to get the Indians intoxicated. The Indians in Albany.those who made the most profit ."21 Others claimed the fur trade itself was the by-product of the bibulous lives of those who hunted furs. some of whom were described as 'the scum of the earth.23 "The traders throughout the long history of the fur trade relied upon rum and whiskey in their dealings with Indians. There was no way for the whites to know if the Indians were feigning drunkenness or not. It's very possible that they would feign drunkenness to deceive their white trading friends as to their ability to recognize a fair bargain. for which they would get at auction nine shillings and a penny.18 "It was asserted. it affords a strong presumption that they will soon become excellent hunters of furs." It was claimed that the shrewdest traders . they were branded as being overly fond of drink. making a 2700 percent profit upon the annual stock in trade after all expenses had been reduced and about seven and two-thirds percent profit upon their nominal capital of $103. the Alaskan Indians were said to be very good traders. When the Indians asked for alcohol to be produced before trading continued. many of whom were lawless. "When a nation becomes addicted to drinking. It's also possible that the same principle applied to the Indians. only information recorded by the whites can be used."24 Fur traders were often described as less than Christian in their dealings with the Indians of North America. And the Indians' revenge more often than not was taken out indiscriminately upon the settlers close at hand.20 Some thought heavy drinking fur hunters were inevitable and that it was a natural result of the search for profits. It's also possible that they would apply this principle to trading with the whites and other Indians by refusing to trade until whiskey was produced for all to drink.that alcohol became a highly profitable commodity to sell if you could get away with it. but when the whites did the same thing in identical circumstances they were labeled as shrewd traders."19 The French-Canadian fur trade in the east was built on using alcohol to trade for furs despite a royal decree prohibiting such a practice in 1657.95.refused to trade with a sober Indian.that the [Hudson's Bay] Company could export a quart of English spirits at six pence.'"25 . issued a complaint in 1710 that said.22 Since there is no historical record from their point of view of these transactions.

Christian lives of the Chinese laborers. It is not strange that when the few missionaries set up Christian standards. . Some actually tried to limit the amount of alcohol brought into Indian country. that take away our senses and cause us untimely death.Not all of these white fur hunters resorted to such poor trade practices. A sizable number of Chinese were imported by businessmen as cheap labor to work the mines or the fish-packing plants that opened about 1890. It was the liquid lorelei that lured all those within the fur hunting area to their destruction. they had uncanny skill in stripping the native population of an island of its furs in return for anything from trinkets to liquor and firearms. who are making demands such as the average man considers quite needless. "Nor is it a wonder that they catch the spirit of the immoral."28 Alaska Natives were not the first aborigines to become concerned with the importation of alcohol into their territory. the drink-loving and the gamblers and imbibe from the Asiatic heathen new vices. The BOSTON had over 2. The orientals had their own intoxicants and were not prohibited from using them as the Indians were.30 OTHERS WHO HELPED INTRODUCE ALCOHOL TO ALASKA'S NATIVES It wasn't just whites who came to Alaska seeking financial independence and freedom. ."29 Some thought alcohol was the main reason that the fur trade was profitable. Graham . "After 1800 the only vessels in the maritime trade on the Northwest coast were American" and so notorious was the fact that they were carrying large stocks of liquor that as early as 1808 the Russian government complained of their traffic with the native in both firearms and firewater."27 The American traders quickly gained notoriety among the Russians because they marketed alcohol to get anything they could from the Indians. both the latter the Russians dreaded in native lands. It's no surprise that both white missionaries and white laborers made accusations of the bibulous and un.000 gallons of liquor on board for trade. The Indians had told him to: "Write to France and tell the captains to send ships here and not to send us any more poisons that destroy us. The Chinese in particular have taught the natives to brew and distill a terrible kind of drink. As early as 1642 in the Canadian territory a priest told of the local Indians' request to stop the fur traders from bringing alcohol. two hogsheads of West Indian rum (225 gallons) and another 451 gallons of rum and a half ton of powder and 200 muskets. fast ships and. The COLUMBIA. the ignorant Eskimos regard them as very exceptional men.26 The Americans "came to the North Pacific waters in numbers of neat. of Boston on her second voyage had on board three hogsheads (311 gallons) of New England Rum. . Alexander Baranof often complained of the "Bostonians" who brought liquor to the fur trade in Alaska. said Baranov. however.

the men wanted to make sure that the confiscated goods actually consisted of whiskey. The American authorities cleared this while ignoring the fact that Russian law prohibited this kind of action. brown sugar and water are mixed so as to form a horrid mash. As many as 300 whaling ships were counted by the Russians in one year.32 Sometimes there were charges that some canneries were selling lemon extract instead of liquor to the Indians (presumably to become drunk).34 "Any time American newspapers mention whalers they state that such and such a ship.38 . Bottles continued to circulate until all the evidence had disappeared and "case dismissed" was proclaimed.flour. They gained the appellation "Hell-ships. They also brought sizable amounts of alcohol with them and showed Alaskan Natives by their example how to drink. since so much lobbying was done at the same time about prohibition in other territories and states. This was the case with the Chilkat Canning Company in Haines. Many whalers cleared American ports with sizable quantities of alcohol on the basis that they were going to dispose of the liquor to Siberian Natives rather than American Eskimos or Indians. The setting of these meetings "could certainly affect the course of justice. engaged in whaling in the north. I was informed that very few men on the Nushagak can resist the temptation to concoct this fearful drink."36 MINERS AND ALCOHOL Miners were late in coming onto the Alaskan scene in comparison with whalers and fur traders. When Captain C. Hooper returned from a trip to the Arctic as captain of the Corwin. Miners' meetings were frequently conducted in saloons and were often the only example of American law in the area."31 Congress was warned that boats marketed their "nefarious trade" all along Alaska's panhandle in 1899. Not very much was done about it however." because of their reputation along the coast in trading rot-gut and syphilis for furs."37 Once in a bootlegging case brought before the meeting by the customs officer. had an unsatisfactory catch but nonetheless found business very good. L.33 Whaling ships were also the targets of moral darts thrown by those who felt that they carried far too much alcohol aboard for incidental trade with Natives along Alaska's Western coast. which is first allowed to ferment and then distilled."35 The only official Indian agent to come to Alaska.(he stayed less than one year) claimed that Siberian Natives sometimes traded alcohol with the Eskimos north of Kotzebue. he claimed that most whalers never came "within one hundred miles" of where they said they were going to take the liquors.

that the tenderfeet are plenty and that regular communication with the outside is established. Any further decline. four wholesale liquor stores and a brewery. was full of whiskey."39 Miners drank hard and were often accused of being a rather wild and harddrinking bunch of individuals.41 Mining towns became known for wide-open saloons during official prohibition and were known far and wide to draw rowdy. Towns like Juneau.the town is getting down to business basis.On a different occasion. In 1899 in Nome there were 20 saloons. plug hats are tolerated and faro banks have moved upstairs. they staggered out with their well-thought-out verdict: "We the jury find the amount sued for is excessive and fine the defendant and assess the costs of the case to the plaintiff. Four bits means recent occupation. Not a sign of slump but shows first excitement is passed." 40 The great Alaskan gold rush provided quite an opportunity for increased contact for whites. court & school are going. The scow that brought Rev. brandy and beer. 2 bits means a regulation boom is on. miners were itinerants who only "wintered over" when out of work at towns like Wrangell at the entrance to the Cassiar . Hall Young to Dawson with the captain named "Black Sullivan" (the origins of which we can only guess at) or "Whiskey Sullivan" (the origins of which are evident) from Lake Bennett. Prior to the advent of these large towns. "May. Young claimed in his autobiography that he knew nothing of the cargo till he found his captain to be somewhat less than safe while "in his cups" due to sampling the cargo. is a danger signal. Natives and alcohol. however. Ministers followed so close on the heels of miners that they often held revivals inside saloons. "You can tell a camp's development by the price of drinks. After deliberating over the bottles to be found there. Next drop is for three for a half. One year later there were 40 saloons in that thriving metropolis. Fifteen cents means the business basis reached. One astute drinker in the Hunter Saloon in Nome claimed that one could learn a lot of the economic activity of a community in a bar room. unsettled conditions and the presence of 1/2 barrel which has just come over trail. when the case of a prominent prostitute called. 2 for a quarter whiskey is a sure sign of deterioration and 5c/ beer means the stampede has started for the next diggings. free-wheeling miners. Whiskey flowed into Alaska with nearly every boat and pack-train that came to the Great Land." was brought before a miners' meeting. S. the jury was sequestered in the storeroom of the Pioneer Saloon. claimjumping has become bad form. Douglas and Fairbanks became centers where miners would meet and exchange stories over a few friendly drinks year round.

There was deathly silence as Nellie's dancing partner disengaged himself from Nellie. if this racket is not stopped at once I'm going to have this den of iniquity closed immediately. "You blackguards. "Gentlemen in private boxes are expected to order refreshments.gold fields. the girls would ring the waiter for wine at twenty dollars or more per pint." The music and dancing stopped. Others used it for medication. Susie burst into the roadhouse to see the drinking. In some of the saloons. you roistering scoundrels. men were entertained in private rooms or "boxes" on the balcony of the saloon. Without any invitation from the man who would be expected to pay the tab. and said." It was in Skagway that box-rushing reached its greatest efficiency. introduced himself as Marshal Lamont. you're all going to roast in hell. With Lottie we must be just. who was dancing with one of the male visitors. "I am at your service. Some who brought it and made it in Alaska used it to relax. Whenever prospectors settled for any duration. "Young woman. marched over to Susie. Would you care to dance?" Susie never again gave her temperance lectures at Nellie Page's roadhouse. The introduction of alcohol into Alaska took many forms." PROSTITUTES IN THE GOLD FIELDS Prostitutes normally were used to sell liquor and thereby increase their income along with selling their services. a liquor dealer was not far behind to make money on the "liquid diggins. didn't shovel tailings-Where did Lottie get her dust? If she It was not unknown for a woman's popularity to be measured by the size of the stack of empty beer bottles outside her bungalow in Iditarod. and while bowing gallantly stated. dancing and singing that went on and shouted. One day. Lottie went to the diggings. I am going to report you to the United States Marshal. Not all the women in early Alaska agreed with prostitution and drinking. Madame. An appropriately placed sign would remind the miner. but most used it to escape their . Do you know that?" She then turned to Nellie. One thirtiesh spinster in Nome named Susie Bluenose worked at secretarial work during the day and showed up at Nellie Page's roadhouse in the evenings to give temperance lectures." The effort of the girls to sell liquor to those in private boxes was known as "box-rushing.

.troubles.

170. Joseph Peter The Liquor Traffic Among the Aborigines of the New Northwest: 1800-1860. Lemert (1954). Berkeley (1954). 305. Quoted in Howay (1942)." 8. Cambridge (1967). The Voyage of the Resolution and Discovery: 1776-1780. Dissertation (1974). St. 12. p. Quoted in Howay (1942).C. 40th Congress. Becky The Alaska Journal. Cook. 5. 2nd Session. Steller's journal identifies the grass as "Sladkaya trana. (Folio Ed. St. 1776-1780. (1942) p. Alcohol And The Northwest Coast Indians. 4. 158. 14. Journal of Robert Campbell. Fredrica Under Mt.) London (1784). p. 29. Bering's Voyages. 411. Stephen Alcohol Control And Native Alaskans -. p. Originally quoted from Golder. F. 1973). Donnelly. "When Alaskans Voted Dry: Prohibition In Alaska" (Summer. 11. Lemert. Lane. II. 147148. p. 6. University Of California Press.W. p. Beaglehole. p. Bobby Dave North of Fifty-Three: The Army. F. p. 9. Ph. Captain James Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. F. 158.Footnotes to Chapter #2 1. July 23. The liquor offered was probably a distillate from a beer made out of grasses prior to Bering's departure from Kamchatka. but should be spelled "whisky" in Canada. 3. 13. The Indians of Southeast Alaska were called the "Kolosh" by the Russians. 40th Congress Senate Executive Document #68 (1869). University of Texas at Austin. 1838. 1942). p. p. 323: Quoted from Howay. 395.From The Russians To Statehood: The Early Years. p. House Document #177. "The Introduction of Intoxicating Liquor Amongst the Indians of the Northwest Coast". I. New York (1922). 20. Vol 3. p. University of Alaska (1980). appendix B. VI (July. Conn. Louis University (1940). p. 161. 160. 1121. 7. 158. Howay.W. J. p. No 3. Treasury Department and Navy Administration of Alaska: 1867-1884. The spelling of "whiskey" is correct in America and Ireland. p. She also includes in her book at least three Native drinking songs that were probably written after the Russian period. Lemert (1954).D.. DeLugana. 10. Unpublished dissertation. Quoted in Howay (1942). 157. Also in British Columbia Quarterly. Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part One. Part Two. 2. Edwin M.. 208. .A. 305. Smith. p. England and Scotland. p. Smithsonian Institution Press (1972).

Chevigny. Donnelly (1940). . Howay. p. during and after the American Revolution. Journal of the West. 1942). Francis X. p. Francis Paul American Indian Policy In the Formative Years: The Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts. 25. 45. Cambridge. do make it their practice to draw in and entertain seamen belonging to the several ships. This is a term denoting American traders from Boston. Anchorage (1978). DeArmond. 1982). p. 49. p. but also to the hindrance of the ship's lading whereby the charges of the ships are greatly augmented and trade in general delayed and discouraged. (1931). 27. 165. Vol IV. p. not only to the ruin of them. 1965). Lender. Donnelly (1940). a shipping center noted for its production of alcohol for many years before. Mass. Lincoln (1962). Donnelly (1940). Prucha. This situation of perceptions between different classes of people is beautifully pointed out in a modern-day song from the musical.15. United States Brewers' Association (1887). 66. 19. 306. 27.etc. 21.. Also see Moloney. 26. G. 37-63. 16. 23. 10. their wives and children.. 1620-1676. Morgan B. A similar law in 1712 stated: "Whereas it appears that several persons keeping victualizing houses or public houses of entertainment. 102-104. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company. Finnian's Rainbow. p. (July. The Free Press (New York. "Ardent Spirits: Hooch and the Osprey Affair". p. and give them too great credit. 18. James Kirby Drinking In America: A History. 32. 17. Hector Lost Empire (1965). p. R. 7. for lucre and gain. 40.N. p. Thomann. 22. 20. p. 28. Colonial Liquor Laws. 81-82. "When The Idle Poor Become the Idle Rich. Mark Edward and Martin. 1790-1834. Massachusetts. University of Nebraska Press. 55.W. F. Early Visitors To Southeastern Alaska.. Sherwood." 24. Chivigny (1965). p. p.". p. No 3 (July. The Fur Trade In New England. Ibid. p. 68.

industrious and respectable portion of the community to support. 55th Congress 3rd Session. 153. (1974). Joseph Peter (1940). p. 37. Ted Alaskan John G. Young was financed in his trip down the Yukon by Francis Willard. . James H. 2704. too. Stephen (1980). Young's situation. University of Washington Press.keepers advertised in a local newspaper in Boise to try to get new customers in the following way: "Friends and neighbors: Having just opened a commodious shop for the sale of Liquid Fire. 90. 396). One of the saloon. I shall deal in Family Spirits. William R. 189. Ohio State University Press (1982). I embrace this opportunity to inform you that I have commenced the business of making Drunkards. which will incite men to deeds of r 41. Congressional Record. North of 53o: The Wild Days of the Alaska-Yukon Mining Frontier. Gray. 1. When Mr. procured a cow and fed Mr. Macmillan Publishing Company (1974). Van Stone. (p. Hubert Sourdough Sagas (1966). Hinckley. 36." an Irish saloon-keeper named. Also see Heller. p. 1899. 1900. Dorothy Jean The Eskimos of the Bering Strait. 190. Eskimos of the Nushagak River. for the sober. Bill Murtagh refused to give up on him. August 11. 38. p. Seattle (1967). When he came down with typhoid fever and was disabled for six weeks and "the doctors had given him up for dead. University of Washington Press. Numerous stories of told of miners and saloons in the early days of the American West. a bartender came to his aid then. 35. 14. p. p. William R. p. 30. Hunt. p. Brady. Macmillan of Canada/Toronto (1972). 76-77. Dmytryshyn. When a fire burned down the church that he preached in. 92-93. 34. Revel Co. Hunt. Seattle (1975). but this is not the case. 21. 31. who would not have been very pleased to hear of Mr. Fleming H. 40. p. James W. Chevigny. 1650-1898. a noted prohibitionist. Eskimos and Indians all had complex laws that they adhered to that could exact punishments from fines to the death of a guilty person. S. 32. Nome Chronicle. 39. p. Hall Hall Young of Alaska. 33. p. March 2. he needed help and went straight to a friend who just happened to be a saloon-keeper and got the help he needed. p. p. p. 21. Donnelly. Rev. 1870-1914. Paupers and Beggars. Young a little milk at a time out of a beer bottle.29. Hector Russian America (1965). Conn. Ray. 334. New York (1927). 32. BOOZE: The Impact of Whiskey on the Prairie West. Some claim that it was the "only" law in the area at the time.. Basil and Crownhart-Vaughan (1979). Young arrived at Dawson. Young.

indeed. they cannot be understood independently of the whites and how the whites used alcoholic beverages. "receiving rum and molasses in return. Both foot and hand go cold. will you work?" shirt. God send thee good ale enough. belly. This is misleading is because the whites often made it illegal only for the Indians to obtain liquor. but a white man."3 But."2 It was not an Indian. ate and valued. I'll sell my Similarly. Whether it be new or old. since it was legal for them to do so.5 PERSPECTIVES OF ALCOHOL PROBLEMS The information from all of Alaska's history until very recently has come from a nonNative point of view because Alaska Natives didn't have a written language with which to communicate their opinions and thoughts. but the same accusation has also been made of the whites. Often a historian. that Alaskan Indians became fond of alcohol to the extent that they would sell anything they had. fails to communicate an accurate impression. in pointing out the drinking behavior of one group of people to the exclusion of another."4 Perhaps the best example of the interpretation of this assertion is that some could easily accuse the early Alaskan Natives of loving drink so much that they would even avail themselves of illegal means of obtaining liquor. because the same was done by the whites in colonial South Carolina in 1674 when Governor West approved the capture and sale of Indians to the West Indies. It would be extremely helpful to have a translated recording of what some of Alaska's Indians and Eskimos said as they talked . soldier. it was by definition by illegal means. The reason this is true is that not only did they have other items of clothing to wear. For example. it is misleading to say that Alaskan Indians wanted alcohol so bad that they would sell their slaves to get it. as some writers have. Although the emphasis here is on Alaska Natives.1 "Soldier. Thus. who first sang the ditty: "Back and side go bare. go bare. it is misleading to point out.Chapter #3 FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF BEER After the first contacts with the white visitors to Alaska. but when others did it. They were naturally influenced by how and what the whites drank. the Alaskan Natives had to live with everyday alcohol use by their new neighbors. "No. whenever Indians drank or obtained liquor. it was by legal means. even the clothes off their backs at times to get it.

and were steeped in vodka from one week to the next.." One should not get the impression from this that Russians were always drinking. suggesting the Aleuts adopted the .. because the large supply of liquor with which the Russians became jolly came from the English. after quoting one source as to the heavy drinking practices of the Russians. Along with the base at Kodiak and a few other small communities.. a study of Alaska's alcohol history is biased and skewed to be a history through the eyes of only one-tenth or so of the early population of Alaska. John Jacob Astor. What might the Indians have said when Russian Governor Baranof accepted a gift of wine from English businessman. businessmen or missionaries.' . Without that perspective.. and the police did not find itself in a position to put an end to the daily drinking and rowdyism. concluded that the Aleuts were as bad as the Russians. he noted that when his men visited the Russians. There is evidence that the Russians on the Aleutian Islands welcomed gifts of liquor from foreign traders in spite of company regulations prohibiting such practices.8 Very few articles have been written about the beginnings of drinking practices among the Aleuts and Eskimos of Alaska.. miners. During Captain Cook's voyage.among themselves about the drinking habits of the Russians.. when Astor attempted to gain trade advantage in Russian America? What did they say and think when they heard drunken crewmen on some of the ships fire cannon far into the night in celebrations?6 "Some of these [lieutenants] sank into drunken rioting and from on board their ships fired cannon shots all the night as a manner of relieving their weariness at having to spend the time in the dullness of a frontier port.were given to drink in a way that was an insult to the human race. they might well have been offering the English to share what they had rather than the other way around. and says the Aleuts adopted their behaviors and drinks from their Russian tutors. One article written about the Aleuts."7 What might have been written about the soldiers' constant desire for the alcohol not allowed them by their superior officers? What did they think when they found it was considered a right of every loyal American citizen to drink alcohol. but it was dangerous for Indians to do the same? BEER AND THE ALEUTS The Aleutian Islands was the first area where alcoholic beverages became wellknown.The drinking patterns of the present-day Aleuts seems to correspond closely to those reported of the Russian workers. Others scarcely moved from their quarters. "'The [Cossack] workers. If the Russians had a large supply of liquor of their own. they were "always taking with them some Rum and Brandy of which the Russians were extravagantly fond and which while it lasted kept them in a continual State of Jollity. American soldiers. the Russians settled down with Aleut hunters and tried to achieve a semblance of the comfort they had in Russia.

It was common for those who thought themselves superior for whatever reason to accuse those believed beneath them of being heavy drinkers.10 Almost all the liquor consumed on some of the Aleutian Islands was a home brew called "piva". or traded there."12 Fifteen years later. --Anna Karenina-- When special agent Frederick S. They may have written their comments to get more missionaries. if anything. is that the same was said about virtually every minority group in the early 1800s. even though perhaps obvious. the natives. Russian fur hunters drank prodigious amounts of beer that was supplied at no cost by the company. imported.behaviors associated with drinking along with the liquor itself. For this reason. Hall asserted that quass was not only intoxicating. more potent than whiskey."13 . because of its being a brewed beverage. money."9 The trouble with drawing simple analogies like this. "malt beer" or "quass". according to Hall. His opinion of quass is interesting: "He reported that during this visit he found no evidence that liquors were being made. which they had learned to make from the Russians. but. guns. they're like tiny little birds. seemed to be an orderly group and on very good terms with the whites. The second flies down like a hawk. Despite their addiction to quass. Hall wrote that both he and the Treasury officials in the territory were dubious as to whether quass. boats or virtually anything to meet their own self interests. But after the third. the agents sell the natives sugar in sufficient quantities for the brewing of a villainous kind of beer called 'quass'. "virtually all reports from the early period must be read with a 'grain of salt.11 RUSSIAN PROVERB The first glass sticks in the throat. the same complaint was heard. Michael in 1873. this time it came from the new governor of Alaska. "At many stations. with the exception of a beverage called quass. This drink certainly came from the Russians. in consequence of which there is a great deal of drunkenness. The Native Aleuts seemed quite fond of this 'beer'. It was common practice to exaggerate the drinking habits of those whom one wished to criticize. he stopped at Unalaska and made inquiries about the Natives in that district and their drinking habits.'" This is due in part to the fact that many reports about Alaska Natives' heavy drinking was written by those with ulterior motives. He opined that it was fortunate that very little of it was made north of Unalaska. especially among the Aleuts. could be legally confiscated as a spirituous drink. Hall of San Francisco went to his new post at St.

"noe recompense" was to be exacted or accepted. The same practice was widespread throughout the world at that time. This would allow the whites to criticize the Indians who drank home-brewed beer because it was thought that while whites drank beer for scientific purposes. mechanical and scientific purposes.' describes to scientific purposes of seeing stars. "Harvest beer" was commonly used as a reward for those who helped put in crops at the end of the season throughout the United States as well. the sale of liquor was forbidden.' made of hops." In other parts of Alaska. [Connecticut. "Mr. In fact. brewmaster of Juneau & Sitka Breweries." for which. It is said to be very intoxicating.17 While Company policy forbade the sale of distilled liquor to Natives. Under penalty of five pounds. it was common to share quass with everyone that worked for the company. much to the chagrin of the aristocracy there. offers beer 'exclusively for medicinal. it could not have been any stronger than beer is today. and almost every mining town and camp had its own brewery.18 The Indians of Canada were said to brew a similar beer to that made popular on the Aleutian Islands. but it may have required an acquired taste to enjoy it. Beer was the staple of the working man in England. Cohen. Sometimes it was cloaked as "for scientific use only" to meet the strict requirements of the law. 1654] but this prohibition did not include "ordinary howshold beare. etc."15 Beer use among Natives seems to be unique to the Aleutian Islands and those areas that were influenced by the Russians to a great extent. . beer was always common among the whites who came to Alaska. whether or not they were Russians. 'quoss."16 Elsewhere in the United States. the man who refused to drink beer in some countries was branded as a person typified as being "thin and watery and mentally cranked in that he repudiates the good creatures of God as found in alcoholic drinks.14 A report from Captain Campbell from Sitka in 1875 passes on information he learned about the brewing of "quoss" in the Kodiak area: "They tell me a liquor. Notwithstanding what agent Hall's stated feelings were about the potency of quass. sugar and flour is very extensively made in that location. the Indians drank only to get drunk. beer had not been included with whiskey in the prohibitions of the early colonies against Indian drinking. if given to an Indian. Creoles or Alaska Natives. On the other hand. potatoes. its optical effect in the endowment of doubled visional powers. distilled alcohol was generally preferred to beer if it could be obtained easily.Quass was used by the Russian workers as a sort of fringe benefit of working for the company. Offering beer to workers of the RussianAmerican Company should not be viewed as unique to Russia. It was freely given by the company to workers virtually upon demand in much the same way that coffee is now given by some companies to their workers.

because it was thought to be healthful by those particular officials.21 It has always been believed by some (right or wrong) that drinking beer would decrease the desire and need for liquor.S. Warriors often gathered courage to go to battle by drinking liquor or used it to pacify their enemies into a false security just prior to battle. It should not be surprising. I smelled a bottle of it but was unable to rise to the heights of scientific sacrifice necessary to sample it. has existed in this country for centuries. combined with the fear of virtually anything German [most of the popular beers were German and probably made by a German brewmaster] immediately prior to WW I. It has been so since intoxicants were first used. and few were so foolhardy as to decry its use with meals in place of the untested. the sailors for virtually all navies of the world received daily rations of either liquor or beer. for violence to be a major part of the settlement of Alaska. The argument was that if Indians got fire-water they would immediately begin murdering whites. then. It was believed ." Just as the Russian fur hunters received their daily ration of quass beer. brought about the effort to get good supplies of drinking water in the territory. One reason for this belief was that contaminated water throughout the west was the source of much disease. unpurified. at times. probably due to the personal preferences of the officials in charge. even encouraged to drink beer. and wholly distasteful water supply.22 CHAPTER #4: VIOLENCE AND ALCOHOL Violence often goes hand in hand with alcohol drinking. immediately prior to the Revolutionary War it was believed that "brewing malt liquors in this colony would tend to render the consumption of foreign liquors less necessary. Army received their daily ration of one quart of spruce beer or cider per day."The brew itself is a cloudy yellow and exudes a heavy. sour odor. The term. This was also true of other countries. BOTTLED INDIAN VIOLENCE Repeatedly. "Beer was the water of seventeenth century England. "dutch courage" describes courage generated by drinking liquor. the fledgling U. exhibiting violent behavior. since liquor was always present whenever violence erupted. Even in America's early colonies. Alaskan Natives were. This fact. At the same time."19 In some areas of Alaska."20 It wasn't until the strong temperance movement in Alaska took hold late in the 19th century that water became a viable option to the beer that was made or brought into the state. and even in some circumstances non-intoxicating. The idea that beer is healthful. historians and settlers voiced concern about the Natives' alcohol use because they anticipated violence.

"6 "Protracted drunken brawls often prevented many from taking advantage of favorable conditions of ice and wind for seal and bear hunting.[in Southeastern Alaska] will be in great danger" [William Kapas in 1871. Indians as well as whites and half-breeds. and an American to make a speech. .that when Indians drink. of course: "When intoxicated. but they got plenty of beaver skin. The women seemed to have the best of it often. are exceedingly great. There were always four watchmen around. a Frenchman wants to dance. and proud and jealous of what they considered their rights. ending in a general massacre. for when drunken." while whites were less prone than the Indians to violence after consuming the same beverage."4 "A hostile attitude may have been fostered by English and American merchantmen who supplied the Natives with 'intoxicating drink'. into actual raving maniacs. in the night especially. At times many were on the . the lives of the government officials. "The prohibition of liquor importation into Alaska has had no other result so far. and many were the gashes the Army surgeons were called upon to repair. an Italian to boast. and as the Indians are roaming at their pleasure all over the place night and day.With the exception of perhaps a dozen people. a German to sing. they retained their skill with the knife to which they were trained by skinning animals. When under the influence of hooch they were simply incarnate devils among themselves. an Englishman to eat. usually peaceful and well disposed."2 Quotations about concern for drunken. A big hogshead of liquor four feet high was emptied in one day on the occasion of a feast. . It was terrible.]1 Such stereotypes were also held about other ethnic groups."3 "The Indians. "If these Indians are permitted to procure all the whiskey they want. a Russian to be affectionate. everybody is in the habit of getting drunk daily."5 "At the post on the Stakhin River the Indians were buying liquor and fighting all the time among themselves just outside the fort. violent Alaska Natives give credibility to the real fear the whites had of potential violence by Indians if they got drunk. the probabilities of some murderous outbreak. but that of changing drunkards of the ordinary stamp. they immediately begin to do wildly violent things against white people. were resentful under ill treatment. . an Irishman to fight. This mis-information is generated from false ideas that Alaska Natives were prone to violence when under the influence of "forty-rod. A Spaniard to gamble. a customs officer (government official) in Southeastern Alaska. . . traders and all white persons.

" The drink of the white man was described as so bad that. it was particularly suspect. Some of the Indians thought otherwise. raw alcohol.verge of starvation. Yet to stanch the flow of the vicious liquor was almost beyond the capabilities of the government and its agents on the frontier. It is doubtful that the Indians in Alaska were any more violent while drinking than were the non-Indians. It does not make you fight and think unhappy thoughts."8 "There was perhaps no greater disrupter of peace among the Indians than the white man's whiskey. "Ours is good liquor. Recipe for Indian Whiskey One barrel of Missouri water. Since it was not made by tested factories in the east or in Washington. which made madmen of the Indians and enabled white traders to cheat them of their furs.11 It was assumed that the Indians' behavior was the result of the type of bad "likker" they had in comparison to the better quality the whites had access to.10 QUALITY OF INDIAN LIQUOR Some people attributed the so-called quality of the alcohol the Indians consumed to be somehow responsible for their violent behavior. One observer claimed that it "almost kills on sight. cause Injuns won't believe its good Two gallons of .. Home-brewed liquor was especially suspect because it was believed to be of such poor quality to cause violence. Three twists of 'baccer to make them sick. an attempt had been made more than once to kill a white man. "Men grew crazy when they drank that whiskey." and an Army officer said that its smell was "certain death to a healthy dog at a hundred yards."7 "I learned that under the influence of this passion and drink." and jokingly stated that he was recommending that the War Department adopt it in place of the Gatling gun.. A local distillate called "Hoochenoo" was thought to have particularly bad effects. Recent studies indicate there is much variation between Indian groups in their behavior when drunk. It only makes you sing. just as there is a great variation among other groups."9 To charge Indians with violence when drinking or drunk carries with it a relative judgment which implies the Indians were more violent collectively than other ethnic groups who drink and get drunk."12 Part of this concern for trying to improve the quality of American Indian alcoholic beverages was because of known recipes the traders used to get Indians drunk.. The whites thought the liquor they had was the best liquor available. Two ounces of strychnine to make them crazy.

Wall. Vanilla extract and Jamaica ginger. as it would be to impute all the evils of life to the abuse of any other blessing. 1/2 pound of red pepper to give it a kick. juniper berries. a copper compound. nitre. citric and sulfuric acids. and in many cases is absolutely necessary in a sanative point of view. In fact. molasses. solutions of camphor and tobacco with a little whiskey flavoring quite often were sold as liquor. oak bark. as well as Florida water and cologne.15 "One of the important consequences of the illegal dealing in liquor with the coastal Indians was the introduction of a wide variety of diluted and adulterated intoxicants and also noxious chemical substitutes for whiskey and rum. Strain through barrel. cayenne pepper. it could be compared to the destruction wrought by uncontrolled fire. gun powder.13 Several ingredients were used to dilute liquor given or sold to Indians on the Northwest frontier."17 The whites also drank liquor with names that implied violent or unhealthy . oatmeal. that's yer Injun whiskey. proved popular drinks with natives in some areas."16 Some proudly advertised that their liquors and wines were pure and unadulterated and did not produce violence and other problems that mixed drinks do. and yet we have the evidence of the judgment of the entire medical faculty." "Our wines and liquors are pure articles and their use is recommended without hesitation. It is true adulterated compounds. Boil with sage brush until brown. ammonia. fusel oil. snake root. have produced evils. After prohibitionary legislation came into effect.tenths of the families of this city to prove that in all cases the moderate use of spirituous beverages is entirely harmless. tobacco. which pass under the names of our popular beverages. One letter to the editor in the Alaska Herald claimed: "The use of spirituous liquors and wines has been condemned in unmeasured terms by the so-called votaries of temperance. and nitric acid were sold to the natives in the Queen Charlette Islands. Five bars of soap to give it a bead. as well as the consumption of these articles in nine. creosote and turpentine. Mixtures containing bluestone vitrol. which cry aloud for redress but it is as unfair to impute drunkenness and all its attendant consequences to the use of a health giving and judicious use of wines and liquors.14 The term "firewater" originated from the practice of throwing some alcohol the whites tried to palm off on the Indians into the fire to prove that it could make a flame and to prove that "it warn't jest plain Old Big Muddy water. As a matter of fact this began with the early fur trade when it became a practice to dilute rum with anywhere from three to ten parts water. which proceeds from the giver of all good in the bountiful storehouse of nature.unless it makes them sick. Some of the ingredients used included: tartaric. black bone meal." It is certain white settlers feared what they thought firewater would do because of the devastation the Indians could bring upon the whites.

Would make a hummingbird spit in a rattle-snake's eye. SKULL. Kansas. The symptoms of the fever were the common ones of "black eyes and bloody noses. molasses.brought a fellow down at that distance. Terms like. BRAVE-MAKER -. tied the imbiber's feet up in knots. I'd dive to the bottom and get one So we'll round up the cattle and Sweet milk when I'm hungry. REDEYE.frontier song -- If a tree don't fall on me.Got a drinker floored and frenzied. one of his patrols stumbled across a barrel of whiskey. was famous for its Second Class Saloon. rye whiskey when I'm dry. I'll make my own stew. JOY JUICE -A single nip would tempt one to steal his own clothes. Bibulous Babylon of the Plains. I'll If I get drunk."19 Some claim that more whites were killed inside saloons than in all the Indian wars on the plains. Judge Wickersham testified before Congress in 1914 that the Alaska version of forty-rod whiskey would make "a man climb a telegraph pole backward." which "called that day lost whose low descending sun saw no man killed or other mischief done. Alaska.consequences. so without hesitation they drank down the whole barrel forthwith." Nome. Other drinks were RED DYNAMITE -."18 The whites not only accepted the fact that their own drinking often resulted in violence. One of the officers later recalled that the result was a bad case of "barrel fever" among the troops. I'll buy my own whiskey.BENDER -. TANGLE LEG -. red peppers. [and] spit in the face of a Kodiak bear. nothing to you.20 Perhaps the first miners in Alaska readily identified with the American cowboy's . -. Red "likker" was called the "bravemaker" primarily because of the fights that ensued after consuming this liquid courage.Made a man walk a block and tackle anything. If the ocean was whiskey and I was a duck sweet suck. two would make him bite off his own ears. and FORTY-ROD -. madam. were commonly associated with drinking. Men delighted in boasting that their town was the worst in the state.Made of tobacco. while three instilled in him the desire to save his drowning Mother-In-Law. live till I die. But the ocean ain't whiskey and I ain't a duck. and raw alcohol.Guaranteed to blow your head off. then we'll get drunk. was referred to by her proud citizens as "The Beautiful. which was certainly the result of drinking this brand of whiskey. The men claimed they were concerned that their booty should not fall into enemy hands. Dodge. run up the side of a house. but they were often proud that the predominant outcome of their drinking might be measured in how much "steam" was released in the fights that were generated. BLOCK AND TACKLE . it's During General George Washington's retreat across New Jersey in 1776.

"The six-gun heroes usually drank like fish. a man there lives on the Western Plains."22 Many writers have failed to emphasize or totally ignored behavior which does not reinforce the popular beliefs of Indian drinking. for even when judged by the records kept by the whites. a rifle. With a ton of fight and an ounce of brains. rollicking cowboy. it must be pointed out that whites often lumped all Indians together as "uncivilized. They succeeded in passing a law in Rhode Island declaring it to "be lawful for any persons in case they spie an Indian convaying or having of liquors. It was a fact that Indian drinking. to seize it for their own proper use. Some coroner's jury then ends it all." In terms of the racist ideas of the 18th and 19th centuries. no matter how well controlled.23 While some people in early America thought it a little "Turkish" and radical to deny Indians the creature comforts of good whiskey and other "comforts which God allowed to man. And that's the last of the cowboy. was a perpetual source of uneasiness among whites. Oh. This reckless. He shoots out lights in a dancing hall. however. totally soused and oblivious to the world. probably more because of their own violence while drinking rather than because of what the Indians did while drunk. He gets shot up in a drunken brawl. Who herds the cows as he robs the trains And goes by the name of cowboy. The great Wild Bill was occasionally found lying in the mud in front of a saloon. Whites believed that Indians and blacks were inferior groups and were more prone to violence whenever their natural instincts were loosened by alcohol. Even the pulp writers glorifying Masterson and Earp admitted that drinking frequently affected their dignity as law officers and their aim as well. He laughs at death and scoffs at life. He fights with a pistol."24 EXAMPLES OF INDIAN VIOLENCE IN EARLY ALASKA In order to understand the fear the whites had of Indian violence in Alaska." other whites believed that it was just a waste of good whiskey to allow Indians to drink it. were notorious for their drinking habits. They emphasize the stereotypes of the "horrendous changes for the worse" that were supposed to characterize the Indians' behavior under the influence of alcohol. which were probably much worse than those of the Indians of the American west. they were thought of as less developed than the Anglo races. Some called him Wild Bill Hiccup.21 Not only the bad men. but also lawmen. He feels unwell unless in some strife.violent behavior. or knife. The consumptive Doc Holliday kept going with a daily quart of hard stuff. This is an impossible theory to prove by Alaska history. the Indians were not as violent when drunk as were the whites .

One of the officers had the clerk Kulishov whipped. because he refused to let him . provided they were white. Since it is likely that only the Russians had alcohol in Yakutat at that time. but the majority shamelessly traded powder... curse without mercy and one night were so drunk they started a fight. Baranof was probably more upset at the sale of firearms than alcohol..They wondered at our fortitude and endurance and above all our ability to exist on local food. It was thought they offered alcohol to the Native inhabitants for permission to stay and build a fortress. THE RUSSIANS During the same period in the early 1800s. . Russians had been stationed there since 1796. In a letter from Nikolai Rezanov to the Directors of the Russian-American Company in 1805.."27 Since the Indians and Aleuts did not learn the secret of distillation till the Americans came to Alaska in 1867..at least on the Natives part.Truly in all my life I have never witnessed such drunkenness and debauch. but not a word about Alaskan Natives' drinking and violence. one day they behave and listen to me.. The actual cause of the plundering of New Archangel was more probably the acts of Captain Henry Barber of the Unicorn. pistols. I would not be surprised if some day they would cause the company more ruin than the Kolosh did.who first came to Alaskan shores. there is much more to be found about Russian violence associated with drinking than violence among drinking Indians. the Russians and Americans probably consumed much more alcohol than the Indians in the early 1800s."25 Although Baranof blamed the sale of alcohol and firearms to the Tlingits near Sitka for causing the Sitka uprising in 1802.drinking the way they do and keeping the hunters drunk.. We were lucky to snatch the loaded pistols from their hands. . YAKUTAT The next notable uprising by the Tlingit occurred at Yakutat.It is true that some had enough shame to hide from us the fact that they traded in firearms. I ran to stop them and they almost shot me and Baranov. . and muskets before our eyes... because they are so depraved that for a cup of vodka they are ready to cut anybody's throat.26 "I have told [the Bostonians] many times that they should not sell firearms and powder to the barbarians [Indians].. In 1805 the fort inhabitants were surprised by the Tlingit and were wiped out.. "They believed in the equality of all men.. lead. . many references were made about Company officers' violence. and to drink only water. "It is easy to influence men here. . the next they are drunk.I struggled with them. the facts do not show that the Indians were drunk at the time.... guns.The depravity and wildness of the hunters threaten this country with ruin.. . the attack was probably not alcohol related .

At that time. Baranof also had problems with him and once threatened to throw him to the whales if he continued his interference. here again.S. TERRITORY Alaska formally came under United States jurisdiction late in 1867. FORT WRANGELL (1842) Not much more is heard of the violence of Alaska's Indians until 1842. The most interesting thing about this state of affairs was the only legallyenforceable laws were prohibitionary laws passed in 1834 which were intended to control ."28 MURDER The first murder of a Russian by Alaska Natives was not likely caused by drinking. married them. the man in charge of the 22-man post.000 Indians outside the post. Jun. but finally held council. The clerk was whipped and the vodka was drunk. He baptized the Natives forcibly. both the drinking and the violence were the responsibility of the 22 whites at the post. a monk called Juvenal settled near Lake Iliamna.32 When Alaska became part of the United States. an entire prohibition throughout Alaska was declared as an extension of U. On the night of April 20th. but rather by a strong dislike of the priest and what he stood for. while many fur trappers at the fort were drunk.30 Governor Simpson claimed that his arrival on April 25 probably saved the fort from the 2. visited Alaska and made a pact between the Hudson's Bay Company and the Russian-American Company pertaining to the limitation of alcohol in the fur trade. not the 2. took girls away from some parents and gave them to others. During the mayhem a Canadian named Urbain Heroux fatally shot John McLoughlin. Army was sent to enforce the law in Alaska.S. The prime rationale of this policy was that Indians were dangerous while drinking (at least they were more dangerous than whites) and to protect the Indian's health and protect the welfare of whites. the governor in chief of Rupert's Land."29 It was not only the Natives who had problems with Father Juvenal. "The Americans endured his rough ways and even beatings for a long time. but. Indian policy dating back to 1834.. since. Sir George Simpson. How the drunken violence could be laid at the feet of the Indians at Wrangell is impossible to say. 1842. He then informed the Natives of his agreement with the Russians to limit the use of alcohol among them.S. decided to get rid of the Reverend and killed him. a fight broke out among the whites.000 "savages" who were assembled around "justly thinking that the place would make but a feeble resistance" to their attack.31 ALASKA BECOMES U. In this year. About 1800. The violence of the officers is unbelievable and I hardly could quiet them down. that prohibition was a good idea. the U.have the company's vodka.

they did not have a very good record themselves when it came to drunkenness. at the end of the Civil War. Lincoln. which assuredly will occur if these unprincipled men are permitted to sell liquor to them. "The officers gravely tell me that we might as well disband the army as to exclude these men. Davis. In the meantime.38 One surgeon stated about the recruiting of drunkards in the army. ". The army was plagued with desertions of phenomenal rates. VIOLENCE AMONG THE WHITES IN ALASKA AND ALCOHOL The army had many problems with alcohol in Alaska. Army was the only group legally allowed to have access to alcohol. it should be pointed out that the Army had a few problems of its own in this regard. as well as elsewhere. the paymaster visited Fort Laramie.35 He noted that the local Tlingit were hostile and insolent and frequently boasted that they would and could whip the Army troops some day. One reason drunkenness was a problem in the post-Civil War period was because the Army was made up of a high number of drunkards who would work for very low wages. 1870. the local military and white citizenry could not be complimented on their record of alcohol-related violence. but according to the their own records. looking for spots smugglers (of arms and alcohol) might use to evade customs authorities. Captain W. On July 10. but no open violence by the local Indians happened until 1869. of the alarmingly high rate of desertions was drunkenness.the Indians of the vast American west. The primary cause. He found "quite a number" of small American vessels selling the forbidden items to the Natives. The U.A..."37 Before proceeding with the discussion of Indian violence and drinking illegal alcohol. Brawling seemed to be a popular pastime at Fort Laramie. Hardly a pay day passed without at least one drunken encounter. Howard of the Revenue Marine Service sailed up the coast of Southeast Alaska in the Revenue Cutter. In his official report to his superiors. Payday was often highlighted by drunkenness and fights. and more often than not whiskey had a hand in the fighting."34 The first military commander of Alaska was Brevet Major General Jefferson C. according to some officers."39 The army that came to Alaska in 1867 had a lot to say about the Indians and their drinking.S.33 The summer of 1867 brought the first official military expedition to Alaska. he boldly predicted "a bloody war with the natives. and the Post .36 One report claimed that: "Released convicts would not have been more dangerous to the public security than were these men whose task it was to enforce the law.

including murder. The free use of it by both soldiers and Indians. "The soldiers will have whiskey."43 The Army did not publish the fact that several suicides of officers and enlisted men happened at Sitka during the time the Army was there that "demoralized" those who knew the men involved.. and many were the gashes the Army surgeons were called upon to repair."44 FIRST CLASHES WITH U. together with the other debaucheries between them. for when drunken. they retained their skill with the knife to which they were trained by skinning animals. he observed that the troops were paid in the afternoon.."42 Perhaps the truth at this time in Alaska's history was that alcohol affected everyone pretty much the same. politicians and citizens all wanted alcohol and were affected by its consequences.payday casualties. soldiers. and being better cared for by the government in homes. though the whites. The people say the sergeant was drunk."40 On the very next payday. [the Indians] were simply incarnate devils among themselves." The army records in Alaska generally do not include self. and "as a necessary consequence. and food. and the Indians are equally fond of it." "Such an example of the dangerous behavior of the civilized white man will make a deep impression on the wild and passionate nature of a savage aborigine. several sprains and bruises. The blame for the suicides was laid by the commander at the feet of "John Barleycorn. Most offenses were due to drinking. more serious than a broken rib or two. who will get an insight into the licentious conduct of a white man and his disrespect for law and order. clothing. "When under the influence of hooch. with a few scalp wounds. having the larger resources. The military reports were persistent in pointing the finger of blame at the Indian population. disrespect to an officer and falling asleep at their posts."41 The navy was not immune to violence under the influence of booze either. however.criticism. with nothing. although over 200 general courts martials were held in the short ten years between 1867 and 1877 that the Army stayed. The shooting occurred in the presence of miners and Kolosh boys and girls who were dancing.S. rapidly demoralizes both. fighting. endure the longer. "Last night two sailors from the man-of-war JAMESTOWN were shot by the sergeant of the Mariner's company during the dance at our former club. the number of patients in hospital was at once increased.Surgeon reported that 'as a necessary consequence' the number of patients in the hospital immediately increased. white merchants. ARMY AT SITKA . The women seemed to have the best of it often.

They were confined for two weeks on bread and water diets in the military brig. Saginaw and the schooner Reliance to be trained on the village. After treating them to the food and drink available from his own table. and all on account of a United States general making an Indian drunk. armed. the first difficulty between the Indians and the military. The guard felt they were surrounded by hostile. and. and then having two of his people killed. was fraught with evil consequences. General Davis had his first (and. but actually. Local Natives aided the unfortunate soldiers until help came many days later." but both .hand knowledge of the incident -.by General Davis himself. which they took back to the Indian village. ordered that no Indians were to leave the rancherie. Though alcohol was definitely a factor in the events. he took the soldier's rifle away from him and went home. and here it was supposed the matter would end.47 General Davis ordered the guns of the nearby U. because when the sentry went into the village with 17 armed guards that evening to arrest the belligerents. "In a few days Cholcheka and his party were liberated."49 A glowing report about the army general's handling of the incident was written to command headquarters. 1869. Two Indians were killed in the fray. General Davis. we never hear the other side of these stories. presented them with two bottles of American whiskey. Instead of accepting this treatment meekly from the soldier. shooting broke out. The trouble started when General Davis invited a chief from Chilkat named Cholcheka and a minor Sitka chief named "Sitka Jack" to his home for dinner on New Year's Day. The captain was drunk. this. This was done the next morning.45 Late in 1869. as the army tried to begin an outpost on the Kenai peninsula.48 He ordered his guards to fire on any Indians who tried to escape. and one soldier was seriously wounded. after reading his commendation of himself were "very much pleased. In 1868. for him-his only) problem with the Indians. but. intoxicated Indians and beat a hasty retreat.46 General Davis ordered the soldier into the Indian village to arrest the chief "and his party" for stealing the rifle. it could hardly be called a war. as it proved. three were wounded. The result has been referred to by historians as the "Kake War". After crossing through the gate that dividing town from the Indian village. apparently desiring to buy the friendship of the chiefs with alcohol.Nothing substantial happened between the Alaska Natives and the military as far as clashes go for the first two years of Army occupation. as an added precaution to prevent the Natives from securing allies. it could hardly be blamed for goading drunken Indians to massacre the soldiers. Davis's superior officers. a sentry kicked Cholcheka soundly. The next morning Cholcheka and his friends were arrested. even though the Army feared the worst. It was written from first.S.S. Generally. And this from his own showing. the boat carrying troops struck a reef. whenever the Army needed help they were surprised at the helpfulness of the Native Alaskans. particularly praising the action of General Davis.

When a scuffle broke out.Man's home to arrest him. including Scutd-Doo's mother and a chief of his clan. Mr.M. So ended the Kake War. The following day. attacked a store owner named Leon Smith. company laundress. One (1) Indian killed. General Davis refused any kind of settlement with the angry Kake Indians over these killings. One (1) white woman. An army detachment went to Si. A short time later. but whether this behavior was typical of Indians and not of the whites in the area is worth investigating further. afraid to directly enter the Indian village ordered the village shelled with cannon and rifle shot.52 Lt. finger bitten off."50 A short time after the Indians were arrested at Sitka. killed. Chilkat and his friend Jack. It happened at Wrangell about a year after the Kake incident. General Davis burned the native village of Kake and destroyed several canoes when he could not get his hands directly on the killers. after a trial where the judges consisted of four military officers and the dead trader's partner. Captain Borrowe. The summary of the cause of the incident normally goes like this: An Indian named Si-Man bit off a finger of a laundress while he was drunk on the evening of Christmas Day. The following day. Leon Smith. according to the army. One (1) Indian severely wounded. Borrowe's report was brief and to the point in summary: "Report on the result of the late Indian trouble: One (1) white man. 1869. or at least "found a good excuse for hanging Mr. an intoxicated "brave" named Scutd-Doo. Si-Man was killed and his brother was wounded with by rifle fire as Lt. shooting him seventeen times.wished privately that Davis had found an excuse to "send the bucks" to San Francisco. when Borrowe threatened to take several hostages. As they passed by a sentry he fired on them killing two and injuring a Sitka Indian travelling with them. The fact that it started when an Indian who was drunk assaulted a white lady is clear in all the accounts written by the army.. One (1) Indian hung. In the home they found four people. Loucks tried to only "stun him" by a saber blow to the head."53 It should be pointed out that Leon Smith may have been selected for revenge . all of whom were intoxicated.51 THE BOMBARDMENT OF WRANGELL The next major incident between the Army and the Indians should also be analyzed from the standpoint of alcohol and violence. a brother of one of those killed avenged the deaths of his kinsmen by killing two white traders a few miles from the Kake village. by gun-shot fracture of the right humerus. a canoe of Indians from Kake left their village at Sitka for home. In keeping with the military's idea of punishing all the tribe for the excesses of a few. Early the next morning at 1:00 A. Scutd-Doo surrendered and was hung within twenty-four hours.

One Russian diary in Sitka contained the following entry: "The Americans look forward impatiently to government protection. The Indians got drunk. But it is important to note that drinking. nor were they the only ones who got drunk. was intoxicated when he took revenge for the death of his fellow clan member. The army and the white citizens were simply more afraid of drunken Indians and so made more comments about it. there were. "consumed large amounts of liquor. The soldiers at Sitka. even though the events happened late at night on the evening of a special holiday . He was never punished for the murders. Parker shot and killed an Indian boy. A San Francisco newspaper asserted that the outcry for protection came from merchants who wanted back the soldiers-their best customers." They petitioned the government to send a war vessel. or how he managed to put 17 bullet holes in the unfortunate Mr.even complimenting them on their peacefulness . frankly speaking. they sent a letter to Canada appealing for protection.he had been involved with two "half-drunken discharged soldiers" in beating and stamping on an Indian from Wrangell about two months earlier. A board of inquiry was held that determined the shooting was "unjustifiable and cowardly in the extreme.Christmas."57 This is not to say that soldiers were the only ones who were violent. When the army finally removed its forces from Alaska in 1877.C. the dead trader. and when it did not come soon enough for them. there is nobody here to protect except the saloonkeepers.because he had probably been breaking the white man's own laws in selling and consuming liquor. constable J. caroused until all hours.55 OTHER EXAMPLES OF SOLDIER'S VIOLENCE & ALCOHOL In October. but I do not believe it will ever be given. the laundress's escort or others involved in the affair. Smith by himself in the dark of night with what was probably a Hudson's Bay musket. of course.54 Since reports of the incident at Wrangell were written by the military. the townspeople at Sitka were worried that "the Indians would murder the whites during their drunken revels. They committed outrages against the nearby Indians and as a side effect introduced syphilis and alcohol among them. drunken brawls which both terrified residents and damaged or destroyed much of their property. because." Parker was confined only a short time and released. drunkenness and violence are not confined to Indians. 1869. Smith had sold liquor illegally at his store."58 Perhaps they weren't as afraid as they seemed to be."I have found them to be well disposed to the whites" . no allegations of drunkenness on the part of the military.59 . too. he had killed another Indian. and engaged in noisy. although he regarded himself as close to the Indians . There was nothing in the report to indicate how it was determined the Indian. Scutd-Doo. Within a year. 1868 drunken soldiers at Kodiak almost killed a citizen named Panchin while playing with a gun.56 In Sitka on December 16. and.

63 THE GILLEY AFFAIR This incident is termed an "affair" by most of those who referred to it.S. to keep his men at least partially away from hoochinoo."66 .S. S. William H. Seventeen years later. they were probably sober." The whalers on board the whaling brig. Rev. 1879. some whalers murdered about 20 Eskimos who came to their ship to trade. Beardslee came to Sitka in 1879 with the U. On the contrary. when Missionary Thornton was murdered at Cape Prince of Wales. its captain induced the local brewer to re-open his brewery to sell beer to the sailors. In 1878 at Cape Prince of Wales. 1879. there was no evidence that this murder took place during a drunken spree. said that the Eskimos were drunk. Corwin blamed all violent drunken behavior on Alaska Natives when he asserted:65 "The only trouble that has ever occurred between whites and natives has been when the latter were under the influence of liquor. because the Indians would not kill a white man for fear of the consequences. Selden of the Oliver Wolcott said after arriving in Sitka that he thought no violence would occur "unless it is brought on by the effects of rum.The arrival of the Oliver Wolcott on March 2. Allen. but "all accounts said that the Eskimos were intoxicated. Although he stated that the Indians were intoxicated. we have virtually only the word of whites. When the Alaska arrived in Sitka on April 3." Just the opposite opinion was voiced by another historian about the guilty parties when trouble arises: "In the few instances when trouble has occurred between Innuits and white men.64 The commander of the Revenue cutter. he understood the Indian code of justice better than the War or Treasury Departments. He felt that most of the trouble that happened between Indians and whites stemmed from misunderstandings of that code of justice. Hall Young lived among the Indians at Wrangell when trouble broke out over visiting Indians. he had no fear for his life. Jamestown. they had "not exhibited the slightest act of hostility toward the whites of this settlement.62 Naval commander Lester A. for while there were often fights among themselves while supposedly drunk. quieted fears of possible violence.60 The drunken comportment of the Indians at this time is important to note. it appears to have been the fault of the latter. however. but certainly would never have accused themselves of the same weakness to justify their misdeeds." the presence of which he blamed on the Sitka merchants themselves."61 An incident that happened later in Wrangell showed the accuracy of this statement. Here again. By all accounts. but it was nothing less than a massacre by those involved with it. M. Captain J.

"71 Miners ate very poorly and often ended up drinking their meals. 1879.73 . they knew how to find those liquid items that helped them relax. The point is that it was not as prevalent on the Indian and Eskimo side as folk history would indicate." and to be "cautiously avoided. Saloons were used for union and other political activities as well. and when drunk are dangerous." He was referring to the political hotbed these saloons represented. The number of saloons. they began fighting.72 Roy recovered. MINERS AND VIOLENCE Miners had their own system of justice. which did little for their attitude. He eventually escaped punishment in Portland when Judge Deady refused to claim jurisdiction over Alaska. There also were reports to the governor in 1891 that indicated that all the violence was from whites against Natives. When Wickersham thought of closing the California Saloon and the Miners' Home Saloon in Fairbanks. In Sitka on October 8. Connett at Douglas as he tried to get information about the murderer. Several white men were arrested for selling liquor. and the murder of two Natives in Kake by a white whiskey merchant from Douglas. He stated in his autobiography. Only after a town was settled did lawmen and women (the nice kind) come to a town to declare order. J.70 but his acceptance of violence by whites was more flexible than it had been for the Indians back in Wrangell. and the tarring and feathering of Dr."68 Still. E. bars and low dives that followed the miners attest to the fact that they were hard drinkers. "considering the conditions. but Williams escaped lynching only by hurriedly turning himself in to Captain Beardslee of the Jamestown.67 One researcher commenting on the learned behavior of drunk individuals said: Drunken Indians could be beaten with impunity.There were many other instances of alcohol-related violence in Alaska's early history. he presided at seven funerals in ten days. there was remarkably little disturbance. Hall Young went to Nome in 1899.34 caliber pistol. the stereotype persisted of the dangerous drunken Natives. but to beat a sober Indian was "highly dangerous." just ten pages further into his report. he discussed the murder of Charles Edwards by whites. There was a drunken "row" at Chilkat on Independence Day in 1891 in which a white man and an Indian were killed and several whites and Indians wounded. after two mining friends had been enjoying themselves in Mooney's saloon. he said that if this were to happen it would take "more than a hundred deputy marshals to preserve order. John "Scotty" Williams shot Edward Roy five times with a . When missionary S. Even though the governor's report of 1892 indicated that Natives are "much given to drinking intoxicating liquors. They lived a hard life and when things didn't work out properly.69 Miners often lived and died with violence around them. both whites and Alaskan Natives would become intoxicated and violence would be the result.

made the Indian woman drunk. many of the government reports had less good to say about them than they did about the soldiers. and hanging for murder."76 Alaskan Eskimos and Indians knew various groups of miners. who seem to have emulated the sons of Mars in the prosecu-tion. performance. "In 1877 and 1878 several hundred miners from the British mines in the Cassiar district came down to Fort Wrangell to spend the winter. and then set fire to the house without any effort to rescue her from the flames. "There were only three punishments for criminal offenses: fines for minor infractions. . They turned the place into a perfect pandemonium. "Following in the steps of the troops. and mad riot of the quintessence of vicious enjoyment. violence tends to eliminate those who drink heavily before their health can be greatly affected. and spend their earnings of the summer in intemperance. They associated most closely with the miners who inter-married with them. debauching the native women. It was these men who probably had a great impact on the drinking ideas prevalent among the miners."75 The miner's courts were somewhat limited in the verdicts they could give. so that she was burned to death. because they maintained no jails. gambling. Violence seemed to follow many groups in Alaska. banishment for assault and larceny. come the miners."74 The miners that came to Wrangell were also a hell-raising group. and licentiousness.Of the miners that came to Alaska. Even today in Alaska. They went one night into a native's house.

3. p. Francis Paul The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier. Herbert S. 46. London (1969).L.M. p.D. 5. Stone & Co. MacAndrew. Ph. 40. The Autobiography of a Papago Woman. Chicago (1898). 89. 11. This is roughly equal to 50% alcohol by volume. 10.. 1st Session. Stanley Ray United States Administration Of Alaska. 9. p. p. (1938). Alice Palmer The Rainbow's End: Alaska. Andrews. Senate Executive Document #12. Senate Executive Document #192. Dissertation. Stephen (1953). 2. Henderson. Jocelyn. and Stories. The term. p. 1783-1846. 14. This is in relation to an effort to make things even with the whites for the death of Fernadeste. Remsberg. No. Wis. 196. p. University of Madison (1976). 7.Footnotes to Chapter 4 1. 306. Hubert Howe (1960). R. a Wrangell chief sent south to testify against a white customs officer in 1875. 59. 46th Congress. 8. "gunpowder proof" came from a similar situation. (1969). 4. 44th Congress. Ibid." MacAndrew. Toasts. Bancroft. p. "Old Saw". The Macmillan Company. p.. Prucha. Copeland. 6. 12. Craig and Edgerton (1969). Sherwood. The idea that mixed and diluted drinks were more harmful that straight whiskey was an . American Anthropological Association. 98. Lewis and Faye Jokes. p. 13. p. Actions when drunk are sometimes called "drunken comportment. p. Liquor was said to be "proofed" if gunpowder would burn with a steady glow when soaked in the liquor. Pure alcohol is 200 proof. Quoted from Underhill. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association. Robert B. Craig and Edgerton. 15. 2. A hogshead normally contains about 55 gallons. Morgan B. C. Erdos. 199. 135. 3. Richard (1979). 304.. 16. Ibid. p. 559. Menasha.

Several reasons were given for the lower rate in Eastern saloons. 20. "The Saloon". 207. 27." refers to someone who is fond of alcoholic drinks. Mark Edward and Martin. Richard (1979). A. 1868. Alaska Herald.S. 29. James Kirby (1982).much of it in saloons. "That no spiritous liquors shall be sold or given to Indians in barter. Erdoes (1979). "Plures crapula quam gladius" is the term for this in latin tradition. 100-101. July 15.A. Murders were very common in all mining communities of the early West. 25. 211. R. (1979). 113. 559. 165-173. 113. p. See Carson. Chevigny. Mark Edward and Martin.idea that has existed for many. James Kirby (1982). among the explanations given included a more effete population.S.A. p.A. 26. San Francisco had 1200 murders between 1849 and 1851 . (1979). 216. 24. Lender. see Chevigny. p. as presents. Lemert. 82. by any of the officers or servants belonging or attached to any of the establishments or vessels belonging to either concern. 179. 24." Bancroft. A. 167. (1979). "bibulous. and undoubtedly will continue to last for many more. 1914. many years. 100. or because Easterners did not keep their guns oiled. Erdoe. Some of the Russians are said to have . p. p. Gerald American Heritage. Lender.1867. Richard (1979). A. 18. p. p. which translated literally means. 21. p. p. (1954). or by any other person or persons acting in their behalf on any part of the north-west coast of America to the northward of latitude 50o unless competition in trade should render it necessary. 23. 32. poor marksmanship. or on any pretense or consideration whatsoever. Erdoes (1979). p. 307.S. 205. 19. Binford & Mort. p. Thomann (1887). and Donnelly. "drunkenness kills more than the sword. R. Hubert Howe (1861). p."The term. and Donnelly. p. and Donnelly. Russian America (1965). Erdoes. p. 10898-9. p. p. better whiskey. R. Pierce. Edwin M. MacAndrew and Edgarton (1969). Pierce. For more information about this agreement. 22. 30. Portland (1965). Congressional Record. Hector. Hector Russian America: The Great Alaskan Adventure 1741. Pierce. 28. 17.

03/01/1880. 173-174. Emil A Journey To Alaska in the Year 1868: Being a Diary of the Late Emil Teichmann. For more information about how U. S. For more information about the U. 33.wept upon receiving the prohibition order. VII. 31. 40. military in early Alaska and the laws in effect. Army between 1867 (the takeover of Alaska) and 1891 left it illegally as deserters. United States Administration of Alaska: The Army Phase.L. p. Remsburg (1975). Putnam & Sons. Valerie. see: Lain. Francis Paul (1962). C. Madison: Stubbs. Indian policy developed with Indians. McDermott.A. 1867-77: An Experiment In Military Government. "Crime and Punishment In The United States Army: A Phase of Fort Laramie History". 36. 42. 37. 35. John Dishon. (1978). Not the same Jefferson Davis who was head of the Confederate States of America. fully one. Orthodox Church Documents. McDermott. G. 330. How Governor Simpson could read their minds in this matter was not fully explained. USHIN'S DIARY. 301-344. 34. John Dishon (April. ArgosyAntiquarian. John ARDENT SPIRITS: THE RISE AND FALL OF PROHIBITION. 188-189: Sherwood. see Prucha.S. Arms. but was never brought to trial for the murder. Dissertation (1976). General Davis had shot and killed his commander earlier during an altercation.third of the men that enlisted in the U. For non-native alcohol-related violence at Sitka. 204. 247.D. Technically. p. JOURNAL OF THE WEST.N. see: Teichmann. Army In Alaska. . A Study in Federal Governance of an Overseas Possession. 41. 1968). Ph. 32. Francis Paul (1969). According to one source. Andrews. after 1900. p. 246-255. Morgan B. 1968). This was a state of affairs they were often accused of abusing. p. p. p. 39. Bobby Dave (1974): Remsburg. New York (1973). 56. 2(April. p. Stanley Ray. Ltd. The University of Wisconsin. 252. 102. dissertation (1956) The American University: Numerous congressional documents also cover this phase of Alaska history. 252. 47. DeArmond. New York. "AAA". p.S. Remsburg (1975). R. The U. Ammunition and Ardent spirits. (July.P.S. p. (1938). (1963). Kobler. p. Alaska did not gain the status of "Territory" till much later. 1965). 1867-1877. M. Prucha. 38. p.

The term. Brian. Alaska. 333337: Lain (1974). . 6-7. in fact. the whites did the same thing if they could not get their hands on the Indian they thought responsible for a crime. See Harrison. gave permission to several Natives to purchase 5 gallons of liquor each for the installation of a new chief. 52." Overland Monthly. 44. Letter from the Secretary Of Interior re Wrangell bombardment of December 26. 47. "Cook' Inlet. p. 609: also see Wyeth. 327. If one were to look at the way this event and others were handled by general Davis. See 41st Congress 2nd Session Senate Executive Doc #67. 146-148: Stubbs. 611. p. for example. August 15. It is very possible. however. 46.S. army posts with squalid living conditions. 53. W. p. Alaska. Bancroft. Senate Executive Doc 68. 12/05/1885: The Army suicide rate according to war department reports. p. that these traders. 50. VIII (January 1872).43. p. Ludwig Maager and William Walker. 41st Congress 2nd Session. Hubert Howe (1886). 34. Senate Executive Doc #67: Remsburg (1975). See 41st Congress 2 Session. an extremely high rate. the Army allowed Indians to obtain small quantities of liquor in spite of the orders of the President and the illegality of doing it. It is difficult to tell how the guard determined that the Indians were any more intoxicated than themselves. p. The Chilkat area is close to Haines. 177-178. Occasionally. p.T. 45. Sitka chief Annahootz was allowed to purchase 10 gallons of beer for a funeral celebration. p. 1868: One example of an Indian suicide is in The Alaskan. One example of a civilian who shot himself is in ALASKA HERALD. Remsburg (1975). Davis's official report claimed the it was just "apple toddy" that he provided to the Indians. Drink and the Victorians. Colonel Dennison. University of Pittsburgh Press. 650-651. Bancroft (1886)." or "hog ranch" were used as derogatory terms by the army to denote any settlement close to U. 48. "watered whiskey" and loose women. as were other white traders at that time. Frome (1971). in that they could obtain vengeance on a white man's atrocity by killing someone who had no relation to the crime as long as they were white. It was a commonly accepted idea of that period of time that lower-classes of people could not gather in public places without drunkenness and mischief occurring. 64-69. were illegally selling liquor as a part of their fur trading venture." "ranch. It has been pointed out by several historians that the Thlingit Indian's form of justice was different than the white's form of justice. 48. p. "rancherie. between 1879 and 1888 was 76 suicides per thousand men. 49. Bobby Dave (1974). we would see that. Remsburg (1975). p. 51.. 1869. Valerie K. Lane. (1956) p. See.

Smith. p." As one stampeder of '97 put it when he passed through Skagway unscathed by Soapy Smith's strong men. 2nd Session. 60. p. If this were true. p. Montgomery. 1879. Ushin's Diary. 65. 5. White soldiers supposedly only get "half-drunk" to do violent acts. Boston & New York (1915). Remsberg (1976). Palo Alto. 254. The United States Naval Institute (1949). It would have been an excuse easily believed by the army. p. Senate Executive Doc. January 25. 120. 61. 64. September 28. San Francisco Chronicle. 218. p. . and five barrels of distilled spirits (whiskey. 55. 257-258.. 83. Stephen A. that there was more than one perpetrator of the crime. 245. p. It is possible that since there were seventeen bullets in the unfortunate Mr. 56." 41st Congress. #68. p. 62. marked Leon Smith. Number 4 (October.54.: Also see Hinckley. 1877. "If you don't get drunk. Healey claimed that the Eskimo term for the Corwin. then Scutd-Doo was chosen by his clan to take the blame for the murder with alcohol being used as an excuse that may elicit mercy upon him for his actions. was "Oo. #68. 610. Lain (1974). There is a tendency to look on some one who has poured his health down his throat that he "asked for it. brandy. (1974). Orthodox Church Documents. Maurice. 42. 1940. 63. Senate Executive Doc. William R. Muir. 58. 191. Alaska History Documents. 57. quoted from Lain (1974). both Indians and soldiers generously use wine till "everybody's head is going round and round" prior to the trouble. Lain (1974). Ray. Remsburg (1975). you don't get rolled. The United States Coast Guard 1790-1915. p. Dorothy Jean (1975)." Hunt. Evans. 275.) were hoisted up from the hold of the Newbern. &c. Vol 54. 1963). CA. "The Murder Of Missionary Thornton". 41 Congress 2nd Session. 6. The Americanization of Alaska.mi-ak'-puck pe'-chuck ton'-i-ka". Pacific Northwest Quarterly. Ted. 219. 59. 66. Pacific Books. (1972) p. or "no whiskey ship". "a quantity of porter and light wines. John TRAVELS IN ALASKA. p. p. An Indian version of the event was published in The Wrangell Sentinel on May 31. Lain (1974). On one occasion. ten barrels of ale. p. In this version. post trader at Wrangell.

Senate Executive Document #59. Governor's report of 1892. With the ship to furnish force. he not only allowed an Indian sent down for trial for a similar offense to be hung. "Reports of Captain L.67.S. University of California. p. 72. Roy. 61-63. "Report from the Customs District. (1974). Senate Report #457. Murton. 277. Navy relative to affairs in Alaska and the operations of the USS Jamestown under his command while in the waters of that territory". 3rd Session. This was true even though two years earlier. Young. Four murders and three suicides. p. U. Captain Beardslee said of the second state of affairs: "The accused man probably had committed a crime. 1st Session. 401. 47th Congress. 45th Congress. Ms thesis. the man was saved from his fate to eventually escape from the clutches of the law. but only five bullets. he was in a strange country where he had no friends. Senate Executive Document #71. (1969). p. 70. he could not have proved it. Beardslee. 68. p. MacAndrew. 71. Hunt. 123. The lack of a safety mechanism forced the marksman to leave the hammer on an empty cylinder. Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. 75. p. The Administration of Criminal Justice in Alaska. 18671902. 04/21/1882 76. S. 1879". and had the Jamestown not been present he would have been lynched." 74. Most frontier pistols had six cylinders. p. 18-20. William R." Page 24-27 refers to the attempted murder of Mr. . Craig and Edgerton. 73. but dissected as well. Thomas O'rhelius. Page 14 refers to the "trial" of Kot-Ko-Wat. and had he not been guilty it would have been all the same. Berkeley (1965). Beardslee added: "This man was hung upon the testimony two of his enemies.A. US Gov't Printing office. 130. 1882. Hall (1827). Robert B. 44th Congress 1st Session. 69.

84. 101: In 1658 in New York State. p. p. Vol 17 (1956). J. p. 21. C. "for the protection of people of small means and dissolute habits. Bancroft. 5. Bishop John Still (1543-1608) Gammer Gurton's Needle. on pain of forfeiting their licenses to retail intoxicants. (1887). J. and in order to curb the prevalent disposition on the part of soldiers to exchange their uniforms for liquors. however. Thomann. 9. In fact. The Russian-American Company. G.C. 6. 188. Caldwell. in colonial America. Drinking Song. p.J. (1880). p. contracts which would bind them for many years to come and in which in the guise of advance pay was included the cost to the last penny of the entertainment at the time of enlistment. I." 2. H. "Drinking Patterns of the Aleuts". G." (p. (1887). (1887). see Honigman. [Governor] Stuyvesant forbade tavern keepers to take anything in pawn for drink. This practice was not limited to the Russians. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 5 (1945). p. Okun in his book. makes numerous statements about the use of alcohol by the Company to subdue its own workers. G. (1887).L. people will resort to illegal means to obtain it. Idaho (1938). 8. 108. Harvard University Press (1951). Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol.545.. (1967). 175) In fact. 575-619. 1140. . "Drinking In An Indian-white Community". the practice of soldiers and sailors to pawn their arms and/or clothing for ardent spirits gave rise to the declaration of a law in Maryland on January 24. The behavior of many citizens in the U. No cultural stipulations need be implied. Andrews. 1674 outlawing this practice. For one study done on Canadian Eskimos. & Honigman. 505. See: Thomann. p. p. Berreman. 4. H. The author of the quote about the deplorable Russian drinking habits. all round the world. One of his allegations against the company included the recruitment of new workers for Alaska territory: "A few days before the ships sailed for America. Thomann. The fact that the white people had trouble also in this regard is shown by a quote from Thomann. sailors and adventurers were recruited by deceptive means because of the harsh conditions they often had to face. The Story of Alaska. all the drinking establishments in Okhotsk would be crowded with promyshlennosty whom the Company entertained lavishly without sparing expenses.S. S. Beaglehole. Gerald D. Ltd. p.Footnotes for Chapter 3 1. This also happened often in colonial America when American seamen got to drinking to much of their "wet goods". Here in the saloons the recruiting agents would slip the contracts into the hands of the promyshlennosty for their signature. 7. The Claxton Printers. B. G. 3. prohibition era is evidence that when alcohol is illegal.

p. Quas. 21. Senate Executive Document #12. 02/06/1886. The term. of the Treasury (Board of Indian Commissioners) to prove to the Department of War (Army) that it could do more to stop liquor in Alaska than the Army did. To be perfectly legal. 1956). 161. (1887) p. 3. and one of them is that he is taken to drink. University of Pittsburgh Press (1971). 15. 101. 477. p. 13. quass and kvass are all variations of the spelling of a beer (not distilled) made from various fermentable materials." See Alaska Times. Conn. Brian Drink & the Victorians. 361. 309. p. 11. and at other times the term. mechanical or scientific uses. 6. 16. Marshall. McCoy. p. Lemert. 12. 1974). 1st Session. Stanley Brewed In America: The History of Beer and Ale in the United States. The Alaskan. Salt Lake City (1975). p. 11. (1954). 1885. Dogwood Press. 20. Little. "Siwash" served that purpose. Brown and Company. Donald R. 477-490. 22. Alaska Governor's report (1888). Baron. Larry Arthur The Failure of Prohibition in Alaska: 1884-1900. p." Petersen. p. "Creole" was sometimes used in a derogatory manner. Abraham Cohen advertised in The Alaska Times that his Sitka and Juneau breweries sold 'pure beer' exclusively for the mentioned purposes. 17. 200. November 7. Sparks. Stephen (1980). (November. "Puritan Liquor In The Planting Of New England". hence the concern about alcohol in his reports. it wasn't till communities began to bring in tax money from the sale of legal liquor after 1899 that communities had the funds to develop viable water supplies. 14. LaMar Hearts Made Glad. Vol 23 (December 1950). Those not of pure blood or either Russian ancestry or Alaska Native. see Harrison. Boston (1962). 19. Unpublished master's thesis (June. G. For more information about the use of beer in England. 44th Congress. p. p. "There are two things that will be believed of any man whatsoever. p. 18. 993-994. In fact. Albertson. "Although businesses continued to operate.10. Dean The New England Quarterly. Jim Swinging Doors. some saloonkeepers opened drug stores and sold alcohol by prescription for claimed medicinal. p. Hall was sent to Unalaska in an effort by the Dept. 92. Thomann. Frank McCaffery Publishers. 24 shows the lengths that Alaskans went through to get the beer they felt they deserved to have. Edwin M. The article quoted from Virginia . Seattle (1949). Western Washington State College.

Gazette, April 1, 1775. Also see Thomann, G. (1887), p. 108 where they claim that the ration was a half barrel of beer per seven men per week. Furnas, J.C. (1965); Austin, Gregory A.; Alcohol in Western Society from Antiquity to 1800: a Chronological History, ABC-Clio Information Services, Denver (1985).

Chapter #5 Health and Alcohol in Alaska When Russian and American traders came to the shores of Alaska, they brought preconceptions about the function of alcohol and its relationship to health. They also had biases about how alcohol would affect Indians and Eskimos. Some of them thought that American Indians, Eskimos and other Natives in this land had a biological weakness for alcohol that affected their metabolism. It is uncertain how many of these ideas were transferred to the Alaska Natives, but since they were integral parts of why the whites drank what they did, they should be better understood. Different cultures have contrasting ideas about what is safe or nutritious to eat or drink. People of one culture may think it's perfectly acceptable to eat foods and drink beverages that disgust people of other cultures.1 It must have been a source of mystery and wonderment to the Russians how the Alaska Natives avoided the Russian's most dreaded health problem - scurvy. The Aleuts and Indians of coastal Alaska probably had difficulty understanding why the Russians, Spanish and Americans brought beer, wine and liquors on their ships and then drank it for what they felt were health reasons. Had they understood the whites' accusations that the Natives' health and well-being were being eroded by drinking the same beverages, they might have been even more confused. To understand the accusations about the bad effects of alcohol on the health of Alaska Natives, some history of alcohol as it affected whites and Europeans should be reviewed. In the 13th century, European chemists were obsessed with finding a single cure for all diseases. When alcohol was discovered they believed it was the "water of life", and so named it "aqua vitae": "Since it is really a water of immortality. It prolongs life, clears away ill-humours, revives the heart and maintains youth."2 Alcohol was believed to be necessary on ships, in town, during work, play, religion,

courtship and nearly everywhere else imaginable. Until the 1700s, virtually no one raised a voice against what was widely thought to be God's gift, "to be received with thankfulness."3 Neither Americans nor Europeans of the 1700s and 1800s indulged in refreshing glasses of water. This was not so much an aversion to this healthy drink, but more likely because so little of it was clear, sparkling or appetizing. River water had to sit while mud particles settled to the bottom. During winter, recalled one pioneer, "water had to be thawed." It was only after towns and villages obtained reliable public water supplies that water became a substitute for alcohol.4 Water was condemned also on the grounds that it didn't aid digestion or have any food value. Whiskey, on the other hand, was made of nutritious grains was believed to be healthgiving and strong.5 "Now, just a leetle drop," said Mrs. Mann persuasively. "What is it?" inquired the beadle. "Why, its what I'm obliged to keep a little of in the house, to put into the blessed infants' Daffy, when they ain't well, Mr. Bumble," replied Mrs. Mann as she opened the corner cupboard, and took down a bottle and a glass. "It's gin. I'll not deceive you, Mr. B. It's gin."6 Whiskey was most valued remedy in the pioneer medicine chest. It was used to treat everything from stomach aches and menstrual pain to snake bite. On the Klondike trail, whiskey was about the only medicine available. Not all the illnesses recognized today would respond to an alcohol treatment as medication, but one, at least was very responsive to this prescription. Several doctors issued prescriptions to whites who were only suffering from the uncomfortable diagnosis of "draught."7 SCURVY The most dangerous health problem that faced early explorers in Alaska was scurvy. Many symptoms characterized scurvy, including pain in arm and leg joints, gum infection that caused teeth to fall out, lack of energy and sometimes death. Some of early Russians in Sitka who did not die of this illness were toothless from its effects.8 Russians believed their beer (quass) was an anti-scorobic that helped them either avoid getting scurvy or get over its effects. "I ordered [those sick with scurvy] given wheat, molasses and beer made from fir cones. We all drank this beer as an anecdote from scurvy, and thanks to the Lord, out of forty very sick Russians, only three died."9 "The only alcoholic beverage allowed was kvass, which was brewed from grain, fruit, or anything fermentable and had long been used by the promyshlenniki as a preventative for scurvy."10

This was also true of the Bostonians and the British. "Late authorities testify strongly in favor of the benefit to be derived from moderate indulgence in drink during an arctic sojourn. In looking over a precis of the evidence taken by a parliamentary committee appointed to inquire into the adequacy of the provision in the way of food, medicines, and medicinal comports furnished to the Nares Arctic Research Expedition, we learn that Sir Edmond Perry attributed the greatest antiscorobic effect to beer; and Dr. Colon, R.N., fleet surgeon (Alert), says that it is the opinion of all the men he has read about who spoke about beer in the arctic regions. Dr. Barnes believes beer decidedly antiscorobic and recommends it should be given. Sir George Nares says abstainers are no better than others as regards scurvy. Captain Markham says he would as soon take a man of temperate habits on an expedition as an abstainer; the two total abstainers of his sledge suffered severely, and he himself felt better after he took to drinking his rum. Sir L. McClintock says there is no advantage to teetotalers; Mr. Alexander Gray, that there is no advantage in health in abstainers on board whalers, while Dr. A. Envall, who accompanied Nordenskjld condemns excess, but says he believes spirituous liquors to be of great use in small and moderate quantities."11 One method navies used to treat and prevent scurvy was daily administration of something alcoholic to the sailors on board the ships. This daily jolt became known as the grog ration. The grog ration for the U.S. Navy started in 1655. The Navy tried to switch from rum to whiskey in 1806 because the best medical evidence held whiskey to be more healthy to drink. In fact, since it was mixed with citric juices, such as lime juice, the ration did give the sailors vitamin C and helped prevent scurvy.12 EFFECTS OF BAD WEATHER Alcoholic beverages were thought to ward off ill effects of rain and miserable weather. Since Sitka was the seat of early white government in Alaska where inclement weather is typical, it was felt that alcohol was not only justified, but necessary. "Under John Marshall the Supreme Court had a rule that it would drink only in rainy weather-but this rule soon was extended to mean rainy weather anywhere the court had jurisdiction, which was a considerable stretch of territory, even then. Under the laws of chance, Justice Marshall held, it probably was raining somewhere in the United States."13 One of treasury department official, William G. Morris, spoke of the need for alcohol for anyone living in Southeastern Alaska when he said: "Alaska is not a penal colony; and because one lives in that country it is no reason he should be punished and deprived of the comforts or necessaries of life. It may seem paradoxical to classify spirituous liquor as necessary to a man's existence; but it is sometimes so as a medicinal remedy. As for comfort, let one sojourn for any length of time in that humid climate, and if his bones all the way up to his throat don't ache to distraction for a drink, I am no judge of human nature."14

Between liquor and other civilizing agents the population is being thinned out fast. whose drinking seldom interfered with his duties. more soldiers died from suicide than died from any drunken Indian or Eskimo uprisings. carouse. by name Wolkoff. about thirty men of the small garrison were always under arrest. was plied with liquor till she died from the effects. "When it rained. a Russian Woman. cold winters would have given anyone a good excuse to start drinking heavily. Davis closed his report on the matter by saying that Captain Kinney was an "intelligent and good officer. he was informed by the sutler and imprisoned by military authority.000 men between 1879 and 1888. . The illusion of warmth obtained by drinking liquor is just that-. . who shot himself on the night of December 2. General Davis reported that the cause of death was probably intemperance although he was reported to have been drinking very little for six weeks prior to his death.19 The first recorded army suicide was that of Captain Kinney."18 Whites in the army were not exempt from suicide problems. . the rain was depressing.For soldiers who came from the Southwestern United States. indulge in the most lascivious and disgusting immoralities."16 "On the 16th of July last at Sitka. Feeling his humiliation and disgrace at being imprisoned. a shoemaker. "When the Indians become crazed with this devilish drink they lose all reason and become raving maniacs.an illusion. and suicide. Many miners froze to death believing they were protected from the cold by having alcohol antifreeze in their bloodstream."17 "A young Russian."20 LIABILITY FOR ALCOHOL-RELATED INJURY The person who allows another to drink has only recently been held liable for what his . frequently ending in death. 1868. purchased some whiskey and afterwards gave a bottle to a young creole or half-breed. which was a good part of the time. Alaska offered few other diversions."15 Alaska's long. For this offense. the army suicide rate was 76 suicides per 1. who was highly esteemed by his mess-mates and very popular among the citizens. In early Alaska. According to war department reports. murder. Even in good weather. Liceria Andrew. SUICIDE Suicide caused from drinking has been a social problem for hundreds of years and Alaska is no exception. there was virtually nothing to do but drink and gamble. in a moment of mental aberration he put a pistol to his head and blew out his brains.

" congestion of the brain. The collector's office out there has been so demoralized in this matter that if you knew the whole truth about it you would be sick that government affairs in any department should be in such a fix. rye whiskey. The exclamation was often made in connection with the physical health and well-being of the Natives. It wasn't just the Natives. Many squabbles arose over liability when someone was hurt or killed or committed suicide while under the influence of alcohol provided by others. If ---Western ."21 This wasn't the case. and it wasn't just the Indians."23 There were always those on the frontier who believed that alcohol was so important that they would do anything for a drink. Such alcohol-related deaths were attributed vaguely to "black tongue disease. Indians and politicians for that matter drank their meals which weakened their resistance to disease. One folk song of the West went: Rye whiskey.22 After months of living on liquor and little else. "The government can not keep liquor out [of Alaska]. however. Some of the officers are now under inditement for taking liquor out of the seizure room and selling it to the whiskey men. you don't give me rye whiskey. No distinctions were made on the frontier among those who shared drinks. Many miners. It's difficult to say just what was meant by this assertion. I surely will die. folk song--DEMORALIZING ALASKA'S NATIVES One of the most common claims of the missionaries. who were "demoralized" by alcohol. Many deaths that were directly blamed on alcohol may have been due to the lack of nourishment that a regular diet robbed the drinker of rather than alcoholism. among Indians of Southeast Alaska.quests do while under the influence of alcohol. Even the liquor that is in the seizure room is taken out and water is put in its place. miners and others about alcohol effects on Alaska's Natives was that alcohol was "demoralizing" the Natives. general dissipation. unknown causes or "too much whiskey for this altitude. I cry."24 Rye whiskey. a man might lie down in a hut or a barroom corner and never wake up. however. This caveat emptor policy of buying drinks was expressed by a visitor to Idaho in 1861: "It is counted no murder to sell [whiskey] to a man if he survives long enough to get out of doors.

language and religion into their families and clans." The term. 'quass. for example. It suggested that a solution would be to build "little homes" for the Natives as an inducement to move away from non-Native towns and away from where they can "obtain liquor and become demoralized. All are deadly and demoralizing in their action upon the native. S. Sometimes it was only applied to the effects of homemade alcohol. became the spiritual. asserted freedom to do as they pleased and used every excuse possible to avoid punishment and chastisement. idle and immoral lives that were lived in spite of efforts by missionaries to instill their values in those they thought were farther from grace than themselves. since several very important whites became quasi.leaders or role models to some of the Native groups who wanted to assimilate white culture.' or native beer. ALCOHOL AS MEDICINE Even when alcohol drinks in saloons were illegal. John Brady (later to become governor) was another white leader from whom Southeast Alaska Indians took their values. Many of these people were outspoken protectors of Alaska Natives and virtually all were also very much anti-liquor if not prohibitionist. moral and political leader of the Tsimpsians who settled in Metlakatla. Other whites became role models of drunken comportment as they guzzled their wages. Numerous advertisements for these special compounds appeared in early Alaska newspapers attesting that they were popular consumer items in the early 1900s. was: "Alcohol control among the Natives served many purposes. he claimed : "In recent years there has been a marked decrease in the making of these liquors.The 1905 and 1907 governor's reports recommended that the liquor sale to Indians be a felony instead of a misdemeanor. 'hooch."25 What the reports actually suggested."26 Since Alaska Natives did not understand the white's ideas about the healthfulness of alcoholic drinks or their reported ill effects.' or 'cold' whiskey. they had to develop their own ideas about alcohol's effects on their health.' 'sourdough. physically and mentally. In Governor Strong's annual report." was used most often to express the corrupt. It explained the failures of programs already established. "demoralization. Many compounds were known to be alcoholic and it was forbidden to give or sell them to Indians (not because Indians . Father William Duncan. their numbers drawn into villages and their 'fallen' culture brought up to the standards of temperance not often found in the North country." "Native groups had to be contacted. bottles with generous percentages of alcohol were available at the local pharmacy in larger white settlements. It justified further efforts at civilizing Natives through the work of missionaries and teachers. according to research Stephen Conn. Hall Young and Sheldon Jackson served the same purpose in Wrangell and Sitka. White values about health would have been important. called in the vernacular.

Some of the more popular tonics were Hostetter's Stomach Bitters (44% alcohol). when denied their usual sources. 'McMillan and Keysters Essence of Ginger. Mr. my.didn't need good medications like everyone else). is the administration of stimulants.' and 'Jamaica Ginger' were the most popular in Alaska. he was practically living on hot rum. but it has been pointed out that "while Uncle Sam's revenuers refrained from taxing the stuff because it was medicine. William Duncan of Metlakatla pulled from his desk a bottle of liquor to share with an ailing bootlegger named Baronovich. It was said that. the only liquor the Indians could be . so abundantly available on the shelves of nearly every store and freely importable by the caseloads.3% alcohol).2%). but the disease itself. What a sight! The great temperance apostle of the coast. the story went as follows: The captain "asked Mr. 'Oh. his Indian service forbade the sale of it on reservations because it was so easy to get drunk on. This happened to S. In a biography of Duncan. He is dying. till we get to Victoria. and I do not want him to die on the way. Young consumed a sizable amount of brandy to kill the pain. Faith Whitcombe's Nerve Bitters (20. The only thing which can keep him alive. Hall Young. Would you let me have it?' "Duncan did.' 'Kennedy's Medical Discovery. Duncan informed him that he always kept some in his dispensary for medicinal purposes."31 Alexander Baranov blamed a lot of his drinking on arthritis pain."32 HOME-BREW One thing is certain as far as quality assurance goes. Any fluid that got rid of pain might have been considered a greatly appreciated possession.' 'Pere-Davis Pain Killer."28 It's unknown how the Alaskan Indians and Eskimos accepted the idea that alcohol could actually be good for your health. Before tugging at his arms to re-set the dislocation.29 Even the most vocal of prohibition missionaries wouldn't hesitate very long to consume enough alcohol to alleviate constant or severe pain when other remedies were not easily available. but numerous other bitters. all of which had high alcoholic content. Duncan if he had any brandy on hand. Luther's Temperance Bitters (16.6% alcohol) and Burdock Blood Bitters (25. the terror of all whiskey-sellers. Baranovich is on board.' said the captain. the most famous Presbyterian missionary in Wrangell in 1880. Alaska drinkers found solace in the array of patent medicines. It was common for poor people all over the world to regard pain as not just a symptom of disease. when he dislocated both shoulders in a hike with the famous naturalist John Muir. essences. 'I wish you would let me take some. and other kinds of drugs served the same purpose. pain killers. furnishing the most notorious liquor-vendor with the brandy which he needed to keep him alive on his last journey. Rev.27 "As so often happened during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.30 It also happened when Rev. "to relieve the pain." Alcohol was certainly used by the Alaska Natives as a pain-killer.

a traffic in alcohol existed." whereupon he "announced the destruction of the world for that day two years. if gun-barrel stills were used regularly. the Russian missionaries showed little concern for instilling prohibition from alcoholic beverages on themselves.out poison would have been brews that they made themselves. at ten in the morning . The stills were periodically destroyed.33 It's possible that some of stills caused unhealthy side effects the Natives could not foresee.. first by ship's officers and later by policemen and missionaries. rape. [the Kenai Indians] make their liquor from flour fermented with sugar in stills made of gasoline tins and distill it through a rusty gun barrel. combined with the isolation and idleness created problems identical to those found today in northern towns from Forbisher to Nome. and gun-barrel stills were erected on shore in native huts by both whalemen and Eskimos. England and other countries the temperance movement was only about to be ignited. but whiskey was never entirely suppressed. Although efforts were made to convert Alaska Natives. assaults. of course. The illness was common until American physician Thomas Cadwalader found out what caused it and published his results in 1745.sure would not contain out-and.. Drunkenness. Russian workers or Natives they taught their gospel. commonly referred to as the Russian Orthodox Church). and opened a front parlour for the reception of ladies and gentlemen of the Ranting persuasion. he tells of "The Reverend" Melchisedeck Howler who got himself discharged for the grievous sin of "screwing gimlets into the puncheons and applying his lips to the orifice. in the Arctic then lead poisoning might have induced sickness. different containers were used. as some claim. and despite the fact that most captains were opposed to the trade. "Because of the lack of good grain alcohol. and was called the West Indies Dry Gripes. murder and suicide all occurred from time to time at Herschel. The smell of such a drink is repelling. The alcohol. Although the Pacific Steam Whaling Company prohibited its employees from selling or trading whiskey. This was consistent among virtually all religious leaders in the late 1700s and early 1800s. though.36 Mixed liquor is a true panacea For ev'ry conceivable ill. In Charles Dicken's Dombey. For example. the United States. abductions." In Russia. . cherish the soothing idea That somebody else pays the bill!37 MORAL LEADERS MISSIONARIES AGAINST DEMORALIZATION OF INDIANS When you - THE The first Christian missionaries to arrive on Alaska soil were from the Russian Greek Orthodox Church (in Alaska. Rather than stop the production of liquor."34 "Alcohol caused familiar troubles."35 Lead poisoning was known among whites who used such stills.

or an honest thief as to talk of a rum-seller . the battle for the souls of man in relation to alcohol was being fought in New England. they may have been more lenient about enforcing prohibition on an unwilling Native population. God spanked the town For being over-frisky. they were spear-headed by clergy of protestant denominations. churches gradually moved toward abstinence as an outward sign of inner grace.42 Before. Elijah Craig. As it was. "The habitual use of alcohol so lowers 'the principle of vitality' that the shock of merely drinking a glass of cold water can kill. as they say. Denominations forbid their ministers to drink under the threat of formal discipline. that a teetotaling sailor on an arctic expedition escaped scurvy. far from Alaska's shores. and were innovators in new ways to make and use alcoholic beverages. a Baptist minister.41 Early in the 1800s. Temperance thought spread the idea that any amount of drinking was harmful to both body and spirit. Rev. The truth was not so sacrosanct that it could not be stretched for a good cause. having a good moral character. after the efforts at enforced prohibition with the whites had failed. was the first person credited with the "discovery" of bourbon whiskey. If.39 Members of the cloth had also partaken of the fruit of the vine..40 Champagne was introduced by monks in the abby of Hautvillers in France in 1670. . a virtuous prostitute. whereas all his shipmates who took their grog ration came down with it."38 Had more missionaries come to Alaska 100 years later. but when it came clear that it was too difficult to tell the difference between a temperate Christian and a temperate heathen.By the time large numbers of Protestant missionaries came to Alaska in the 1880s they were virtually united in their views that alcohol was not only bad for health. being forced by custom to drink with parishioners at every stop on fear of offending some. Generally.. They carefully experimented with ways to keep bottles from exploding during fermentation. they believed it was an essential component of the gospel message. but was also the incarnation of Satan himself. Tee-total abstinence resolutions were passed in many churches. ministers often made their rounds in an alcoholic daze. "You might as well talk about a pious devil. Revivals first used a temperance call to sinners. he burn the churches down And spare Hotaling's whiskey? about Chicago's great fire-Why did --Poem Temperance societies sprang up all over the world in the mid 1850s.

and his name was solemnly recorded. The Protestants then accused some Russian clergy of either drinking too much themselves or using alcohol to keep converts from listening to the Protestant missionaries." answered another. "Duncan believed that to introduce the communion service among a people who had too long before practiced cannibalism would cause great and harmful misunder-standing. Greenville. Thus. "but I remember Father Baranof. the bread and wine--Christ's body and blood--was a symbolic act that the sensitive Tsimpsians would quickly appreciate. William Duncan. and a drum." said one of the [Russian] sailors. He went into the wilderness to teach the Indian. Russian clergy refused to give in to pressure to use water instead of wine in communion services. a Bible. Metlakatla became the first local option town in Alaska. Eleazar was the faculty. declaring that eating the mystical elements. when not all Christian missionaries and whites lived strict teetotalism. was Adam Ayles. This was because many whites often set a different example from that taught by the missionaries. This hypocritical behavior was believed to confuse Natives because it communicated attitudes that missionaries violently opposed." "Yes. liquor accompanies them. and the whole curriculum Was five hundred gallons of New England rum. His superiors were just as adamant. With a Gradus ad Parnassum.46 It was very frustrating for Protestant missionaries to get the attention of Alaskan Native communities.45 One author claimed that only the Indian villages of Old Metlakatla. New Metlakatla and Hydaburg were able to maintain strict prohibition.47 "The devil must have planted these cursed sea.. These rites would have regularly included wine in routine communion exercises. Eleazar Wheelock was a very pious man."44 When Rev. And five hundred gallons of New England rum.otters in these out-of-the-way regions. Missionaries learned from years of proselyting in Africa. ."43 The first temperance meetings in Alaska were probably under the supervision and instigation of Rev. "as far as we can see land up and down the coast. Duncan moved to Metlakatla. Duncan moved with a flock of Native followers from Canada after a falling-out between him and his supervisors over allowing and encouraging the Tsimpsian Indians to access the higher rites of the Church of England. Part of the strategy in converting large numbers of Indians to organized Christian religions was its importance in teaching Indians for as long as possible in a relatively protected environment without the influx of whites. Rev. he forbade alcohol use in the community. A deep rift developed between new Protestant missionaries and Russian Orthodox Church clergy.. not a single rum-shop is to be found. South America and other fields that wherever white Christian colonists go. This was a feat unequalled by white communities for another 40 years or so. teach their doctrines and decry "Demon Rum".

. but it is so long ago I forget. whether they were Indians. One of these mothers. . and when that is done. Nathaniel Prime (1911)-The Russians had also heard horror stories about some Protestant missionaries' activities and alcohol. and in a few weeks he was dead. "but now what times have we! We can do nothing but work. .few who have drunk a gill of ardent spirits can be exposed to. They were not about to allow even one bad example go unnoticed. . Aleuts. God knows where he is now"--crossing himself: "I don't think there is much room for Dutchmen in heaven. we promenade or smoke in the barrack.") Much is said about the prudent use of spirits. but we might as well speak of the prudent use of the plague--of fire handed prudently round among the powder--of poison taken prudently every day. I belonged to it once. The Protestant ministers had just gone through a 50-year period wherein they purged their ranks of heavy drinkers. 'Drink. .--Lyman Beecher. it must be said that they attempted. reported to the officer at Kodiak about such an unlawful act of the pastor. temperance minister-No better fuel can you afford the lusts of the flesh than ardent spirits--drunkenness and lewdness go hand in hand. widow Olga Shmakov. he joined the sect. .There was a time when a camp-kettle was set out brimming full. whenever possible. There are also several entries in the Orthodox Church Documents that indicate disgust with the drinking of other groups they came in contact with. to identify priests who drank intemperately and chastise them as needed. . "There were cases when [Pastor Roskor. whose son was taken by Roskor while she was drunk. we all have to join the temperance society. how that his sheep should live. --Dr." continued he." replied his comrade."49 In fairness to the Orthodox Church. There was that German Mukolof. I can make no reckoning of time when I get no drinks to count by. and he would shout. children!' and he would join himself in a merry song. (Chaucer. by his clennesse. but Protestant missionaries were quick to point out what drinking the priests did do. "Canterbury Tales."48 Not all Russian priests drank to excess. so many Russians go there. whites or government employees. Protestants tried to lead the Indians away from the Russian Church. Those were better days. Wel oghte a preest ensample for to yive. of the Baptist mission at Kodiak] through his co-laborers.small temptation without becoming adulterers in the sight of God. What a life!" "You see. with his eyes fixed on the waning land. "in this country. intoxicated the mothers and while they were drunk he took the children and forced the drunk mothers against their will to sign the papers prepared earlier by him." "What is that?" "I don't know exactly: it is some kind of a sect. Prologue. I'll have nothing to do with any such sect. but I remember we all had to pay a beaver skin apiece! That is big price to pay for the privilege of drinking nothing but water.

yet Storekeeper Ryan and his friends brew vodka."53 This is very misleading to the average reader. gambling. These were normally instigated by various ministers and most continued through the 1920s. Fee: $4 a year. one priest disagreed.. For instance. If anyone refuses. George Washington operated a distillery at Mt. Home-made liquor had a very important role in the history of most of the countries.Of course they bring vodka to the village and force the people to drink. One organization formed in typical Temperance style is active today.. "But the most grievous vice to me. Archstrateg Michael was opened at Sitka January 1. "The Indian Mutual Aid Society of St. to renounce the belief in shamans and evil spirits.Those who reject this most effective means for selfimprovement--the Word of God--are hopelessly lost. and revenge. they did this to our chief. 1896. two persons hold his hands and the vodka is poured into his mouth.. Vernon."50 TEMPERANCE CLUBS Several temperance societys were organized by and among the Aleuts. the chief cause of all evil. stinking and poisonous distillate that was made by the Indians. We have asked them many times not to bring vodka to our village because our priest prohibits our drinking it. After leaving the presidency. The members took an oath to stop drinking. observing the old customs and games..51 While many. missionaries believed alcohol consumption among the worst things that a congregation could do. But storekeeper Ryan replied by publicly abusing the priest and telling us that we should not listen to him."The laws of the United States positively prohibit the brewing of vodka in Alaska. drink and debauch ceaselessly all winter. a few words on this subject are in order. Indians and whites toward the end of the 1800s. Lavrenty Mishakov.. if they wish to drink it themselves we have no objection. Its charter specified that its members were not to drink alcoholic beverages. calumnies. fights and sometimes pistol shooting. Their drinking parties are accompanied by quarrels. to avoid quarrels.. is their refusal under various pretexts to listen to my sermons. He believed their refusal to listen attentively to his sermons was the epitome of sin."52 HOME-BREWED ALCOHOL OR "HOOCH" Throughout Alaska history the word hooch has gained acceptance as depicting an unhealthy. It was preceded in 1896 by an organization called the Indian Society at Sitka. the Alaska Native Brotherhood. and to discontinue observing former festivities for the dead. but since so much early Alaska folklore surrounds the brewing of this beverage. The charter is written in Koloshan and Russian. and no doubt to God. if not most. In most modern dictionaries the origin of the term is credited to a tribe of Alaska Indians called the "Hoochinoos. Until .

That liquid fire contains. cursed fiend. --James Townley. "Erratic supplies and higher prices for rum had encouraged a shift to beer. Whereas the colonists once had been proud of obtaining such commodities from the British Empire. Virtue and Truth. Americans began distilling their own grain into a home-made product that by-passed the tax structure so carefully set up by the British. after waiting until even a few Jeffersonians believed that things had gone too far It But .sufficient. Army was called out to enforce the tax. Imported molasses and rum were symbols of colonialism and reminders that America was not economically self. but rum also suffered from rising nationalism. In Canada. independent Americans now believed that having to import these items signified an economic weakness that could lead to political subjugation. purgery. the same feeling of nationalism prevailed. driven to despair. Makes human race a prey. cider and whiskey. And rolls it through the veins. Backyard stills called "limbecs" became so common that when the new government tried to levy a tax on them." while. Its rage compels to fly. the profits of which went to England. They felt that "the wines now obtained from the United States are complained of as profuse in quantity. And steals our life away. To sell foodstuffs and other articles to the West Indies was desirable because it was profitable. enters by a deadly draught. Damned cup that on the vitals preys. cherishes with hellish care. Rum was taxed heavily when produced in New England. "Finally."55 American farmers were acquainted with distillation to such a high degree that it became big business. the excise tax on English-made rum was very favorable so as to give English distilleries a favorable trade advantage over locally produced rum. the U. When imported. Theft. It also afforded a way to make a living for those who grew their crops well away from the Eastern seaboard and effectively made corn farmers. The resulting military action was called the "Whiskey Rebellion. "liquor farmers" instead. and deleterious in quality."54 Gin. "the importation from the British Dominions has not yet incurred similar objections. Which madness to the heart conveys.the Revolutionary War. murder.S." General George Washington had to lead his troops to western Pennsylvania to enforce the regulations in 1791. to buy rum from those same islands was foolish and unpatriotic because it was harmful to American distillers and their workmen. rum was the accepted commercially-produced drink. with fury fraught. 1751-As nationalistic feelings grew in America against the tax structure imposed from the east.

If barley be wanting to make into malt. It also asserted independence from government interventions. and the federal tax measure was sustained along with national government prestige. and parsnips."don't you know better than to buy leather tanned with hemlock? What you want is leather tanned with oqueejum and then whiskey can't eat it."56 Virtually everything that could be fermented was used to manufacture the "liquid diet" of some of entrepreneurs. "No. That's why I keep my stomach lined with it. same's you and me. Brewing home-made liquor took care of the needs of the small farmer." "Was them shoes tanned with oqueejum?" asked the other.Men waxed lyrical when describing its mellowness and its satisfying effects upon the human system." "Now. their liquid gold. with folklore growing up around each one regarding its strength and potency."58 In the mid-1800s various illegal liquors were distilled all over the country.. You see.. For we can make liquor to sweeten our lips. Blue Ruin and others became well-known. the president dispatched a strong militia force. Valley Tan. and when they meet whiskey gets licked every time. The term "The Real McCoy" was coined when a moonshiner named Bill McCoy got a reputation for bringing in "quality merchandise."57 Many moonshiners took great pride in the quality. Opposition melted in front of the invading army. The brand of liquor one drank expressed feelings about whether he was genuinely patriotic or if he sided with governments several thousand miles away. sir. We must be content and think it no fault. But whiskey and oqueejum's enemies. they get together on social terms."60 . and then the whiskey does its deadly work and swallers the leather. But from that date on.59 "Hey! Don't let that stuff drop like that on your boots!" I heard one raftsman say to another that was passing him a bottle. whiskey and hemlock. "Whiskey was the answer to the pioneer's prayer.in Pennsylvania. and the shoes cost me $3. It allowed for entertaining guests and for feeling as important as those who could afford imported wines and brandies. It provided an income when there was very little cash in the economy. placing America's beloved whiskey at the center of one of the nation's oldest illegal businesses. "I spilt some on my new shore shoes last week and it ate the uppers down clean to the soles. It took the place of coined money. It became the settler's cash crop. It was something to share with neighbors when they helped with tending crops or building houses. Of pumpkins. strength and purity of their drinks. my friend"--gently remonstrative-. That there leather was tanned with the best hemlock bark. 'moonshiners' began dodging revenue agents. Rot-gut. Taos Lightning. which was rare on the frontier. and walnut-tree chips. White Lightning. say.

62 murderous quarrels were frequent. when their stills located near town were destroyed. The full story has yet to be told. Washington. but took it upon myself to break up the practice of making and selling hooch among the natives. Of course we were against this great evil. Aleuts or Eskimos brewed a sizable amount of liquor doesn't mean that it was brewed because of a love of liquor. blankets and alcohol) was more than even the whites would allow.C. was no farther from parts of Alaska than the Queen of England was from American colonies.When the Civil War broke out. and the most vicious in its effect. was with me in my attempt to put down the manufacture of liquor .The white men who were manufacturing hooch were glad to see me break up the stills of the natives.e.. mothers lying helpless on the ground with hungry babies rolling over them. Stills in operation close to town could easily be found and raided. . but it is likely that in Southeast Alaska... Those who avoided paying these taxes were eagerly sought out. with government income at an extreme low point. Homebrew made a statement about loyalty and allegiance. I could not with any degree of safety or success interfere with the white men. Whole villages became drunk. but to raid Indian villages would be something else entirely.that was one of his duties as Customs Collector.. There is ample evidence that whites bought a sizable portion of their "likker" from Natives. Colonel Crittenden.. however.61 ALASKAN MOONSHINE All the reasons given until now for the success of the moonshine industry in early American history applies equally to the success and spread of moonshine in Alaska. D. as it increased their own chances of profit. "It was the most villainous and nastiest stuff to taste ever concocted. and unspeakable scenes of debauchery and sin were enacted. Whites cheered on the missionaries."63 Just because some Indians. A number of squaw-men were the chief criminals in the manufacture of the awful stuff. At the end of the war. One account claims they learned it from an army deserter. the Treasury Department was anxious to collect all duties coming to it from all taxable items. particularly those imported from foreign countries. the government imposed excise taxes again on liquors to help finance war efforts. Certainly drinking a beverage of their own making that was not taxed would have been a sign of independence and self-reliance in 1870 as much as it was to the farmers in Pennsylvania or Kentucky in 1790. although a hard drinker himself. Various accounts have been advanced as to how the Tlingits learned to distill. For a group of shrewd Indian traders to allow only whites to have control of intoxicating beverages would forever put money only in the pockets of outsiders to the exclusion of the locals. because they avoided financing the government and its military actions. A government thousands of miles distant and foreign to the Alaskan Natives wanted them to drink only what that government dictated. Another states they learned it from a discharged soldier. Allowing Washington to tax everything of value (i.

to relieve anxiety. to relieve pain.64 Being shrewd traders. to relieve boredom.it occurred shortly after the United States assumed control of Alaska lands from the Russians. . to share wealth. On the same basis. to seal a bargain. to obtain an item that the whites wanted and to convey status. many Tlingits did not want alcohol in their midst for the same reasons given by those whites who were against alcohol: because it caused accidents. to comfort the sick. and indicated a rejection of traditional values. allowed disrespectful behavior towards elders. the Tlingits would have used their hooch for all the reasons given as to why whites drank it: to be sociable.

Chevigny. Charles Scribner's Sons. 37." Brunswick even claimed that it would restore hair and would prevent deafness provided one placed a few drops in the ears on retiring every night. 19. 2.W. 12. In early 1915 as Alaskans were contemplating "local option" as a possibility. P. Russian America (1965). Russian America (1965). 96. 123. 12: Austin.P. Government Printing Office (1883). February 15. Fleming. Hector. 38 "The Grog Ration". p. Tikhmenev. 171. It heals all old and new sores on the head. .J. p. (1974).A. It causes a good color in a person. that the liquid diet that was then necessary consisted of even more alcohol than before. however shortly after taking their "medicine. Putnam's Sons. p. 7. p. Furnas. p. The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. G. Hector. p. misc. What is food to some is poison to others. Arctic Ocean In 1881. Joseph Earl Mountain Spirits." March (1984). Gregory A (1985). Disease was often associated with the symptoms. New York (1975). New York (1975). 33. Increase Mather. 23. aliis est venenum".. Dabney.S. Since whiskey removed many symptoms temporarily. famed surgeon Heironimus Brunswick published a paper describing aqua-vitae as "the mistress of all medicines.C. 11. Virtually anything alcoholic was often referred to as "whiskey" in the American West." Mariani. a New England minister who tried to get colonists to drink more temperately. W.. Dell Publishing Co. Chevigny. John Motor Boating And Sailing. p. 49.Footnotes to Chapter 5 1. 10. "Spirits Locker. For an idea of the extensive use of citrus juices in . See. 9. . William R. About 1527. It comforts the heart. J. it was thought to be helpful. Vol 153 #3. 1673. 8. New York (1965). p. (1979) Letter from Rezanov to Board of Directors. 3. Rorabaugh (1979). p. New York (1974). It is very possible that when one lost one's teeth due to scurvy. Charles Oliver Twist (19--). 33. U. Alice Alcohol: The Delightful Poison. Dickens. Cruise of the Revenue-Steamer Corwin in Alaska and the N. Hunt. Rorabaugh." He wrote. Their aim may have been adversely affected. 5. 175. Oxford University Press. 4. p. the Town of Wrangell had a difficult time deciding what to do since the town's water supply was financed by revenues from the liquor licenses. 6. p. "Quod cibus est aliis. "It eases the coming of the cold. not the underlying causes. 1806 (secret). The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum.

Senate Executive Document #59. S. "An Applied Analysis Of Narth American Indian Drinking Patterns. West. Marshall. Ted C." For more about John Kinkead's drinking. See Nordhoff. "Report from the Customs District. Remsberg. Athens (1983). A discussion of Indian suicide is found in Price. W. for his "bulbous nose" attested to the fact. . Ohio University Press. p. 1-19. One missionary attributed heavy drinking to Alaska's first governor. Pacific Historical Review. Elliott (1979). August 15. 13. 1868. p. 22. 59. Senate Document #122. Elliott The Saloon on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier. 246. 1879". Senate Executive Document #59. 61-63. John Kinkead. Hall (1927). University of Nebraska Press. 45th Congress. (1873). Also see Hinckley. 14. Edward and Axton. "Ushin's Diary". 25. F. p. p. p. 81. 55Th Congress 3rd Session. Vol 34. Lincoln (1979). Jun-Nov. 1879". ALASKA HERALD. 1975). 17-26. entries for 05/26/1885 and 07/19/1885. 28. 24. "Report from the Customs District. 19. 275. Convivial Dickens: The Drinks of Dickens and His Times. Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. see Hewett." 17. p. John A. 232. "Death From Liquor. August 15. p. p. p. (1956). Charles Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Mr. "Alaska As An American Botany Bay". Jim (1949)." 18. "What Shall We Do With Scroggs?". 1899. February 15. Stubbs. 15. Vol XLVII. Stanley Ray (1976). Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. Kinkead is said to have brought his own personal supply of "canned tomatoes" that tasted "exactly like scotch whiskey and produced the same effect. 3rd Session. Murton. p. p. see Young. Valerie K. 1868. Human Organization. 3rd Session. Actually. West. because of his appearance. XLII (February 1973). 12. 16. 21. 23. 45th Congress. also see Orthodox Church Documents. Alaska was proposed by some to become a penal colony. This implies that Captain Kinney may have been a heavy drinker prior to the six weeks preceding his death during a period of official prohibition. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). p. 165. No 1 (Spring. 23. Alaska Governor's Report (1916). 20. ALASKA HERALD.alcoholic mixtures of the day.

Gerald The Social History of Bourbon. Remsberg. Alcohol In Western Society From Antiquity to 1800.26.. Furnas. p. 133. 31. Harrison. Fleming H. 30. Hector Russian America (1965).) 34.. Brian (1971). Revell Co. p. 43. Most those who drink even sacramental alcoholic beverages have more faith in wines that come from sources that are reliable and that furnish consistent quality. (1979). Fleming H. Orthodox Church Documents. p. Journal of Hieromonk Nikita (Kenai). . Conn. Stephen (1980). Sec 27:3-4. p. Gilbert. Old Dartmouth Historical Society. p. 408 The situation in Sitka became so bad for the whites and soldiers to get drunk on patent medicines that one of the army officers tried for a short time to effect a prohibition on these items by the army starting on September 30. 27.C. Mead & Co. Hall Alaska Days With John Muir. Steam Whaling in the Western Arctic. 32. John R.... Box 453. Massachusetts (1977). (See Doctrine and Covenants. 32. 36. 39. Furnas. New York (1915). Revel Co. Denver (1985). Chevigny. Arctander. Young. (1965). 200. p. 28.C. p. 33. 29. "The Grand Duke. S. The Apostle of Alaska. 41. Allan M. New Bedford. Furnas. Stanley Ray (1976). Carson. 41. (1965). 181. (1965). ABC-Clio Information Services. 37. J. New York (1963). p. XXIX (1968). p. Austin. Winkler. 53-54. London (1909). 36. p. 40. 94. 184. p." 38. John W. 39. p. 439.. p. p. 35. Dodd. Rorabaugh. W. Bockstoce. 1875.C. 253. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (1959). Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcoholism. "Drinking On The American Frontier". J. Who can blame the Indians or Aleuts for making their own? Even the "Mormons" in 1830 claimed that they had received instructions to not purchase wine from their enemies. J. Gregory A.J. 04/27/1882.

54. 46. 1895. Orthodox Church Documents.. (1965). p. 348. p. 42nd Congress 1st Session. The article went on to say that "The native manufacture is not inferior to the importation from the United States. This was not without opposition in some of the churches. Hinckley. (1972). Mark Edward and Martin.C. 50. "There is some sneaking Temperance Society movement about this business. Mirriam Webster. and is therefore so far worthy of protection. November 11. Orthodox Church Documents. (1979). Ted C. E. Rorabaugh. 57. Richard (1864-1900). 48. hooch \'hu"ch\ n [short for hoochinoo (a distilled liquor made by the Hoochinoo Indians. 90. #64. Prof. Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 1865. Orthodox Church Documents. LXXII -43. 570." 55. 49. Springfield (1984). Some congregations excommunicated members who joined temperance societies on the basis that they were taking away man's free agency. Oliver. #5. Inc. a Tlingit people)] slang (1897): alcoholic liquor esp. 52. The Canadian North-West: Its Early Development and legislative Records. 192-193. 40. 53. 47. Dartmouth College Song. Report of Priest Vladimir Donskoi about Kodiak parish. James Kirby (1982). 52.J. Lender. Also see Van Stone. Petition of twenty-three Kenai people to District Judge Warren Truitt. Orthodox Church Documents. W." -. when inferior or illicitly made or obtained.H. p. J. Nushagak. 44. Box 482-483 "Brotherhoods and Societies". p. 56. p. Bancroft. 1893. Richard (1979). p. p. Erdoe. (1967). p. July 15. Government Printing Bureau. James W. 580. 45. 97. Doc. .42. Hubert Howe (1886). 170. p.Moby Dick. Furnas. Hovey. The penalty that magistrate Duncan was known to levy prescribe ten years at heavy labor for violating this prohibition. Travel Journal of Hiermonk Theophil. 32. p. 67. House Exec. p. Ottawa (1914). 51.

2 In some areas. 165-167. Hall (1927). the Alaska Commercial Company wielded great influence on the islanders-. p. it was impossible to discuss how the impact of one group of non-Natives affected the drinking behavior of the local Natives. DIVERSITY OF CULTURES AND ORGANIZATIONS Alaska was a very large territory. Young. therefore. One of Soapy Smith's favorite drinks was "giggle soup. S. Once courts were established in Alaska they began to handle alcoholrelated issues.much more than the military ever did. p. large differences existed in how and where influences were felt from non-Native newcomers to the territory. Lender (1982). and. is not used much in this book." 60.1 Of more concern here is how the government viewed drinking by Natives and non-Natives. some of informal organizations that Alaska's natives had to deal with should be introduced. 63. The first mention of it is about 1868 near Sitka.58. In a land as large as Alaska. Due to its size. 144. This is a description that the missionary took verbatim from the old "gin Plague" of England that happened about 100 years earlier among the whites. Alcoholism is not a common historical term. In Alaska. 59. Erdoe (1979). . this boiled down to Hudson Bay blankets and liquor brought in from Canadian ports. Before discussing how some of the first formal groups reacted to the diverse institutions that from time to time had influence in early Alaska. with distinct differences among its indigenous peoples. Measures were taken to control what was viewed by missionaries as a serious threat to the introduction of Christianity in Alaska: the use of alcohol by those about to be taught about "proper" Christian conduct. 62. 64. 61. 86-87. The government and other organizations responded to drinking as a danger to social order and good health. Chapter #6 ORGANIZATIONS AND ALCOHOL Various organizations in early Alaska responded to the introduction and use of alcohol. There was large diversity in the way different cultures interacted and affected each other. such as the Pribilof Islands. p.

The company provided for the needs of its senior citizens. the primary means of helping people is the social group in which they live. the possibility of having a united uprising among Alaska's Natives was very remote. nonetheless many people look more and more to government to solve our problems.5 Due to this fact. when large enough. than among the Russians or the Americans. it can be codified into a set of rules called laws. As members of a group interact to achieve their individual and collective goals. the Railroad construction at Anchorage had virtually no impact on the lives of the local Natives. Still different from all others were villages that had virtually no outside contact until missionaries and teachers came to convert and educate the children." Even though there are often bitter complaints about the excesses of big government. but often are as effective in restraining behavior for the good of the group. At Nome. when the first judges made circuit trips to the there. The Russian government actually had very little influence in Alaska.In Alaska's interior early miners and trappers had their own way until about 1900. Elsewhere in Alaska. a possibility that was not understood among military occupiers of Alaska until Captain Beardslee took the time to try to learn tribal policies in 1880. helped the poor and punished those who caused trouble. These lex non scripta rules are behaviors that are controlled by methods in society less formalized than laws.3 Among all groups of people a system of shared goals develops until.6 RUSSIAN LAWS The Russians used a type of law that was more closely related to Alaskan Natives own legal systems than that of the Americans. This process is equally important whether it is applied to members of a large stock exchange or a clan of Eskimos living along the coast of western Alaska. It even instituted the first kind of social security system in Alaska using the profits from alcohol as the . the gold stampede made its own rules free of outside interference for many years. In most of white America for several hundred years. they develop shared understandings about what behavior patterns are appropriate within the group. Controls other than laws have no official punishment affixed to them. The construction of the railroad at Anchorage brought with it still other new organizations to the Natives nearby. particularly when it comes to addressing what are called "social problems. TRIBAL CONTROL OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR In any society. Instead. the majority of citizens have looked increasingly to government and its laws as a means of making social change.4 The use of a formal government was much less pronounced among Indian tribes in Alaska and groups of Eskimos and Aleuts. the Russian-American Fur Company performed virtually all the normal functions of government in Alaska.

They could not understand that murder was a crime. the Company has forced the consumers to provide protection for the elderly and the crippled among the company's personnel. In certain situations. and one ruble for each pound of tea that is sold to consumers from the colonial warehouses. without hurting itself. They gave him a choice of the method of his execution: shooting.10 the law of the Old Testament. pay was withheld. they shot him. they were merely of a different nature. a wrong done by one family member to another family would be avenged upon his own family (not necessarily the perpetrator himself) in like manner. strangling or stabbing." Simply put. The perpetrator may . This held the adage "an eye for an eye."7 The Russians seldom resorted to imprisonment for punishment. and for orphans. a ten-ruble tax has been imposed on every vedro of wine. During the most recent period in the colonies. This does not mean that the sanctions used among early Alaskan Natives were less effective than those used among society today. TRIBAL LAW In addition to those of the early Russians. Some of the sanctions even required taking the life of a person to atone for a wrong committed. When Harrison Thornton was murdered on August 29. it meant that punishments should be equal to the crime and administered in like manner. whipping administered or privileges to the offender were interrupted. The Company set up.8 Occasionally however. it was not the authorities of the U. "As soon as the Arctic ice sealed Wales off from the rest of the world the third murderer returned to the village. As early as 1802 [the Company] agreed to set aside 1/2% from the net profit each year into a pension fund for that purpose. and gives pensions to those who have large families with young children. He elected to be shot. 1893 at Cape Prince of Wales."9 Some discussion exists comparing Alaskan Natives moral system to lex talionis. Government that dispatched the three accused murderers.S. and when he had done so. They led him up the hill to Thornton's grave and told him to dig a shallow pit next to it.revenue source. Two were shot immediately by members of the village and had their bodies thrown to dogs. The natives had no intention of holding him until spring to be judged for killing the missionary. As a result. for the same purpose. "a pension plan in the form of rewards for long and useful service. credit suspended. Instead. criminals were deported to the Motherland for the more serious wrongs. Many Natives willingly submitted to death to avoid embarrassment to their clan or family. such as murder. This has given assistance and the means for a new start for those who wish to be listed as colonial citizens. He was told to lie down in the pit. for by their code it was not. They would judge the boy for endangering the village. Alaska's Indian tribes were more dependent on informal sanctions to control those who violated their norms than they were on official sanctions such as incarceration.

A city magistrate's court often was held in early Sitka. shot the shooter. was reluctant to arrest white civilians because of the expense and trouble involved in shipping them to Portland or Seattle for trial. while the people who sell the liquors are not prosecuted at all. During temperatures of 20 to 60 below and nowhere to escape to there was no danger of a prisoner's trying to avoid the rules.m.S. the military allowed a small amount of local government among the whites in Sitka at a very early date. but if this were the case. he . Anticipating a local government very soon.13 One example of a conflict vis a vis "white man's" law and Alaskan Indians' law took place near Sitka. The brother of the shot man. The Natives often saw how the law worked with questionable results and often preferred their own system of law enforcement. This expectation led them to handle misdemeanors more informally than they otherwise might have done. Army. they sometimes were used with ingenuity. until 1872 no records were kept of who was incarcerated in the Sitka guardhouse. by the Treasury Department. a close relative would surely pay the prescribed penalty. they were effectively barred from being judged by their peers in court. Such is your new civil law!" Often the U. as soon after as possible. The first of this month Sam Long transferred his saloon to the other place (formerly Fuller's) for which he pays $12 rent to M. The lack of adequate local jails also limited their power of arrest.11 Those records that were kept had numerous inconsistencies in them. Haltern. or be locked out for the night. The U. 30. Accused and convicted individuals were held in the army's brig simply at the request of this court. proclaimed February 26. A sign on the door of the jail ordered prisoners to report by 9 p. and. and desiring to rid themselves of minor infractions of the law.12 Even when jails were available. Saloons multiply and homebrewing progresses. since Alaska Natives were not allowed to sit on juries.not receive punishment at all. technicalities inhibited the quick punishment of wrongdoing. Circle supported 11 saloons in 1896. USING ORIGINAL PUNISHMENT Neither the army nor the navy expected that they would be needed in Alaska for a very long time. One diarist wrote: "Isn't it strange that for the purchase of whiskey. Army and Navy had to resort to informal (and often illegal) solutions to crimes. Also. though there is a law and a special regulation No. When the naval commander was forced to decide what to do to punish the jailed second murderer. and other liquors the people are arrested and put into jail. Formal law in the far reaches of Alaska often took too long to administer.S. Customs Bureau signed by the former President Arthur. Because of this laxity. for example. His former place was immediately occupied by soldiers for a similar saloon. prohibiting the importation of liquors into the territory. though there seems to be no special law requiring such an action. An Indian caught another committing adultery with his wife and shot him. 1885. at times.

Sometimes they met to protest taxes. The North American Commercial Company wanted 2. Miners were a rough and tough bunch of men. The recidivism rate for third offenders was quite low.realized that according to Indian law."18 Not all the results of miners' courts were only warnings. Alaska Commercial Company and North American Transportation & Trading Company also desired permission from collector Joseph Ivey to land 3. In essence. They included a consensus of opinion of those within a small community as to what should be done. The miners' courts were informal in that they were of short duration and met some special need.15 One miner's song went: I drink my beer among the boys I sit down with them to play And sometimes I got it blind For a whole night and a day I look a rough old specimen And I've had a rough career Trying to make the riffle For more than twenty year. alcohol was legal if used for medicinal purposes. On September 18. they would order him out of the country. "As late as 1893. "The two deaths were even. there was neither a Canadian nor American Customs officer the entire length of the Yukon River. .16 Miners' courts were occasionally held throughout Alaska. and the two corpses buried under one blanket on the same pile.19 Miners often wanted to maintain the appearance of keeping prohibitionary laws.14 SWIFT JUSTICE OF MINER'S COURTS Only one type of white man's justice was quick and sure-. This interpretation of the law quite often caused an outbreak of "disease" that seemed to strike large numbers of miners.that justice meted out by miners' courts. the quarrel had been settled. wines and beer to the communities of Rampart. the miners at Juneau passed an ordinance decreeing that any saloon keeper who was found selling beer to the natives would have his stock confiscated. or to organize a brewery." Captain Beardslee released the prisoner. "For example.17 The punishment proscribed was a warning for the first offence and hanging for the second. If he was caught three times. 1882. They were most often single or separated from their wives and were seldom anxious to submit to anyone's law other than their own.20 In the late 1800s.000 gallons of whiskey for ailing gold miners in the Yukon. approved the sale of liquor to the white men while prohibiting the conveyance of the same to Indians. but most often it was to decide property rights or hang a murderer. they were similar to Native law that had been in effect for centuries. rather than an on-going judicial system. A miner's meeting at Forty-mile in July of 1896.000 gallons of liquors.

"On December 29 this little town was greatly agitated over an occurrence as follows. and the decision was that the Russian should be tied to a post for one hour. talk was cheap. and the culprit's 'still' and 'mash-tub'. was a scene to be carefully considered by you. fellow-citizens of this our great republic. Many talked loudly of marching to the rescue of the Russian while under sentence.24 INFORMAL MEDIATORS . law had to be imposed in Alaska among roughly 20. Others."21 The idea of enforcing a formal legal system was almost overwhelming if considered that. which caused a drunken row in the ranch and in which several Indians got seriously hurt. but. were placed alongside of him that all passers-by might know why such punishment was inflicted.000 inhabitants where there were very few white men. And again. which included Indian jurors. This sentence was carried out. Would it have been strange had anything serious occurred?"23 Actually. Arriving at Toy-ah-att's residence a council was held. sold to an Indian some of his manufacture. one John Petelin. and no white man would be safe. and distiller of poison. demand that they shall discountenance and endeavor to suppress the liquor traffic in Alaska.Weare. all more or less excited. an all-Indian court was set up for a time. of the 'cut and shoot' stamp. Such was the case at Wrangell in the late 1870s. the justness of whose doings we will consider hereafter. and with him in custody started for the ranch. Here we were. The hootzenoo manufacturers. and consequently the church party concluded it was time to make an example of somebody in order to convince white men that whiskey-selling by them to Indians would be no longer tolerated. as is generally the case. and many under the influence of liquor. in Wrangell under the direction of some missionaries. asserting what they would do should anyone attempt to enter their premises in search of liquor. claiming that if Indians were permitted and tolerated to perpetrate acts like this they would become emboldened. A portion of our white population (those who hesitate not in violating the laws of the country) set up an ignominious howl over the occurrence. law-makers of Washington. and none cared to act. commenced defining other men's duties. at times. as law-abiding citizens. they would be turned over to tribal law.protection.22 ENFORCING "WHITE MAN'S" LAWS When two legal systems are combined to meet everyday needs of a community. who are possessed with more brass than brains. Here were three hundred white men greatly agitated over an act perpetrated by a few law-abiding Indians.interference become bold and unprincipled. having by non. who howled loudly of individual rights and self. A score of Indians therefore marched to the Russian's house. seized his 'still' and liquor. never once considering that their duties. because after being tried by white man's law. Fort Yukon and Circle City. Often Natives were subject to double-jeopardy. Here. there were a few of another class. Here was a scene for you. The drunken spree caused a few of the church-going people to fall from grace. interesting things are bound to happen. a Russian.

May. see Lender. Vol 40. Cloward. Store owners in remote villages were notorious for making rules of themselves as to what was allowable and what was not." American Sociological Review.". "Chronic Alcoholism In The First Half Of The 19th Century. 2. and I had to make them do it. when Customs officers or other officials tried to take over the legal responsibilities that were traditionally reserved for the Native community. Stephen J. Also see Bynum. I became so mad and disgusted that I came near killing two or three Indians. No."26 Others. who got "burned out" after only one year of trying to reconcile all the petty grievances that came before him."25 In his letter of resignation. "no compensation that the government could offer me would be any inducement for me to act in the capacity of deputy collector another year. I am sick and tired of having their troubles come before me. at times. "Jelinek's Typology Of Alcoholism: Some Historical Antecedents." Journal of Studies on Alcohol. He took it upon himself to be the mediator of all the disputes that came before him instead of allowing traditional laws to operate. William F.Sometimes. 24 (1959): p. To accomplish this I had to make threats of what would be done with them if they did not do as I say.A.. Footnotes to Chapter 6 1. So much for the Indians. On top of this trouble came a fight among the Hootzenoo Indians here--friends of mine. 13-25. (?) Complaints were made. Jerrold E.For an interesting review of the history of the disease concept of alcoholism. and I want to get away. Philip Alan Alcohol Legalization and Native Americans: A . 361-375. Dennis added. and I settled the difficulty by telling them to go to ____. see Levy. "I believe I have had before me all the Indians in Alaska during the past thirty days. The crews of the canoes refused to return and carry through their loads. p. and that if they kicked up any further disturbance I would hang the ringleaders. 164-176. Such was the case of Isaac Dennis in Wrangell. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. and Kunitz. John Wiley & Sons. Mark Edward. p. For more reading on theories of deviance by sociologist Robert Merton and his structural theory of deviance. New York (1974).Several theories have been set forth that attribute heavy drinking to a sense of value confusion that results from cultures that collide and change. 179-191. tried to assume authority informally (and illegally) over Alaska. 160-185. "Illegitimate Means. p. Vol 42 (1968). Anomie and Deviant Behavior. R. Indian Drinking. 5 (1979). The loss of value systems that have been revered for long periods of time and the resulting value confusion is called "anomie" by sociologists. they quickly found out that the duties involved much more than they counted on.

cramped. but were immigrants newly arrived from the British Isles. and civil courts to guarantee due process of law and to protect and legitimize what they vainly hoped were their properly pre-empted land claims were prerequisites to community growth and the development of a sound.Lex talionis. 276. see p. p.. University of Montana." 6. Scandinavia or Germany. dropped them in a large pit dug especially for that purpose because of the lack of jails. for example.A. 167-174. The Army was anxious to rid itself of these types of unwanted duties and incoming officials were likewise eager to create leadership posts for themselves. Maurice (October." Remsburg. p.S. 71.The local government in Sitka was unique in Alaska's history. 9. E. churches.P. means. "the law of retaliation. p. 3. p. Ph. and foul-smelling. often referred to the Alaskan Natives as "Americans. p. Basil and Crownhart-Vaughan. 4. 12. Custer.I use the term "Americans" to denote all those who came to Alaska under the auspices of the government of the United States. The Russians. literally translated. 10. Stanley Ray (1975). 172-173. Foresman and Company. They believed that a representative government providing law and order. 7.None of the jails in the late 1800's were anything to be proud of. flourishing economy. 5.Sociological Inquiry. It is the basis for the modern study of sociology and social psychology. General George A.Many of the company rules served more to maintain discipline than govern a free society. when he had to arrest his men and punish them for drunkenness. the Sitka guardhouse was small. 46. and all had to follow . 181 of Remsburg. Prisoners of all sorts had to be thrown together in common quarters. 42. Social Problems. although not because of deliberate military mistreatment. Alaska's prime need was civil governance. American viewed punishments such as whipping as tyrannical and also wanted nothing to do with company rules that required Sunday church attendance and mandatory bathing. (1979).Poplin. Scott. 41 The use of government to force morality among its members is a subject of debate that seems to recur regularly. Bobby Dave (1974). p. 8.Lain. For information about the treatment of prisoners confined at the request of the city court. It was started within only a few weeks after the Army arrived in Sitka. See Lain. schools. 48. Illinois (1978). during their occupation. Dennis E. 1963). Bobby Dave (1974). They were most often dirty. Many of these were not citizens of the U. Confinement in the Sitka guardhouse "proved most unpleasant.D dissertation (1976). p.This type of group behavior is only quickly summarized here.Dmytryshyn." 11.Montgomery. "As they saw it. unventilated and unhealthy. Like most nineteenth century jails.

47th Congress 1st Session. Stanley Ray (1976). p." Marshall. however. so that she was burned to death." the mining camps voted nearly two to one for the prohibitionary law. 13. 1st Session. While in the Waters of That Territory. 1876." Remsberg. "Liquor revenue became the mainstay of public funds and. 181. 75. 16. Under his command. Relative to Affairs in Alaska.Murton. Elliott (1979). Navy. They turned the place into a perfect pandemonium. 20."Careful examination of old saloon and liquorhouse records of the fifties and sixties shows that the average miner or cowhand drank about five whiskies a day. p. p. 1876. p. 18. but only against the Natives and others who needed it. made the Indian woman drunk. .S. p. 16. 18. Elliott (1979). the man readily agreed: 'You are right. 17. Larry Arthur (June. 1st Session. (1974). 76-77 "Reports of Captain L. that it was with the idea that it would never be enforced against the miners. Some thought. There was one saloon for every 100 inhabitants in most camps. 53.S.' West. 3. and then set fire to the house without any effort to rescue her from the flames. U. Beardslee. Also see 44th Congress. University of Alaska (1980). William R. Jim (1949).S. When the missionary observed that the welcoming miner was himself rather befuddled. and licentiousness. for information relative to military arrests in Alaska territory during the past five years. In answer to the Senate resolution of January 7. . See Conn. 131. 1900 that provided for the incorporation of local municipalities) that revenues from liquor licenses were available to future local governments with enough money to build adequate jails." 15. 120. p.An evangelist in Idaho had the following experience with a miner: "One miner welcomed a missionary to Idaho and assured him that the miners would welcome and need his preaching to correct their drunkenness. 1974). Senate Report #457. p.Hunt.the stiff regimen imposed on court-martialed soldiers. It wasn't until after the legalization of alcohol in 1899 (and the Act of June 6. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). Stephen From The Russians To Statehood: The Early Years.When a referendum was taken in Alaska in 1917 to vote "wet" or "dry. in fact. 18. 19. The behavior of miners was stated in Congressional testimony: "I will state under that section that in 1877 and 1878 several hundred miners from the British mines in the Cassiar district came down to fort Wrangell to spend the winter.A." Conn." 47th Congress.But don't you see when the Bishop comes a feller just has to celebrate. and spend their earnings of the summer in intemperance.Sparks. p. gambling. Senate Executive Document #33. Stephen (1980). p. .West. March 6. p. 04/21/1882. Jamestown. and the Operations of the U. continued to be so into the late 1940s. 1882. p. 14. 12. . Executive Document #71. They went one night into a native's house. debauching the native women.

Murton. Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. Seal and Salmon Fisheries and General Resources of Alaska. 16. enforce the laws of the United States and protect the rights of its citizens. 34.2 Occasionally they tried to get the Indians to provide menial labor for the troops. Senate Report #457. Deputy Collector to Secretary of Treasury. 92. Army was the first organized American group to influence Natives of Alaska. The only laws that could be legally enforced were those that the U. 38.000 miles south of Sitka.Murton.S.1 Its men were stationed (generally units of cavalry or artillery) in locations where the greatest likelihood of trouble between Indians and non-Indians existed. When the U.45th Congress. p. Army first came to Alaska in 1867. 26.4 . The army was anxious to keep Alaska from falling under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Letter from I. 47 & 157. Two overwhelming obstacles faced the military in attempting to punish those who disturbed the peace." 24.47th Congress. 1974). pp 123-124. 3rd Session.S.C. Dennis. House Executive Document No. 1878. 22. but problems involved in enforcing the laws were seemingly limitless.S. prevent bloodshed. 25.Sparks.3 The army was determined to enforce laws pertaining to Alaska. "Report from the Customs District. 1st Session. Soldiers seldom mixed with Indians except for immoral purposes or to purchase goods they couldn't get from the white merchants. Chapter # 7 MILITARY ADMINISTRATION OF ALASKA The U. Congress also seemed anxious to avoid letting the Department of Interior and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to have jurisdiction in Alaska. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965).55th Congress 1st Session. p. Also. 23. Senate Executive Document #59.21. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). it took a law enforcement position that was supposed to protect the Indians and Eskimos. 1879. Very few laws actually pertained to the new territory. p. Congress said it would punish in the courts. June 15. 04/21/1882. p. They feared that Alaska would become a haven for bureaucrats and spoilsmen seeking to fatten from the public trough if this came to pass. No provision had been made to pay for witnesses to travel to testify against accused felons nor was the judge of that court very interested in making the army's task easier by prosecuting all the civilians that wished to send that way. Larry Arthur (June. The army wanted to protect them from exploitation by whites.the only court of jurisdiction was roughly 1.

At each post. 1868. attempted murder.S. It also prohibited the killing of fur bearing animals. While the National Guard troops called up for service during the Civil War had a relatively good reputation for personal conduct. ale. These restrictions.not even murder."9 . The traders were forbidden to sell any intoxicants to drunken soldiers. however.5 DRINKING PROBLEMS WITHIN THE ARMY The U.post-Civil War. or other malt beverages. Post regulations also forbade other merchants or saloonkeepers to sell drinks to enlisted men. navigation and commerce in Alaska.WHAT LAWS COVERED ALASKA? The army felt that common crimes such as murder. (1) "introduced" intoxicating liquor. it only allowed for punishment of those who. seemed to be years wherein allegations of alcohol abuse were numerous. Nothing in the law addressed personal injury problems -. had only allowed for punishment in cases that violated the act of July 27. Congress. in its wisdom. did not prevent the troops from getting all the intoxicants they wanted. In theory. and limited sales to small quantities during daytime hours except on special written permission from headquarters. consisted of a wide variety of men who were often immigrants from other countries or were out of other work. In a nutshell. assault. The very first few years of army administration. regarding customs. referred to the Aleuts as a "docile.7 "Excessive consumption of alcohol lay at the heart of most offenses. (3) brought into the United States (Alaska) items from foreign governments that had not paid their excise taxes (alcohol and blankets from Canada). the regular enlisted soldier did not. There were. and banned all drinking after tatoo signalled the end of the military work day. since Congress didn't pass legislation against them for roughly 17 years after Alaska became U. General Davis. property in 1867. Army. the first military commander in Alaska. giving him the sole right to sell drinks to enlisted men. (2) sold guns and ammunition to Alaska Natives or. honest and peaceful race" that "nearly" approached a state of "semicivilization. on pain of losing their licenses. in Alaska particularly. however. theft and destruction of property were crimes that deserved punishment. garrison access to drink was rigidly controlled. and many of them drank excessively. no penalties for these crimes. the army had relatively good things to say about Alaskan Indians they met.S. Orders authorized soldiers to purchase only beer."8 ARMY ATTITUDES TOWARD INDIANS Generally. closed all businesses on Sundays.6 Both enlisted men and officers had an inclination toward alcohol. the commandant licensed one merchant to serve as post trader. but their ideas of racial prejudice would not let them equate Natives with whites (no matter how corrupt the whites were).

a thief and a rascal" and "worthless cuss. no account. for example. General Davis talked the commander of the steamer Constantine to take the accused with the witness to the Aleutian Islands. since it would be impossible to try the prisoner without witnesses. should have been. While this case ended up in the courts of Portland. it was highly dangerous to send citizens south for trial before Judge Deady's court in Portland.12 The first case sent by the military to Portland before a civilian judge was with the intent of asserting the army's right to control alcohol and arms sales in Alaska. requested that Alaska be .S."14 INDIAN COUNTRY A major problem with the law arose over the interpretation of what was Indian country. All of the witnesses to the crime were Aleuts formerly employed by the Russian American Company who were being sent home. In early May 1868." Thirty-eight of the 170 women in Sitka were formally classified as prostitutes in the same census. In a nutshell. Judge Matthew P. General Davis had a "half-breed"10 in his jail accused of the murder of an Indian woman. as it was going that way anyway. Even though the evidence against him was overwhelming. 1870. either. through General Halleck. six months after Seveloff was arrested. The charges were for distilling and selling liquor to Indians. Comments made in the margins of a census done by the army in 1870 in Sitka included comments by the names. whatever it SAID was illegal WAS illegal. Deady stated that the army could not have jurisdiction of alcohol introduction in Alaska as "Indian Country" because that designation applied to "only that portion of the United States or its territories which have been declared to be such by an act of Congress.11 Army attitudes towards non-Indians were not the best. The army was left to itself to try to administer judgment against Alaska Natives and civilians in an illegal manner by either temporary confinement or by imaginative punishment. District Court for Oregon on December 10. such as "lazy. like others. it was not actually sent there by the military. but generally found that unless Indians were being dealt with. 1872. threw the case out of court. THE ARMY USES THE COURTS The military commander in Sitka was finally nudged out of his creative application of law pertaining to murderers after one of his own discharged soldiers shot and killed a wellliked officer of the Revenue Service in a Sitka bar on February 25. The army tried occasionally to use the courts. who would be expected to deal with him according to their customs without his hearing more about the case. Deady in the U. but. The difficulty started when the army.13 It was a case brought against a Russian-born citizen named Terreuta Seveloff.The army had its own idea of what was illegal when it pertained to Indians. He decided that there he could hurt no one but Indians.

Those authorized to sell alcohol were required to keep accurate records of all sales. Howard ("The Christian General") in 1875 concluded that the territory "is nearly without law.proclaimed "Indian Country. but it irritates those who believe themselves entitled to the same rights and privileges as citizens of other neighboring Territories. Indians. ignorant. THE ARMY TRIES ON THE ROLE OF "INDIAN AGENT" An inspection tour by General O. intemperate. This kind of government is better than none. interestingly. and limit the number of drinks that could be bought at one sitting." This status officially allowed the army to remove undesired intruders." Alaska became Indian Country upon the exchange of ratifications of the treaty of cession.15 The laws they were primarily concerned about from their experience and prejudices were those related to keeping alcohol away from America's Indians.18 Campbell tried many ideas to decrease the amount of alcohol consumed within his jurisdiction. By proclaiming Alaska to be Indian Country. unless it be governed by an Indian agent as Indian country. the officer in charge of Sitka felt he did not have enough authority over merchants and opportunists who made and sold liquor in the territory unless he was appointed "Indian Agent.m. were not allowed to take more than one pint of molasses outside the post without Campbell's written orders.17 He was a 36-yearold career army officer. the amount purchased and the kind of beverage bought. the purchaser would have to secure a dated receipt from the seller showing his name. He later described Sitka as a "pandemonium of drunkenness" in a "turbulent community of mixed miners and races and half-breed Indians." He tried to close bars and saloons on Sunday. Captain Joseph B. demoralized. The seller . and was disgusted with the inhabitants of Sitka when he arrived to take command of the garrison there in August 1874. regulate the introduction of wines and spirituous liquors and generally supervise intercourse with Indians to preserve peace.). he felt all of Alaska would fall under laws declared by Congress in the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834." which gave him the right to require bonds of merchants and to forcibly eject those traders form the territory who he felt would not follow military authority in stopping the sale of alcohol. and in many cases vicious. Secretary of State William Seward said that by "a happy elasticity of expression. He also wanted to regulate the sale of molasses (with which large quantities of "HOO-CHE-NOO" could be made) so that merchants would be allowed to sell only three gallons per day to whites."16 Meanwhile. Campbell was named an official Indian agent. regulate the hours they could stay open (not past 10 p.O. carefully recording the names of all purchasers and the amounts bought. If alcohol was not drunk on the premises. In response to General Halleck's recommendation.

Lt. They were brought to Sitka for confinement after about a month in a cramped jail in Wrangell. Not only did the army get none of the support it had hoped for. a writ of habeas corpus to produce Carr for trial was obtained by Carr's friends in Portland. roughly three and one-half months after his arrest in Wrangell."22 Simultaneously with a personal request to Deady to hear the case. as Deputy Collector. Instead. which had been destroyed). Congress extended parts of the Indian Intercourse Act to give the army jurisdiction over trade in arms.20 The Seveloff decision (finding that Alaska was really not "Indian Country" and fully under the Army's control) prompted Congress to pass the first legislation for Alaska since the creation of the customs district in 1868. not even those who were supposed to be working with the them in prohibiting alcohol introduction into the territory.and-shut case for starters. he illegally diverted large shipments to his friends in Wrangell. The army was anxious to assert its authority by using an open. For his doctoring of the liquor records he was paid handsomely. was supposed to allow only liquor destined for the Canadian mines to pass through Wrangell. In an all-out effort to stem the tide of illegal alcohol importation alcohol. An inspection tour of Wrangell uncovered large caches of liquor in the possession of four different white traders. . the army was finally. Carr. referred to Carr as a "notorious. 1874. disgraceful scoundrel" who was guilty of "the most public and scandalous smuggling operations. On January 5. 1875. of course. the army didn't seem to get along with anyone. the witnesses) back to Alaska and restore all the property that had been seized (except the liquor. They involved Wrangell Deputy Collector of Customs John A. after repeated requests.21 The next arrests made the second real test of the army's authority to send civilians to trial. All pointed the finger of blame toward Carr. it even had to pay for transportation of the accused (and. the military arrived in Portland and produced Carr before Judge Deady's court.19 THE ARMY "ARRESTS" THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT Occasionally. ammunition and liquor in Alaska. an army officer arrested Carr and four white traders accused with him. the arresting officer. given approval to arrest and send south people they thought most blatantly responsible for the problem.was expected to retain copies of the receipts for possible review by the army. Dyer. DEPUTY COLLECTOR CARR'S CASE THROWN OUT OF COURT Carr's case was thrown out of court on a technicality because he had been held by the military for more than five days before being brought to court. violating a provision of the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. Carr. In 1873. On September 25.

the jury who will try the case against him will be informed by Judge Deady that. the army looked for an opportunity to get out of Alaska. After three hearings. 'He is the peer of any man in his court seeking justice. but if I find it necessary ever in Alaska to take any responsibility for the preservation of life. Officers exiled the chronic drunks. or a wholesale Indian massacre. one of the men arrested with Carr filed a false arrest civil action against Captain Campbell. The only legislation to come from Congress between 1868 and 1884 was to clarify alcohol-related matters.85. These seemed to be made clandestinely by everyone who knew how to do it and had the necessary ingredients. I am therefore going to give Judge Deady's court a wide berth. or the prevention of murder. rapine. ironically. notorious troublemakers. and those who provided liquor to the natives. and his profession as a gambler does not prevent him from standing upon the same plane as any citizen who has been subjected to illegal arrest. with the support of the War Department. THE STICKY PROBLEM OF HOOCHINOO One of the most frustrating issues faced by the military during their ten-year stay in Alaska was how to handle illegal alcoholic beverages. Smugglers. and bloodshed. "These failures so convinced Alaskan officers of the courts' unreliability that thereafter they only occasionally went to the trouble of sending culprits to Portland.To cap things off. public drunks. they relied upon the penalties within their own power to inflict. . when a fire destroyed the officer's quarters in Sitka. often confined in chains and restricted to bread and water diets. At the same time a need arose for troops in the northwest to help in the campaign against the Nez Perce tribe. Several years later. and those detected giving intoxicants or hooch ingredients to the Indians faced lengthy terms in the guardhouse.' This is all very fine."25 It should be noted that the sole reason for military presence in Alaska was to administer Indian Laws pertaining to alcohol and firearms. The opportunity presented itself in 1877.23 The army effectively had its total authority undercut. for doing his duty. Congress made a special appropriation to reimburse Captain Campbell."24 From then on. especially whenever supplies of commercial liquor became short or very expensive in comparison to the homemade variety. There was no way any civilian could be delivered to court within five days if he was arrested in Alaska. manufacturers of drink. and the only court was in Portland. Captain Campbell was ordered to pay him $2.291. The primary reason the army left was because other government agencies seemed to frustrate all they tried to do. William Grouveneur Morris described the situation this way: "Let an officer arrest a blackleg for selling ardent spirits and be sued in civil damages by the card sharp. Instead. property.

Only a few days ago I captured and destroyed a distillery on a small island ten miles away with eighty gallons of the contraband fluid. hooch. it still has the alcohol content of virtually any beer. berries. They use a coal-oil can for a still. statements almost impossible to believe came from those who claimed to know to those who didn't know any better. It is listed in virtually every dictionary as an illicit or inferior liquor made by the "Hoochinoo Indians" of Alaska. Since the efforts of the government were to keep alcohol away from the Indians. It was a name that would be referred to so often by the soldiers and travellers to Alaska that its shortened abbreviation. After fermenting. potatoes. virtually the only effort made at stopping the manufacture of hooch was against the Indians. Hoo-che-noo. WHAT IS HOOCHINOO? Hoochinoo is made by putting some starchy. Although the Indians have been given credit (or blame) for the manufacture of this "vile" drink. with the vapor being condensed through tubing of some kind. and for the worm they substitute a long piece of kelp (sea-weed).26 In Alaska the name attached to this distillate was. hoochinoo tasted vile and terrible. as government policies fluctuated in popularity. Also.29 "The most important duty of the military in Alaska is to prevent the smuggling and illicit manufacture of spirituous liquors. It was said to be far more powerful than whiskey. out of molasses. Indian and lawless white people resort to every conceivable device to make or smuggle it. dried apples. the remote stills seemed least responsive to governmental authority." and Captain Campbell himself thought that "the liquor as they make it could not be drunk by anyone else" but Natives. The liquid resulting from this distillation is highly alcoholic and can have a considerable kick to it. If it is not boiled but is simply strained and drunk. One called it a beverage that "would infallibly kill any ordinary person. It was operated by Indians in their most primitive manner. In this way. they make hundreds of gallons of the vile stuff called 'Koutznou. candy. became part of the English language.' the odor of which is certain death to a healthy . it was really made by nearly everyone. old stockings and the like. the material is brought to a boil. molasses. etc.27 According to missionaries and those who had acquired their refined tastes for alcohol on commercial wines and brandies."28 REPUTED STRENGTH OF HOOCHINOO Whenever reports about the strength of hoochinoo were made.) and letting it ferment. because "everyone drank it. flour or sourdough starter into a large container with yeast and a sufficient amount of sucrose (sugar. fermentable material such as dried fruit. It is likely that the term vile was a moral judgment of the drinker as much as an accurate description of the actual taste.In other parts of the United States favorite names were affixed to distilled liquor made behind the barn or in the woods to escape the authorities. beans. None can be brought into or remain in the territory except by order or authority of the War Department.

dog at a hundred yards! I intend recommending its adoption by the War Department in place of the Gatling gun, which discharges 300 shots per minute, and, prior to the invention of 'Koutznou,' was the most deadly instrument of warfare known to military science."30 On the powerful qualities of hoochinoo, one man commented that it was so strong that its devotees "must hold on to the grass to keep from rolling off the ground." Another author said that hoochinoo "obsesses the consumer with the desire to climb a tree."31 THE ORIGINS OF HOOCHINOO There are many stories about how this enterprise began in Alaska. The first official references to the term of hoochinoo were made in 1873 in official reports by military commanders in Sitka. The Russians had distilled liquor clandestinely 50 years earlier, but had not allowed the Indians knowledge of how to do it. The thirst of the army for alcohol and the willingness of other whites to profit from the sale of homemade alcohol changed all that after Alaska became a U.S. possession.32 When the army and customs officials tried to halt the importation of commercial liquor (which happened from time to time) and the prices of alcoholic beverages rose, those who were unemployed would begin producing large amounts of alcohol for the thirsty people in the larger cities and towns.33 "By the time Campbell arrived, the natives had become the chief suppliers of the whites and Creoles. They not only made, traded, and consumed large quantities among themselves, but Indian bootleggers were rapidly driving other liquor suppliers from the field as their cheap brew became the mainstay of the drinking citizenry."34 THE ECONOMICS OF PROHIBITION Historically, when a total prohibition has been imposed on an unwilling public, a lucrative trade has soon developed to supply those who rejected the government's authority to infringe on their "rights" and pleasures. The economic incentives have become greater and greater, and the illicit supplier has become very powerful with the riches he makes by virtue of the prohibition. This has become more and more unacceptable to the general public as they have observed the economic gain growing among people previously poor and powerless.35 The desire to put the economic gain of alcohol back into the hands of the white merchants was eloquently elaborated upon in a letter from a government official in 1877: "Stop this distillation of hoochenoo, and the fears of an Indian massacre will be greatly lessened. It is the principle cause of all the trouble and danger to be apprehended.... If the introduction of spirituous liquor is absolutely prohibitory in Alaska, smuggling from British Columbia will be extensively resorted to in Indian canoes, and the 'hoochenoo' will be resorted to. "It is therefore respectfully submitted that it is far better for the health,

comfort, sobriety, and good morals of these people that the trade in alcoholic stimulants be encouraged under suitable restrictions. Whoever is charged with this regulation should put himself also in communication with the American consul at Victoria, Vancouver Island, who should be instructed not to affix to any shipment of spirituous liquor or vinous liquors his consumer certificate without first having produced to him the permit for such exportation duly signed by the proper officer."36 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH MAKING OF HOOCHINOO This liquor was made using various ingredients, all of which were available to whites and Indians in almost unlimited quantities. The most difficult ingredient to obtain, however, was molasses. Presbyterian missionary (and later Governor of Alaska) John Brady described its manufacture to Congress as follows: "I visited Jack and found two of his stills in operation. This drawing will give you a fair idea of the manner of their making this liquor. The can C is a five-gallon coal oil can, which is placed on some iron dogs. To this is attached a tin tube, which bends and runs through a barrel of cold water, B. The liquor is caught in a tin cup, M. They sour the molasses with yeast, apples, and the like. When they can't buy molasses they purchase sugar, and if they fail in procuring that they use berries or potatoes for a mash. They were taught this by the soldiers. I have noticed that when an Indian drinks he stays in the ranch, and does not venture out in town. In their own quarters they are fighting almost daily."37 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HOOCHINOO Although General Davis believed that hoochinoo was "beyond chemical analysis," an analysis actually was made in 1880 by a physician in Pennsylvania. "Dr. Marshall reports as regards the analysis of the hoochinoo made by him that the liquid was slightly yellow in color and contained floating flakes of organic matter tinged quite yellow with oxide of iron (rust). It had perceptible odors of yeast and New Orleans molasses, tasted slightly of yeast and left an astringent after-taste. One hundred cubic centimeters (equal to little more than 1/2 of a pint) evaporated to dryness left 0173 grams (nearly three grains troy) residue, the greater portion of which consisted of organic matter, and a fraction of oxide of iron, and did not contain anything of an alkaloidal nature. It contained 16.3 per cent (by volume) [roughly the alcohol content of wine] of alcohol. Three hundred cubic centimeters of the liquid were placed in a flask with a condenser attached and heated until all of the liquor had distilled over. On drinking of the liquid remaining in the flask nothing was experienced to lead one to believe that it contained anything of a poisonous nature. Sometime afterward a portion of the alcoholic distillate was drunk but nothing except the physiological effects ordinarily produced by alcohol was observed. Emboldened by the negative results of these experiments 400 cubic centimeters of the hoochinoo itself was now drunk. Nothing, however, was noticed except a condition of hilarity about equivalent to that which might be produced by an equal quantity of liquor containing approximately the same percentage of alcohol, such as, for example, 400 cubic

centimeters of sherry. Dr. Marshall's theory conclusively is, after the consideration of the above facts, that the frenzy exhibited by the natives after imbibing hoochinoo is attributable not to poisonous substances contained in the liquor, but to the large quantities of alcohol rapidly absorbed, owing to the fear which they entertain of being discovered by the government officials, who, as a matter of course, would confiscate all the ardent spirits on hand. THE ALASKAN agrees with the Doctor in his first supposition that the large quantities of the vile beverage are rapidly partaken of, but the Indian's immunity from seizure is well-nigh secure, the officials not being provided by the Government with adequate means whereby to suppress the clandestine manufacture of the liquor and the resulting bacchanalia in the native settlements which are sparsely scattered over the islands and coast of the mainland in S.E. Alaska, many in places unapproachable even by light draught vessels."38 The ability of Alaskan Indians to quickly learn how to make Hoochinoo was used by one of their chiefs to show that they could quickly learn how to work in canneries replacing imported Chinese laborers. In discussing the plea of the local Indians to work at the new cannery at Hunter's Bay (Old Sitka), "Sitka Jack assured Mr. Hunter that if an Indian could make a hoochenoo still he could make a can to hold fish."39 ARMY ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL MOLASSES The military knew it had a responsibility to control the introduction of alcohol into Alaska. Congress wanted alcohol in Alaska limited. A prohibition party had been organized in Chicago in 1869 to try to make the whole nation dry. Even when the army succeeded in stemming the flow of wet goods into Alaska, there was little they could do about the liquor made in Alaska. The main imported ingredient in hoochinoo was the liquid syrup called molasses. There was no law making it illegal to sell molasses in Alaska, though everyone knew what it was going to be used for. The monthly steamer that brought new troops and customs officials to Alaska to enforce prohibition also regularly brought about 100 barrels of molasses for use in trade.40 "In 1885, Sitka's 1700 inhabitants, under a dry law, used up 110 barrels of molasses a month making hootch, according to official figures. A customs report on file at Washington carries a footnote: `Not over a dozen sober people in town.'"41 EVERYONE DID IT, NOT JUST INDIANS In Alaska, it was the non-Native hoochinoo manufacturers who profited most by the army's efforts to keep the Indians out of that business. A diary entry of a Russian clerk living in Sitka was translated to say: "Free molasses trade contributed to the general disorder: Koloshes bought molasses for manufacturing a brandy called 'hootzina'. Merchants and others who wanted to make money busied themselves with making this poisonous drink and selling it through special

he immediately got tough with the white merchants who sold molasses.45 He argued: "There is a great deal of liquor consumed by the Indians in this District. The first commander with that title was Captain Campbell. when the supply of molasses became short. They faced opposition from Indians. the Indians raised the price of their liquor. except to destroy his distilling apparatus and stock if you can catch it. that they have a right to keep liquor for their own use. from being the consumer and purchaser. The same policy had not worked for the government in Oregon because. They all.46 for there is a special clause in that law prohibiting persons other than Indians residing in the Indian territory. OREGON'S STATUS OF "INDIAN COUNTRY" DIDN'T STICK EITHER Alaska wasn't alone in its inability to limit alcohol. When named Indian agent. They also knew that their first legal opportunity to stop the sale of molasses would be when they were declared "Indian agents" and by that status could regulate all trade with the Indians. there were too many thirsty white settlers. with more avidity. because Indians would buy molasses wherewith to make rum.43 and. "In this step I have been bitterly opposed and complained of by the whites. they tried to persuade the local merchants to voluntarily stop the sale of molasses. white merchants. because. Government having granted lands upon certain conditions to actual settlers.agents. Captain Campbell admitted: "The Indian. either. therefore. miners. second. settlers are scattered all over this part of Oregon in every direction. on Hootznu Island and everywhere. without reference to the extinction of the Indian title. There is no law to punish an Indian for selling liquor. Admiralty Island."44 The army was not very successful at limiting either alcohol or the raw ingredients for making it. They contend. and in fact to the exclusion of everything else. and to sell ."42 ARMY EFFORTS TO STOP THE SALE OF MOLASSES Since military commanders knew their legal authority to stop molasses sales was nonexistent. according to one official. and say. at the springs. first. their own officers and men and even the customs officers who were supposed to be helping them. that the government having induced them to emigrate. and of course these same people who were the consumers were again affected. were the first to make it. claim the privileges of American citizens. such as Charlie Brown." He referred to "houchinan" [sic] as being a homemade liquor "from the fact that the Indians living at Koutzinon. it did not intend to inflict them with all the penalties of the law regarding trade and intercourse with the Indians. has become the manufacturer and seller. courts. A similar situation developed a few years prior to the purchase of Alaska in Oregon territory. of course. or making it. and I have been disappointed in my hopes of entirely stopping its consumption. with much truth." He claimed to have prohibited the sale of molasses in the Sitka area and added.

The white citizens. Eskimos and fortune hunters.48 Even before the official transfer of Alaska to the United States. the government did not intend to keep "the small comforts of the bottle" away from the whites who just happened to live in Indian Country. in the sight of the whites.S. various branches of the armed forces seemed to be continually faced with how to control alcohol in their own ranks as well as among the citizens and Natives of Alaska. The policy was soon changed to allow whites their pleasure after "a chorus of complaints from citizens and troops protesting the stiff Treasury regulations and urging a more lenient.S. It controlled the traders. was to manage Indians then. liquor and would secure it illegally if some were not legally available. and often the army wished they had a vessel or two with which to move about.as long as it had sufficient supplies for its own use to make administering this almost impossible and thankless task more bearable. the U. The first US military stint in Alaska from 1867 to 1877 managed a very thankless job.The U.to whites. but Naval vessels had shown their great range and firepower in Canadian waters. . the Treasury Department declared a complete prohibition on importing alcohol into Alaska. even though this was about the only item it could legally control. it was not very successful. Navy has been involved in helping with management of the liquor traffic in Alaska. Much of the discipline problems it had within its own ranks were the result of the use of alcohol by the troops and sailors.S. even needed. Army. clamored for their rights as well. The army was determined to do all in its power to keep alcohol out of Alaska -.49 The army was adamant in its insistence that it was "entitled" to have alcoholic beverages for its own officers and men. ONLY THE ARMY WAS LEGALLY ALLOWED ALCOHOL According to the law. 'more reasonable. they argued. The army was tied down on land with guns facing toward the wilderness."50 MILITARY SHIPS IN ALASKA From the first visit to Alaska by Capt. Howard in the summer prior to the transfer of Alaska from Russian to U. W. As far as stopping the flow of liquor."47 Since the intent of the law of 1832. Indians. provided they do not sell or give it to the Indians. hands. the only group allowed to have supplies of liquor in "Indian Country" for their own use or any other purpose was the enforcement arm of the government in Indian Country -. In the following years. then.A.' policy convinced them that the whites and creoles demanded.

332." he deemed it his "duty" to release the prisoner from further custody. He was much less scrupulous when it came to Indian rights. Also see Murton. 6. Bobby Dave (1974). Admittedly. p. p. They are unskilled laborers from large cities. Lain. The length of incarceration might be several months. The military commanders were aware of the technical problems they faced in trying to prosecute any whites for even murder. They are the riffraff gathered from everywhere. "With the volunteer system you must get the men where you can find them. 178. They provided produce. One Indian chief who was forcibly sent on a steamer in 1875 to testify against the former Customs Officer of Wrangell was said to have committed "suicide" before he got to court. Stanley Ray (1975). Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). A Russian officer visiting Washington in 1861 spoke kindly of the American National Guard troops "although they are no good as soldiers". he said. after only eleven months of jail. the impact in ten short years of troops stationed only along the coast of Alaska was limited. In releasing a murder named Jacob Risenberger from jail on May 1. firewood and alcoholic beverages to the whites when these items were in short supply or when prices rose to the point that it became profitable for them to do so. This was especially true of Indians who might testify against whites. Due to the difficulty of keeping witnesses available to testify against an accused criminal. 238-239.Footnotes to Chapter 7 1. 22. and some are just barely out of prison. See Lain. Other groups that came earlier than the soldiers were whalers and fur traders. p. meat. Brian (1971). p. This certainly contributed to the reluctance of witnesses to come forward and admit to what they knew about a crime. who have abandoned all pretense of working. Harrison." said the Duke of Cambridge in 1867. "The same cannot be said of the American volunteer troops. These men stop pedestrians asking for money. 22. Bobby Dave (1974). General Davis announced that because there was "no court of civil jurisdiction in this territory competent to investigate and dispose of prisoner Risenberger" and because there was "no probability of such a court being organized for some time to come. 1869. but they were not organized for any purpose other than to make profits for their investors. staggering about the taverns from morning until night. the Army routinely jailed important witnesses till they all could be shipped as a group to the courts in Portland or Seattle. 5. it is . None of the accounts of this "suicide" even question the word of the whites who reported it. Much of the recruiting of volunteers in various countries for military service was done inside taverns and bars. but when his thoughts turned to the regular volunteer soldiers. from the factories and workshops. p. 3. however. 4. and since they all have a revolver or a knife in their belts. See Remsburg. The Indians of Southeast Alaska were well known as shrewd traders in their own right. 2. This free-wheeling enterprise elects its own officers and does as it pleases.

1868. Army Med Corps (1984) Vol 130 "Alcohol And The Fighting man--An Historical Review". 241-243. The reader should not think that this was true only in Alaska during this period of time. William A. For more information about this general topic. Murton. 107. and was. 1867-70. quoting from a letter from Davis to Pestchouroff. 252. Dept. 1860-1861. (and.understandable that a pedestrian would be foolish to refuse. 9. p. a legal citizen with all the protection that the law allowed. The whites wanted the Natives of Alaska to give up their tribal customs and adopt the "culture of civilization" before being allowed citizenship in the United States. lemon. R. Cowan . Byrd. especially at night on deserted streets. Stubbs. (1984). no rum. 61. red pepper sauce. John Allen The Origins of Prohibition Russell & Russell. 154. wife of the Fort Robinson doctor. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). Whenever reforms within the Army resulted in difficulty for the troops to get the drinks they wanted. 1868. Minnesota Medicine (April. hit and killed Lt. cinnamon." Golovin. p. 23. Thurn. see Dunbar-Miller. Harper & Row. 8. including extracts of vanilla. Roy J. One court case in Juneau declared that since the Metlakatla Indians were not technically from Alaska. therefore. and various quack nostrums loaded with alcohol. hoping to kill one of his rivals. 12-15. 162. Evan S. "no pay. of Alaska. New York (1984). In those days. Connell. One of the complaints at Valley Forge by George Washington's troops was. Evan S. Pavel N. Son of the Morning Star. Stanley Ray (1976). bay rum. ginger. a recently discharged soldier. One article asked whether it was possible that the outcome of the American Revolution could have been determined by the heavy drinking of the British soldiers. A. p. peppermint. Col. cologne. "The Gin Plague". Letters sent. 49. shot through the door of Sam Militich's saloon in Sitka. the post surgeon noted that his men had begun drinking various concoctions when regular liquor was prohibited. p. 166. p. The desire of military men for drinks is thousands of years old. 152." Krout. New York (1925). Fanny McGillycuddy. Remsberg. "Outfit all drunk. A court case in 1911 in Alaska claimed that the right to drink alcohol was one of the rights of citizenship that would not be permitted Alaska's Natives. J. p. p. p. a person who was half "white" and half Indian or Aleut was still "white" by law. May 23. Valerie (1956). A nonNative could legally sell liquor to these Simpsian Indians without fear of the law. no provisions. Mrs. He was allowed to drink alcohol if other whites had that "right" also. Stephen (1980). were not Indians legally) that they were not covered by the Indian Intercourse laws. no clothes. p. p. therefore. R. 12. Worcestershire sauce. See Conn. Some Civil War soldiers stored their drinks inside their own rifle barrels to avoid detection during inspections. wrote in her diary in 1876. Civil and Savage Encounters: The Worldly Travel Letters of an Imperial Russian navy Officer. they drank whatever was available that had alcohol in it. The bullet instead. At Fort Yates. 32 and Department of Alaska Letters Received. 10. 7. P-4. Portland. p. 1978). 11." Connell. wherever they lived. The Press of the Oregon Historical Society (1983). p.

Byrd was able to get away from the arms of the law by going to court in Portland. Guardhouse records testify to his vigorous enforcement. .of the Revenue Service. 345. The guardhouse was often filled to capacity. after reviewing the court martial records in Washington. According to my estimate. did not believe in total prohibition. In fact." while at the same time it would "enable those who need . case no. At this time. 17. about 80% of which were for alcohol-related crimes by soldiers.C. 1022. See McCoy. 16. (and president of the United States Congressional Temperance Society). By February 1875. They then tried him for murder with the accusing officer (General Davis) convening the court. 18. For more information about the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 and events leading up to its passage. Executive Document. like General Davis. Murton. p.]. . he further tried to stop the sale of molasses by prohibiting its sale to Indians and stating that he alone would determine who could sell molasses to "whites. Two years before. 14. Arrests of civilians. December 10. 1872). 27 Federal Cases 1024. could not immediately be tried by court martial since he had been discharged dishonorably two months earlier from the service. Stanley Ray (1976). Indians and soldiers occurred almost daily. as was a brewery. 1875). including the efforts of the then Secretary of War. 361. Remsberg. 13. They sent one employee to Unalaska (away from the influence of the Army). Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). Oregon. several saloons were operating in Sitka. the Treasury Department tried to start an Indian Agency in Alaska. See Remsburg (1976). The Army held a court martial first to nullify the earlier court martial and get him back into the Army. 20." 19. p. By means of a habeas corpus order. 21. Army headquarters was well aware of other military officers who had been prosecuted . Campbell built a larger and more satisfactory jail to accommodate his frequent "guests. p. Lewis Cass. Dist. It was cleaned and whitewashed throughout and provisions made for better ventilation and light. Also see 44th Congress 1st Session. Also see United States v.. # 1 (Sept 1. Byrd. Francis Paul (1962). Sheveloff [sic. p. 1956). but this was ignored except as it pertained to Indians.252 (Dist." The number of cells increased from five to fourteen. Several court martials took place during the first ten years the Army was in Alaska. but only because he did not think that it would work. but the agent quit after only one year on duty. by means of an executive order. (November. Captain Campbell. 364. Remsburg (1976). declared that alcohol was not to be admitted into Alaska. 15. President Andrew Johnson had. p." if a few trusted men were given a license to sell liquor. see Prucha. there were about 200 general courts martial in this ten year period. D. Donald R. [liquor] to get it. being a civilian. Davis believed it would "no doubt lessen the temptation to smuggle. 16. He was then released there from custody. 246-255. Court.

One court held. Valley Tan. 367. 116-118. Remsburg (1976). there is much less water vapor condensed in the tubing and the alcoholic content of the runoff is very high. Richard (1979). p. Actually. 22. alcohol boils at about 187 degrees Fahrenheit. Francis Paul (1962). after a few hours exhibited a scene of the most frightful drunkenness:--he must be able to testify that he has tasted this liquor. See Erdoes. p. p. 30. The Army has always had a difficult time prosecuting alcohol-related crimes in Indian Country in the civilian courts. p.". 61-92. p. 63. 232-240. Ted (1967). See 43rd Congress 2nd Session. included: Red Dynamite. who conveyed the same to their camps. Remsburg (1976).S. see Rorabaugh. while water boils at 212 degrees. p. (1979). Remsburg (1976). 1879.J. 45th Congress 3rd Session. The Gatling gun was a new weapon in the Army's arsenal. 23. see Remsburg (1976). 21. Pass Brandy. See Remsburg. Green Whiskey. The President finally approved reimbursement to Campbell in February. p. Senate Executive Document #24. in order to produce a conviction. p. which. 1880. "Report from the Customs District. p." Whiskey was itself a home-brew concoction. Moonshine." See Prucha. p. tobacco juice an' a dash of strychnine--the last to keep the heart going. Stubbs (1956). 24. 103. 84-102. and found it to be spiritous. 27. 29. 28. It was considered the most . 60. One of the regular dances during the early military occupation of Alaska in Sitka was the "Hoochinoo Club Hop. "It would prove nothing that he should have witnessed the process of reducing the alcohol in the trader's house. 372384. For a discussion of the economic history of the manufacture of homemade alcohol in this country. p. knowing that he had thrown their last case out of court. For a complete discussion of the effects of the Sevaloff case." Hinckley. Remsburg (1976). 26. p. Tiger Spit. Shelby Lemonade . W. and they were reluctant to send another case to Judge Deady. Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. If the mash is brought to just the boiling point of alcohol and held there. first gaining its reputation in western Pennsylvania."It's a mixture of alkali water. Remsburg (1976). 367. Taos Lightning. put into kegs and delivered to Indians. 351-365. Some of the names given to homebrew liquor elsewhere in the U.for false arrest and trespass. Panther Piss. 412. 25. p. alcohol. that he should have seen the liquor drawn from these same casks. and putting it into casks. 374. S (1976). Senate Executive Document #59.

modern weapon they had, but at this time (1873) it was still somewhat experimental. Gen. Custer left his Gatling gun behind, because it was too heavy, when he went to fight the Indians at Little Big Horn. The gun was used against the Alaskan Indians in the bombardment of Angoon. Jocelyn, Stephen Perry (1953), p. 195. 31. Henderson (1898), p. 16, 59. Underwood, John J., Alaska, An Empire In The Making (1913), p. 54. 32. For a few of the stories, see Teichmann, Teichmann (1963), p. 113-114; Young, Alaska Days With John Muir (1915), p. 77, 129; Collis, A Woman's Trip To Alaska, Cassell Publishing Co., New York (1890), p. 170; Seton-Karr, Heywood Walter, Shores And Alps of Alaska, S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, London (1887), p. 53, 166; Henderson (1898), p. 59; Whymper, Frederick Travel In Alaska (1868), p. 58-59; and Badlam, Alexander, Wonders Of Alaska, The Bancroft Company, San Francisco (1890), p. 61. 33. This was true in Europe, during U.S. prohibition in the 1920's and 1930's, and was also true in Alaska in the late 1800's. It is totally false to think that the Indians were the only ones making homemade liquor. It is also false to characterize them as drunken and thirsty, since much of what they produced was for sale to the thirsty whites in larger towns. 34. Remsburg (1976), p. 368. 35. This happened historically when the public perceived the Mafia (Italian immigrants) as taking over prostitution, short term loans and drugs; the Jews (Germans and other Europeans) as taking over Sunday businesses and retail trades of all types; the Irish as profiting from smuggling alcohol into London; the Indians in supplying frontier settlements; the English in controlling all the rum; and the perception of whiskey-drinking Catholics from the righteous efforts of the prohibition-minded Protestants. After trade would be perceived as falling into the hands of inferior groups, the next step toward legalization would incorporate a desire to improve the health and welfare of the general public by putting the production and distribution back into the hands of those who will make a better quality of product (i.e., clean prostitutes, quality brandy, beer that uses clean water, bartenders that are honest, drugs that wouldn't kill a person, liquor not made with wood alcohol or lead-lined condensing coils, etc.). The last step often emphasizes the value of locally-produced products over the quality of products produced far away. When one Army officer discussed hoochenoo, his feelings about alcohol were unconsciously expressed with the words, "The introduction of good liquor being absolutely prohibited, we will now proceed to discuss the vile stuff manufactured by the natives, and known as HOOCHENOO OR HOOTZENOO." 45th Congress, 3rd Session, Senate Executive Document #59, "Report from the Customs District, Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory, 1879", p. 63. 36. 45th Congress 3rd Session, Senate Executive Document #59, "Report from the Customs District, Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory, 1879," p. 58.

37. 45th Congress, 3rd Session, Senate Executive Document #59, "Report from the Customs District, Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory, 1879," p. 80. 38. Murton, Thomas O'Rhelius (1965), p. 88. The Alaskan, 03/05/1880. The original article was in University Medical Magazine, "Laboratory Notes" (January, 1880), p. 200201. 39. 45th Congress, 3rd Session, Senate Executive Document #59, "Report from the Customs District, Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory, 1879," p. 81. 40. For more about the Prohibition Party, see Furnas, J.C. (1965), p. 270-274. The fact that molasses normally was imported into the United States was another sore point for nationalistic sentiment. Rum is another drink that used molasses and it was commonly imported directly from England. Rum, molasses, tea, coffee and other items that were imported took work away from American workers and businesses. The Americans had to wonder how loyal the Indians of Southeast Alaska were going to be to the United States when the items they prized most were bought from Peru or the West Indies via Canada. Bancroft said that the 1735 English parliament action of raising duties on rum brought America closer to independence. Thomann, G. (1887), p. 36. In the early American colonies, it was common for the whites to also make a distillate out of imported molasses. It was called, "black-strap." Carson, Gerald Rum And Reform In Old New England, Old Sturbidge Village, Sturbidge, Mass. (1966), p. 5. Josiah Quincy called the recipe of blackstrap, which was a secret, as something that he hopes now firmly "reposes with the lost arts." John Quincy Adams once said, "I know not why we should blush to confess that molasses was an essential ingredient in American independence". Ibid, p. 8. 41. Marshall, Jim (1949), p. 249. 42. Ushin's Diary, Orthodox Church Documents, 06/14/1877, p. 12. 43. There were often, in the literature, comments to the effect that all the Indians and Eskimos wanted to buy was either molasses or alcohol, the implication being that all they wanted was alcohol. This is misleading because of the following concepts: 1.United States currency was scarce. What little was available had to be obtained by either working for the whites at low wages (i.e., cutting wood) or by selling items to the whites that they wanted from the Indians (i.e., meat, produce and liquor). 2.The Indians really needed very little from the whites. They produced their own houses. They caught their own food. They made their own clothes. They built their own boats. 3.If prices were too high in one area for goods that the Indians needed, all they had to do was send a trading canoe to the duty-free cities of Victoria or Prince Rupert and make what little money they had go farther. 4.Indians were not particularly welcome in Sitka businesses. 5.The purchase of molasses was equivalent to the purchase of a job, where the buyer is his own boss. A great deal of the molasses was sold right back to the whites at higher prices in a more drinkable form. 44. 44th Congress, 1st Session, House Executive Document #135, "Letter from the

Secretary of War," February 26, 1876, p. 31. 45. It took the settlers only one year to get rid of the "Indian Country" designation in Oregon, thanks to their access to local courts. The status lasted there only between 1852 and 1853. Alaska had no courts or self-determination for many years. When Alaska did gain its own courts, among the first issues over which it attempted to assert jurisdiction was alcohol. 46. Namely, the prohibition to them of alcohol. 47. Donnelly, Joseph Peter (1940), p. 211-212. 48. Will Rogers said that prohibition's only virtue was that it was better than no whiskey at all. 49. Remsberg, Stanley Ray (1976), p. 308 This happened on June 4, 1867. 50. Ibid, p. 309-310.

Chapter # 8 CHURCHES AND MISSIONARIES There's naught no doubt so much the spirit cheers, as rum and true religion.1 Whenever frontier boundaries were expanded, missionaries were soon to follow. They came to Alaska first to serve the whites who were affiliated with their sects and later to convert the heathen. In most communities in the American west, soon after constructing the whiskey house or the brewery and the bawdy house, God's house was the next prominent building constructed. The newly-arrived minister often had no option other than to begin services in a saloon until the funds and interest could be generated to build a church. Alaska was different to the missionaries only because the climate was colder than other mission fields. The earliest churches in Alaska were constructed by Greek Orthodox Church priests, often referred to in Alaska as the Russian Orthodox Church. Many unique and beautiful small chapels built by hard-working Orthodox priests still stand in remote communities from the Aleutian Islands to Sitka. Schools were often started in Alaska by missionaries. The basic courses of study included the standard 4-R's of read'n, write'n, rithmatick and religion. It wasn't until saloons started to pay taxes (after "high license", imposing a stiff fee by the government to saloons to become legal) that money was generally available for government-sponsored education. Prior to that time, missionaries filled dual roles as spiritual leaders and school-masters and

They might have been pardoned by occasional indulgence in liquid spirits if there had not been a spiritual revival that used abstinence from liquor as evidence of spiritual conversion to Christ. renunciation of liquor and acceptance of Jesus became almost one and the same thing. bottles.3 Liquor in any form was to the Protestant ministers who began arriving in 1880 what pork was to Muslims and Jews. bullets. Some were quick to point the finger of accusation at the Russians."6 Two trappers saw a Mormon lady drink water. The main duties of priests were to officiate in baptisms. marriages and christenings. It was the love of liquor. often without living facilities. "Intemperance was attacked in the sonorous language of the pulpit. It was as though partaking of the forbidden fruit was not the sin at all." The original sin of Adam could not have been worse had he partaken of the forbidden cup rather than the forbidden fruit.. and those who signed the pledge or membership rolls were hailed as converts. "Papa. please don't send me for whiskey today!"4 This is not to admit by any means that early Russian clergy in Alaska were prone to drink alcohol any more than other clergy of the late 1700s.5 They were just not caught up in the temperance reformation that brewed and bubbled among protestant ministers in the United States in the late 1800s. who regarded touching a single drop of liquor to be a sign of false conversion.. "The priests of the Greek Church at Sitka. It was expected that Russian adventurers would intermarry with the American Natives they met in Alaska. The Russian priests were traditionally celibate. the occasional use and misuse of alcohol by the Russian Orthodox clergy must have been horrifying. bacilli and Bibles soon followed (normally in that order). They were sent by their church to farflung Alaska. both to the Russians and the Natives. but converting the fruit into potable liquor. drunkenness was identified with damnation and abstinence with salvation. and were anything but good examples to their people. THE FIRST MINISTERS OF RELIGION IN ALASKA AND ALCOHOL The Russian priests who came to Alaska had a difficult time in being assigned to minister to rough Russian trappers and their families. One of army officers (themselves the recipients of allegations of improper drinking behavior) complained. Whenever the white men introduced themselves in a new frontier. with two exceptions."2 To Protestant missionaries. not the love of gold that was "The root of all evil. were often drunk upon the streets. Responsibility went to the Russian-American Fur Company to set and enforce the rules pertaining to liquor. One of them turned to his companion in .their churches supported the only education there was.

Seeing that each one drank with avidity until he could not control himself and feeling sorry for the souls of the drunkards in case of their sudden death. they replied that Olsen [the white manager of the North American Commercial Company store] did it. 1878. I locked the liquor store and began apportioning the drinks in small amounts. When they sobered they thanked me for this. "My investigation disclosed that the drinking had progressed more than I expected: fifteen men had begun to drink. set bad examples for the savages. Nicholas. but on the Lord's day" and that he drinks the sacramental wine and substitutes cranberry juice for the parishioners. The letter.10 A visit by Russian priest Andrew P. though nobody had started homebrewing yet. which was established prior to the transfer in 1867. The missionaries that came to Alaska had cut their teeth on temperance literature.8 Some of the early Russian clergy were very conscious of the over-use of alcohol among their flock. what forced them to break their [abstinence] promise."11 PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES ARRIVE IN ALASKA Although the first Protestant church in Alaska was the Finnish Lutheran Church. Kashevarov to the old village of Kanikluk in 1896 resulted in the following journal entry in his diary. The Aleuts. the onslaught of missionaries did not really start till about 1880. alleges that the Russian priest at Kodiak was under the influence of liquor "not only on weekdays. One letter from a travelling priest complained of another priest in Kodiak. the same could also be said of early Protestants of all denominations as well. the Russians." "I explained to them the harm of drinking and the sin of breaking their promise to God and I persuaded them to give their pledge again to keep away from that vice. Sheldon Jackson and others began to arrive in Alaska and concentrated on converting the Natives to their brand of Christianity. dated April 29. confessed their sin and gave their promise not to drink any more."9 The Russian Church did not condone drunkenness in any way. she's drinking it raw!"7 The Russian clergy were occasionally denounced by their own priests as having problems with drinking. It was the movement of the decade of the 1880s to accompany calls for women's suffrage with . "Alas. by their drinking and indecent behavior. Bill. Then missionaries at the call of Rev. To my question. "My God.surprise and blurted. devotedly kneeling and kissing the icons of the Savior and St. One priest at Kenai in 1860 took it upon himself to lock the liquor store at times when over-indulgence was likely because he feared their souls would be lost if they were to die suddenly while intoxicated. If some found it difficult to drink without being drunken.

The W.. For this reason. few who have drunk a gill of ardent spirits can be exposed to... Criticism was severe and vocal.14 EXPECTATION OF DRUNKENNESS AND IMMORALITY Missionaries thought drinking liquor was immoral.. immoral."15 With anticipation and fear that any Indians who drank liquor would forever forfeit their opportunity to become converted to the gospel. when women filed out of a temperance meeting held by Rev. The little town of Sitka.U. gibbering wreck. walleyed. but they would remain silent (or at least be less vocal) when whites did the same. small temptation without becoming adulterers in the sight of God. the missionaries fought long and hard to keep liquor away from their anticipated converts.T. and then their example would help us to do right?"16 THE FACTORY SYSTEM OF MISSIONARY EFFORTS The concept that Indians would accept civilization and God's messengers better if they were somehow isolated from the whites while missionaries taught them was called the "factory system" of missions. in December 1873. however. By the middle 1880s compulsory subjects in school included courses in "scientific temperance education. not to administer to the needs of whites within Alaska's borders. Pennsylvania. They often held services for whites. for example. The Presbyterian churches were very active in promoting abstinence in other parts of the country during the ten years prior to their arrival in Alaska.. the missionaries would make allegations of drinking when this was thought to exist among the Indians. (Women's Christian Temperance Union) originated only a few years earlier in Hillsboro. drooling.calls for closing down saloons. "No better fuel can you afford the lusts of the flesh than ardent spirits--drunkenness and lewdness go hand in hand. It was used first to great success by Catholic missionaries and then copied by the Protestants. those who participated in such activities. This led to at least one Indian's censure of a missionary by exclaiming: "Why don't you first Christianize those of your own kind. when they thought that the whites were giving or selling liquor to the Natives. therefore. were by definition. What do you suppose has wrought this wonderful change in me?" VOICE FROM THE CROWD: "What change?" The missionaries that came to Alaska in the 1880s. washed out.C.."12 The first aggressive missionaries to arrive in Alaska were Presbyterian. but generally tried to keep the Indian converts away from the whites as well as from the unconverted aborigines. had an Indian Protestant congregation and a white congregation. came to convert the Natives to the gospel of Jesus Christ. Dioclesian Lewis to pray at the entrance of the local saloons.13 TEMPERANCE ORATOR: "Two years ago I was a broken-down. This concept worked when missionaries were determined .

19 Part of the reason for this was due to the power that the missionaries held over the Indians. he was likely to be labeled as drunk. though no man could be sure which was which. It was often believed that Indians had a weakness for liquor that was lacking. he was already a little bit pregnant. Don't marry a man if he drinks! --Temperance Song-A QUESTION OF FRIENDS AND HOSPITALITY The acceptance. but it was mutually exclusive. belligerence. they were determined to do their utmost to do this with the Indians.22 The social life near the saloons and drinking parties served many functions that drew men close. With the cooperation of government officials. in whites.17 "Souls. of course. saw no difference between Alaska Indians and Indians anywhere else in North America. Similarly.21 Even if he drank moderately. frustration. as strict Calvinism saw them. No one would refute the allegation for him. consolation and fellowship offered by the missionaries was often in competition with the same qualities offered by the drinking non-missionaries. and Temperance came to draw a rigid line between the total abstainer and the person paltering with spirits. breaking down social and class . Your friends either came from the missionaries or from the drinking whites. The missionaries expected Alaska Natives to desire liquor.20 It is certain that the missionaries taught Indian girls within their schools the same advice that missionaries all over the United States gave others: No matter what anyone says. There was virtually no in-between. It was believed that if liquor were available. as Temperance saw him. God knew and always had known. The excitement near saloons and drinking parties was often equal to that of a good revival in making new friends."18 If the missionaries could not make the majority of the whites cease their drinking. and the swelling consequences would grow ever more scandalous. The missionary boards that funded Alaskan missionaries. he was feared by missionaries as dangerous and a bad example. No matter what anyone thinks. Informal rules were agreed to that forbade luring Indians into baptismal waters with bribes and liquor. If an Indian drank. News of gold strikes were likely first overheard in saloons as liquor loosened the tongues of newly-arrived miners. all the Indians nearby would get drunk on it without giving it a second thought. If you want to be happy The rest of your life.and successful in keeping white settlers out of communities for a long period of time while they taught the Natives. were either inevitably saved or inevitably damned and. they hoped to make the Indians as sober as the Biblical Nazarites. women were either virtuous or lost. somehow. All too many times. depression and hostility were labeled by the missionaries as drunken behavior.

One of Alaska's most popular writers was Jack London. from the Washingtonian model to making the whole state or region an abstinent group."25 It was not easy to follow the missionaries with their drive to stop all the liquor and impose their moral code on others. One Native policeman from Sitka. They were tried in several forms. And it appealed to a different social group.23 Just as American independence had often bubbled in road. It interfered with my work. laborers and Natives from liquor was certainly worthy on humanitarian grounds. The persecution from within mining camps and Native communities must have at times been intense against the missionaries and the few who followed them." (Artemus Ward. viewed by the working class as a means of raising themselves up the economic and social ladder. Yet these very times were because I was out on the adventure-path where John Barleycorn is always to be found.. however..."28 . like Christ my friends have all forsaken [sic] me and persecute me for standing for the right.24 Many writers have mentioned the theater of conviviality that is associated with drinking places.houses and saloons. "It makes no odds now where when or how I die.. that I got drunk several times and was mighty wroth with myself because it interfered with my writing. there was fear by those in authority of what might happen if the poor and lower classes were allowed to drink collectively without proper supervision.. In it he described the adventure he found in drinking: "Occasionally I got well jingled. the 'holy cause of teetotalism' as it was called in one temperance journal. I remember . "Teetotalism signalled more than just a change in the degree of abstention imposed on its members. but it was also closer to Victorian principles than true reform. 1866) Temperance organizations thrived in Alaska at about the turn of the century.barriers and escaping the tedium of inclement weather. London wrote the book in an effort to administer self-treatment for his own alcoholism a few years prior to his suicide.27 "I prefer Temperance hotels--altho' they sell worse liquor."26 TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES A characteristic organization that accompanied missionaries to Alaska was the temperance society. The origins of the temperance society were to be found prior to 1850 throughout the world. author of an autobiography called John Barleycorn. it could apply just as well to parties held regularly in the home of a miner or Indian on Alaska's frontier. They were generally started under the influence and urging of the missionaries. but such occasions were rare. it was the start of a new religion. just prior to taking his life said. To wean Alaska's poor miners. While this is commonly mentioned in relation to saloons.

the Sitka Brotherhood of St. They helped pressure Congress to support financially the voyages of Revenue Service to the far north. Archstrateg Michael (est. but so was the pressure put by non-believers to turn in the pledge cards for what they felt was a more reasonable course of action. &c. the tarnal stuff. These included song books.32 Says Jonathan. &c.T."30 Temperance societies generally began meeting by having their members pledge to abide by the rules of membership including abstinence from alcoholic drinks. Cadets of Temperance. The pressure to always abide by the pledge was strong. Brandy. 1892). And that shall be the end on't. so now here goes my brandy.Some of the temperance organizations in Alaska included various chapters of the W. towards rum I'm desperate unforgiving. which would be nailed on the back of the bar as a trophy. Shan't be here so handy. They were The Sons of Temperance. Other organizations in various parts of the United States also included some with very interesting names. the Indian Mutual Aid Society of St. "Saloon-keepers took a keen delight in assisting those who had taken a temperance pledge by offering five or ten free drinks for the pledge card. school literature. Whiskey. . Wife has given the winds her snuff. too. the Cadets of Temperance. Kindred spirits.U. says Jonathan.To utter darkness go forth. the Independent Order Of Good Templars. Gin. Chorus--Clear the house. Beer. Sometimes these pledges were written for the benefit of the member to remember his promises. the Sons of Temperance. Toddy. Clear the house. The Forth Regiment Drys of Fairbanks." (Motto of the American Temperance Society) The influence of American temperance societies was far-ranging. plays and numerous other tracts on the evils of alcohol. And so my grog I'll throw away. and so forth. Nicholas (est. says he. In some parts of the frontier. "Temperate drinking the downhill road to intemperance.. 1896) and the Alaska Native Brotherhood."31 Alaskan temperance societies often used some of the vast supply of literature emanating from their mother organizations to the south. Julep. To-day I will be independent.C. And now.29 "Reports of the Revenue Cutters continued to focus upon the impact of rum trade with the natives for the edification of the Congress and for the probable edification of temperance advocates who helped secure appropriations for such voyages. The tyrant never more shall come Into the home I live in. the Petersburg Prohibition Club. shall in. Daughters of Temperance and the Independent Order of Rechabites. Chorus--Clear the house.

Lawyers will I never let Choose me as defendant.34 When preachers succumbed to preaching in saloons. some found ready audiences by preaching in the saloons as well. those who drank also used their creative energies to express their sentiments with patriotic tunes. They reasoned that if mankind had any control over his salvation. Ignoring their own counsel never to enter a saloon nor to let the saloon enter them.35 ". and a middlin' lawyer is a pore thing. One preacher in Skagway earned the nick-name of "Holy Joe" by going into the saloons in the evening and bending the ears of those bending their elbows there. that a tavern was near. Till to death I pay my debt." (Owen Wister. Some came to work with miners and maybe make a little money themselves in the gold rush. sung to the tune of the Star-Spangled Banner.While this cold water fills my cup. went as follows: I knew by the pole that's so gracefully crown'd Beyond the old church. but keep me from a middlin' man of God. Chorus -. although they weren't legal till after 1899. where it was said there were 17 saloons in the town that had only 16 buildings (one was "at large"). What virtue is it to be virtuous if you are not allowed by missionaries to be anything else?33 FOLLOWING ON THE HEELS OF THE GOLD RUSH SALOON Not all missionaries came to Alaska to convert Natives to the gospel. considering organs and pianos as tools of the devil. allowing patrons an . I will be independent.Lawyers.. they found no place to stay nor churches in which to preach.. A man who had credit might hope for it here. Nor was it that they might stand to gain financially from the sale of liquor that they fought the missionaries in their quest for prohibition.. Sheriffs shall not lock me up.36 Saloons generally closed on the Canadian side on Sundays. One of them. The Virginian) Saloons seemed to be everywhere during the gold rush. It probably wasn't because those who drank liquor wanted to see more whites or Natives fall victim to drunkenness. It was probably more likely that they believed the missionaries were wrong in their ideas of salvation. Nor my neighbor bail me. Probably the most saloons per building was claimed by White Pass City. (Temperance tune sung to the tune of Yankee Doodle) Not to be out-done. And I said if there's black-strap on earth to be found. they generally sang hymns without accompaniment. &c. When they first arrived in the boom towns of Alaska. Many articles were written about the excessive number of saloons during the Alaskan Gold Rush.a middlin' doctor is a pore thing. Duns dare not assail me. he could not achieve it unless he had faced temptation and overcome it. The logical thing to do was to stay in corners of saloons like others arriving daily.

but was acquitted by a white grand jury. In the governor's annual report about the occurrences he said. and simply resisted their illegal efforts. The testimony taken in the case tended to prove that they."38 "On the 11th day of January Charles H. on Kuprianoff Island. as usual. Complete extermination. though betrayed by his zeal into action not warranted in law. Edwards] had abundant reason for believing that the vessel was there to sell intoxicating liquor to the natives with whom he was laboring. were shot in the water while swimming to the shore. Another minister went to the assailant's home town to get enough evidence to bring him to trial at least for making or selling liquor. The missionaries suffered a great deal of verbal abuse. Two of the natives also failed to reach the shore. too. was accosted by "pirates" in an illegal manner. boarded a sloop lying in the bay seized and destroyed a small quantity of liquor which they found on board. The saloon must go! CONFLICT BETWEEN MISSIONARIES AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS Just as the missionary element had trouble getting along with the miners and merchants of early Alaska. and. Of all Entire . they also had their troubles with the appointed government officials sent to Alaska from time to time. [Mr."39 The man who shot Edwards was tried for the deed.40 Southeast Alaska missionaries were incensed at the government's lack of evidence against what they saw as the cold. his motive was a high one. The feeling was mutual on the part of miners for the missionaries.blooded murder of one of their number by a whiskey merchant. Much conflict could be traced. Mr.37 CONFLICT BETWEEN MISSIONARIES AND MINERS Alaska missionaries never held a high opinion of miners.. and only his nobleness of character. the efficiency of his service. [and Quaker missionary] located at Hamilton Bay. the minister was set upon by masked men and tarred and feathered for his trouble. [Kake] with a number of Indians over whom he had acquired influence in his work there. In 1892. "Like most of the crimes and misdemeanors of the foregoing record.opportunity to attend whatever church services were available. they were directly connected with the sale and use of intoxicating liquors. and the sacrifice of his life in the cause of morality and civilization should be remembered.41 I stand for prohibition... Edwards. annihilation. His convincing argument was that he was captain of a vessel on the high seas. notwithstanding the prohibition of liquor in the territory. but failed. death resulting in a few days. Edwards was detained in a struggle with the captain after the Indians left and was finally shot. his devotion to his work. While investigating in the vicinity of the mining town of Douglas. violence broke out between missionaries and miners. a government school-teacher. The utter demolition this curse of misery and woe. one dead and one tarred and feathered. to liquor.

Government officials. Licensed to kindle hate and strife. the function of temperance .44 Brady was more practical than pragmatic. W. profits and political solutions to conflicts in Alaska. John Brady. (remember that prohibition was mandated from 4.000 miles away) popular resource exploitation. to slapping disorderly citizens in jail. In 1889. He urged a "High License" law that would allow the government to control and tax liquor interests rather than make it illegal.run schools. he would rail against officials from the governor to the U. but what were almost totally ignored. as well as with liquor. Their role in causing the Natives of Alaska to break with the past and with their clan system has yet to be fully evaluated. Licensed to nerve the robber's arm. Alaska's first appointed governors and civil servants included men with a variety of personal problems with missionaries. Jackson thought he would get what he wanted. the intoxicated chairman bellowed. Sheldon Jackson lobbied hard for a good non-drinking official to be named governor in hopes he would enforce prohibition. He was wrong. The early missionaries to Alaska came here basically from a temperance background. They decried liquor wherever they found it as the cause of a substantial part of all sin. on the other hand. Licensed to do my neighbor harm. Whenever the opportunity presented itself. Haskett as "vulgar and obscene in his conversation. a gambler and confirmed drunkard with but little knowledge of the law. E. spending much time in saloons. Marshall and lesser officials. low in his tastes. When President Harrison finally named one of Jackson's own sunday school teachers. were more inclined to favor local control of Alaska. One of Alaska's most outspoken missionaries believed one of the reasons prohibition was not working in Alaska was due to its "drinking officials. but when the final reports do come in. that his administration would be known as "the whiskey one. Jackson often castigated Alaska's first District Attorney. "Damn Em!" whenever missionaries were mentioned.The military often used their authority to further missionary causes from strong-arming uncooperative merchants and fining Natives who refused to send their children to missionary. Government officials filled the complete spectrum from alcoholic degenerates to honest and able men doing their duties. Licensed to whet the murderer's knife." Unless Alaska were to get appointed or elected officials that were prohibitionist and personally abstinent (like he was) then Alaska's problems were bound to continue. Jackson wrote to President Harrison (himself a devout Presbyterian) and threatened that unless something were done about government office-holders in Alaska.S."42 Sheldon Jackson was discouraged that so many government officials drank liquor and set a bad example for his own missionary work. relations were so strained between missionaries and politicians that at a democratic meeting in Juneau. as governor."43 What the missionaries wanted was enforcement of prohibition laws that were supposed to be in effect in Alaska.

.doctrine will definitely be prominent in its impact on Alaska.

5. Herbert (1968). 2. Charles Dickens' books were banned by many temperance societies because of his attitude toward drinking and liquor. p. For the holy fathers did not forbid us to drink and to eat within the law and at a fitting time. Frank C. 284. the use of ardent spirit tends strongly to hinder the moral and spiritual illumination of men. a violation of the will of God. . in 1830. p. Asbury. 213..Footnotes to Chapter 8 1. The First Century of Urban Life in America. or.. and to excess. to use it an immorality. the Apostle. some historical books indicated that Protestant clergy were very heavy drinkers up till after 1820. while Paul. and other religious exercises in which they participated. Hannah Hawkins. New York (1963).. Bridenbaugh. 39. A Russian preacher of the 14th century stated. It was easy and safe to criticize foreigners for their drinking habits along with minority groups in our own society. Orthodox Church Documents. 13 "The autobiographies and other accounts of ministers who survived the ecclesiastical guzzling to become leaders of the temperance movement are filled with accounts of gigantic drinking bouts in the homes of their parishioners. For Satan neither ate nor drank. were it not for this. Hastings House Publishers. p. Conn (1968). owning interests in distilleries and taverns. In fact. And not to drink at all is an insult to the creation made by God." Annual Report of the American Temperance Society. 7. and bring upon them the horrors of the second death. 10. 152. Drinking is joy for the wise. might live forever. at ordinations. while many were engaged in the liquor business. 3. "Ardent spirits destroy the soul. but they rejected overeating and drunkenness. Carl Cities in the Wilderness. Westport. New York (1960). said. 8. This is the statement of Hannah Hawkins in the play of 1840. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). and elsewhere. Great multitudes die the second death. p. but for the unwise. Greenwood Press.. Justin Edwards. John Marsh. and he was fallen. ate and drank and he rose to Heaven. p. It is somewhat less acceptable to discuss our own habits.. 60. p. who. Some point out that there was a general prejudice against foreigners with their strange language and traditions at this period of time.. and thus to prevent their salvation. See Asbury. Herbert The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. funerals. The Reformed Drundard's Daughter by Rev. "Not to drink at all is proscribed. Murton. There were few who didn't drink at every opportunity. 4. FORT HALL: GATEWAY TO THE OREGON COUNTRY. Robertson. 1832. See Ushin's Diary in Orthodox Church Documents." 6. Ushin's Diary. 9.

32. p. When these Indians here lose their purse their hearts are touched. Ted (1962). Orthodox Church Documents. E. (1943). (1965). The old community of Cottage Settlement in Sitka was established about a mile from downtown Sitka. 55.C. (1965). p. you should not assume automatically that the term refers only to sexual immorality. 19. p. 16. p. The Methodists generally could trace antidrinking sentiment to 1790 and before. p. that were thought to break numerous commandments. p. see Chidsey. (1945).who inebriate themselves often. The Catholics have never entirely supported total abstinence.C. J. away from both the Whites and the unconverted Natives near where the Sitka National Historical Park now has its offices. Some of the other subjects advocated by the W.M. James Kirby (1982). 17. the elimination of profanity and Sabbath-breaking and mental health.C. Pavel N. A Russian in early Sitka wrote: "Furuhjelm says that he could baptize all of [the Tlingits] at once in the Kolosh River [currently named Indian River] if he could declare that every baptized man would be given a blanket and two cups of vodka and a dinner.T. p. In 1835. The "Mormons" were temperate from the 1830's. Furnas. When converted.T. Donald Barr (1969). it cannot be but sin. and imprisonment. 207-209. Some Baptist churches expelled members who joined prohibition movements. the church here would soon have enrolled as members nearly every native. abolition. Because of this." Golovin. 134. (1983). and that is by extending law over their country and punishing an Indian by fine and imprisonment when convicted of the traffic. it recommended teetotalism to its members.U. "Could the manufacture of liquor by the Indians be stopped. Ushin's Diary. J. The Quakers are generally credited with being the earliest temperance advocates in this country.. 15. as has .C. 154. 14. Mark Edward and Martin. The manufacture of liquor in Alaska by Indians in my mind can be stopped but by one way. p. It is seemly to drink for those who are able to hide the drink within their belly and to retain bad words within their mouth. See Bainton. 13. p. Rorabaugh. (1979).U. Lender. particularly classes of poor. Roland H. 129. 663. but were able to start a temperance movement in the United States as early as 1840. included peace. For a history of the origins of the W. W. Furnas. Hinckley. 88-91. 12. when its official body ordered its ministers to preach against intoxication." See Jellenick. J. 11. 2730. the Indians would be invited to join other believers at this small community. The Presbyterians had a long history of anti-drinking sentiment going back at least to 1812. if the reader were to come across an article referring to the "immorality" of certain groups. but not abstinent till much later. 18.

1879". since the withdrawal of troops. Furnas. (1965). There was one example near Dawson. 21.been demonstrated. While the would-be miners swallowed their good fortune. All they ask is justice from the hands of all men. Just when a person is drunk has been at issue for hundreds. The presence of troops and an occasional gunboat have no effect toward destroying the traffic in this country. or vinegar of strong drink. 20. If he were to stagger. for the promotion of temperance. p. a terror fostered by the French Revolution and its aftermath. and nothing will be done by them that will create disturbance. drives terror to their souls. When either man or woman separate themselves to vow a vow of a Nazarite. shown themselves to be the most law-abiding. and shall drink no vinegar of wine. when bartender Harry Ash overheard news of a new gold strike and immediately called for free drinks "on the house" of all the drinks available. Samuel and John The Baptist were prominent Nazarites who could not drink wine or strong drink during the period of their vow. In Barnaby Rudge Dickens painted a picture of a mob gathered around a pool of flaming spirits that formed in . for instance. p. or law without either. In Charles Dickens' novels. nor eat moist grapes. (1974)." 45th Congress 3rd Session." Samson. (I Samuel 1:9-16). if not thousands of years. Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. 23. sick. 156-157. "Report from the Customs District. William R. Edward and Axton. William Brittain (1843). Temperance almost openly hoped he would hurry up and go alcoholic. In early Alaska there was no such thing as testing blood levels of alcohol to determine if a person's senses are inhibited by alcohol. that none of its members should drink more than fourteen glasses of wine daily. established about the sixteenth century. for they (the Indians) have. Eli. One example is in the Bible when the priest. "Victorians were afraid of gin partly because they were afraid of the poor. and not stand there putting ideas into others' heads. 24-25. to separate themselves unto the LORD: He shall separate himself from wine and strong drink. Ralph Barnes Bacchus. p. The term." Grindrod." comes from the Bible from Numbers 6:2-3 which says. p. Senate Executive Document #59. the label was likely to stick and be believed simply based on association.F. the bartender slipped out the back and got a jump of several hours toward the new claims over those who delayed their departure to drink the liquor. obvious and disgusting. 24. and see how long it will take to create reform. he expressed this fear. or under the influence of religious spiritual conversion rather than liquid spirits. 91. J. "A society. There is no necessity of the whites here asking protection from the Indians. There are many examples where God-fearing people have appeared to be drunk. 22. accused his wife of drunkenness when she slurred her speech. But give us gunboats and troops with law attached. 80. or dried. "Nazarites.C. neither shall he drink any liquor of grapes. W. Hunt." Hewett. Law we must have in order to protect the Indians from the doings of contemptible white men. he might have been charged with being drunk. "Speak unto the children of Israel and say unto them. had its fundamental law constituted on the principle. but were simply dizzy. Many people have defined drunken excess in various ways over the years. the Terror. For Indians. they only foster the trade by non-interference. (1983).

78. the churches themselves were responsible for causing drunkenness. According to this thought. Paul and Sorensen. 410-451. To politicians trying to side-step the Anti-Saloon League's propaganda. This was not unique to Alaska. Cleveland (1930). 33. He preached sermons to his guests in the saloon and then celebrated with a round of drinks.the street after ransacking a liquor dealers house. Conley. 4. p. some referred to those behind the scheme as Maine-acs. 35. p. Paul and Sorensen." Conley. lapping up the liquor even as they burned. Andrew (1971). One preacher in Tombstone. 25. London. 34. 27. p. p. In fact. 31. The attendance by a Native policeman to dances or potlatches. drinking or gambling all constituted grounds for losing their employment by the government. 1984. . Maxwell. Shiman. p. West. to bring an outside group--the urban lower class--to accept the tenets of the temperance tradition. Jack John Barleycorn: Alcoholic Memoirs. Donald Barr (1969). 242. 15. Berkeley. 32.. Clark Co. The Arthur H. p. p. Pilgrim Press. Ted C.. Inc. Cole. p. 58. 50. p. 26. even trying to chew and suck out the liquid from the moister fragments of the cask itself." Chidsey. Vol 2 (1950). by making those who drink even moderately to drink with guilt. These tracts were specifically directed toward lower-class people. When Maine tried to enact laws for state-wide prohibition. Hinckley. "The Washingtonian Movement" Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 160. 28. Conn. (1982). Andrew The Staggering Steeple: The Story of Alcoholism and the Churches. 29. Lilian Lewis. In A Tale of Two Cities a wine cask is broken in the street and the maddened mob of Parisian poor feverishly try to scoop it up. 30. Philadelphia (1971). "To Promote 'Cheerfulness And Happiness': The Bradford Long Pledged Teetotal Association". they referred to it as "getting hit on the head with a steeple. Robert Bently. Arizona gained a reputation for being the owner of a saloon there. 271. Harry Ellsworth Stagecoach And Tavern Tales of the Old Northwest. Elliott (1979). p. Conference on The Social History Of Alcohol Drinking. Stephen (1980). 6. firmly rooted in the temperance tradition. Cambridge (1964 edition). the whole temperance movement has been called "an effort of the dominant social group. Milton A.

a saloon-keeper who had attended a few of the Quaker meetings in Douglas abandoned his business. 54(2). He was a hunter who happened to have ten gallons of whiskey on board for himself and his friends. A stalwart Presbyterian. and (3) utterly divest himself of everything having to do with the liquor traffic. Scott "The Gold Rush Saloon". Hinckley. 40. 94. a kindly man who gave the visiting Kakes a nip of whiskey to ward off the cold. 54. 39. Hinckley. Probably it was the only mining camp on earth observing Sunday Closing . Alaska is a resource-rich area primarily controlled by civilian government . Hinckley. Ibid. Chapter # 9 GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND CIVIL SERVANTS Government officials and policies they set have always been an important part of the story of Alaska. John Brady was not entirely a teetotaler. 81. 1892. The miners of Juneau and Douglas resented the missionaries use of Indians to give testimony against whites. 44. 38. "The average Yukon saloon used up whiskey at the rate of a barrel a night. Haskett later died in an accident while drunk. Jim (1949). p. the Juneau City Mining Record published a series of articles defending the killer of Edwards as a "well-known and muchesteemed" wealthy Californian. p. 1-18. A full discussion of the murder was published in Roberts. Newberg. The testimony of Connett and the prayers of the children were too much for him. In a series of articles during the spring of 1892. Alaska Governor's Report (1892).36. April 1963. Edwards was published in Sitka by the Presbyterian newspaper The North Star. he would only take liquor when used as a medicine. Tomorrow Is Growing Old: Stories of Quakers in Alaska. the missionaries accused the "Whiskeyites" of a mockery of justice. 42. Ted (1982). in obedience to Canadian law. Shortly after the tarring and feathering. 66-74. (2) never open his store on the Lord's Day. Arthur O. dated January 25. Ted "Sheldon Jackson and Benjamin Harrison: Presbyterians and the Administration of Alaska" Pacific Northwest Quarterly. p. . The Barclay Press. p. A brief biography of Mr. 41. Ted (1982). p. 37. The one industry that operated was the world's oldest. The regular price was $1 a drink. Dial. He was brought up an orphan on the streets of New York and hustled money by running errands between saloons. he had to promise Brady three things (1) get married to the mother of his children." Marshall. he said. 225. In return. The town was unusual in that it shut down tight--except for one industry--at midnight Saturday and did not open again until midnight Sunday. 43. Oregon (1978). . When Amos Whitford joined Brady's business in Sitka. p.

elections and conventions. They also believed that Alaskan Natives must be protected and shielded from the same pastimes because of what they felt was a weakness for liquor among Natives. They drank socially at parties. there remained a problem with how to get drinkable liquid refreshment into the tiny community of Sitka where only water was plentiful.1 As government employees. He was caught and fined for trying to smuggle liquor in 1868. Treasury Department and the army.2 John Kinkead was the civilian given rights to sell stocks of liquor to the army. Long service was rare. By officially turning over the jurisdiction of saloons to civilian control. at least during the early years.agencies. dances. It was not pure coincidence that among the first businesses to pay a legalizing fee were the saloons. sometimes for fortune and still others came because they couldn't get jobs anywhere else. As a group. General Davis was able to abdicate his responsibility to enforce prohibition throughout the territory. and not the Native majority of Alaska's residents because Alaska Natives did not gain citizen status until well into the twentieth century. compared with government employees elsewhere. Basically. a group more easily controlled than the white traders. but probably got the . weddings. but some stayed for a long time. government officials drank liquor regularly. they were among the richest and most powerful inhabitants of Alaska. they answered to the citizens of the jurisdiction that paid their salaries. It was normal for civil servants to swear to uphold the laws of the land when they began their service. The large liquor stocks of the Russian-American storehouses had been purchased by Hutchison Company and were soon shipped to San Francisco to be sold at a phenomenal profit. if not daily. Even with city control of saloons. Almost exclusively they were male caucasians doing their jobs and supporting their families. The city had no control over shipping alcohol into the Alexander Archipelago.S. Together with Frank Louthan. whether it was on city. he had a business in Sitka that tried to import liquor for the civilians as well. others were appointed. This was as true in the late 1800s as much or more than it is today. One of the first actions they did was to license businesses in Sitka by charging a business license. Some of Alaska's civil servants were elected. Rarely did one who retired continue living in Alaska. Most left Alaska within one or two years. CITY GOVERNMENTS The first record of city government in Alaska was the official formation of the town of Sitka on November 25. Davis could then concentrate his efforts on Indian affairs. funerals. as this was the responsibility of the U. 1867. They sometimes came to Alaska for fame. territory or federal levels. Even at that. but the vast majority were just hired. this meant they worked for the whites. They were low-paid government employees. Many eventually died from the primary or secondary effects of drinking.

THERE'S A WAY The saloons in Sitka needed stimulants. provided its value did not exceed $500. the Treasury Department altered their rules to require the shipment of impounded liquor to Washington or Oregon for auction instead of selling it in Alaska. since it was sold by the Treasury Department. If only the "liquid assets" could be turned into cash! The solution was an auction of confiscated items at a central market place."5 By 1877. the saloons could still get their booze. however.4 "One problem was that Treasury regulations required collectors periodically to sell at public auctions all liquor they had seized. had a simpler way. The saloons could openly display the liquor on the counter with little fear that it would be confiscated. assuming the worst happened and the liquor was found and confiscated. If the liquor shipment was landed successfully at night or by having a ship drop a crate of liquor in some secluded cove to be later retrieved and brought into town. The whites. Technically. All the Indians could do would be to make their own liquor or import it on their own canoes from British ports. and is credited by some historians as being the first to try to start a temperance society in Alaska. They used government technicalities to get liquor into Sitka. and after purchase. The rules of the game prohibited liquor's introduction into Alaska. On the other hand.00. which took place every few months. the Customs officer had only one chance to stop its introduction.liquor anyway. They did not prohibit possession once the liquor was introduced. Sitka was chosen as the disposal site. Unless the Treasury agent could be bribed (which was sometimes done) the vigilant Customs officer would confiscate the liquor before it could be landed. and the merchants in Seattle and San Francisco were more than willing to ship them. it was perfectly legal to use. the confiscated liquor was put up for public auction in Sitka. bowing to pressure from temperance groups. These sales. Even frugal Treasury Department regulations forbade destruction of items illegally introduced to an area. but it proved all too easy to evade that requirement when the customs officers or military authorities wished to favor their friends among the merchant community. were an important source of cheap alcoholic beverages to the saloons of Sitka. the Customs officer was powerless to make either arrests or fines. Since confiscated liquor must be sold at auction. Lizzy Kinkead.3 WHERE THERE'S A WILL. successful bidders were to secure permits from army headquarters before claiming their purchases. His wife. Economy minded bureaucrats reasoned that the salary of the vigilant civil servant should be at least partially paid by the value of the stock he confiscated.6 OTHER CITY GOVERNMENTS . If a merchant ordered liquor. was temperance-minded. To the delight of local saloon owners.

"8 This situation led to short terms of service for customs agents who made friends with traders and companies who gave them favors in return for lax enforcement of liquor regulations.at least partially so that local saloons and liquor dealers would run less risk of being convicted by federal warrants for violating prohibition. and without troubling further about our cargo or papers he accepted an invitation to take a glass of cognac with us in the cabin. The first federal employees were Treasury Department agents who were called Customs officers. An interesting event is recorded when a visiting boat in 1868 passed the customs office in Wrangell without stopping.The concept of frustrating federal regulations or laws by passing contradictory local laws (with local juries and courts) is one that has a long. "as shown by the custom's flag flying at the stern of the canoe" then "came on board to search for dutiable goods and particularly for spirits which it was forbidden to import. however. such as sidewalk repair. so did the clamor for local government . tradition in the United States. saloons and liquor dealers were among the first to bear the brunt of the new taxes. the responsibility to determine who had legitimate need to have intoxicants fell entirely to the customs agents. The opportunity to profit from the situation was obvious. As towns and cities developed. as well as elsewhere. A presidential order prohibited anyone from bringing liquor into Alaska except by permit from the Treasury Department. road maintenance and sanitary water development. FEDERAL OFFICIALS The federal employees in Alaska have always had an important impact on other inhabitants of Alaska. it was fired upon by a cannon "no doubt as a signal for us to heave to. By 1873 the Treasury Department charged the Alaska customs officer with the fact "that for a long time past the customs house at this place has been used not so much to prevent the introduction of liquor into the territory as to facilitate its introduction. They were supposed to work closely with the army and other officials in stopping the introduction of liquor into Alaska. honorable. When the little boat went by the Wrangell customs office." The author admitted that his sailors "carried many kegs of . Right from the start. their performance record was attacked. In Alaska. it could easily be claimed that liquor financed the towns that developed. He was greatly surprised at seeing us as we had made his acquaintance at Nanaimo. "There [seemed] to be an obvious impropriety in placing the sole discretion of this traffic in an officer whose duty is to prohibit the illegal introduction. It was also an opportunity for towns to begin to support services that were badly needed. These agents were quickly besieged by requests for special permits. Whenever taxes were considered."7 When the army washed its hands of the whole affair in Alaska." The customs officer.

two resigned and five were fired. Commissioners appointed between 1884 and 1900 fifteen resigned.11 "A brief recapitulation of the implementation of the government of Alaska provides some insight into the quality of the administration of criminal justice in the territory. They had little authority and few duties other than to make an annual report to the president. while. They had a difficult time. Boyd was aided in his walk to the gallows with a drink of liquor. The miners in Wrangell then held a court. probably because of drunkenness during the last week and because of the bad news he received on the military steamer PATTERSON: The telegram informed him of his removal from office. but the fact is that some had drinking problems of their own. I saw him at Long's saloon. one was fired and only one completed his term of office. During this sixteen year period [from 1884-1900]. at 7 a. Saturday. None of them served a full term. two declined to serve. Of the five Governors appointed to Alaska. nonetheless." He also admitted treating the doctor at Fort Tongass with liquor procured (illegally) at Fort Simpson on the way up to Alaska. He was often referred to unkindly when it came to his own drinking habits. Alaska's first governor was John Kinkead. The collector in Wrangell claimed he had no authority to hold Boyd in custody. J.rum and must have had uneasy consciences." Dr.13 The ever-critical diarist.10 Often there were charges of intemperance against the collectors. at the same time most included long sections of their annual report to the drinking problems of Alaska's Natives. True to the spirit of the crime. Of the twenty-seven U. is also reported to be sick. three completed their term of office and the remaining six just left. Kinkead.9 Sometimes the federal worker who adhered closely to his legal authority rather than assuming that which he didn't have also did a dis-service. two resigned. John Boyd.m. TERRITORIAL GOVERNORS Alaska's first governors were appointed by the president. a miner wintering in Wrangell in 1878. a Presbyterian missionary in Sitka when Kinkead arrived for his (temporary) appointment as Alaska's first governor wrote that Kinkead brought with him an . S. making one wonder if not quite all of the liquor that was confiscated ended up being auctioned. May 23. said: "The wellknown former store-keeper of the military post at Sitka in the years 1867-1870. 1885. shot and killed another man in a drunken fight over a woman.S. Hall Young. Ushin. and hanged him the next day. excused their discourtesy by saying that the wind had prevented them from making for the fort."12 Alaskans like to take pride in their governors. tried Boyd. One just left the country. one was suspended. eight judges were appointed for four year terms each. who arrived here as governor. in his journal entry of May 26. one was fired.

he will attempt to get more money from the federal government. complained of the civil servants at Sitka in a letter dated June 17.C. and that he did not expect to get a cent out of him. He drinks. he claimed that "Alaska's coastline made [prohibition] enforcement impossible. Was it a sin . God made Man Love made Trouble. within its control..immense supply of cases labeled "canned tomatoes. grumbled that Alaska was different from geographical areas familiar to lawmakers in Washington. Jackson.15 Alaska's governor John Brady. Wi' great an' sma'. much of the frustration in enforcing prohibition was real. an' swears. Governor Kinkead has been drunk most of his time. in his first report. himself named as a U. God made the Vine. and spends his intervals in cursing Dr. Included in all of the early governors' reports was a plea for more manpower and money.16 If saloon friends of those of whom the prohibitionists complained had written equal testimony. Still. That Man made Wine WE NEED MORE MONEY! If a governor is going to listen at all to his local constituents." In order to be at least fair to the civilian government employees of early Alaska. an' plays at cartes. "The largest saloon keeper in town told me this very day that the District Attorney owed him a large sum for drinks at the bar. even though not popularly elected. To drown Trouble in?17 God made Love. with which to move from place to Frail as a bubble.14 At a time when political influence was inversely proportional to physical distance from the Washington. Lord." He pointed out that he was given his appointment without even a rowboat. mind this gentleman's deserts. Frae God's ain priests the people's hearts He steals awa'.S. D. he was still using the rowboat theme in his annual reports: "[My government] is set down upon one of the eleven hundred islands with not even an Indian canoe. Much of the pleas were based on the belief that Alaskan Natives were being "demoralized" by the liquor sold by the shady whites. commissioner in Sitka in 1885. Three years later. a different viewpoint might have been evident. or other conveyance." He claimed that Kinkead's "tomatoes" tasted exactly like Scotch whiskey and produced the same effect. When Governor Swineford. it must be remembered that much criticism of their intemperate habits was written by prohibitionists who could accuse anyone they wanted to of drunkenness. 1885. early governmental appointees in Alaska would have had little political influence.

The editor of the Alaska Times exclaimed.21 During much of the time between 1884 and 1899. They also believed it was their duty to deny drinking to Alaska's Natives. because Knapp's report of 1890 contained only this complaint: "The temptation for unprincipled men to engage in smuggling intoxicating liquor and opium into this territory is very great.S. It should be first noted that Alaska's whites (or citizens. Navy to prevent smuggling. building warehouses and imposing stiffer penalties for selling to Indians. Virtually no effort was made to prosecute whites for buying or selling liquor so long as they did not sell the same to Indians. The size of the prescription and who it was given to became a bone of contention only when some who were excluded from this wholesale supply of liquor complained to the authorities. and yet the collector of customs. Naval vessels."19 Ideas generated to use federal money to stem the flow of liquor into Alaska included hiring more manpower. three types of official permits were issued to those businesses selling liquor. the permit system must be understood. They were licenses given to druggists. Eskimos or Aleuts. Even a statement signed by the (to be) first Presbyterian governor included local control of liquor as one of the rights of citizenship. even in the larger towns of Sitka and Juneau. however. Permits were issued from the governor's office regularly. DRUG STORES Druggists could generally sell liquor as prescription or non-prescription medication. since Indians were not citizens) felt it was their right to drink what they wanted to drink. Alaska remained officially "dry" while openly allowing the operation of saloons."20 "PERMITTING" ILLEGAL SALOONS Prior to 1899. permits given to saloons and Internal Revenue tax stamps for liquor manufacturing businesses. has been furnished only a single rowboat with which to patrol and guard 3.place. not the whites. "It would take the entire fleet of the Revenue Marine Service and the U." but the popular perception of the prohibitionary law was that it was for the benefit of the Indians. upon whom is laid the duty of preventing it. more Native police agents."18 Governor Knapp was the last to use the rowboat idea in his reports about liquor law enforcement. During this time. The law did not differentiate between Native and "white. mechanical or scientific purposes. .000 miles of coastline. Revenue Marine ships. To understand how this state of affairs came about and what the governors tried to do about it. Conditions improved during the next two years. liquor was legal only if it was used for medicinal.

22 One of the complaints was about how accurately the druggist followed the physician's official prescription. together with a sworn statement that the medication involved was done properly according to law.Druggists were required to give a list of liquor purchasers each month to the governor. One letter from Governor Knapp to the Department of Interior accused a Sitka pharmacist of great leeway in selling prescriptions. Ten cases were found of substituting another kind of liquor for the one ordered in the prescription. 4. There were ten cases in which the prescription is given to the keeper of the Chinese restaurant with directions to be used in cooking food. when a brewmaster had his Income Tax permit revoked by the governor to manufacture beer in Juneau. He included manifests of liquor shipments to Juneau during a two-month period that showed the size of their business. beaten with egg. 2. There were several cases in which the physician prescribes for himself with fictitious directions like "to be used as directed. When a doctor's prescription specified two quarts of rum. Koosher received the following alcohol beverages in October and December."23 Once. He specified the following points of abuse: 1. 1892: October December 1 barrel of whiskey 10 gallons of sherry 2 barrels of beer 2 containers of gin 1 barrel of ale 1 barrel of whiskey 1 barrel of porter 1 barrel of claret 1 barrel of claret 3 containers of whiskey 20 gallons of brandy 20 gallons of brandy 10 gallons of rum 6 barrels of beer 10 gallons of alcohol 3 containers of ale 10 gallons of port 2 containers of champagne 1 container of alcohol Some druggists were accused of filling large prescriptions given to owners of Juneau saloons which they then used to dispense in smaller doses to the ailing whites of that city. In one case whiskey was sold when the prescription called for port wine. 3. by no means. and terms of similar import. the pharmacist sold two quarts of rum and one quart of brandy." but they supported four druggists full time in making alcoholic prescriptions.25 "Special agent John Linck checked the records at Port Townsend and could hardly . There seemed to be constant complaints to the governor about how the druggists prescribed their most popular medication to the local citizenry.C. he complained that the druggists of Juneau were doing a well enough business to allow him to sell his beer and avoid their having to import it. He complained that the Juneau population (of about 600) were "not invalids. Juneau Druggist J.

whereupon the jury would refuse to find that this was an illegal business. including improving the quality of drinks from inferior foreign spirits to making a better grade of retail liquor business if healthy competition were allowed." At a territorial convention on October 8. the Treasury Department again issued approval to sell confiscated liquor at auction in Alaska. saying that the "prohibitionary liquor law is so obnoxious that it commands neither obedience from the citizens nor enforcement by the authorities.believe that acting inspector W."26 Businessmen who applied to the governor for new permits to sell liquor used every argument they could find. In 1889. In 1885. This was discontinued six years later.P.30 Though charges were often made against people for introducing liquor.S. Ten years later a similar scandal called the "Whiskey Trust" also grabbed national attention. Commissioner Henry States of bribing officials and illegally importing liquor in barrels marked "corn beef" and depositing it at various anchorages. a national scandal broke out called the "Whiskey Ring". they could produce the governor's permit and the tax stamp. 120 barrels of beer and 75 cases of wine to be imported for medicinal purposes to serve a population of less than one thousand people. Sign on some western bars: "Gentlemen imbibing foreign and alien spirits other than good American Bourbon and whiskey are required to pay cash. It was only a matter of time till the same terms were to gain Alaskan application. The Internal Revenue service in 1894 began issuing a special tax stamp to liquor dealers who desired to pay taxes on their technically-illegal sales. Several dealers applied for and received these stamps so that if they were ever brought to court for violating the prohibition laws. McBride of Sitka had allowed 50 barrels of whiskey.28 RINGS OF WHISKEY In 1870."31 . of the steamship Idaho29 was accused by U. Captain Carroll. charges were leveled against one of Alaska's better-known steamship captains as heading an Alaskan whiskey ring. "Charges brought against whites are stopped because of the feeling that prohibition of liquor to whites "is obnoxious to the rights of citizenship. 1890. seldom was a local resident taken to court for violation of the prohibition laws."27 CONFUSING THE STATUS OF PROHIBITION It seemed that levels of government agencies added confusion to the status of Alaska's prohibition. a report was issued that openly challenged the prohibition laws.

His throne is crumbling fast. Anon. And all his petty princes With terror stand aghast! "Down East" they have been routed. as passed by the house. The license law.. to a limited extent. 1. by 1899 had succeeded in making many states and counties in the eastern United States officially dry. Governor Brady wanted a $1.. the public consumption of alcoholic beverages went back to the 1850s.U.T.D.C."33 Brady's efforts to legalize liquor did not go unheeded by the anti-liquor lobby. Superintendent of Legislation for the Northwest W. One of the first things Brady did was write to influential citizens asking what should be done about Alaska's prohibition.000 license put on all liquor dealers claiming that "the government cannot keep liquor out [of Alaska]. Elder just before high license went into effect and sent her south to Portland for sale along with 566 gallons. The collector's office out there has been so demoralized in this matter that if you knew the whole truth about it you would be sick that government affairs in any department should be in such a fix. Wilbur Crafts. -The Maine Law Banner. The courts have . Rev..32 HIGH LICENSE The idea of requiring liquor sellers to pay a relatively high license fee to regulate their trade. Even the liquor that is in the seizure room is taken out and water is put in its place. We'll scout the red-nosed crew. if a majority of the three of four white traders in a 2-mile radius so petitioned.C.Charges against some boats that brought large quantities of liquor were taken into federal courts in Oregon where they had some success in obtaining convictions.192 quarts and 1. King Alcohol is quaking. William Duncan of Metlakatla) he quickly took a trip to Washington. to argue for high license. Superintendent of the Reform Bureau.520 pints of intoxicants. testified at the hearings with a well-prepared and eloquent speech. obtain needed public funds and decrease. D. would allow the local judge to grant a license for a saloon in the very midst of Indians. Every Alaska governor recommended this course of action instead of territorial prohibition until Governor Brady was appointed at the urging of Sheldon Jackson. With the "Maine Law" banner o'er us. which.. Deputy agent Thomas Luke of Skagway captured the steamer George W. M. "Up west" we'll rout them too.. When only a few responded against a high license proposition (including Sheldon Jackson and Rev. Some of the officers are now under inditement for taking liquor out of the seizure room and selling it to the whiskey men. From Maine to California. Though Brady's appointment must have given Jackson some hope that for a change maybe the prohibition would be enforced against liquor. he was to be disappointed. Ellis. as did Mrs. Crafts said when lawlessness has been rewarded with licenses there is small reason to expect strict obedience. Our hosts are ever true.

"36 Another story told of the men assigned to guard liquor seized by the collector. in behalf of the homes (for I am a mother of children). in behalf of the women who will take their little ones and go to Alaska. then locked it up again. In the years to follow. There is a higher law than the high-license law. Some of the "whiskey men" got him out on the town with one of the "girls. Some were humorous. And may God direct you!" Brady was successful in coming back to Alaska with a new criminal code. not as tribes.37 When the customs officer started to put heat on a German brewmaster in Sitka. And so today. It is unlikely the courts would deny to civilized natives. since the native races come to us from Russia.decided that there are no "Indians. but others told of fights. I vaunts to haf some brivate conversation mit you. any so-called privilege allowed the Episcopalian rector who has asked for licensed liquors. Brady would have as heavy a heart--I believe that every mother would have as heavy a heart--if her boy was made drunk on liquor obtained under the thousand. "What is it Witz?" "You know that tam stinker Andrews.' and some broken noses and black eyes. The custom house men did not discover the theft for several days."34 Mrs. For the sake of the native races let the Senate refuse to consummate this "act. murders and drinking-related problems.35 STORIES RELATING TO ALASKA PROHIBITION Many stories evolved during the last days of official prohibition in Alaska prior to high license. Rather a curious comment on 'prohibition. I ask you not to repeal this prohibitory law.dollar license bill as if he was made drunk on smuggled liquor. and all of these were due to his success at getting high license for the saloons and liquor dealers of Alaska. named Witz appealed to Judge Tuttle. but as individual citizens. I vants a bermit to carry a weapon. Den he . "Sailors from the Man-O-War Concord and Albatross were on shore last night and had some great 'jacks." which would prolong our "century of dishonor.' They seem to be able to get whiskey from somewhere. "I think that Mrs. stole all the whiskey out of the seizure room. but Alaska was to have legal liquor for the next 18 years." The judge replied. the brewmaster. and that is the law of moral righteousness." She stole his keys. members of the Greek Church. a new means of taxation for businesses to fund schools and public works. passed them out to her co-conspirators and then kept him in her room while they went down. I ask you to remember the mothers and to remember the homes in Alaska.legislation would be introduced to reinstate prohibition in Alaska with the support of the Reform Bureau and other prohibitionist groups. "Chudge." in the legal sense. in Alaska. Ellis was not afraid to get very personal with her testimony. he shrump on my vagon.

she attempted to break the demijohn. "All types of men are at mile twenty-three and a half. He gome down tonight mit one big gun strabbed on him.U. She then poured out the whiskey. She told him to go to bed and locked the door. and last Forth of July twenty-five of them secured a demijohn of whiskey and several bottles. Respectfully yours. "Verily." In an effort to prevent Pribilof Islanders from making quass beer. A story was told by a visiting W. to go to his room. escorting him there. W. he said. one woman in Alaska who gained a small reputation for behaving like Carrie Nation. "Shrudge.] She ordered the owner of the house. Treasury Agent." To which the German replied. and that no man could come to her table who had been drinking. She was frustrated at seeing open violation of the liquor laws that made Kansas officially dry. but I don't drink beer. Going back to the company.I. it was entirely possible that someone may have emerged to bash saloons and bars here with the wholehearted support of the missionary element. I send you a dozen bottles of my peer. candy. "No. Milk will be issued on government order to those families having little children."38 Within one year of the passage of Alaska's high license law. Had Alaska not gone legally wet while continuing to openly operate saloons.T. dried fruits of all kinds. He was pleased with the initial success of the new state of affairs. and sweet crackers. at this time was a prohibition town. Carrie Nation began chopping up of illegal saloons in Kansas." After the judge counseled him against getting a gun. a deputy collector should be happy. Mrs. but the bottle was too strong. When one man called her a second Carrie Nation she simply said that she did not propose to clean up after men who got drunk."40 TINKERING WITH REGULATION Within one year of high license. Lendkey.shrump on mine vagon again. you have not troubled me. jelly. that the government rules forbade the use of liquor and she would see to it that they were enforced. . 1899. "you dond drink beir? Dat ish funny. smashed the receptacles. In it he says: "To prevent drunkenness and the making of quass on this island I will thank you to withdraw from the sale to he natives until further notice the following articles: sugar. speaker to Alaska about Mrs. Dabney (first name unknown) who worked on the Seward to Anchorage railway in 1916. I fix him." That night deputy collector Andrews arrested Witz and the entry in Andrew's diary closed with the statement. Dabney walked in upon the company while they were drinking. and threw the bottles of whiskey into Kenai Lake. Americans don't drink beir." The judge replied. [Anchorage. her employer. notwithstanding high license. milk. in fact. the treasury agent wrote a letter to the manager of the company store dated December 9.C. saloon numbers decreased by about 80 percent according to Governor Brady's official report.39 There was. I hopes I haf not troubled mit you.

"45 LOCAL OPTION The term. "It was rather amusing as the 1st of July drew near to find the saloon men out in the middle of the night with their tapelines measuring the distance from their places of business to the nearest church to see if they came within the 400-foot limit. To-day there are several such places marked 'to rent.41 An article in Alaska Prospector. Idaho was also considering the same status with a bill that made it so dry that Senator Borah referred to his legislation as making Idaho "bone dry. were continuing. the animal will be able to work much harder." Governor Brady thought it amusing to observe the degree that saloons would go to keep their lucrative licenses. since feelings throughout the country. and schools were operating on income from the same source. One stipulation required Sunday closing.This was not the end of efforts to dry out Alaska. They could legally buy and sell liquor at will. About 50 to 80 percent of revenues were from liquor licenses. in passing its first legislation to give women to right to vote. including Alaska. Another required that saloons be located no closer to churches than 400 feet.46 Soon after Alaska came under high license.43 but a judicial finding in Alaska clouded the issue. efforts were made by some groups to ban liquor in any of a number of ." Alaska government revenues beginning to come in from licenses issued to businesses. it was concluded that: "Psychologists say that the use of any narcotic or stimulant endangers the nervous equilibrium and warps the judgment. Women use but a small proportion of the millions upon millions' worth of tobacco and alcoholic liquors that are consumed in this country annually. local option has generally been used to refer to localities that vote themselves dry when others within the state or territory are wet.'"42 In 1909. also helped the cause of prohibition. Washington was considering prohibition.44 The new territorial legislature. We doubt whether any of the mushers will be willing to indulge in this waste of liquor so long as their blacksnakes hold out. had the following advice to mushers: "Judge Goodell is authority for the statement that by moistening sugar with whiskey and feeding it to a dog. In an article in Alaska-Yukon Magazine in 1910 that advocated giving women the right to vote. Congress passed a law making it a felony to sell liquor to Indians. 1902. The court decided that since the Tsimpsian Indians at Metlakatla were not Indians that were in Alaska at the time of the transfer (1867) that they were not officially "Indians" as far as the liquor law was concerned. dated February 27. Judicial districts operating and court houses and jails were built with liquor money. The brains of women are normal on election day.

1915. 1918.49 One of the arguments against the "Bone Dry" law was that five of the 16 incorporated towns were entirely dependent upon revenue generated by these licenses. James Wickersham. he would lose title to that property. To enforce the rules against liquor. The U. in an article dated July 6. a rider to the bill transferred the "Alaska fund" from Congress to the legislature so that it could be spent on schools and other services in incorporated towns. "but plenty of booze.48 Several newspapers printed arguments about the drinking situation at Anchorage. When this passed by a majority of nearly two to one. In the spring of 1915. "BONE DRY" The territorial legislature passed the opportunity for a territory-wide straw vote on prohibition. At issue was the requirement that saloons obtain approval of more than half of the voters in the vicinity to continue the license for the saloon. Enforcement of prohibition throughout the period from 1918 till mid-1935 was mostly under the laws of Alaska's "Bone Dry" law rather than under the Volstead Act. went to Washington to ask for a return to prohibition. Penalties were also much stiffer than those when convictions were made under the Volstead . Among the strategies used was one called local option. like the Chitina Leader. Its enforcement left something to be desired." There was no in-between. Alaska's "Bone Dry" law went into effect on January 1. several saloons won the right to continue licenses within communities in which they operated. as well as sale of liquor. Others. and the new town of Anchorage. Those who did not vote were assumed to have voted against continuing the license. They could vote for either "Wet" or "Dry.circumstances. was designated by the federal officials involved with this project as a prohibition town. it was determined that if a person obtained a residential lot from the federal government and later was convicted of selling or obtaining liquor. who spent most of their time chasing mostly Indians who drank (rather than whites). because the "Bone Dry" law prohibited possession. The language of the ballots was the briefest of any option ever given to Alaskan voters.S." ALASKA BECOMES DRY. claimed that Anchorage had no saloons. since enforcement was left entirely up to agents hired by the governor. made up mostly of federal employees on the new railroad.47 Even with this unusual requirement. government began construction of a railroad into interior Alaska by 1914. special elections were held throughout Alaska. In order to fund Alaska schools after prohibition again went into effect. Investigators also had easy access to private residences without possessing search warrants under the "Bone Dry" law. Some claimed it was an unfit place to live due to the "drought" that one had to suffer there. Alaska's delegate to congress.

.Act.

341. One unhappy agent in the "lower 48. Stanley Ray (1976). 317. John Kinkead had arrived in Sitka on the same ship on which the first army groups arrived.Footnotes to Chapter 9 1. p. Hinckley. Murton. We are not certain what kinds of goods he sold there. Ted (1967). Very few of Alaska's early governmental and religious leaders are buried in Alaska. 4. p. Customs Collector Dodge claimed this included some 30. made a citizens arrest of the sheriff for the sale of illegal liquor -. Kinkead and Louthan tried to protest their $200 annual (semi-high license) fee to the War Department in 1868. 3rd Session. Louthan opened up a liquor business in Washington. See Arrington. 45th Congress.26 "The Story of a Street". Thomas O'rhelius (1965). p. "Report from the Customs District. 1974). Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. but a hint might come from the fact that Brigham Young and others condemned the "Mormons" for frequenting the gentile stores on "Whiskey Street" (currently State Street) on which the store of Livingston and Kinkead stood. Larry Arthur (June. Harvard University Press. . Cambridge (1958). Stanley Ray (1976). The Canadian Mounted Police destroyed their confiscated liquor by pouring it on the ground at a specified place at their posts. He had left the gold fields of California to seek his fortune in Alaska." after having his liquor confiscated by a sheriff as illegal. 9. 30.44.000 gallons of liquors of various kinds and that none of it was to be sold in Sitka. Remsberg. 18. p." p. 6. Remsberg. and The Pioneer (Official organ of the National Society of Sons of the Pioneers) Vol. but the War Department refused to become involved. (1972). Portland and Phoenix to see the final resting place of Alaska's early non-Native leaders. 2. 1867-1903. 5. Even the advent of the Alaska Longevity Bonus in the 1970's did not reverse this trend. Sparks. Senate Executive Document #59. p. A study done for the State soon after implementing the "Bonus" claimed that few stayed in Alaska (except Natives) upon retirement even with the "Bonus" program. In a letter to the Treasury Department in January 16. Modern Alaskans must go to cemeteries in Seattle. Spring 1954. he had a small "gentile" business in the heart of Salt Lake City among the "Mormons". No I p. 43. hoping to gain a lucrative government position. 7. James H. 243.S. See Gray. 1868. 3. p. Upon leaving Alaska when the economy of Sitka ran dry. Leonard The Great Basin Kingdom. See U. only to see it sold at auction by the sheriff with the profits going to the sheriff. 1879. Treasury Department Alaska File of the Special Agents Division. Prior to California.and he won! 6. Some still believed it was a concocted destruction by preparation of the ground beforehand so that the liquor would soak through the ground and a filter made with a horse blanket into a bucket underneath. He was the purser on that trip.

72.8. quick witted and of keen observation. 16. Herford. Bobby Dave (1974). you may just get a rowboat. 1868. above all things. "There have been since the district was established. Larry Arthur (June. p. 14. the acting Attorney General to the Department of the Interior wrote an endorsement at the bottom: "I endorse the above pardon for the reason that it rid the District of a nuisance who has not a chance to leave it. 15. Emil (1963). 47. Microfilm N430. the author concluded. of sound and discreet judgment." 45th Congress 3rd Session Senate Executive Document 59. he must be a man equal to the occasion. Alaska's governors didn't even have the authority to pardon those convicted of selling liquor to the Indians. willing. "If you ask for a rowboat. p." p. as well as those for the collection of revenue. 161. 18. Alaska Times. Teichmann. Burns. 10.or physical coward: if the latter. Binford and Mort. Murton. 12. 1974). 17. 17. Atwood. 73." Interior Department Territorial Papers for Alaska. p. Lain. p. July 27. neither a ----. no less than seven different collectors who have held office [in 10 years]. 14-15. Kinkead was Alaska's first postmaster. ." That not many could fill these qualifications. 1886 and September 22. When Patrick O'Neill had a pardon requested by the governor for this crime. the Indians. sutler (army procurement agent) and former advocate of city government in Alaska. "Holy Willie's Prayer". Among the qualities that were expected of a customs officer in return for his $125 per month (deputy collectors got $100) included: "He must be well versed in the whole organic law of the land. Governor Knapp's final report to the president included the conclusion that "in the apparent estimation of the legislative mind the lives and property rights of human beings were held in importance in the inverse ratio of the square of the distance" from Washington. 19. Portland (1979). will readily 'twig' it. 226-227. in fine. 9. Mr. Murton. This example is an interesting comment that is still true of those asking money of the federal government. and his mission is ended. p. April 26. 13. "Customs Office Report on Alaska. p. "A Plea". whenever the necessities of the case demanded. Sparks." 20. Publishers. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). Ibid. 11. Evangeline Frontier Politics: Alaska's James Wickersham. 1894. Thomas O'Rhelius (1965). to assume responsibility. 127. p. 134-135. and.

Barrels that were confiscated and locked in warehouses on wooden docks were in danger of being drilled into from under the dock by workers using wood drills. Liquor dealers were also required by this order to post a bond with the governor in the amount of $500. Roll 111. 1869-1911. liquor arriving in Portland was reduced in quantity before unloading. 23. Even when liquor was sent south for sale. Microcopy 111. Americans almost always referred to liquor coming from Canada as "inferior". perhaps unknowingly marking where stashes of contraband cargo may have been hidden. US Attorney to the Attorney General dated March 7. 24. 1892. not all of it arrived. 163. p. Larry Arthur (1974). Hamlin. 31. June 12. allowing gravity to reward the midnight workers.S. 28. Canadians felt the same of American liquor. Interior Department Territorial Papers . florida water and almost any other name. Gray to Charles S. Charges against Captain Carrol were first published in Alaska Times. 32. More often than not. first Assistant of the Secretary of Treasury. 1869-1911. 27. This was not a rule intended to limit the number of liquor dealers as much as it was to make sure that none avoided the $25 permit fee. Interior Department Territorial Papers . December 23. The Idaho Inlet near Pelican in Southeast Alaska is named in her honor. 1892.21. Secretary of Interior. 30.Alaska." See Hinckley. The four "rights and privileges of American citizenship" according to the petition signed in 1897 included: (1) Homestead rights (2) An Alaskan delegate to the House of Representatives (3) Authority to incorporate our towns and cities (4)"Repeal of the Prohibitory liquor law and substitution in lieu thereof of a stringent and well guarded license law. p. 1886. Larry Arthur (1974). Various research I have done has uncovered liquor in barrels of sugar (found only after a shipwreck that dissolved the sugar). 28-29. Noble. Roll 111. Hiding liquor in barrels that had been mis-labeled is a time-honored tradition in Alaska. Letter from Governor Lyman E. 1869-1911. Sparks. Sparks. Larry Arthur (June 1974). Interior Department Territorial Papers . 35. 29.Alaska.Alaska. Knapp to John W. 1894 in Interior Department Territorial Papers . Ted C. (1982). 22. See report from C. The tax stamps were not supposed to be given to any business that did not have a permit from the governor. Johnson. p. p. . Sparks. February 25.Alaska. 39. 1892. 26. This was the requirement ordered by President Benjamin Harrison in an executive order dated March 12. Roll II. 1869-1911. Letter from John F. 25. stewed tomatoes (found after a rush to buy can openers).

Senate Document No. since felony convictions against white residents seemed a bit harsh for doing this. One of the first issues of the territorial legislature was an effort to reduce this back to a misdemeanor. One-half of the revenue from licenses was earmarked for schools. 41. New York (1976). Ella Boole from The Union Signal. 39. p. 1910. 37. 1903. The Reform Bureau was the 1899's version of the modern day "Moral Majority".L. Notebook of C. The Literary Digest. The saloon interests in Kansas had made an effort to change the constitution of the state. University of Washington. 1897. No. 2nd Session. Norton & Co. An Attorney General opinion held. 42. January 20. Andrews. There are numerous entries in the microfilm rolls relating to Treasury agents in the Pribilof Islands where the agents take extra-legal authority to punish islanders for drinking beer. January 14. p. . however. that the new territorial legislature did not have this authority. Deliver Us From Evil: The interpretation of American Prohibition. 85 "Proposed Restoration of Prohibition to Alaska. C. since they initially came to Alaska to avoid partaking of alcoholic sacraments proffered by the Church of England. Senate Document #122. anyway. February 15. Most of the testimony in support of the proposed repeal was from missionaries or former missionaries who felt that their efforts of converting Alaska's Natives were hindered by "high license. February. 40. 3. Vol 54:156.." 36.L. 34. 44. Ibid. and they were the first Indians in Alaska to hold temperance meetings. 45. 81. was an inspector who arrested many for the introduction of alcohol into Alaska. 43. Box 2. 177. See Clark.". under the date of Thursday. Alaska-Yukon Magazine. 1899. Notebook 16. Saloons were omnipresent throughout Kansas. The legislature then decided that if they did not have the authority to regulate the "sale" of liquor to Indians. who later wrote books about Alaska. 38. September 2. "Why Women Should Vote". 55th Congress 3rd Session. p. Andrews in the Andrews collection. This is particularly ironic. Vol IX. 35. which prohibited the sale and manufacture of liquor. they would at least begin to regulate the "receiving" or "giving" of liquor to Indians. 57th Congress. Alaska Governor's report (1899). 1917 quoting Mrs. Etc.33. Norman H.3.

1 WINE IN WORLD HISTORY Wine and beer have existed as beverages for about 5. The requirement was that those within a two-mile radius vote in favor of the license. 48. it would exclude liquor from the whites as well as the Indians.e.. alcohol use by whites should be understood. This brought pressure on saloons throughout Alaska to lobby hard for a favorable vote and brought a considerable amount of revenue to newspaper publishers who accepted advertisements from the "saloon men" and others who wanted to voice their opinion.) of wine and intoxication. Moses's Hebrews were led out of Egypt. beer. he was going to give them a law that was so dry.000 years. If Alaskans wanted prohibition. In order to maintain a good perspective about Alaska's history. and spirituous . One of the reasons man ceased being nomadic and to started settling down to agriculture was to reap the benefits of grain and fruit fermentation. Some states had local option laws that allowed individual communities to be "wet" while the rest of the state was legally "dry. Bacchus. Several people lost their property under this provision until the courts found it to be unconstitutional.3 The wine they found in Palestine and Syria were so potent that they were diluted two-thirds with water and were still found to be strong. Around 1200 BC.2 Legends grew around the importance of wine and beer. notwithstanding the lease that forbade such use) he refused to return to the state of affairs that existed prior to 1899 in Alaska. The theologies of many cultures included references to the gods (i. See Atwood. Although he was accused of his political enemies of being a puppet of the liquor interests (he once owned property in Fairbanks that was used as a saloon.46. 49. Dyonesius. etc. This has not always been the case. Osiris. Chapter # 10 EARLY AMERICAN AND WORLD ALCOHOL HISTORY The history of alcohol use by those into the ethnic class of whites goes back thousands of years. but was not a teetotaler. BIBLICAL ALCOHOL Many books and publications documented the use of wine. Evangeline (1979)." 47. Judge Wickersham was a quaker. They complained of the lack of grapes and figs with which to make wine.

"-. One legend about early Russia pertained to the grand prince of Kiev.5 but it must be used for proper ends. drinking.I Timothy 5:23-"Woe to them that are mighty to drink wine. no striker. He stated.4 "Drink no longer water. Not given to wine. And wine that maketh glad the heart of man.liquor over the centuries. making merry and administering to the sick with alcohol. Although some religions forbade alcoholic beverages. but patient."-. One of the best history books that about the use (and abuse) of alcohol is the Bible. "drinking is the joy of the Russe. We cannot exist without that pleasure. and men of strength to mingle strong drink. apt to teach. who lived from 978-1015 AD. strong drink is raging: and whoso is deceived thereby is not wise. the husband of one wife. It is one of the oldest books to praise as well as condemn alcoholic drinks. From the first mention of the prophet Noah's drunkenness to the end of the New Testament there are numerous references to wine. not a brawler. not greedy of filthy lucre.. Judaism and Christianity embraced wine as intrinsic parts of their worship. vigilant. By the mid-16th century it had become very fashionable to drink liquor.. Volodimir. but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities.. the Christian church emphasized that wine was a gift of God to man for his enjoyment. and herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth food out of the earth. To despise wine was considered heresy. As one Rabbi is quoted: "If you become holy by abstaining from wine. and is intrinsically good. of good behaviour." --1 Timothy 3:2-3-"Wine is a mocker. sober. why not abstain from everything?"6 THE MIDDLE AGES Alcohol became influential in the every-day lives of people throughout Europe and the rest of the world. .Isaiah 5:22-"He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle. given to hospitality. Abstinence among Judaism is rare. It held that he rejected conversion to Islam in part because of its ban on wine drinking."7 The secret of distilling wine into brandy and of making of other liquors gradually spread over Europe. not covetous." --Proverbs 20:1-By the 4th century." --Psalms 104:13-15-"A bishop then must be blameless. St.

to come and drink from the common source. One source reports that in 1840 at the Hudson's Bay Company post on the "Stakin" River the local Indians (Tsimshian) gave a whiskey feast in which a hogshead of whiskey four feet high was emptied in one day. the famous leader of the Russian colonies in Alaska.The concern expressed by church leaders regarding drunkenness was centered over the irreverence that it produces on Sundays and other holy days rather than due to injury to the health of the drinker or for other reasons.11 REPUTED HEATH-GIVING QUALITIES OF ALCOHOL BEVERAGES Alcohol has been taken internally in times past as commonly as orange juice is now taken in the morning.Saxons during the Middle Ages. whiskey feasts in Alaska were known to have been given at least 25 years before this and probably were held even earlier. One writer gives 1864 as the date of the first whiskey feast on the northwest coast. This type of "prestige through extravagance" performs many important functions in winning loyalty and gaining status among small groups. In this way he affirmed his superiority over families and classes less confident in the future or more careful in providing for it. it was the practice to gain prestige and legitimacy for nobles to expending virtually all their wealth on their followers. The Tlingit around Sitka in the 1870s customarily used the Russian term 'prasnik' for their drinking carousals. At these feasts.9 The Russians had a similar type of feast. "Some features of the Tsimshian whiskey feast carry more than a hint of Russian drinking ritual and suggest something of the extent of Russian cultural influences in its development. is reported to have on some occasions filled large iron kettles with liquor and called all of his 'children. That this type of drinking feast is similar to the feasts of the Middle Ages in Europe suggests that feasts with heavy drinking are perhaps characteristic of people all over the world. It was the firm belief of most American colonists who were concerned about their health that a pre-breakfast jolt of something highly alcoholic warded . however. importance and often whiskey was consumed in large quantities. Baranoff. These were potlatches where the wealth of the person giving the feast was distributed flagrantly and openly among those attending as a show of power.8 MEDIEVAL BANQUETS AND ALASKAN POTLATCHES COMPARED Some historians of Alaska have discussed the "whiskey feast" of the early Alaskan Natives. and not just behavior that is modeled after certain groups.' the promyshleniki (fur hunters)."10 Whiskey feasts held in early Alaska had many elements in common with feasts held across the world by Anglo.

greying hair.12 Periodic intoxication was believed beneficial for the system if not indulged in too often.off chills and strengthened the blood.16 In 1767. It recommended 49 different wines in the treatment of illness. Tsar Ivan IV [The Great. gout and deafness. In 1543." who robbed the poor of Russia. the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages were in the hands of independent peasants and farmers."13 An Italian document of the 14th century discusses the health. for a normal man. while temperance organizations flourished in the United States. inasmuch as the results which usually follow do certainly purge the body of noxious humours. drink and obtain lodging for the night. It was the kabak. firmly believing that he was doing what was in the best interests of the family.. the Terrible] is said to have instituted the Russian equivalent of a saloon.15 RUSSIAN ALCOHOL HISTORY In early Russia. "Demon Rum".17 By the early 1900s. as in other countries. In Russia. sterility. Those who obtained these franchises were believed to be "local despots and political bosses. But one should not do so too often. Even Carrie Nation's grandfather carefully measured out a hygienic spoonful of liquor to each family member.giving qualities of spirits when used externally as well as internally and asserted that spirits were good for treatment of lice. therefore. a place where people came for only one activity -to drink. following the recommendation of a commission made to study how to increase the profitability of the alcohol monopoly to the state. Gradually.i. these were called korchma or taverns.14 Long before it gained the reputation of an evil foreign beverage. . the production of liquor was reserved to state. the Russian name for a saloonkeeper came to be tseloval'nik or one who kisses. a system of farming out liquor franchises (otkupa) was established. Drinking establishments were similar to the roadhouse of the early American colonies: places where a traveller could eat. The saloonkeeper was forced to swear his good faith and just dealings by kissing the cross. rum was used to give the illusion of warmth to colonists who lacked any other form of "central heating" while they built their livelihood out of the American wilderness.e. One of his recommendations included this comment: "There is undoubtedly something to be said for intoxication. general body aches. One of the most popular medical works of the 15th and 16th centuries was written by Arnald of Villanova in 1310 AD and titled Liber de vinis. no more than twice a month.operated concessions and peasants were forbidden to brew and distill drinks by 1705.

. &c.."19 The Gin laws of 1736 caused violent Gin Riots when they were enforced. Rather bleak pictures have been painted of the poor of England. when they proceed to drink on. and no anesthetics are available. which they swallow in great quantities."21 Alcohol was believed important as a medicine and was especially considered important in damp or cold climates. The abstinence lasted for designated periods of time and were administered by the parish priest. fays the fame Author.a Trader has a large empty Room backward.. even now. at Meals. that (as natural Caufes will always produce their proper Effects) their Blood becomes inflamed .18 THE ENGLISH AND ALCOHOL Numerous British sailors visited the Alaskan coast as early as the 1780s. till they recover their Senses. 'for.temperance societies also sprang up in Russia. a few writers in England began to warn of possible health problems that could be caused by drinking undiluted wine and distilled liquor.a Crowd of poor ragged People. we fee by daily Experience.. over repeated Glasses of these destructive Liquors. where as his wretched Guests get intoxicated. having spent all they had. habitually ufed as a common diluter. Women. They are used to it from the cradle. and looks into the Distillers Shops. the drinking of highland whiskey had become so popular in Scotland that folklore grew around this new home-made alcohol beverage..20 By 1770. This was known as the fatigue ration or the rum ration. "Wine it felf. a malt spirit as strong as geneva. In the early 1700s. cursing and quarreling with one another. without Water.22 In an age when almost everyone suffers from one kind of physical pain or another. gin had become so commonplace in England that its effects are. alcohol was reported to be the best pain-killer.23 As early as 1735.. it is fair that some history of the British and alcohol be understood. It was at this time that Orthodox Russians began taking a pledge of abstinence from alcohol seriously.. without any signs of inebriation. go out and find wherewithal to return to the same dreadful Pursuit. or. Men. For example: "Every one who now passes thro' the Streets of this great metropolis. Before discussing the offering of alcohol to the Natives of Alaska. and Children. is of bad confequence to Health. they are laid together in Heaps. The Highlanders "regale themselves with whiskey.. Widespread bootlegging and smuggling rendered the law unenforceable.[I]n one place. promiscuously. referred to as the gin plague. Sailors were given a daily ration of either a pint of wine or a half-pint of rum to replace the gallon of beer they had been allowed since 1590.must see..

Pleurifies. affirming they would gladly discontinue it but for their competitors. their Paffions are inraged into Quarrels. Others stopped in Dawson to seek their fortune before following the rumors of gold to Nome and other Alaskan mining boom towns. "The Governor and Council in imposing differential duties on the importation of wine and spirits [from the United States] contemplate solely the mitigation of an evil. in 1850 and 1851."26 The most notable Canadian fur magnate was John Jacob Astor of the Hudson's Bay Fur Company. and their Solids fcorched and fhrivelled. giving the [Indians] a regale.25 This competition was the result of mistrust over what merchants did in out-of-the-way places. Competition between American fur companies and those loyal to England who traded and trapped their way just north of United States' borders was often intense.into Gouts. All the great companies north and south of the Canada line bewailed the necessity of dealing out alcohol.particularly western Canada . They called it 'fool's water. of their lack of good faith in selling alcohol to the natives. In 1841 wagon-loads of alcohol in barrels were conveyed openly from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. and the same to the Indian hunter when he brought in furs to sell. Murder and Blafphemy. The wines and spirits as now obtained from the United States are complained of as profuse in . the Hudson Bay servants grew lax. and at one time the Crows would not allow it to be brought into their country. notwithstanding the laws then in force against the traffic. for we find complaints by the Russians on one side. and sold everywhere. Stone and Rheumatifm. their Juices are dried up.'"24 CANADIAN ALCOHOL HISTORY No history of alcohol in Alaska would be complete without discussing what happened in Canada .as it related to alcohol. on his arrival and departure. the Chipewyans would not touch the intoxicating drink. Strange to say. United States fur companies explained their use of liquor in the fur trade as being because of unethical practices by English traders along the border. "In 1833 east of the Rocky Mountains it was the custom to deal it out sparingly but gratuitously [by the Hudson's Bay Fur Company]. the same argument was given by traders within the Hudson's Bay Fur Company when they sought to improve the quality of drink in the Canadian west by starting a company-owned still in 1861. and the American government on the other.27 While the Americans complained of the cheap and inferior quality of liquors dispensed by the Canadian traders. Later.' Heads of families were sometimes presented a few gallons of whiskey on Christmas. He secretly included supplies of alcohol on shipments of trading goods to the Northwest coast and profited from the sale of a large supply of alcohol to Baranof in 1812. Small Pox. raging Fevers. as they called it. or Meafles. Many gold miners travelled through Canada on the way to the gold fields of interior Alaska.

took his prohibition-minded congregation with him in a mass movement to the southern tip of Alaska. settling on Annette Island. The importation from the British Dominions has not as yet incurred similar objections. "To abolish the consumption of spirits is unobtainable. From Philadelphia northward. Who would not die so sweet a death. At that point. Here safely moor'd. In endless shades lies drunken Tom. The minor benefit is to moderate its quantity and to protect against the evils of adulteration. After they had established faithful congregations. settled down to converting his neighbors' grain into a more drinkable product by means of a distillery in Mt.29 Missionaries came to western Canada teaching the doctrine of prohibition to the Indians they converted to the Church of England. rum distillation from imported molasses was the leading manufacturing process. This included partaking in sacramental wine. Such importation cannot be a monopoly so long as the bonded vaults of New York are open to capital and enterprise. the church desired that full membership privileges be allowed the Indian converts. for it shipped easily. one stubborn missionary apostatized. Patrick Henry embarrassed his friends by serving only beer to his important guests. --Epitaph of Kentuckian Tom Johnson-- . The Company also had to pay the settlement a duty of a shilling per gallon that it made and sold. IMPORTANCE OF ALCOHOL TO THE ECONOMY AND CULTURE OF USA Before the American Revolution.quantity.By whiskey grog he lost his breath. and with proper handling could increase in value with age. when the British blockaded molasses and rum imports. and deleterious in quality.30 In the early years and into the 1920s missionaries complained to American government officials and licensed liquor dealers in Alaska about supposed availability of liquor from Canadian ports. During the Revolution. Who got his death by drinking grog-. Even General George Washington. Vernon. allowing no private citizen or other company the right to distill liquor but them. Liquor that came into Alaska from Canada was untaxed and benefitted the Canadians rather than American citizens who also marketed refreshing drinks. on retiring from the presidency. rum and molasses (of which rum was made) accounted for one-fifth the value of all goods imported from Britain and its possessions.31 Rum was the currency of the age.32 The early citizens of the United States joked on gravestones about their propensity to drink heavily: Underneath this marble tomb."28 The Canadian archive records indicate they kept a tight reign on the Hudson's Bay Fur Company. dead as a log. could be warehoused easily.

three sheets in the wind" and numerous other expressions were applied to the man who came home leaning a little to one side or the other after going down to the grocery on an errand for the family and meeting a few friends en route. "Boozy. a drink fit only for animals and lesser creatures. Even then. Derry Down-. And mended his morals by drinking its wine. how-come-you-so.Derry Down-Twas honest old Noah first planted the vine.36 . groggy. haily gaily.T. drink and cannot rise. Records of this period show that many of these men only changed their drinking patterns from spirituous drinks to beer and wine to wet their whistles.New words crept into the language of those who settled on the frontier to describe the behavior of those who had taken too freely of the liquid spirit. Water was thought of as weak. For there can't be good living where there is not good drinking. He is not drunk who from the floor more. on mischief still thinking. and drink once And cannot Not being satisfied with the common.U. Methodists and Quakers. "Tanglefoot. These church-going folk were normally not opposed to alcoholic beverages so much as just being opposed to the distilled variety of alcoholic drinks. That virtue and safety in wine-bibbing's found While all that drink water deserve to be drowned.C. swipy. the primary audiences were Congregationalists. blue. Derry Down-.35 One of the drinking songs composed by Benjamin Franklin went: The Antedeluvians were all very sober. bad livers. For they had no wine and they brewed no October. Rotgut. cut in the craw.So for Safety and Honesty. or the Prohibition Party. fuddled. Nokum Stiff.34 SELECTED RELIGIONS BEGIN TO URGE "TEMPERANCE" It wasn't until about 1830 that the temperance and prohibition forces began to turn any large groups away from heavy drinking. And thenseforth justly the drinking of water decried For he knew that all Mankind by drinking it dy'd. Tiger spit" and "Jersey Lightning" referred to drinks that believed lethal if drunk if the observer was inclined to join political groups like the W. All wicked. Panther sweat. Can rise again. damp. Soda Pop Moon. put the glass round. But he is drunk. tipsy. garden variety references to whiskey.33 It was these Americans who insisted that they "had only taken a few" and stated that they were "not either" drunk. certainly not suitable for a species so advanced as man.From this piece of history plainly we find That water's good neither for body or mind. who prostrate lies. they invented new drinks with fancy names. half-shaved.

water for me! Bright water for me. . the Alaskan Indians.37 Some Englishmen were so afraid of following the radical advice of drinking water. He would not have made him with an elbow Capable of raising a wine glass. that bright. Residents in Alaska understood little of the forces gearing up in the east over temperance. --Benjamin Franklin--39 In England. eases the anxious mind of its burden. especially those who encouraged the Natives to use and abuse the "waters of life.38 If God had intended man to drink water. a mixture thought to be less dangerous. thrusts the coward forth to battle. fur trappers and fortune-hunters -and not least of all. sparkling water was the best drink for mankind as well as for the animals. America and Russia. . American. -McGuffey's New Eclectic Speaker (1858)-By the time of this new awakening about water. This movement was shaped by powerful political and religious forces that converged far away from "The Great Land.Some started to insist. And wine for the tremulous debauchee. "What wonders does not wine! It discloses secrets." The consumption of some distilled spirituous liquors began to be condemned by an Evangelical revival known as Methodism. By the end of the Civil War (1865). ratifies and confirms our hopes. and at about the same time that jurisdiction over Alaskan waters changed hands. instructs in art. emotional and medicinal needs of society prior to and during the discovery and colonization of Alaska by those of European and Asian ancestry. as well as throughout the world generally." --Horace-- . alcohol had been used for nearly 50 years along the Alaskan coastal waters by the Russians. stronger temperance movement was about to unleash itself upon the hard-drinking Alaskan miners. One Englishman in 1849 claimed that porter beer was as cheap as any other drink but water and was easier to get than the latter. O. that they resolved to drink water only if fortified or strengthened with whiskey. whom not quite free and easy from pinching poverty. Indians and British alike." It would give new significance to the drinking behavior of all those who used liquor. a new. Alaskan Natives had yet to find uses this liquid drink could be put to if one really applied himself to the task. but the consumption of fermented beverages was still generally considered healthful and likely to improve one's health. alcohol has been used to meet the social. however. Whom has not a cheerful glass made eloquent.

42 and sickness to the huffy attitude thought to be shown toward whites by Negroes and Indians. Rush was determined to stop the over use of distilled liquors. Trusting in help from heaven above. Open the drundard's collar 2. a movement began that advocated abstinence for everyone. Nor give. one that was total (or T-Total). including the Prohibition Party. Brandy. stricter pledge. nor make. bleeding Most of people in the 1800s believed the reform of drunkards could best be accomplished by helping the problem drinker sign a pledge or otherwise promise to cease his course of self-destruction. We pledge ourselves to works of love. Plunge the body in cold water 5. considering it a less habituating drug. Make him angry 7. Lobbying by some of these groups accounted for a considerable amount of the criticism leveled at Alaskan drinking practices.S. Make him sweat 9. Cider. at the same time decrying anything with alcohol as of the devil. Through all the years of mortal life Those drinks which cause pain. nor buy. (Poem by Thomas Poage Hunt)44 The Great Experiment came to the United States in January. Gin. Among the treatments recommended for intoxicated people. He also recommended opium as an treatment for drunkenness. Virtually all that was bad in this country was blamed on alcohol. Porter. He believed wines and fermented drinks were healthy. accidents. And now resolve we will not take. Ale. nor sell. Incite vomiting by thrusting a feather down his throat 3. What became known as "The Women's Crusade" or "Women's War" began in December 1873 and resulted the next year in the new organization of the Women's Christian Temperance Organization. the Surgeon General of the U. woe.FROM TEMPERANCE TO PROHIBITION The first meaningful word of warning about bad effects of drinking distilled alcohol in this country came in the 1870s by Dr. Administer a severe whipping 8. Temperance songs were sung in Sunday Schools across the country and poems were memorized that eulogized clear water as the drink of the future. and Wine.41 Moderate drinkers were not felt to be any particular problem. Wrap the head with a napkin dipped in cold water 4. The Anti-Saloon League and others. This movement separated those who had signed the Old Pledge (one that allowed alcohol when it was taken occasionally) from those who were in favor of a new. 1920 when the 18th . Terrify the drinker 6. and strife-Rum. Whiskey. from murders. particularly poor people. Army during the Revolutionary War.43 Other powerful organizations came onto the national political scene that impacted all legislation coming out of Washington. By 1833. poverty. included the following:40 1. Benjamin Rush. With hearts and hands united stand To spread a blessing o'er the land. Cordials fine. however.

Edward H. Footnotes to Chapter 10 1. John A Reply To "The Academy's" Review. 663." Numbers 20:5. Dimont.Amendment to the U. Edward H. p. Jews. and many scholars wrote books (now so far out of print that they are very hard to find) expressing their points of view on the subject.R. Lees. Gregory A. (1985). Harrison. (1985) and numerous other references. William Rev. We have not seen much of a modern nature to argue the commonly-held view that there were two types of wine mentioned in the Bible: one being alcoholic and wicked. M. Bible Wines: Laws of Fermentation. Gregory A. Jewett. Oklahoma City. or of pomegranates. see Rorabaugh. E. Some of the publications on this subject that I have found include: Patton. p.C. 7. New American Library (1962). "And wherefore have ye made us to come up out of Egypt. 8. 4. Nott. 2Kings10:15. and Burns. E. Austin. John Moffat Business College. to bring us in unto this evil place? It is no place of seed.S. Moffatt & Co. D. For a more complete study of the history of alcohol in the United States and the rest of the world. Oklahoma. 6. F. or of vines. London (1863). 5. Austin. Before then many states and territories (including Alaska with its own "Bone Dry" law) had already embraced prohibition. Jellinik. Constitution went into effect. Communion Wine: A Critical Examination of Scripture Words and Historic Testimony. Furnas. . recently republished by Sane Press. and the other being non-intoxicating and wholesome. Jewett. 162175. W. Eliphalet Lectures On Temperance.J. J. See Jeremiah35:1-15. (1858). p. Alice (1975). (1886). The Church Review Association. Urbana. Frederic Richard How To Treat The House We Live In. Gregory A. Fleming. The debate raged in the late 1800's. The Church Review Association.23. or of figs. One of the promises of the Rechabites in the Bible in addition to abstaining from wine was to build no houses nor sow seeds nor to plant vineyards. p. Communion Wine. 3. A. New York.M. The Temperance Bible Commentary. Nott. Baron. neither is there any water to drink. 2. (1985). Ohio (1870). (1943). 47-48. (1979).M. Lees. (1965). Lectures on Biblical Temperance. New York (1886). Austin. Brian (1971). London (1868). Stanley (1962). however. New York (1883). Ellis. God and History. 99.

It was from this very stock of people that the first Russians were recruited to become fur traders in Alaska. G. p. p. This practice is still practiced in various rural villages in Alaska. Vol 16 (1955) p. E. Hyperion Press. 17. p. (1985). The pledge is usually accompanied by a short. New York (1908). The person making the pledge then makes a promise before the cross. C. p.R. p. London. Edwin M. Lemert. Furnas. by the way. Translated by L. 12. Vol 2. Russia and Reform. J. Alcohol. 33. Life of John McLaughlin 10.9. then Alaska would . V. see Pares. (1954). Elouise. 294. p.A. private religious service in the local Russian Orthodox (Greek Orthodox) chapel. S.P.P. 11. 142-143 also see Jelleneck (1943). I believe that this kind of pledge has not yet been used to the extent that it could be if we would try to institute it for limited periods of time. 14.2. Bloch. Putnam's Sons. Patrick. 484-514. p. Dutton & Co.295. I. Pryzhov called "A History of Saloons in Russia in Relation to the History of the Russian People" that was reproduced and evaluated by Evra Efron in "The Tavern and Saloon in Old Russia" Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. which he then kisses. Feudal Society. M. p. 663-667. W. Collison. Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great. (1965). Ibid. Ibid. 397. Quoted from Emerson. 13. p. Lippincott (1963).. Austin. 16. Gregory A. Conn. 17.H. Inc. Chicago. H. G. Westport. For a description of this service and examples. p.. Beverages Past and Present.C.. 463-464. p. Most of this information is based on an article published in Moscow in 1868 by I. p. Weidenfeld and Nicolson (1981)." 21. p. Ibid. de Madariaga. 22. 30. A History of Wine As Therapy. (1907). 15. 8. 307. Philadelphia. Bernard. 17. Culture and Society. p. Harvey. New York (1916). Phoenix Books (1964). 20. University of Chicago Press. Lucia. It is an interesting observation that those who were punished for bootlegging and violation of alcohol-related regulations were exiled to Siberia. E. In The Wake of the War Canoe. Manyon. The fatigue ration was to be consumed when "fatigued. 2 Volumes. 18. 19. 347. 310. 140-141. If it is true that damp and cold climates contribute to the desire for alcohol. Duke University Press (1952).

No. 25. p. 65. 13. 547-548. The name of the ship that contained this alcohol was the Beaver. Carson. Ibid. or roughly to a 26 ounce Canadian bottle. John. 316. p. 24. ammunition.H. (1979). p. 45th Congress 3rd Session. Bancroft.I. William Duncan. 97. Austin (1985). January 7. Kenneth Wiggins John Jacob Astor Business Man. p. 36. they must have felt that it was a valuable commodity to own or barter with. 27. 61. Liquor coming to the United States from Canada came in two sizes. arms. Distilled Spiritous Liquors The Bane of the Nation (1736) London. 7. 29.certainly be a candidate for a place where it was perceived that liquor was going to be needed. 30. 272. p. Although his band of Indians were allowed to trade molasses to tribes to the north. Kobler. xi. p. p. 64. p. Cambridge (1931) Vol I. 5-43. Oliver. 26. Furnas (1965). Gerald (1963). .J. 32. Ibid. 37. 325. Porter. 28. James H. E. A "reputed quart" was equivalent to an American "fifth". 59. Ibid. silk and molasses to Indians in the Chilkat country near Haines. p. 33. Hubert Howe (1880). they would not allow those to stay on the Island who refused to follow strict prohibition from alcohol. Exec. p. Doc. Virtually nothing is mentioned in histories I have read about Alaska about what the Alaskan Natives did to ease pain and suffering when ill or wounded. If they used alcohol when first introduced to relieve pain or give the perception of warmth in a cold climate. The minister was Rev. 31. "Imperial quarts" and "reputed quarts". 34. Gray. p. Ibid. p. 35. 513. 34. 31. W. Collector Morris charged Father Duncan with selling blankets. (1972). p. p. Rorabaugh. V. 1879. p. (1914). 71-73. Harvard University Press. 23.

Dr. What could be more natural than to argue the case for Alaska over a well-cooked meal and a bottle or two of the Secretary's favorite Lachryma Christi? Thanks to his position at the department. 39. Glyndon G. On Friday and the following Saturday. Mark Edward and Martin. Van Deusen. 'Terrapin and Chateau Marguax will doubtless assist in the elucidation of this already knotty subject. 108. 30 march. p. its transportation proved a major task. The Alaska Purchase and Russian-American Relations. p. Henry Ford was so adamant about prohibition that he threatened to halt automobile production if the nation should ever think of repeal of consitutional prohibition. Lender. James Kirby (1982). like John D. 42. p. See Furnas.38. A medical journal noted in 1904 that "inebriate and moderate drinkers are the most incapable of all persons to drive motor wagons" and recommended that society should restrict the operation of its new automobiles to "total abstainers. The wine came cheaply. Rorabaugh (1975). Seward pushed ratification over dinner. John. but by the time of the purchase of Alaska he had been widely accused of being one who always had a ready supply of liquor nearby. Rockerfeller. p. p. p. William Seward had signed a "pledge" as a member of the Washingtonian Society. 88-91. p. p. The orchestrator of the Alaska Purchase. 402." Jensen. J. p. William Henry Seward. 324-341. 44. 86-87 Seward's personal wine cellar grew so large that when he retired. p. Rorabaugh (1975). University of Washington Press. Henry Ford and William Randolph Hurst. 289. Mark Edward and Martin. and continued until confirmation ten days later. as the treaty remained in doubt. James Kirby (1982). Brian (1971). Seward had a cellar that would support extended entertainment.' joked the New York Herald correspondent. purchased through American representatives abroad and foreign ambassadors in the United States. 41. Lender. Harrison. Rush. A few cabinet members and senators attended each dinner. and in the afterglow of mealtime listened to their host recite the virtues of the Russian agreement. 97. (1965). Oxford University Press (1967). 40. Ronald J.. 86-87 "Seward did not rely on formal persuasion alone. 43. 97. 40. Seattle (1975). Benjamin (1943-1944). p. the evening the treaty was announced. Kobler. 69. Appendix A . The round of dinner parties on Lafayette Square began Saturday night.C. Rush also taught that men exposed for a long time to wet and cold could ward off fevers by pouring a half a pint of rum into each boot in addition to pouring some down his throat." The recognition that there was a relationship between industrial accidents and alcohol resulted in noted manufacturers to become ardent prohibitionists. He was a genial and skillful host who enjoyed good food and drink and saw that his guests were able to as well.

Senate Document #122. 2nd Session. 1st Session. Senate Executive Doc. 04/21/1882 55th Congress. 1899 57th Congress. 1st Session. Senate Executive Document #12 44th Congress." February 26. 1903 Alaska Governor's report. January 14. August 15. (1916) ALASKA HERALD. Exexutive Document #71. Senate Report #457. #67 41st Congress. 1875) 44th Congress. 1879" 46th Congress. Senate Executive Document #59. 2nd Session. Public Service and Resources of Alaska Territory. 1882 47th Congress. 2nd Session. #68 42nd Congress. "Report from the Customs District. Senate Executive Document #68. 1868 . Senate Executive Document #24 44th Congress. 1st Session. 2nd Session. Senate Executive Document #71 45th Congress. 1st Session. (1869). #5 43rd Congress. 2nd Session. appendix B 41st Congress. Senate Executive Document #192 47th Congress. Seal and Salmon Fisheries and General Resources of Alaska 55Th Congress. House Executive Document #135. 92. 1st Session.". (Sept 1. House Exec. 1st Session. Senate Executive Doc. # 1. House Document #177 40th Congress.BIBLIOGRAPHY 40th Congress. (1888) Alaska Governor's Report. Senate Document No. 3rd Session. Doc. Executive Document. Etc. 85 "Proposed Restoration of Prohibition to Alaska. 3rd Session. February 15. House Executive Document No. "Letter from the Secretary of War. 1st Session. 1st Session. 1876 44th Congress.

Publishers. Dean The New England Quarterly. Notebook 16. 1885 Alaska-Yukon Magazine." Alaska Herald. New York. 1832 Arctander. Leonard The Great Basin Kingdom.3. Gregory A. London. Evangeline Frontier Politics: Alaska's James Wickersham. (1985) Badlam. August 15. November 7. Ltd. Hubert Howe. 1886 Alaska Times. ABC-Clio Information Services. Westport. Vol IX. 1868 Alaska Herald. (1938) Andrews collection. Box 2. April 26.L. History of the Northwest Coast. Wonders Of Alaska. Greenwood Press. The Bancroft Company. Caldwell. (1965) Bancroft. 477-490. 1886 and September 22. Alcohol In Western Society From Antiquity to 1800. (1909) Arrington. p. Revell Co. New York. (1968) Atwood. Denver. 1868. The Bancroft Company. Vol 23 (December 1950). August 15. 1894 Alaska Times. "Puritan Liquor In The Planting Of New England" Andrews. Conn. September 2.Alaska Herald.. Alexander. "Why Women Should Vote". Herbert The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. under the date of Thursday. Binford and Mort. 1868 Alaska Times. John W. Cambridge. No. San Francisco (1890) Bancroft. The Story of Alaska. The Claxton Printers. (1880) . July 15.. University of Washington. The Apostle of Alaska. February. Antiquarian Press. Idaho. Hubert Howe History of Alaska: 1730-1885. "Death From Liquor.. (1958) Asbury. 1910 Albertson. June 12. 1897 Annual Report of the American Temperance Society. C. Portland (1979) Austin. Harvard University Press. Fleming H.

. Hector Lost Empire: The Life and Adventures of Nikolai Rezanov. Stanley Brewed In America: The History of Beer and Ale in the United States. Cambridge. "Chronic Alcoholism In The First Half Of The 19th Century. University of Chicago Press. Feudal Society. Harvard University Press. Portland (1965) Clark. Boston (1962) Beaglehole. New Bedford. Phoenix Books (1964) Bockstoce. Cambridge (1975) Bridenbaugh. Anomie and Deviant Behavior. Binford and Mort (1965) Chevigny. Mass. VI. Old Sturbidge Village. William F. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 24 (1959) . Vol 42. Chicago. Gerald D. Gerald American Heritage. Mead & Co. (1966) Carson.C. M. Bulletin of the History of Medicine.. Old Dartmouth Historical Society. Sturbidge. Massachusetts. Norton & Co..Baron. Deliver Us From Evil: The interpretation of American Prohibition. Carl Cities in the Wilderness. "Drinking Patterns of the Aleuts". 2 Volumes. New York (1976) Cloward. (1967) Berreman. Brown and Company. (1960) British Columbia Quarterly. The First Century of Urban Life in America. Manyon. Nikolai N. Little.A. (1977) Bolkhovitinov.A. New York. R. "Illegitimate Means. Gerald The Social History of Bourbon. (1968).. New York (1963) Chevigny. John R. "The Saloon" Carson. 1942) Bynum." American Sociological Review. Gerald Rum And Reform In Old New England. Dodd. J. Norman H. The Beginnings of Russian-American Relations. (July. Hector Russian America: The Great Alaskan Adventure 1741-1867.. The Voyage of the Resolution and Discovery: 1776-1780. Steam Whaling in the Western Arctic. Binford & Mort. Vol 17 (1956) Bloch. Translated by L. Part Two." Carson.

Clark Co. New York (1984) Cook.Cole. The Arthur H. (1981) DeArmond. London. Evan S. (1883) Dabney. (1974) de Madariaga. New York. Governance of Alaska: Some Aspects. Andrew The Staggering Steeple: The Story of Alcoholism and the Churches. Charles Scribner's Sons. (Folio Ed.S. Harry Ellsworth Stagecoach And Tavern Tales of the Old Northwest. Harper & Row. R.) London (1784). University of Alaska. Stephen From The Russians To Statehood: The Early Years..From The Russians To Statehood: The Early Years. Melvin. and Stories. H. "Old Saw" Craig. Scott "The Gold Rush Saloon" . 55th Congress 3rd Session. Lewis and Faye Jokes. 1899 Conley. Fredrica Under Mt. 1776-1780. Smithsonian Institution Press (1972) Dial. St. I. Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great. March 2. University of Alaska. E. Government Printing Office. U. New York (1916) Congressional Record. Cassell Publishing Co. (1980) Connell. Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part One. New York (1890) Collison. (1980) Conn. Son of the Morning Star.W. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Early Visitors To Southeastern Alaska. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company. 1914 Congressional Record. Captain James Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. II. Dutton & Co.. (1930) Collis.. A Woman's Trip To Alaska. Anchorage (1978) DeLugana. Philadelphia (1971) Conn. University of Southern California. Paul and Sorensen. Cleveland. Toasts.P. Pilgrim Press. Stephen Alcohol Control And Native Alaskans -. Copeland. W.N. Joseph Earl Mountain Spirits. (1957) Cruise of the Revenue-Steamer Corwin in Alaska and the N. Arctic Ocean In 1881. In The Wake of the War Canoe.

C. Around the World on the Kamchatka 1817-1819. Portland.P. John A Reply To "The Academy's" Review. Richard. James H. Oregon Historical Society (1979) Doctrine and Covenants. J. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. J. New York. (1972) . Re-published in 1979 by The Hawaiian Historical Society and The University Press of Hawaii. Unpublished dissertation. Saloons of the Old West. (1883) Emerson. Knopf. New York (1975) Furnas. Jews. (1949) Fleming. New York (1979) Evans.Dimont. New York. 1860-1861. Stephen A. E. Putnam's Sons. Dell Publishing Co. Pavel N.. New York. God and History. BOOZE: The Impact of Whiskey on the Prarie West. Imperial Russia In Frontier America. Sec 27:3-4. G. Civil and Savage Encounters: The Worldly Travel Letters of an Imperial Russian navy Officer. R. Evra "The Tavern and Saloon in Old Russia" Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Beverages Past and Present.P. Oxford University Press.P. Vol 16 (1955) Ellis. Col. Alice Alcohol: The Delightful Poison. Louis University. Honolulu Gray. Putnam's Sons. (1976) Golovin. Macmillan of Canada/Toronto. The Life and Times of the Late Demon Rum. The End Of Russian-America. Joseph Peter The Liquor Traffic Among the Aborigines of the New Northwest: 1800-1860.. Army Med Corps.M. The Press of the Oregon Historical Society (1983) Golovnin. V. New American Library. (1959) Donnelly. M.. A. (1736) London Dmytryshyn. New York. G. (1984) Vol 130 "Alcohol And The Fighting man--An Historical Review" Efron. St. R. (1940) Dunbar-Miller. New York (1908) Erdoe. (1962) Distilled Spiritous Liquors The Bane of the Nation.A. E. Basil and Crownhart-Vaughan. Alfred A. (1965) Gibson James R. The United States Coast Guard 1790-1915.R. The United States Naval Institute.

Chicago (1898) Hewett.. William R. Drink and the Victorians. New York. The Alaska Purchase and Russian-American Relations. Palo Alto. p. Alice Palmer The Rainbow's End: Alaska.C. F. Bering's Voyages. The Church Review Association. Brady. Seattle (1975) Jewett. 1869-1911.J. Pacific Historical Review. Originally quoted from Golder. Brian. Athens (1983) Hildt.. University of Washington Press.A. W. Ted Alaskan John G. Life of John McLaughlin Heller. Hubert Sourdough Sagas. Herbert S. Ralph Barnes Bacchus. Macmillan Publishing Company. Ohio University Press. F. Ronald J. Ted. 1870-1914.157. F. Ted C. & Honigman. Microfilm N430 Jensen. Stone & Co. XLII (February 1973) Hinckley. Ohio State University Press. William Brittain. (1966) Henderson. Ted "Sheldon Jackson and Benjamin Harrison: Presbyterians and the Administration of Alaska" Pacific Northwest Quarterly. J. Frome (1971) Harvey. "Alaska As An American Botany Bay". Communion Wine: A Critical Examination of Scripture Words and Historic Testimony. The Americanization of Alaska.Grindrod. Early Diplomatic Negotiations of the United States and Russia Hinckley. (1972) Honigman. New York (1886) . (1922) Hunt.Alaska. 54(2) Hinckley. North of 53o: The Wild Days of the Alaska-Yukon Mining Frontier. Edward H. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 5 (1945) Howay. (1843) Harrison. "Drinking In An Indian-white Community". Elouise. I. Edward and Axton. J. "The Introduction of Intoxicating Liquor Amongst the Indians of the Northwest Coast". Pacific Books. University of Pittsburgh Press. CA. Roll 111 Interior Department Territorial Papers for Alaska. Convivial Dickens: The Drinks of Dickens and His Times. (1974) Interior Department Territorial Papers .W. (1982) Hinckley.

New York. Vol 2. (1973) Krout. James Kirby Drinking In America: A History. 1982) Levy. University Of California Press. Edwin M. (1974) London. Seattle. (1950) May. Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies. G. Mark Edward. John Wiley & Sons.Journal of Robert Campbell. Berkeley (1954) Lender. Treasury Department and Navy Administration of Alaska: 1867-1884. Philadelphia. Mark Edward and Martin.P. Dissertation (1974). Frank McCaffery Publishers. Ohio. No. Robert Bently.R. "The Washingtonian Movement" Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Ph. Alcohol Legalization and Native Americans: A Sociological Inquiry. (1949) Maxwell. Stephen J.38 "The Grog Ration" Marshall.. New Jersey (1976) Lemert. The Free Press." March (1984). S. Lippincott (1963) Mariani. John Allen The Origins of Prohibition Russell & Russell. Jack John Barleycorn: Alcoholic Memoirs. London (1868) Lees. F. John Motor Boating And Sailing. New York. (1979) Lender. Alcohol And The Northwest Coast Indians. July 23. A History of Wine As Therapy. (1925) Lane. University of Texas at Austin Lees. "Jelinek's Typology Of Alcoholism: Some Historical Antecedents. "Spirits Locker. New York. (New York. (1870) Leland. Joy Firewater Myths: North American Indian Drinking and Alcohol Addiction. Indian Drinking. . Inc. Cambridge (1964 edition) Lucia. New Brunswick. Vol 153 #3. Jim Swinging Doors. Jerrold E. D. John ARDENT SPIRITS: THE RISE AND FALL OF PROHIBITION. Urbana. Putnam & Sons." Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Milton A. John Moffat Business College. and Kunitz. Bobby Dave North of Fifty-Three: The Army. 5. and Burns. Vol 40. p. Philip Alan. 1838 Kobler.D. Frederic Richard How To Treat The House We Live In. The Temperance Bible Commentary.

04/27/1882 Pares. Alcohol. 1867-1902.. Inc. Bernard. Illinois (1978) . Jun-Nov.A. Harvard University Press. recently re-published by Sane Press. Scott. Charles Harper's New Monthly Magazine. C... John Dishon. 1968) Moloney. E. (1965) Nome Chronicle. William Rev. Pacific Northwest Quarterly. Boston & New York. Social Problems. S. The Canadian North-West: Its Early Development and legislative Records. S. Russia and Reform. "What Shall We Do With Scroggs?". (1931) Montgomery. A.M. Ontario (1979) Poplin. The Administration of Criminal Justice in Alaska. Ms thesis. (1873) Nott.H. Conn. (1951) Oliver. London (1863) Nott. Dennis E. 1900 Nordhoff. Thomas O'Rhelius. August 11. (1976) McDermott. Vol XLVII. University of California. JOURNAL OF THE WEST. Vol 54. Hyperion Press. Francis X. Duke University Press. Oklahoma Petersen.. The Fur Trade In New England. Box 453. Westport. Government Printing Bureau. Bible Wines: Laws of Fermentation. Number 4. (1858) Okun. Vol II. E. Prof.H. VII. Eliphalet Lectures On Temperance. 1963) Muir. Culture and Society..University of Montana. 2(April. (1915) Murton. Limestone Press. (1952) Patton. The Russian-American Company. Salt Lake City (1975) Pierce.A. Cambridge. R. John TRAVELS IN ALASKA. (October. Ottawa (1914) Orthodox Church Documents.B. Foresman and Company. Oklahoma City. Maurice..D dissertation. (1907) Patrick. Mass. Berkeley. "The Murder Of Missionary Thornton". A History of the Russian-American Company. Ph. 1620-1676. Moffatt & Co. LaMar Hearts Made Glad. Journal of Hieromonk Nikita (Kenai). and Donnelly. Lectures on Biblical Temperance.

Conference on The Social History Of Alcohol Drinking. Morgan B. Valerie. 1984. 1877 Seton. Kenneth Wiggins John Jacob Astor Business Man. New York. No 3. Harvard University Press. (1963) Rorabaugh. Low. Hastings House Publishers.Karr. Tomorrow Is Growing Old: Stories of Quakers in Alaska. Lincoln. Vol IV. Human Organization. The Macmillan Company. University of Washington Press. FORT HALL: GATEWAY TO THE OREGON COUNTRY. Francis Paul The Sword of the Republic: The United States Army on the Frontier. No 3. Frank C. Cambridge.D. 1965) Shiman. "To Promote 'Cheerfulness And Happiness': The Bradford Long Pledged Teetotal Association" Smith. 1867-77: An Experiment In Military . The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. 1783-1846. Vol 3. (1975) Remsburg. A Study in Federal Governance of an Overseas Possession. The U. Unpublished master's thesis. (1975) San Francisco Chronicle. University of Nebraska Press. Ph. Seattle. "Ardent Spirits: Hooch and the Osprey Affair". 1973) Sparks. (June. Dorothy Jean The Eskimos of the Bering Strait. Western Washington State College. W.J. Vol 34. Newberg. September 28. Arthur O. 1974) Stubbs. Searle & Rivington. 1790-1834. S. (1931) Vol I Price. Oxford University Press. Shores And Alps of Alaska. 1650-1898. The Barclay Press. Berkeley. New York. John A. Larry Arthur The Failure of Prohibition in Alaska: 1884-1900. London. S. Francis Paul American Indian Policy In the Formative Years: The Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts. (1962) Prucha. 1975) Prucha. (Spring. Army In Alaska.Porter. (1969) Ray. Oregon (1978) Robertson. Stanley Ray. Heywood Walter. Lilian Lewis. United States Administration of Alaska: The Army Phase. Journal of the West. Dissertation (1976) Roberts. London (1887) Sherwood. (July. Becky The Alaska Journal. 18671877. "When Alaskans Voted Dry: Prohibition In Alaska" (Summer. Marston. No 1.

Emil A Journey To Alaska in the Year 1868: Being a Diary of the Late Emil Teichmann. dissertation. The Limestone Press. January 20. Oregon. Minnesota Medicine. Dist. case no. John J. 1872) University Medical Magazine.. Orthodox Church Documents. (1979) U. (1887) Thurn. Vol. The Autobiography of a Papago Woman. "Laboratory Notes". Colonial Liquor Laws. Ltd.252 (Dist. (1963) The Alaskan. P. Kingston. 46.S.Government. Edited by Richard A. 6. Menasha.A. 16. Ontario. A History of the Russian American Company.M.A. James W. Oxford University Press (1967) Van Stone. (1956) The American University Teichmann. United States Brewers' Association. Glyndon G. William Henry Seward. Treasury Department Alaska File of the Special Agents Division. Argosy-Antiquarian. No. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association. R. 12/05/1885 The Literary Digest. Wis.. Court. G. 1022. University of Washington Press. 02/06/1886 The Alaskan. M.. Pierce and Alton S.. Sheveloff [sic. 27 Federal Cases 1024. (January. 03/01/1880 Van Deusen. Roy J. 1867-1903 Underhill. Eskimos of the Nushagak River. Alaska. 1917 quoting Mrs.]. "The Gin Plague". 1940 Thomann. Vol 54:156. Spring 1954. 03/05/1880 The Alaskan.: American Anthropological Association Underwood. No I p. (April. 1880) USHIN'S DIARY.26 "The Story of a Street" The Wrangell Sentinel on May 31. New York. Donnelly. 1978) Tikhmenev. December 10. (1913) United States v. An Empire In The Making. Ella Boole from The Union Signal The Pioneer (Official organ of the National Society of Sons of the Pioneers) Vol.2. .

(1915) Young. Inc. "Cook' Inlet. S. XXIX (1968) Wyeth.Seattle. W. New York. (1927) . Springfield (1984) West. Revel Co. Frederick Travel In Alaska. Alaska. Revel Co. Allan M.. (1868) Winkler.. S. Mirriam Webster. (1967) Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary.. Fleming H.. Hall Alaska Days With John Muir. University of Nebraska Press.T. "Drinking On The American Frontier". New York. Fleming H. VIII (January 1872) Young." Overland Monthly. Lincoln (1979) Whymper. Hall Hall Young of Alaska. Elliott The Saloon on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier.. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcoholism.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful