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normally distributed dependent variables and combinations of categorical and continuous independent (predictor) variables. GLM procedure can accommodate univariate models (one dependent variable) involving: a) Categorical predictors only (ANOVA) b) Continuous predictors only (Regression) c) Combinations of categorical predictors and continuous predictors (ANCOVA) It also can accommodate two or more dependent variables of all the above models (multivariate models). Categorical predictors are referred to as factors, while continuous predictors are called covariates. GLM can also fit repeated measures or within-subjects models, including doubly multivariate repeated measures models involving multiple measures at each time point or under each combination of conditions. To use a GLM procedure, from the menus choose one of the following: Analyze General Linear Model Univariate… or Multivariate… or Repeated Measures…

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ONE-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANOVA In a one-way repeated measures ANOVA design each subject is exposed to two or more different conditions, or measured on the same continuous scale on three or more occasions. It can also be used to compare respondents’ responses to two or more different questions or items. These questions however must be measured using the same scale (eg. 1 = strongly agree, to 5 = strongly disagree). Example: A total of 100 patients who needed cataract operation and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected from patients who were referred to HUKM. These patients were randomly allocated into two groups; 50 in ECCE and 50 in Phaco group. Effectiveness of cataract operation was assessed by disease specific quality of life score using the Visual Function 14 (VF-14) questionnaire. The score produced by this questionnaire range from 0 (unable to do all applicable activities) and a maximum of 100 (able to do all applicable items without difficulty). VF-14 questionnaire was administered prior to operation, one week, two months and six months after cataract operation. Details of the variables names and labels from the data file are as follows: File name CIS Variable name vf.preop Variable label VF-14 scores pre-operation VF-14 scores one week postoperation VF-14 scores two months post-operation VF-14 scores six months post-operation Coding instructions Total scores on the visual functioning administered prior to the operation. Scores range from 0 – 100. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning. Total scores on the visual functioning administered one week after the operation. Scores range from 0 – 100. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning. Total scores on the visual functioning administered 2 months after the operation. Scores range from 0 – 100. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning. Total scores on the visual functioning administered 6 months after the operation. Scores range from 0 – 100. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning.

vf.week1

vf.mnth2

vf.mnth6

3 Research question: Is there a change in VF-14 scores over the four time periods for both groups of patients? This example involves two variables: a) One independent variable (categorical data) – Time 1 (pre-op), Time 2 (one week), Time 3 (2 months) and Time 4 (6 months). b) One dependent variable (continuous data) – scores on the VF-14 One-way repeated measures ANOVA will tell you if there is a significant difference somewhere among the four sets of scores. Assumptions: a) Normal distribution i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (a non-significant result, p>0.05 indicates normality) Skewness and kurtosis values (if the distribution is perfectly normal, the value of skewness and kurtosis are 0) Histograms (appear to be reasonably normally distributed) Normal Q-Q Plots (a reasonably straight line between observed value for each score against the expected value from the normal distribution, suggests a normal distribution) Detrended Normal Q-Q Plots (there should be no real clustering of points, with most collecting around the zero line) Boxplot (the rectangle represents 50% of the cases, with the whiskers (the lines protruding from the box) going out to the smallest and largest values. Additional circles outside the range is called outliers. The line inside the rectangle is the median value.

b) Homogeneity of variance The samples are assumed to be obtained from populations of equal variances. This means that the variability of scores for each of the groups is similar. Levene’s test can be performed to test the equality of variances as part of the t-test and analysis of variances analyses. A significance value of less than 0.05, suggests that variances for the two groups are not equal, and therefore the assumption of homogeneity of variance is violated. Analysis of variance is reasonably robust to violations of this assumption, provided the size of the groups is reasonably similar (largest/smallest = 1.5). For t-tests, there are two sets of results provided, for equal variance assumed and not assumed. In this case, choose whichever set of results that is appropriate for your data.

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PROCEDURE FOR ONE-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANOVA 1. Open file CIS 2. From the menu, click: Analyze General Linear Model Repeated Measures… 3. In the Within Subject Factor Name box type in a name that represents your independent variable (time). This is not an actual variable name, just a label you give your independent variable. 4. In the Number of Levels box type the number of levels or groups (time periods) involved (in this example it is 4).

5. Click Add. 6. Click on the Define button on the right-hand side. 7. Select the four variables that represent your repeated measures variable (vf.preop, vf.week1, vf.mnth2, vf.mnth6). Click on the arrow button to move them into the Within Subjects Variables box.

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8. Click on the Options box at the bottom right of your screen. 9. Tick the Descriptive Statistics and Estimates of effect size boxes in the area labeled Display. 10. Click on Continue and then OK. The output generated from this procedure is shown below.

**General Linear Model
**

Within-Subjects Factors Measure: MEASURE_1 TIME 1 2 3 4 Dependent Variable VF.PREOP VF.WEEK1 VF.MNTH2 VF.MNTH6

month 6 66.729a 3. Exact statistic b.000 . .2124 90.0429 N 100 100 100 100 b M ultivariate Tests Effect Value TIM E Pillai's T race .6578 94. b.311 a. W ith in S u b je c ts E ffe c t u c h ly 's W C h i.302 Hotelling's Trace 2.0 0 0 G re e nh o u s e -G e is s e r H u y n h .000 97. .2079 Std.000 Error df 97.729a 3.3 3 3 a T e s ts th e n u ll h y p o th e s is th a t th e e r ro r c o v a ria n c e m a tr ix o f th e o r th o n o r m a liz e d tr a n s fo r m e d d e p e n d e n t v a r ia b le s p r o p o rtio n a l to a n id e n tity m a trix .week 1 .698 M a u c h ly 's T e s t o f S p hbe ric it y M e a sure : M EASU R E_ 1 E p s ilo n A p p ro x .698 .000 97.5 6 7 . Design: Intercept Within Subjects Design: T IM E F Hypothesis df 74.6 Descriptive Statistics Mean VF-14 score operation VF-14 score VF-14 score VF-14 score .pre .729a 3.000 a 74. Deviation 19.000 Eta Squared .month 2 .2653 10.698 Wilks' Lam bda . C o r r e c te d te s ts a re d is p l T e s ts o f W ith in -S u b je c ts E ffe c ts ta b le .000 Sig.2 7 9 1 2 4 .311 Roy's Largest Root 2.000 97.000 74.698 .3863 96.698 .5 7 5 .000 .6 6 0 df 5 S ig . a .729 3.1244 6.000 74. M a y b e u s e d to a d ju s t th e d e g r e e s o f fre e d o m fo r th e a v e r a g e d te s ts o f s ig n ific a n c e . D e s ig n : In te rc e p t W ith in S u b je c ts D e s ig n : T IM E .S q u a r e Ma T IM E .F e ld t o w e r.b o u n d L .000 .9793 6.

6 0 6 .0 0 0 .453 17286.7 0 0 3 4 4 0 3 .603 Sig.944 1769. .000 Eta Squared .0 0 0 .453 Error 17285.4 3 8 1 .994 .459 12795. .196 F 224.273 136.0 9 3 G re e n h o u se -G e isse r 3 8 0 4 3 .034 19332.944 1769.3 9 4 L o w e r-b o u n d 5 8 4 7 7 .7 T e s ts o f W ith in -Su b je c ts E ffe c ts M e a su re : M E A SU R E_ 1 T yp e III Su m o f S q u a re s df M e a n Sq u a re Sp h e ric ity A ssu m e d 5 8 4 7 7 .5 9 9 297 1 2 8 .0 8 0 H u yn h -F e ld t 3 8 0 4 3 .0 0 0 5 8 4 7 7 .0 0 0 .4 3 8 1 .1 7 5 1 5 2 .809 52. Eta S q u a re d .459 12795.519 174.000 .694 .5 9 9 1 7 0 .014 13544.453 df 1 1 1 99 99 99 M ean Square 43912.4 7 9 G re e n h o u se -G e isse r 5 8 4 7 7 .1 7 5 1 5 2 .000 .4 3 8 E rro r(T IM E)Sp h e ric ity A ssu m e d 3 8 0 4 3 .0 0 0 3 8 4 .6 0 6 .132 5167.2 7 5 2 2 6 .5 9 9 1 6 8 .2 7 9 S o u rc e T IM E F 1 5 2 .892 Sig.9 0 9 2 2 2 .4 3 8 3 1 9 4 9 2 .7 2 6 3 3 8 7 3 .531 33.745 df 1 99 Mean Square F 3018286.6 3 4 H u yn h -F e ld t 5 8 4 7 7 .1 7 5 1 5 2 .5 9 6 L o w e r-b o u n d 3 8 0 4 3 .5 9 9 9 9 .1 7 5 S ig .0 0 0 .4 3 8 1 .6 0 6 .000 Eta Squared .877 93.255 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Measure: MEASURE_1 Transformed Variable: Average Type III Sum Source of Squares Intercept 3018286.6 0 6 Tests of Within-Subjects Contrasts M easure: MEASURE_1 Source TIME TIM E Linear Quadratic Cubic Error(TIM E) Linear Quadratic Cubic Type III Sum of Squares 43912.034 195.486 .

01 = small effect. as indicated by the Sig. Are there the right number of people in each group? Do the mean values make sense given the scale that was used? In the example above you will see that the lowest mean of VF-14 score was for time 1 (pre-operation) and the highest at time 4 (after six months operation). In this example. This is assessed by SPSS using Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity. Descriptive statistics In the first output box you are provided with the descriptive statistics for your four sets of scores (mean. It is a good idea to check that these make sense. In this example the value for Wilks’ Lambda is 0.302. .05.14 = large effect) . The multivariate statistics however do not require sphericity. we have violated the assumption of sphericity. Time 3. N). Let’s look at the key values in the output that you will need to consider. Time 4) differ from one another. it is safer to inspect the multivariate statistics provided in the output. with a probability value of 0. 0. The p value is less than 0. Effect size Although we have found a statistically significant difference between the four sets of scores. this result suggests a very large effect size (0.8 INTERPRETATION OF OUTPUT FROM ONE-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANOVA The sphericity assumption requires that the variance of the population difference scores for any two conditions are the same as the variance of the population difference scores for any other two conditions (an assumption that is commonly violated). we also need to assess the effect size of this result. It does not tell you which groups or set of scores (Time 1. Although there are ways to compensate for this assumption violation. 0. given in the Multivariate Tests output box.000 (which really means p<0. this suggests that there is a difference somewhere among your groups. Time 2. therefore we can conclude that there is a statistically significant effect for time. Using the commonly used guidelines proposed by Cohen (1988). The value obtained in this study is 0.698. This suggests that there was a change in VF-14 scores across the four different time periods. If you obtain a statistically significant result from the above analyses. The value you are interested in is Eta squared. value of 0.0005). however the most commonly reported statistic is Wilks’ Lambda. standard deviation. It is necessary to conduct further post-hoc tests to identify which groups differed.000 in the box labeled Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity. the value that you are interested in is Wilks’ Lambda and the associated probability value given in the column labeled Sig. All of the multivariate tests yield the same result.06 = moderate effect. Multivariate tests In this table.

Time 2 (one week post-operation). Table 1: Descriptive statistics for VF-14 scores for pre-operation.6578 94.2079 Standard deviation 19.1244 6.698. one week.3863 96. p<0. Wilks’ Lambda = 0. The means and standard deviation are presented in Table 1.302. There was a significant effect for time.0429 . F = 74. Time period Time 1 (pre-operation) Time 2 (one-week post-operation) Time 3 (two months post-operation) Time 4 (six months post-operation) N 100 100 100 100 Mean 66.9 PRESENTING THE RESULT FROM ONE-WAY REPEATED MEASURES ANOVA The result of one-way repeated measures ANOVA could be presented as follows: A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare scores on the VF-14 questionnaire Time 1 (prior to the cataract operation). and at Time 4 (six months post-operation). two months and six months post-operation.2124 90.2653 10.0005. Time 3 (two months post-operation).9793 6.729. multivariate eta squared = 0.

while for females it may decrease. This variable is a recoded variable.grp Age coded into 3 groups Coding instructions Total score on the quality of life (physical dimension) before cataract operation. vitality. SF-36 questionnaire was administered prior to operation. dividing age into three equal groups: Group 1: 45 – <60 = 1 Group 2: 60 – <75 = 2 Group 3: 75 + = 3 Males = 1 . we would say that there is an interaction effect. If that was the case. These patients were randomly allocated into two groups. For males. Females = 2 sex Sex . physical role. Details of the variables names and labels from the data file are as follows: File name CIS Variable Variable label name phys1 Quality of life (physical dimension) preoperation. two months and six months after operation. quality of life may increase with age (life begins at 40!). It has 8 dimensions of quality of life: emotional role. Effectiveness of cataract operation was assessed by generic quality of life questionnaire (Short-from 36. An interaction effect occurs when the effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable depends on the level of a second independent variable.10 TWO-WAY BETWEEN-GROUPS ANOVA Two-way means that there are two independent variables. in this case we may find that the influence of age on quality of life is different for males and females. In order to describe the impact of age. SF-36). age. 50 in ECCE and 50 in Phaco group. we must specify which group (males/females) we are referring to. For example. For the analysis we will use physical dimension of quality of life since it is relevant with the vision functioning. Scores can range from 0 to 100 with high scores indicating higher levels of quality of life. one week. This technique allows us to look at the individual and joint effect of two independent variables on one dependent variable. physical and mental functioning. and between-groups indicates that different people are in each of the groups. The advantage of using a two-way design is that we can test the ‘main effect’ for each independent variable and also explore the possibility of an ‘interaction effect’. Example: A total of 100 patients who needed cataract operation and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected from patients who were referred to HUKM. general health profile. pain. social. The score produced by this questionnaire ranges from 0 (unable to do all applicable activities) and a maximum of 100 (able to do all applicable items without difficulty).

it allows you to test for: a) Sex difference in quality of life (physical dimension) b) Differences in quality of life (physical dimension) for age group 1. the value of skewness and kurtosis are 0) c. p>0. Skewness and kurtosis values (if the distribution is perfectly normal.11 Research question: What is the impact of age and gender on quality of life (physical dimension)? Does gender moderate the relationship between age and quality of life (physical dimension)? This example involves three variables: a) Two categorical independent variables (e. age group: group 1. Detrended Normal Q-Q Plots (there should be no real clustering of points. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (a non-significant result. suggests a normal distribution) e. . Normal Q-Q Plots (a reasonably straight line between observed value for each score against the expected value from the normal distribution. For example. with most collecting around the zero line) f. with the whiskers (the lines protruding from the box) going out to the smallest and largest values.g: sex: males/females.g: quality of life (physical dimension) – phys1) Two-way ANOVA allows you to simultaneously test for the effect of each of your independent variables on the dependent variable and also identifies any interaction effect. Boxplot (the rectangle represents 50% of the cases. 2 & 3) b) One continuous dependent variable (e. Additional circles outside the range is called outliers. The line inside the rectangle is the median value.05 indicates normality) b. and 3 patients c) The interaction of these two variables – is there a difference in the effect of age on quality of life (physical dimension) for males and females? Assumptions: a) Normal distribution a. 2. Histograms (appear to be reasonably normally distributed) d.

.12 b) Homogeneity of variance The samples are assumed to be obtained from populations of equal variances. Click on your two independent variables (sex.Choose the test you wish to use (eg: Tukey) . 4.In the Horizontal box put the independent variable that has the most groups (eg: age. Levene’s test can be performed to test the equality of variances as part of the t-test and analysis of variances analyses. Estimates of effect size. A significance value of less than 0. . Click on your dependent variable (phys1) and move it into the box labeled Dependent variable. Click on the Options button.grp). Click on the Post Hoc button.5). From the menu. age. suggests that variances for the two groups are not equal.Click on Add.In the box labeled Separate Lines put the other independent variable (eg: sex) . and Homogeneity tests.From the Factors listed on the left-hand side choose the independent variable(s) you are interested in (this variable should have three or more levels or groups: eg: agegrp) . This means that the variability of scores for each of the groups is similar. . Click on the Plots button. Open file CIS 2.grp) and move these into the box labeled Fixed factors. Observed power.Click on Descriptive Statistics.In the section labeled Plots you should now see your two variables listed (eg: age. click: Analyze General Linear Model Univariate… 3. PROCEDURE FOR TWO-WAY ANOVA 1.Click on Continue 6. Analysis of variance is reasonably robust to violations of this assumption. provided the size of the groups is reasonably similar (largest/smallest = 1. . . Click on Continue and then OK.grp*sex) 8.05.Click on Continue 7. .Click on the arrow button to move it into the Post Hoc Tests for section . 5. . and therefore the assumption of homogeneity of variance is violated.

Univariate Analysis of Variance Between-Subjects Factors Sex of patient 1 2 AGE.13 The output generated from this procedure is shown below.GRP .667 Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups.0698 85.GRP+SEX * AGE.8333 81. .3511 19. a.GRP 1 2 3 Value Label Male Female N 43 57 30 63 7 Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: PHYS1 Sex of patient AGE.0061 N 17 25 1 43 13 38 6 57 30 63 7 100 a Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable: PHYS1 F .2962 .4286 82.644 df1 5 df2 94 Sig.0000 84.1667 83.6445 20.6053 50.2736 15.5616 18.4973 18.0000 84.9426 17.1394 20.1853 17. Deviation 21.1404 88. Design: Intercept+SEX+AGE.4000 Std.GRP Male 1 2 3 Total Female 1 2 3 Total Total 1 2 3 Total Mean 90.8000 55.8885 19. 20.5882 80.0952 51.

5 4 6 5 .5862 14.0122 -55.7 8 1 .6667* 7. *.G R P 3 7 8 1 .000 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound -4.4634 55.0 0 0 .2 3 4 N o n c e n t.4634 -49. O b se r v e d a S ig .0122 -14.0128 -18.3 6 6 . The mean difference is significant at the .000 .2 0 7 2 4 .0 0 0 C o r re c te d T o ta l 3 9 6 2 4 .7290 4.1 0 7 1 1 .5 0 8 .000 . E ta S q u a r e d P a r a m e te r P o w e r .6739 -5.7290 18.0714 4.6 8 3 3 3 4 .1 6 5 ) Post Hoc Tests AGE.0 5 9 .0 1 4 1 .3211 49.2 0 7 ( A d ju s te d R S q u a re d = .0554 31.0 3 0 T o ta l 7 1 8 6 0 0 .5862 14.0 0 0 .GRP (J) AGE.S u b je c t s E f fe c ts D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : P H Y S 1 T y p e III S u m So urce o f S q u a re s C o r re c te d M o d e l 8 2 0 5 . Error 5.0 0 0 .6667* 7.0 0 5 .9 7b0 In te rc e p t 1 4 5 8 6 8 .0 9 2 S E X * A G E .2838 (I) AGE.6 5 6 2 2 8 .3 2 6 4 3 6 .7381* 7.6739 -31.3 1 3 .9 7 7 .2 1 0 .8 2 3 4 3 6 .0714 4.0 7 7 .0128 -14.0554 36.3211 Based on observed means.5 5 2 .1 6 2 a .8 5 1 .GRP 1 2 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 Sig.0 7 7 1 8 9 0 .000 .0 0 1 .8 6 2 A G E .4 2 0 E rr o r 3 1 4 1 8 .05 level.1 9 4 4 .0 0 0 df 5 1 1 2 2 94 100 99 M e a n Sq u are F 1 6 4 1 . C o m p u te d u s in g a lp h a = .3 2 6 SEX 2 5 .427 . .7381* 7.GRP Multiple Comparisons Dependent Variable: PHYS1 Tukey HSD Mean Difference (I-J) Std.427 .4 2 5 2 5 .14 T e s t s o f B e tw e e n .0 5 b .9 1 0 1 4 5 8 6 8 . R S q u a re d = .G R P 4 5 6 .8 6 2 .4 2 5 1 . .2838 -36.

GRP 3 2 1 Sig.c Subset N 7 63 30 1 51. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.15 Homogeneous Subsets PHYS1 Tukey HSD AGE. The group sizes are unequal. a.b. c. b.000 Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 15.05. a.719 1. Based on Type III Sum of Squares The error term is Mean Square(Error) = 334.1667 .620. Alpha = .GRP . Profile Plots Estimated Marginal Means of PHYS1 100 90 80 Estimated Marginal Means 70 60 Sex of patient 50 Male Female 1 2 3 40 AGE. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used.4286 2 83.0952 88.234.

then there is a significant interaction effect.16 INTERPRETATION OF OUTPUT FROM TWO-WAY ANOVA The output from ANOVA gives you a number of tables and plots with useful information concerning the effect of your two independent variables.005). Check that these values are correct. To determine if there is a main effect for each independent variable. check the Sig. The value you are most interested in is the Sig. Using Cohen’s criterion. however there is a difference in scores for group 1.05. Interaction effects SPSS tells you whether there is an interaction between the two independent variables in their effect on the dependent variable. In the left-hand column the independent variables are listed. To find out if the interaction is significant.508). If the value is less than 0. then there is a significant main effect for that independent variable. This indicates that there is no significant . Effect size The effect size for the age. standard deviations and N for each subgroup.grp variable is provided in the column labeled Eta Squared (0.05 (not significant). A significant result suggest that the variance of your dependent variable across the group is not equal. next to each variable. but no significant main effect for sex (p=0.grp: p=0. This means that males and females do not differ in terms of their quality of life (physical dimension) scores. Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances This test provides a test of one of the assumptions underlying analysis of variance. level. If the value is less than 0. there is a significant main effect for age group (p=0. This means that the difference in quality of life (physical dimension) between the groups is moderate to large difference and it’s significant. 2 and 3 patients. In the example shown. we can conclude that we have not violated the homogeneity of variance assumption. The line you need to look at in the table lists your two independent variables separated by an asterisk (sex*age. this can be classified as moderate to large effect.781). You want this to be greater than 0. check in the column marked Sig.05. As this is larger than 0.grp).667. level is 0. the interaction effect is not significant (sex*age. column for that line.05. In the example displayed above the Sig. In the example.107). Main effects The main output from two-way ANOVA is a table labeled Tests Of Between-Subjects Effects. Descriptive statistics These provide the mean scores.

17. is group 2 different to group 3.< 75 years age group (mean = 83. Post-hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean score for the 45 – <60 years age group (mean = 88. p = 0.05 (indicated by an asterisk). The plots are often useful to inspect first and understand the impact of your two independent variables. group 3: 75 years and above). p = 0. therefore we are entitled to dig further using the post-hoc tests for age. s.077. we obtained a significant main effect for age.d = 19. We have requested the Tukey. as this is one of the more commonly used tests. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their age (group 1: 45 – <60 years. The main effect for sex (F = 0. In the example. we need to conduct post-hoc tests.grp. group 2: 60 – <75 years. until you find a significant main effect or interaction effect in the overall analysis. across the three age groups. Post-hoc tests are only relevant if you have more than two level (groups) to your independent variable. In this example.005). for any values less than 0.43.56) and 75 + age group.107). or is group 1 different to group 3 ? To investigate these questions. and between the 60 . Look down the column labeled Sig. Post-hoc tests Although we know that our age group differ. we do not know where these difference occur: is group 1 different to group 2. p = 0.grp in our ANOVA. However you are not supposed to look at them.d = 17. Multiple comparisons The results of the post-hoc tests are provided in the table labeled Multiple Comparisons.683.10.d = 18. There was a statistically significant main effect for age (F = 5.508) did not reach statistical significance.64).656. s. as measured by the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36). .17 difference in the effect of age on quality of life (physical dimension) for males and females.781) and the interaction effect (F = 0. and group 2 (60 . only group 1 (45 – <60) and group 3 (75 +).19) was significantly different from the 75 + years group (mean = 51. PRESENTING THE RESULT FROM TWO-WAY ANOVA The result of the analysis conducted above could be presented as follows: A two-way between-group analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of sex and age on level of quality of life (physical dimension). This plot is very useful for allowing you to visually inspect the relationship among your variables.<75) and group 3 (75 +) differ significantly from one another. s. with the effect size moderate to large (eta squared = 0. Plots You will see at the end of your SPSS output a plot of the optimism scores for males and females.

op Type of operation vf. the other variable is a within-subjects variable (time). Scores range from 0 – 100.preop VF-14 scores pre-operation vf. Scores range from 0 – 100.18 MIXED BETWEEN-WITHIN SUBJECTS ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE In the previous analysis of variance chapters we have explored the use of both betweensubjects designs (comparing two or more different groups). Patients were divided into two equal groups and asked to complete vision related quality of life questionnaire (Visual Function-14. There may be situations however. Total scores on the visual functioning administered 6 months after the operation. VF-14) before operation. where you want to combine the two approaches in the one study. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning. and the other a withinsubjects variable. After the operation. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning. one is a between-subjects variable (type of operation).mnth2 VF-14 scores two months post-operation vf. In this case you would perform ECCE and Phaco.week1 VF-14 scores one week postoperation vf. across the four time periods. Total scores on the visual functioning administered one week after the operation. . you may want to investigate the impact of a cataract operation on patients’ vision quality of life levels (using pre-test and post-test). In this case you have two independent variables. Scores range from 0 – 100. but you would also like to know if the impact is different for ECCE and Phaco. Details of the variables names and labels from the data file are provided in the following table. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning. In this example we will compare the outcome of ECCE and Phaco on patients’ scores on the VF-14 questionnaire. High scores indicate higher levels of visual functioning. Scores range from 0 – 100. Total scores on the visual functioning administered 2 months after the operation.mnth6 VF-14 scores six months post-operation Coding instructions 1 = ECCE 2 = Phacoemulsification (Phaco) Total scores on the visual functioning administered prior to the operation. For example. VF-14 was also administered during their followed-up two and six months later. with one independent variable being between-subjects. and measure their quality of life before and after operation) Example: This data (CIS) refers to a true study which involves testing the outcome of two different types of operation (ECCE and Phaco) in treating cataract. File CIS Variable Variable label type. the patients were again asked to complete the same questionnaire one week after the operation. and within-subjects or repeated measures designs (one group of subjects exposed to two or more conditions).

. two months and six months after the operation)? This example involves three variables: a) One categorical independent between-subjects variable with two or more levels – ECCE / Phaco b) One categorical independent within-subjects variable with two or more levels – vf. Skewness and kurtosis values (if the distribution is perfectly normal. Normal Q-Q Plots (a reasonably straight line between observed value for each score against the expected value from the normal distribution. It will compare the two operations (ECCE and Phaco) in terms of their effectiveness in increasing the vision related quality of life (main effect for group).mnth6 c) One continuous dependent variable (scores on the VF-14 questionnaire measured at each time period) Mixed between-within ANOVA will test whether there are main effects for each of the independent variables and whether the interaction between the two variables is significant. In this example it will tell us if there is a change in VF-14 scores over the four time periods (main effect for time). with the whiskers (the lines protruding from the box) going out to the smallest and largest values. Detrended Normal Q-Q Plots (there should be no real clustering of points.week1 / vf. Histograms (appear to be reasonably normally distributed) d. the value of skewness and kurtosis are 0) c. p>0. Boxplot (the rectangle represents 50% of the cases. with most collecting around the zero line) f. two months and six months post-operation)? Is there a change in patients’ vision related quality of life scores across the four time periods (before operation. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic (a non-significant result.19 Research question: Which type of cataract operation is more effective in increasing patients’ vision related quality of life scores across the four time periods (pre-operation. one week. suggests a normal distribution) e.05 indicates normality) b. Assumptions: a) Normal distribution a.preop / vf. The line inside the rectangle is the median value. Additional circles outside the range is called outliers. Finally it will tell us if the change in VF-14 scores over time is different for the two groups (interaction effect). one week.mnth2 / vf.

4. Click Add. click on Descriptive statistics.mnth2. You hope that the statistic is not significant (p > 0.In the Display section. Open file CIS 2. 10. In the Number of Levels box type the number of levels or groups (time periods) involved (in this example it is four). Observed power and Homogeneity tests. 5. just a label you give your independent variable.mnth6). . Because this statistic is very sensitive. 8. This assumption is tested as part of the analysis. vf.001 should be used. vf. A significance value of less than 0. . vf. In the Within-Subject Factor Name box.001). Click on the arrow to move these into the Within-Subjects Variables box.05. a more conservative alpha level of 0. Click on the variables that represent the within-subjects factor (vf. From the menu. 9. using Box’s M statistic. Click on the arrow to move this variable into the Between-Subjects Factors box. provided the size of the groups is reasonably similar (largest/smallest = 1. This means that the variability of scores for each of the groups is similar. click: Analyze General Linear Model Repeated Measures… 3.week1. c) Homogeneity of intercorrelations For each of the levels of the between-subjects variable the pattern of intercorrelations among the levels of the within-subjects variable should be the same.5). This is not an actual variable name. .20 b) Homogeneity of variance The samples are assumed to be obtained from populations of equal variances.Click on Continue. Click on the Options box at the bottom right of your screen. Levene’s test can be performed to test the equality of variances as part of the t-test and analysis of variances analyses. 6. PROCEDURE FOR MIXED BETWEEN-WITHIN ANOVA 1. Click on the Define button on the right-hand side.preop. and therefore the assumption of homogeneity of variance is violated. Estimates of effect size. type in a name that describes the within-subjects factor (time). suggests that variances for the two groups are not equal.op). Analysis of variance is reasonably robust to violations of this assumption. Click on your between-subjects variable (type. 7. You will see them listed.

Click on the within-groups factor (time) and move it into the box labeled Horizontal Axis.5140 10.1026 90. . General Linear Model Within-Subjects Factors Measure: MEASURE_1 TIME 1 2 3 4 Dependent Variable VF. The output generated from this procedure is shown below.9234 6.In the Separate Lines box click on the between-groups variable (type. Click on Add.0544 68.9793 5.2079 Std.0429 N 50 50 100 50 50 100 50 50 100 50 50 100 .21 11. Only a selected sample of the output is displayed.1704 6.3704 66.2124 89.7875 18.8804 6. In the box.3863 96.4170 8.2129 92.9733 6.month 2 ECCE Phaco Total VF-14 score .1244 6. you should see your variables listed (time*type.6578 93.MNTH6 Between-Subjects Factors Type of Operation 1 2 Value Label ECCE Phaco N 50 50 Descriptive Statistics Type of Operation ECCE Phaco Total VF-14 score .3394 94.4651 96.op).PREOP VF.2653 11.4333 95.pre operation Mean 64.6770 19. Deviation 19.week 1 ECCE Phaco Total VF-14 score . Click on the Plots button. Click on Continue and then OK. 13.9506 95.op) 12.WEEK1 VF. .MNTH2 VF.month 6 ECCE Phaco Total VF-14 score .

M ay b e u se d to a d ju st th e d e g re e s o f fre e d o m fo r th e a ve ra g e d te sts o f sig n ifica n ce . 0 0 0 9 6 .2 7 1 1 2 6 . 0 0 0 9 6 . Design: Intercept+TYPE.OP Within Subjects Design: TIME M u lt iv a r ia t e c e s t s T E ffe c t T IM E V a lu e P illa i's T r a c e .5 7 6 .5 4 4 .0 0 0 7 5 .0 0 0 b 2 . 0 0 0 9 6 .7 0 4 2 2 7 .3 7 3 T IM E * T Y P E . C o m p u te d u s in g a lp h a = .0 0 0 .9 4b1 3 .5 4 4 . 1 8 b1 3 .0 6 4 W ilk s ' L a m b d a .3 3 3 a F H y p o th e s is dE r r o r d f f 7 5 . D e s ig n : In te r c e p t+ T Y P E .7 0 4 2 2 7 . E x a c t s ta tis tic c.0 0 0 .0 6 8 R o y 's L a r g e s t R o o t.991 10 45916 . 1 8 b1 3 .0 0 0 2 .449 Tests the null hypothesis that the observed covariance matrices of the dependent variables are equal across groups. 0 0 0 9 6 .5 4 4 . b.0 0 0 b 2 . a. D e sig n : In te rce p t+T YPE.0 0 0 .9 4b1 3 .9 4 3 . C o rre cte d te sts a re d isp la ye T e sts o f W ith in -Su b je cts Effe cts ta b le .5 3 9 . E ta S q u a r e P a r a m e te r P o w e r d .3 7 3 R o y 's L a r g e s t R o o2t .0 0 0 G re e n h o u s e -G e isse r H u yn h .0 0 0 7 5 .1 8 1 3 .9 4b1 3 .7 0 4 W ilk s ' L a m b d a .1 8 1 3 .9 3 6 H o te llin g 's T r a c e .5 3 9 .0 6 8 a .8 2 4 1 .0 0 0 N o n c e n t.0 6 4 6 .0 6 4 6 .5 4 4 .0 6 4 6 .0 0 0 b1 7 5 .0 0 0 .0 9 5 .0 9 5 .0 9 5 . 10.8 2 4 1 .0 0 0 .8 2 4 1 .5 3 9 .2 5 6 df 5 S ig.0 0 0 .F e ld tL o w e r-b o u n d .O P W ith in S u b je c ts D e s ig n : T IM E M a u c h ly 's T e s t o f Sp h ebric it y M e a su re : M EASU R E_ 1 Ep silo n Ap p ro x. a .22 a Box's Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices Box's M F df1 df2 Sig.0 0 0 . 0 0 0 9 6 .2 9 6 H o te llin g 's T r a c e 2 .0 9 5 . 0 0 0 9 6 .0 0 0 . 0 0 0 9 6 .0 0 0 2 .5 6 2 .0 6 4 6 . O b s e r v e d a S ig .O P W ith in Su b je cts D e sig n : T IM E .7 0 4 2 2 7 .5 3 9 T e sts th e n u ll h yp o th e sis th a t th e e rro r co va ria n ce m a trix o f th e o rth o n o rm a lize d tra n sfo rm e d d e p e n d e n t va ria b le s is p ro p o rtio n a l to a n id e n tity m a trix. 0 0 0 9 6 .8 2 4 1 . . W ith in Su b je cts EffeM a u ch ly's W C h i-Sq u a re ct T IM E .0 5 b .364 .Oilla i's T r a c e P P .7 0 4 2 2 7 .

0 0 0 . 9 3 5 1 . 6 6 41 6 9 . O b s e r v e d a o f Sq u a res d f M e a n S q u a re F S ig .1 4 2 . 9 3 5 1 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 5 8 4 7 7 .2 7 01 5 2 .6 3 8 2 . 6 6 41 6 5 .2 5 5 3 3 .1 5 7 E r ro r ( T IM E ) L in e a r 1 8 9 0 9 .9 3 5 1 .1 7 5 .4 0 6 1 .F e ld t 3 7 5 8 6 . 4 3 8 ed 3 1 9 4 9 2 .9 5 9 5 2 .6 0 9 2 6 3 .1 9 3 . 9 3 5 1 .6 9 9 2 2 7 . 4 3 3 2 2 1 . pP 3 1 5 2 . E ta S q u a r eP a r a m e te r P o w e r d S p h e r ic ity A s s u m 5 8 4 7 7 .0 0 0 .3 1 2 1 .6 0 9 1 5 2 .4 6 9 .5 9 2 H u y n h .S u b je c t s E f f e c t s M e a s u re : M E A S U R E _ 1 T y p e II I S u m N o n c e n t.9 4 4 9 2 .6 0 5 1 .6 4 11 5 2 .3 1 3 . 0 5 T e s t s o f W it h in . 1 9 1 . 6 6 4 9 8 .6 3 8 Q u a d ra tic 2 4 .1 5 7 .0 0 0 3 8 3 .0 0 0 .7 2 9 3 3 8 2 3 .3 1 1 .6 6 1 .7 2 9 2 6 4 .4 3 81 5 2 .5 3 7 S o u rc e T IM E a .7 5 2 1 7 6 9 .0 0 0 H u y n h .4 6 9 1 . O b s e r v e d a S ig . C o m p u te d u s in g a lp h a = .2 9 6 S ource T IM E a . 1 9 1 .6 0 9 4 5 7 .6 7 7 .7 5 2 1 .0 1 2 2 .0 5 df 1 1 1 1 1 1 98 98 98 M e a n S q u a re F 4 3 9 1 2 . 4 3 8 1 .1 9 1 E r r o r ( T I M E ) S p h e r ic ity A s s u m 3 7 5 8 6 .8 4 6 G r e e n h o u s e .6 2 5 N o n c e n t.3 7 6 Q u a d ra tic 1 3 5 1 9 .8 3 7 L o w e r-b o u n d 3 7 5 8 6 .2 9 1 1 .1 9 1 .0 0 2 .0 7 0 .0 0 0 .0 7 2 .0 1 2 2 . 1 9 1 . 6 6 4 2 9 4 ed 1 2 7 .0 6 0 .3 1 9 G r e e n h o u s e .0 0 0 .2 4 1 L o w e r-b o u n d 4 5 6 . 9 3 5 .6 1 6 1 .4 5 9 2 2 7 .1 4 1 C u b ic 1 0 . 1 4 9 2 2 7 .0 0 0 .5 8 1 1 .9 4 4 C u b ic 1 7 6 9 .0 0 0 T I M E * T Y P E SO h e r ic ity A s s u m e d4 5 6 .2 3 8 H u y n h .6 0 9 2 5 6 .0 1 2 3 .0 0 0 G r e e n h o u s e .6 1 6 4 2 2 .6 8 5 3 4 7 0 0 .0 3 4 3 3 .0 0 0 .4 8 6 9 2 .F e ld t 5 8 4 7 7 .0 1 2 1 .5 8 1 1 2 7 9 5 .4 6 9 .4 5 9 Q u a d ra tic 1 2 7 9 5 .9 4 0 1 .0 0 2 .0 2 2 2 .3 0 2 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 L o w e r-b o u n d 5 8 4 7 7 .9 5 3 1 3 7 .1 7 5 1 0 .S u b je c t s C o n t ra s t s M e a su re : M E A S U R E _ 1 T y p e III S u m T IM E of S qu a res L in e a r 4 3 9 1 2 .0 3 4 T IM E * T Y P E .G e is s e r 6 .1 9 0 2 4 . 4 3 8 1 .1 4 1 .O in e a r LP 4 2 2 . 1 9 1 .1 9 0 .5 7 4 .23 T e s t s o f W i t h in .G e is5s8e4r 7 7 . E ta S q u a r e dP a r a m e te r P o w e r .6 8 5 45 2 7 1 .1 4 6 1 .3 0 1 .G e is3s7e5r 8 6 .F e ld t 4 5 6 . 4 3 8 1 .4 7 91 5 2 .4 6 9 .4 6 9 .2 7 8 .0 0 0 4 5 6 .0 0 8 . C o m p u t e d u s in g a lp h a = .9 9 2 C u b ic 5 1 5 7 .0 0 0 .1 9 3 1 9 2 .

month 2 .4 5 3 T YP E.1 0 5 .866 .1 5 0 .5 0 4 Erro r 1 6 9 2 2 .24 a Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances F VF-14 score operation VF-14 score VF-14 score VF-14 score .0 2 1 2 .1 0 5 98 1 7 2 .2 4 1 df M e a n Sq u a re F 1 3 0 1 8 2 8 6 .4 5 31 7 4 7 9 . Design: Intercept+TYPE.week 1 .0 0 0 .029 1. a.017 .5 0 4 2 .451 1.OP Within Subjects Design: TIME T e s ts o f B e tw e e n -Su b je c ts Effe c ts M e a su re : M EASU R E_ 1 T ra n sfo rm e d Va ria b le : Ave ra g e T yp e III Su m So u rce o f Sq u a re s In te rce p t 3 0 1 8 2 8 6 .3 0 1 a .4 8 6 1 . .503 . C om p u te d u sin g a lp h a = .0 0 0 .4 8 6 1 3 6 3 .pre .6 7 6 N o n ce n t.O P 3 6 3 .0 5 Profile Plots Estimated Marginal Means of MEASURE_1 100 90 Estimated Marginal Means 80 70 Type of Operation ECCE 60 1 2 3 4 Phaco TIME .month 6 .316 .9 9 4 1 7 4 7 9 .262 Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups. O b se rve d a Sig . Eta Sq u a re d Pa ra m e te r Po w e r .273 df1 1 1 1 1 df2 98 98 98 98 Sig.

21 and 92. The multivariate statistics however do not require sphericity. standard deviation. All of the multivariate tests yield the same result. therefore we can conclude that there is a statistically significant effect for time. however the most commonly reported statistic is Wilks’ Lambda. Effect size Although we have found a statistically significant difference between the four sets of scores. value of 0. In this example the value for Wilks’ Lambda is 0.0005). as indicated by the Sig.37). it is safer to inspect the multivariate statistics provided in the output.95 and 95. This suggests that there was a change in VF-14 scores across the four different time periods. The sphericity assumption requires that the variance of the population difference scores for any two conditions are the same as the variance of the population difference scores for any other two conditions (an assumption that is commonly violated). they increased at one week post-operation (89. univariate ANOVA results and also multivariate ANOVA results. In this example. the value that you are interested in is Wilks’ Lambda and the associated probability value given in the column labeled Sig. The p value is less than 0. Are there the right number of people in each group? Do the mean values make sense given the scale that was used? In the example above you will see that the lowest VF-14 scores are at pre-operation (ECCE = 64.10) and increased even further at two months (93. with a probability value of 0. The value obtained in . Multivariate tests In this table.05. we also need to assess the effect size of this result. Descriptive statistics In the first output box you are provided with the descriptive statistics for your four sets of scores (mean. Let’s look at the key values in the output that you will need to consider.000 in the box labeled Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity.34) and six months (96. N).000 (which really means p<0.47) after operation.05 and Phaco = 68. What we don’t know however. This is assessed by SPSS using Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity. The main effect for time was significant. The value you are interested in is Eta squared. we have violated the assumption of sphericity. is whether these differences are large enough to be considered statistically significant.296.43 and 95. Although there are ways to compensate for this assumption violation. given in the Multivariate Tests output box. It is a good idea to check that these make sense.25 INTERPRETATION OF OUTPUT FROM MIXED BETWEEN-WITHIN ANOVA This output provides tests for the assumptions of sphericity.

This result suggests a very large effect size. therefore we conclude that the main effect for group is not significant. This is not less than our alpha level of 0. There was no significant difference in the VF-14 scores for the two types of operation.150.704.26 this study is 0.06 = moderate effect. The eta-squared value for group in this case in 0. value is 0. The Sig. this result suggests a very large effect size (0. 0. and a repeated-measures ANOVA. Report the main effects for each independent variable and associated effect sizes. Between-subjects effect The results that we need to look at are in the table labeled Tests of Between-Subjects Effects. and the interaction effect. level for Wilks’ Lambda is 0. In this case the interaction effect is not statistically significant (sig. we are also interested to find out if there is a significant interaction effect. now we need to consider the main effect of our between-subjects variable (type of operation: ECCE / Phaco). This is small and therefore not surprising that it did not reach statistical significance.095 which is greater than our alpha level of 0. Read across the row labeled TYPE. Interaction effect In addition to the main effect. Is there the same change in scores over time for the two different types of operations (ECCE / Phaco)? This is indicated in the second set of row in the Multivariate Tests table (TIME*TYPE. Effect size The effect size of the between-subject effect is also given in the Tests Of BetweenSubject Effects table.OP (shortened for the type of operation).01 = small effect.OP). Using the commonly used guidelines.14 = large effect) .05) We have explored the within-subjects effects. .021.05. 0. PRESENTING THE RESULT FROM MIXED BETWEEN-WITHIN ANOVA The method of presenting the results from this technique is a combination of that used for a between-groups ANOVA.

These dependent variables should be related in some way. MANOVA compares the groups and tells you whether the mean differences between the groups on the combination of dependent variables is likely to have occurred by chance. Unfortunately by conducting a whole series of analyses you run the risk of an ‘inflated Type 1 error’. This is in fact what many researchers do. quality of life (physical dimension) and (mental dimension) before operation). This is quite common in clinical research where the focus is on the evaluation of the impact of an intervention on a variety of outcome measures (eg. MANOVA compares two or more groups in terms of their means on a group of dependent variables . physical symptoms. two-way and higher factorial designs (with multiple independent variables). quality of life (physical dimension) and (mental dimension) before undergo cataract operation ? This example involves: a) One categorical independent variable (eg. MANOVA can be used in one-way. This means that the more analyses you run. type of operation) b) Two or more continuous dependent variables (eg. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is an extension of analysis of variance for use when you have more than one dependent variable. the more likely you are to find a significant result. diagnosis and quality of life). there are no real differences between your groups. even if in reality. In many research situations however we are interested in comparing groups on a range of different characteristics. anxiety. depression. and when using analysis of covariance (controlling for an additional variable). However it has a number of additional assumptions that must be met.27 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE In previous chapters we explored the use of analysis of variance to compare groups on a single dependent variable. VF-14 (pre-op). or there should be some conceptual reason for considering them together. Some of you might be thinking why not just conduct a series of ANOVAs separately for each dependent variable. SUMMARY FOR ONE-WAY MANOVA Research question: Do patients in ECCE and Phaco groups differ in terms of overall wellbeing? Are patients in ECCE better in their wellbeing than Phaco in terms of their VF-14. MANOVA can also be extended to two-way and higher order designs involving two or more categorical independent variables.

Some of these tests are not strictly necessary provided that our sample size is large enough. According to Tabachnick and Fidell (1996). 4. and three dependent variables for each). 5. c) Outliers MANOVA is quite sensitive to outliers (data points or scores that are different from the remainder of the scores). If there had been a lot of outlying cases. b) Normality Although the significance tests of MANOVA are based on the multivariate normal distribution. in practice it is reasonably robust to modest violations of normality (except where the violations are due to outliers). click on: Analyze Descriptive Statistics Explore 2.resp).28 Assumptions: Before proceeding with the main MANOVA analysis we will test whether our data conforms to the assumptions required. no. we will use the data. Click on Continue and then OK. If the score is not too high/low. Procedures to identify outliers are as follow: 1. Check for outliers by using Explore. 3. Move this into the Dependents box. a sample size of at least 20 in each cell should ensure ‘robustness’. The minimum required number of cases in each cell in this example is three (the number of dependent variables). normality). Click on the Statistics button. We have a total of six cells (two levels of independent variable (ECCE/Phaco). . and move it into the box labeled Label Cases by. we may need to consider transforming this group of variables or remove the cases from the data file. Tick Descriptive and Outliers. The Extreme Values box gives you the highest and lowest values for the variable and the ID number of the sample that recorded these scores. ID. Click on the variable that you want to detect any outliers. Click on your identifying variable (eg. a) Sample size Having a large sample can also help you ‘get away with’ violations of some of the other assumptions (eg. From the menu at the top of the screen. You need to check both univariate normality and multivariate normality (using Mahalanobis distances).

do not create groups. Click on the Define button. 4. You will need to repeat this step to cover all possible pairs of your dependent variables. 6. Procedure to generate scatterplots: Having split your file. Click on Analyze all cases. and then generating scatterplots. 1. Click on OK. From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Graphs. 2. This can be assessed in a number of ways. Remember to go back and turn your Split File option off when you have finished. Click on OK. Groups based on. Click on Data. 2. Click on Simple. you can now request your scatterplots. This involves splitting the file by type of operation. From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Data. type. 3. Click on your independent categorical variable that will be used to create the group (eg. then click on Split File. Click on one of your dependent variables and move it into the box labeled Y axis. then click on Split File.29 d) Linearity This assumption refers to the presence of a straight-line relationship between each pair of your dependent variables. Click on another of your dependent variables and move it into the box labeled X axis (it does not matter in which order you enter your variables). then click on Scatter. The output generated from this procedure in shown on next page: . 5.op). Procedure to split the file: 1. Click on OK. 3. Click on Organize output by groups. Move this variable into the box labeled. the most straightforward of which is to generate scatterplots between each pair of your variables. 4.

pre operation 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 PHYS1 These plots do not show any evidence of non-linearity.OP: 120 2 Phaco 100 VF-14 score .30 Graph TYPE.pre operation 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 PHYS1 TYPE.OP: 120 1 ECCE 100 VF-14 score . therefore our assumption of linearity is satisfied. .

This approach is used when you have some theoretical or conceptual reason for ordering your dependent variables and this is quite a complex precedure.op). Correlations up around 0. This can occur when one of your variables is a combination of other variables (eg. f) Multicollinearity and singularity MANOVA works best when the dependent variables are only moderately correlated. When the dependent variables are highly correlated this is referred to as multicollinearity. type. the test of this assumption is generated as part of your MANOVA output. 5. In the Dependent Variables box enter each of your dependent variables (eg.8 or 0. From the menu. If you any of these. This is the default method of calculating sums of squares. you may need to consider removing one of the strongly correlated pairs of dependent variables. Click on Continue. Open file CIS 2. 6. click: Analyze General Linear Model Multivariate… 3. 4. or alternatively combining them to form a single measure. PROCEDURE FOR MANOVA 1. . Make sure that the Full Factorial button is selected in the Specify Model box. Type III should be displayed. In the Fixed Factors box enter your independent variable (eg. Down the bottom in the Sum of Squares box. This is referred to as singularity. While there are quite sophisticated ways of checking for multicollinearity. and how the scores are obtained.31 e) Homogeneity of regression This assumption is important if you are intending to perform a stepdown analysis. the total scores of a scale that is made up of subscales that are also included as dependent variables). Quality of life (physical dimension) and Quality of life (mental dimension) before operation). the simplest way is to run Correlation and to check the strength of the correlations among your dependent variables. Click on the Model button. VF14 pre-op. g) Homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices Fortunately. and can be avoided by knowing what your variables are. With low correlations you should consider running separate univariate analysis of variance for your various dependent variables.9 are reason for concern. The test used to assess this is Box’s M Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices.

op).3600 66. Deviation 19.355 6 69584 .OP .2124 82. Click on Continue and then OK. Click on the Options button.028 Tests the null hypothesis that the observed covariance matrices of the dependent variables are equal across groups. General Linear Model Between-Subjects Factors Type of Operation 1 2 Value Label ECCE Phaco N 50 50 Descriptive Statistics VF-14 score pre operation PHYS1 Type of Operation ECCE Phaco Total ECCE Phaco Total ECCE Phaco Total Mean 64.4000 67.9267 5. Estimated of Effect Size c. In the section labeled Factor and factor Interactions click on your independent variable (eg. type.0467 4.0061 3. 14. Move it into the box marked Display Means for: 8.3098 19. put a tick in the boxes labeled: a.9039 20. Design: Intercept+TYPE. a.2653 20. The output generated from this procedure is shown below.8800 Std.6770 19. Homogeneity tests 9.32 7. Observed Power d.7382 N 50 50 100 50 50 100 50 50 100 MENTAL1 a Box's Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices Box's M F df1 df2 Sig.613 2.4000 82.7875 18.3704 66. Descriptive Statistics b.4000 69.0544 68.4000 82. In the Display section of this screen.

Design: Intercept+TYPE.0 0 0 a .0 1 5 .0 1 5 .1 0 2 1 0 .726 df1 1 1 1 df2 98 98 98 Sig.029 .102 Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups.O PP illa i's T r a c e .6 4 1 3 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 b R o y 's L a r g e s t R o o t .0 0 0 .0 0 0 9 6 .9 9 1 ot 3 .0 0 0 b W ilk s ' L a m b d a .0 0 4 8 6 5 7 .0 0 0 9 6 .0 0 0 b R o y 's L a r g e s t R o 2 7 0 .1 1 4 3 .9 7 3 1 .6 4 b 1 3 .6 4 1 3 .0 0 0 T Y P E .0 0 0 9 6 .0 5 b .9 9 1 3 . a.866 .9 7 3 1 .0 0 0 b H o te llin g 's T r a c e 2 7 0 .7 8 3 F VF-14 score pre operation PHYS1 MENTAL1 .1 0 2 1 0 .7 8 3 .0 1 5 .5 6 2 8 6 5 7 .0 0 0 .1 0 2 1 0 .969 .1 0 2 3 . E ta S q u a r e dP a r a m e te r P o w e r .0 0 0 .0 0 0 .1 1 4 3 .0 0 0 9 6 .0 0 0 .1 0 2 1 0 .9 2 4 .9 2 4 .9 7 3 1 .9 9 6 2 5 9 7 3 . O b s e r v e d a S ig .8 9 8 3 .9 7 3 1 .7 8 3 .6 4 b 1 3 .0 0 0 b W ilk s ' L a m b d a .0 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 1 5 .OP .0 0 0 9 6 .O P a Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances N o n c e n t.9 9 6 8 6 5 7 .0 0 0 H o te llin g 's T r a c e . C o m p u te d u s in g a lp h a = . .9 2 4 .9 9 6 2 5 9 7 3 .33 M u lt iv a ria t e Tce s t s E ffe c t V a lu e F H y p o th e s is d fE r r o r d f b In te r c e p t P illa i's T r a c e .9 9 6 2 5 9 7 3 .0 0 0 9 6 .9 9 6 2 5 9 7 3 . D e s ig n : In te r c e p t+ T Y P E .5 6 2 8 6 5 7 .9 9 1 3 .002 2.7 8 3 .9 2 4 .0 0 0 9 6 .0 0 0 9 6 .9 9 1 3 . E x a c t s ta tis tic c .

757 88.3 2 7 2 0 .721 2.0 5 b .0 9 9 1 .0 5 0 .9 4 5 1 6 7 9 .0 0 c 0 1 d0 M ENTAL1 2 1 9 .131 67.1 5 1 99 o p e r a t io n PHYS1 3 9 6 2 4 .pre ECCE operation Phaco PHYS1 ECCE Phaco MENTAL1 ECCE Phaco Mean 64.721 2.6 8 3 1 o p e r a t io n PHYS1 .655 69.0 9 9 ( A d ju s te d R S q u a r e d = .0 0 0 1 .R S q u a r e d = .34 T e s t s o f B e t w e e n .0 3 6 .0 1 3 ( A d ju s te d R S q u a r e d = .400 69.0 5 0 .0 0 0 .757 88.0 0 0 98 M ENTAL1 2 0 0 3 .370 82.2 5 8 .0 0 0 .O P V F -1 4 s co re .9 9 6 2 2 5 3 8 .1 0 5 1 o p e r a t io n PHYS1 6 7 8 9 7 6 .R S q u a r e d = .0 0 0 .091 70. 0 3 6 22 4 6 5 .p re 4 7 5 1 5 2 .5 6 0 99 M e a n Sq u a re F 4 6 5 .1 0 1 1 8 4 .2 6 5 1 .0 0 0 1 0 .p re 3 6 2 7 8 .7 1 4 3 7 0 .0 0 3 ) c .0 0 0 99 M ENTAL1 2 2 2 2 . 2 8 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 6 .7 1 4 .0 0 0 ( A d ju s te d R S q u a r e d = .770 76. O b s e r v e d a E t a S q u a r eP a r a m e te r P o w e r d .0 0 0 .400 82.9 0 0 1 .S u b je c t s E f f e c t s T y p e II I S u m S o urce D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le q u a r e s d f of S b C o r r e c t e d M oVdFe-l1 4 s c o r e .0 4 0 1 0 ..0 0 1 N o n c e n t.0 4 1 In t e r c e p t V F -1 4 s co re .9 0 0 .7 1 4 .2 5 8 .0 0 0 2 1 9 .2 5 6 1 0 0 o p e r a t io n PHYS1 7 1 8 6 0 0 .6 8 3 1 .0 9 9 1 .0 0 1 6 7 9 .0 0 0 2 1 9 .0 0 0 1 0 0 C o r r e c t e d T o VaFl .639 .669 Dependent Variable Type of Operation VF-14 score .2 5 8 S ig . Error 2.4 4 0 5 3 8 .4 4 4 a .0 0 0 1 0 0 M ENTAL1 4 6 2 9 9 2 .p r e t 3 6 7 4 4 .C o m p u t e d u s in g a lp h a = .0 0 0 .0 1 0 ) d .0 0 0 1 M ENTAL1 2 1 9 .400 Std.043 76.844 .7 1 4 4 3 8 4 0 8 .971 73.639 .0 1 3 .6 8 3 1 o p e r a t io n PHYS1 .0 4 0 1 E rro r V F -1 4 s co re .2 8 4 .1 9 9 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 .2 5 8 .454 62.1 4 s c o r e . .054 68.1 9 9 .043 68.4 4 0 1 T Y P E .0 1 3 . 2 7 6 0 4 6 0 7 6 9 .p re 4 6 5 .0 8 9 ) Estimated Marginal Means Type of Operation 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 58.844 2.p re 4 3 8 4 0 8 .9 2 4 1 1 8 4 . R S q u a r e d = .0 0 0 .629 65.1 8 8 4 0 4 .2 7 6 .0 0 0 1 0 .5 2 0 98 T o ta l V F -1 4 s co re .2 6 5 1 .0 0 1 .0 0 0 1 .0 0 0 1 M ENTAL1 4 6 0 7 6 9 .p r e 4 6 5 .0 0 0 .360 66.0 4 0 1 0 .6 8 3 1 .4 6 8 98 o p e r a t io n PHYS1 3 9 6 2 4 .0 0 0 .

check that the N values correspond to what you know about your sample. These N values are your ‘cell size’ (assumption a). then Pillai’s Trace is more robust. value is larger than 0.015. If the Sig. There are a number of statistics to choose from (Wilks’ Lambda.). Box’s M can tend to be too strict when your have a large sample size. column look for any values that are less than 0.35 INTERPRETATION OF OUTPUT FROM MANOVA Descriptive Statistics Check that the information is correct. Find the value of Wilk’s Lambda and its associated significance level (Sig. It is recommend for general use. Don’t make the mistake of using the first set of figures which refer to the intercept.898. If you do violate this assumption of equality of variances you will need to set a more conservative alpha level -for determining significance for that variable in the univariate F-test (example an alpha of 0. If you have over 30. with a significance value of 0. In the example shown above. . then you have not violated the assumption. If the significance level is less than 0. unequal N values.05. This is less than 0. Box Tests The output box labeled Box’ s Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices will tell you if your data violates the assumption of homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices. rather than the normal conventional 0. then any violations of normality or equality of variance that may exist are not going to matter too much. In particular.001. than the number of dependent variables.05. In the Sig.01. Hotelling’s Trace. Multivariate tests This set of multivariate tests of significance will indicate whether there are statistically significant differences among the groups on a linear combination of the dependent variables. Wilks’ Lambda You will find the value you are looking for in the second section of the Multivariate Tests table in the row labeled with the name of your independent or grouping variable (in this case: TYPE. we obtained a Wilks’ Lambda value of 0. violation of assumptions).05.05 level). however if you data has problems (small sample size.025 or 0. These would indicate that you have violated the assumption of equality of variance for that variable. Make sure that you have more subjects (cases) in each cell. One of the most commonly reported statistics is Wilks’ Lambda. therefore there is a statistically significant difference between ECCE and Phaco patients in terms of their overall wellbeing. Pillai’s Trace).OP). then you can conclude that there is a difference among your groups. Levene’s Test The next box to look at is Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances.

Do ECCE and Phaco patients differ on all of the dependent measures. Quality of life (mental dimension) before operation (MENTAL1) recorded a significance value less than our cutoff (with a Sig. Effect size The importance of the impact of type of operation on Quality if life (mental dimension) can be evaluated using the effect size statistic provided by SPSS: Eta Squared. according to generally accepted criteria. only one of the dependent variables ie. In its simplest form this involves dividing your original alpha level of 0. You will see each of your dependent variables listed.099 which. value of 0. We will consider our results significant if the probability value (Sig. Because you are looking at a number of separate analyses here. The value in this case is 0.017. values. In this study. Significance In the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects box move down to the third set of values in a row labeled with your independent variable (in this case: TYPE. Although labeled eta squared in the output. is considered moderate to large effect.05 by the number of analyses that you intend to do.017 (our new adjusted alpha level). In the Sig. column look for any values that are less than 0. The most common way of doing this is to apply what is known as a Bonferroni adjustment. it is suggested that you set a higher alpha level to reduce the chance of a Type 1 error (ie. the information provided by SPSS on this statistic suggests that it is actually partial eta squared that is given. finding a significant result when in fact there isn’t really one).36 Between-subjects effects If you obtain a significant result on this multivariate test of significance. or just some? This information is provided in the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects output box. In our example. giving a new alpha level of 0. with their associated univariate F.017. the only significant difference between ECCE and Phaco patients was on their Quality of life (mental dimension) before operation.) is less than 0.001). Both eta squared and partial eta squared represent the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable (Quality of life – mental dimension) that can be explained by the independent variable (type of operation). this then gives you permission to investigate further in relation to each of your dependent variables.05 by 3. df and Sig.OP).9 percent of the variance in Quality of life (mental dimension) scores explained by type of patient (whether ECCE or Phaco). In this case we have three dependent variables to investigate. . This represents that 9. therefore we would divide 0.

001. PRESENTING THE RESULTS FROM MANOVA The results of this multivariate analysis of variance could be presented as follow: A one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance was performed to investigate type of patient (who underwent cataract operation) differences in overall wellbeing. was Quality of life (mental dimension) before operation: F = 10.639) before operation. s. 66. the actual difference in the two mean scores was very small.d = 0. An inspection of the mean scores indicated that ECCE patients reported slightly higher levels of Quality of life (mental dimesion) (M = 69.d = 0. To find this out we refer to the output table provided in the section labeled Estimated Marginal Means. When the results for the dependent variables were considered separately. p = 0. Three dependent variables were used: VF-14 pre-operation.40. with no serious violations noted. we do not know who had the higher scores.102. less than 3 scale points. linearity. and multicollinearity. partial eta squared = 0.36 and for Phaco patients.36.015. s. Wilks’ Lambda = 0. Although statistically significant.40. homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices. partial eta squared = 0. For Quality of life (mental dimension) the mean score for ECCE patients was 69.898. The independent variable was type of patient (ECCE / Phaco).099.017. univariate and multivariate outliers. Quality of life (physical dimension) and Quality of life (mental dimension) before operation.639) than Phaco patients (M = 66. Preliminary assumption testing was conducted to check for normality. p = 0.641. . There was a statistically significant difference between ECCE and Phaco patients on the combined dependent variables: F = 3.37 Comparing group means Although we know that ECCE and Phaco patients differed in terms of Quality of life (mental dimension).714. the only difference to reach statistical significance using a Bonferroni adjusted alpha level of 0.

A) One-way between-groups ANOVA (1 independent variable. This is certainly not an ideal situation. groups of patients).38 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE (ANCOVA) Analysis of covariance is an extension of analysis of variance that allows you to explore differences between groups while statistically controlling for an additional (continuous) variable. SPSS uses regression procedures to remove the variation in the dependent variable that is due to the covariate(s). it may increase the likelihood that you will be able to detect differences between your groups. as it is not possible to control for all possible differences. Under these circumstances (which are very common in social science research). it is recommends the use of two or three carefully chosen covariates to reduce the error variance and increase your chances of detecting a significant difference between your groups. As these groups may differ on a number of different attributes (not just the one you are interested in). The use of well chosen covariates can help to reduce the confounding influence of group differences. two-way and multivariate ANOVA techniques. and only small or medium effect sizes. and then performs the normal analysis of variance techniques on the corrected or adjusted scores. however it does help to reduce this systematic bias. This additional variable (called a covariate) is a variable that you suspect may be influencing scores on the dependent variable. but instead have had to use existing groups (eg. 1 dependent variable) Uses of ANCOVA ANCOVA can be used when you have a two-group pre-test/post-test design (eg. By removing the influence of these additional variables ANCOVA can increase the power or sensitivity of the F-test. 1 dependent variable) B) Two-way between-groups ANOVA (2 independent variables. comparing the impact of two different interventions. The scores on the pre-test are treated as a covariate to ‘control’ for preexisting differences between the groups. This is. Choosing appropriate covariates ANCOVA can be used to control for one or more covariates at the same time. ANCOVA can be used in an attempt to reduce some of these differences. taking before and after measures for each group). In identifying possible covariates you should ensure you have a good understanding of the . This makes ANCOVA very useful in situations when you have quite small sample sizes. ANCOVA is also handy when you have been unable to randomly assign your subjects to the different groups. Analysis of covariance can be used as part of one-way.

Assumptions of ANCOVA: There are a number of issues and assumptions associated with ANCOVA. The variables that you choose as your covariates should be continuous variables. because Cronbach alpha is quite sensitive to the number of items in the scale. such as age. 3. . which is rather unrealistic assumption in much social science research. Be careful with very short scales (eg. When ANCOVA removes (controls for) the covariate it will also remove some of the treatment effect. under ten items) however. The covariate must be measured before the treatment or experimental manipulation is performed. Ideally you should choose a small set of covariates that are only moderately correlated with one another. but may not be suitable for children or adolescents). may not meet this assumption. b) Reliability of covariates ANCOVA assumes that covariates are measured without error. then this change will be correlated with the change that occurs in your dependent variable.7 or 0. Value should be above 0. others which rely on a scale. Short scales often have low Cronbach alpha values. Make sure they measure what you think they measure (don’t just rely on the title – check the manual and inspect the items). Some variables that you may wish to control. There are a number of things you can do to improve the reliability of your measurement tools: 1. so that each contributes uniquely to the variance explained. If the covariate is affected by the treatment condition. thereby reducing the likelihood of obtaining a significant result. This is to prevent scores on the covariate also being influenced by the treatment. can be measured reasonably reliably. Look for good. Check the internal consistency (a form of reliability) of your scale by calculating Cronbach alpha. In this case you may need to check the inter-correlations among the scale items. This is to avoid scores on the covariate also being influenced by the treatment. well validated scales and questionnaires. These are over and above the usual ANOVA assumptions. 2.8 to be considered reliable. a) Influence of treatment on covariate measurement In designing your study you should ensure that the covariate is measured prior to the treatment or experimental manipulation.39 theory and previous research that has been conducted in your topic area. measured reliably. and correlate significantly with the dependent variable. Check that the measure you intend to use is suitable for use with your sample (some scales may be very reliable for adults.

the different levels of your independent variable). c) Correlations among covariates There should not be strong correlations among the variables you choose for your covariates. If you discover any curvilinear relationships. Disposing of covariates that misbehave is often easier. Always pretest your questions before conducting the full study. (ie. Violations of this assumption are likely to reduce the power (sensitivity) of your test. . Scatterplots can be used to test for linearity. cultural backgrounds. make sure they are trained and that each observer uses the same criteria. Preliminary pilot testing to check inter-rater consistency would be useful here. d) Linear relationship between dependent variable and covariate ANCOVA assumes that the relationship between the dependent variable and each of your covariates is linear (straight-line). appropriate and unambiguous. Consider the circumstances under which you are measuring your covariate. Make sure the questions and response scale are appropriate for all of your groups (eg. you want a group of covariates that correlate substantially with the dependent variable. you should consider removing one or more of them. If you are using any form of equipment or measuring instrumentation. 7. To choose appropriate covariates you will need to use the existing theory and research to guide you. If you have had to write the questions yourself. etc. Make sure the person operating the equipment is competent and trained in its use. consider sex differences.8). language difficulties. Remember. or are they likely to distort their answers to avoid embarrassment etc. If you are using more than one covariate.40 4. but not with one another. Run some preliminary correlation analyses to explore the strength of the relationship among your proposed covariates. If you find that the covariates you intend to use correlate strongly (eg. If your study involves using other people to observe or rate behaviour. make sure they are clear.). r = ≥ 0. make sure that it is functioning properly and calibrated appropriately. Are people likely to answer honestly. given the difficulty in interpreting transformed variables. however these need to be checked separately for each of your groups.? 6. Ideally. Each of the covariates you choose should pull their own weight – overlapping covariates do not contribute to a reduction in error variance. 5. these may be corrected by transforming your variable or alternatively you may wish to drop the offending covariate from the analysis. one of the reasons for including covariates was to increase the power of your analysis of variance test. it also assumes a linear relationship between each of the pairs of your covariates.

then the results of ANCOVA are misleading. After the operation they were again asked to complete the same questionnaire. This is indicated by similar slopes on the regression line for each group. one dependent continuous variable. If there is an interaction. High scores indicate higher levels of quality of life. Scores range from 0 – 100. Details of example To illustrate the use of one-way ANCOVA. while controlling for pre-test scores. In this example we will explore the outcome of ECCE (Group 1) and Phaco (Group 2). while controlling for the scores on this test administered before the operation. One-way ANCOVA One-way ANCOVA involves one independent. Scores range from 0 – 100. categorical variable (with two or more levels of conditions). This technique is often used when evaluating the impact of an intervention or experimental manipulation. Total scores on the quality of life (physical dimension) administered 6 months after the operation. Details of the variables names and labels from the data file are as follows: File name CIS Variable Variable label name type. on patients’ scores on the SF-36 questionnaire after the operation. and therefore it should not be conducted.op Type of operation phys1 SF-36 (physical dimension) scores preoperation phys4 SF-36 (physical dimension) scores 6 months post-operation Coding instructions 1 = ECCE 2 = Phacoemulsification (Phaco) Total scores on the quality of life (physical dimension) administered prior to the operation. Patients were divided into two equal groups (ECCE and Phaco) and asked to complete a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) before operation. Unequal slopes would indicate that there is an interaction between the covariate and the treatment. High scores indicate higher levels of quality of life. . and one or more continuous covariates. This data refers to a study that involves testing the impact of two different types of operation in treating cataract patients. we will use the CIS data file.41 e) Homogeneity of regression slopes This impressive sounding assumption requires that the relationship between the covariate and dependent variable for each of your groups is the same.

Assumption 2: Reliability of the covariate This assumption concerning the reliability of the covariate is also part of your research design. Assumption 1: Measurement of the covariate This assumption specifies that the covariate should be measured before the treatment or experimental manipulation begins. and involves choosing the most reliable measuring tools available. Testing assumptions: Before you can begin testing the specific assumptions associated with ANCOVA. One categorical independent variable with two or more levels (ECCE / Phaco) 2. One or more continuous covariates (SF-36 (physical dimension) score preoperation) ANCOVA will tell us if the mean SF-36 (physical dimension) scores at six months postoperation for the two groups (ECCE / Phaco) are significantly different. after the initial pre-test scores are controlled for. If you have used a psychometric scale or measure you can check the internal consistency reliability by calculating Cronbach alpha using the SPSS Reliability procedures. This is not tested statistically. One continuous dependent variable (SF-36 (physical dimension) score six months post-operation) 3. but instead forms part of your research design and procedures. This is why it is important to plan your study with a good understanding of the statistical techniques that you intend to use. .42 Summary for one-way ANCOVA Research question: Is there a significant difference in the SF-36 (physical dimension) scores for the ECCE patients (Group 1) and the Phaco patients (Group 2). you will need to check the assumptions for a normal one-way analysis of variance (normality and homogeneity of variance). while controlling for their pre-test scores on this test? At least three variables are involved: 1.

then Options. Click on the Fit Options button. In the Y axis box put your dependent variable (SF-36 (physical dimension) score six months post-operation) 4.43 Assumption 3: Correlations amongst the covariates If you are using more than one covariate. 3. . just click on File from the menu and then Close. 3. Click on OK. This opens the Chart Editor window. 1. In the Set markers by box put your independent variable (eg. STEP 2 1. 5. 6. Once you have your scatterplot displayed in the Viewer window. 2. In the Display options section make sure that there is a tick in the Show subgroups box. In the X axis box put your covariate (SF-36 (physical dimension) score preoperation) 5. Click on Continue and then OK. Click on Simple. Split your sample according to the various groups in your design using the SPSS Split File option.8 and above). Generate scatterplots between the dependent variable and each of the covariates. Click on Chart from the top menu. you should check to see that they are not too strongly correlated with one another (r = 0. To do this you will need to use the SPSS Correlation procedure. In the Fit Lines section tick Subgroups. 2. Since in this example has one covariate.op). then click on Scatter. 7. Procedure for checking linearity for each group STEP 1 1. In the Regression Options section tick the Display R square in legend. 2. Assumption 4: Linearity There are a number of different ways that you can check the assumption of a linear relationship between the dependent variable and the covariates for all your groups. double click on it. Click on the Define button. type. 4. Click on Graphs. One way would be to. we do not need to perform the correlation. To close the graph and return to your normal Viewer window.

you can look at the general distribution of scores for each of your groups. which are given in the legend for each group. To get this value. For the Phaco group 97% of the variance in the two sets of scores are shared.9543 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 thru origin PHYS4 PHYS1 The output generated using the procedures detailed above provides you with a number of useful pieces of information. . 120 100 80 Type of Operation 60 Phaco Rsq = 0. In this case these two variables are strongly correlated. In the above example the relationship is clearly linear. If you find a curvilinear relationship you may want to reconsider the use of this covariate. Does there appear to be a linear (straight-line) relationship for each group. so we have not violated the assumption of a linear relationship. The R squared values.44 The output generated from this procedure is shown below. just convert R squared value to a percentage by shifting the decimal point two places). gives you an indication of the strength of the relationship between your dependent variable (SF-36 (physical dimension) score six months post-operation) and your covariate (SF-36 (physical dimension) score pre-operation). or alternatively you could try transforming the variable and repeating the scatterplot to see if there is an improvement. What you don’t want to see is an indication of a curvilinear relationship. First. For the ECCE group.9720 40 thru origin ECCE Rsq = 0. 95% of the variance in scores at 6 months postoperation are explained by scores at pre-operation.

4. Graphically. then we have violated the assumption. In the Covariate box put your covariate (SF-36 (physical dimension) score preoperation) 5. 6. which used the same test administered on two different occasions. In the Fixed Factor box put your independent or grouping variable (type of operation. therefore it does not appear that we have violated this assumption. Assumption 5: Homogeneity of regression slopes This final assumption (homogeneity of regression slopes) concerns the relationship between the covariate and the dependent variable for each of your groups. If the lines had been noticeably different in their orientation. Click on Custom. In the Dependent Variables box put your dependent variable (SF-36 (physical dimension) score six months post-operation). What you are checking is that there is no interaction between the covariate and the treatment or experimental manipulation. The procedure to check is described next. this may suggest that there is an interaction between the covariate and the treatment (as shown by the different groups). This involves checking to see whether there is a statistically significant interaction between the treatment and the covariate. There is no point controlling for a variable. This would mean a violation of this assumption.05. if it is not related to the dependent variable. Are the two lines (correspond to the two groups in this study) similar in their slopes? In the above example the two lines are very similar.45 In many studies. 3. you can inspect the scatterplot between the dependent variable and the covariate obtained when testing for Assumption 4. If you find in your study that there is only a very weak relationship between your dependent variables and the covariate you may need to consider using alternative covariates. particularly when you are using different scales as covariates. Click on the Model button. Procedure to check for homogeneity of regression slopes 1.op). rather than graphically. . If the interaction is significant at alpha level of 0. Check that the Interaction option is showing in the Build Terms box. This assumption can also be assessed statistically. type. you will not find such high correlations. post-intervention design. There are a number of different ways to evaluate this assumption. From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Analyze General Linear Model Univariate 2. The high correlation here is due in part to the preintervention.

OP+PHYS1+TYPE.your covariate (phy1). . a. Click on your independent variable (type. Go back and click on your independent variable (type. 12. 9. While this is highlighted.3208 16. 8.an extra line of the form: covariate*independent variable (phy1*type.op) 11. hold down the Ctrl button on your keyboard.your independent variable (type. 10.2707 16. In the Model box you should now have listed: .op) and then the arrow button to move it into the Model box. Univariate Analysis of Variance Between-Subjects Factors Type of Operation 1 2 Value Label ECCE Phaco N 50 50 Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Type of Operation ECCE Phaco Total Mean 84.7588 N 50 50 100 a Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable: PHYS4 F . Deviation 17. and .3000 86.op) .46 7.4500 Std.OP * PHYS1 . The final term is the interaction that we are checking for. Design: Intercept+TYPE.361 Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups.6000 85. and then click on your covariate variable (phy1). Click on Continue and then OK. Click on the arrow button to move this into the right-hand side box labeled Model.op) again on your left-hand side (in the Factors and Covariates section).843 df1 1 df2 98 Sig. Click on your covariate (phy1) and then the arrow button to move it into the Model box. The output generated by this procedure is shown below.

300 a 1.7 6 6 1 .1 7 1 5 7 .4 5 6 . We have not violated the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes.5 0 7 5 7 .8 1 3 .05.0 0 8 . Error 84.3 7 9 (A d ju s te d R S q u a r e d = . Evaluated at covariates appeared in the model: PHYS1 = 82.O P * P H Y S 1 1 4 6 . indicating that you have violated the assumption.5 0 1 .0 0 5 . In the output obtained from this procedure that only value that you are interested in is the significance level of the interaction term (phy1*type. R S q u a re d = . We want a Sig.5 0 7 T Y P E . C o m p u te d u s in g a lp h a = .3 7 9 5 8 . safely above the cut-off.836 90.3 7 0 . then you’re your interaction is statistically significant.1 4 5 T o ta l 7 5 7 9 7 5 .5 4 4 1 0 3 8 7 .896 86.8 1 4 N o n c e n t.7 5 0 df 3 1 1 1 1 96 100 99 M e a n Sq u a re F 3 5 1 4 .6 0 5 In te r c e p t 1 0 3 8 7 . This support the earlier conclusion gained from an inspection of the scatterplots for each group.0 0 0 .0 0 0 . If the Sig.05.0 0 0 C o r r e c te d T o ta l 2 7 8 0 4 .1 4 5 a .7 6 6 8 1 .9 4 6 .3 7 6 5 7 .0 5 b .4000.2 0 2 1 9 .600 a 1.0 0 0 .0 0 0 . Now that we have finished checking the assumptions.S u b je c t s E ff e c t s D e p e n d e n t V a ria b le : P H Y S 4 T y p e III S u m S o u rc e o f S q u a re s b C o r r e c te d M o d e l 1 0 5 4 2 . . In the above example the Sig. In this situation we do not want a significant result. value of greater than 0.1 7 4 . E ta S q u a r e d P a r a m e te r P o w e r .3 6 0 ) Estimated Marginal Means Type of Operation Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Type of Operation ECCE Phaco Mean Std. You can ignore the rest of the output.8 1 3 1 7 9 .364 a.47 T e s ts o f B e t w e e n .064 82. O b s e rv e d a S ig .0 0 0 .536 88. level is 0.0 0 0 .3 7 4 5 7 . we can proceed with the ANCOVA analysis to explore the differences between our treatment groups.3 3 4 1 .370.1 7 4 E rr o r 1 7 2 6 2 .op). level for the interaction is less than 0.4 5 6 1 0 3 0 9 .6 3 1 1 .9 4 6 PH YS1 1 0 3 0 9 .896 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 80.1 0 3 .O P 8 1 .3 3 4 1 4 6 .1 7 1 T Y P E .

3000 86. In the Dependent Variables box put your dependent variable (phy4). Click on Continue. In the Fixed Factor box put your independent or grouping variable (type of operation.op).7588 N 50 50 100 . Click on the Options button.4500 Std. Click on Continue and then OK. type. Descriptive Statistics b. In the Covariate box put your covariate (phy1) 5. Estimated of Effect Size c. Observed Power d. Univariate Analysis of Variance Between-Subjects Factors Type of Operation 1 2 Value Label ECCE Phaco N 50 50 Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Type of Operation ECCE Phaco Total Mean 84. 9. Click on the arrow button to move it into the box labeled Display Means for.3208 16. 4. The output generated by this procedure is shown below. 6. In the bottom section of the Options dialogue box choose: a. 7. Homogeneity tests 10. 8. Click on Full Factorial in the Specify Model section. From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Analyze General Linear Model Univariate 2. In the top section labeled Estimated Marginal Means click on your independent variable (type.op).6000 85. Click on the Model button.2707 16. 3. This will provide you with the mean score on your dependent variable for each group.48 Procedure for one-way ANCOVA 1. Deviation 17. adjusted for the influence of the covariate.

3 7 5 5 8 .3 7 1 5 7 .0 0 0 . Eta S q u a re d P a ra m e te r P o w e r .0 0 0 .49 a Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable: PHYS4 F .540 88.0 0 8 .1 7 0 1 0 2 6 4 .3 7 4 5 7 .0 0 0 C o rre cte d T o ta l 2 7 8 0 4 .4 3b1 In te rce p t 1 0 4 3 9 .7 3 7 .2 1 5 2 8 .060 82.9 2 9 1 .3 1 9 T o ta l 7 5 7 9 7 5 .360 a.1 8 1 T Y PE . R Sq u a re d = . O b se rv e d a S ig .3 7 4 (A d ju ste d R S q u a re d = .7 3 7 1 7 9 . Evaluated at covariates appeared in the model: PHYS1 = 82.1 3 6 a .4000.895 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 80.3 6 1 ) Estimated Marginal Means Type of Operation Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Type of Operation ECCE Phaco Mean Std.408 Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups.2 5 0 .6 1 3 5 8 . .1 9 3 1 3 2 .1 7 0 1 .300 a 1.0 0 0 .7 5 0 df 2 1 1 1 97 100 99 M e a n Sq u a re F 5 1 9 8 . Error 84. C o m p u te d u sin g a lp h a = .4 6 7 N o n c e n t.2 5 0 E rro r 1 7 4 0 8 .3 9 3 .0 0 0 .1 9 3 1 .O P 1 3 2 .6 1 3 PHYS1 1 0 2 6 4 . .0 5 b .0 0 0 .600 a 1. Design: Intercept+PHYS1+TYPE.840 90. a.9 6 5 1 0 4 3 9 .OP T e s ts o f B e tw e e n -S u b je c ts Effe c ts D e p e n d e n t V a ria b le : P H Y S 4 T yp e III S u m S o u rce o f S q u a re s C o rre cte d M o d e l1 0 3 9 6 .0 0 0 .690 df1 1 df2 98 Sig.895 86.1 8 1 5 7 .

we are only able to explain 0. value is 0. The main ANCOVA results are presented in the table labeled Test Of BetweenSubjects Effects. which is much larger than 0. ‘Adjusted’ refers to the fact that the effect of the covariate has been statistically removed. level. The other piece of information that we can gain from this table concerns the influence of our covariate.0005) and therefore our covariate is significant. This indicates whether there is a significant relationship between the covariate and the dependent variable. number in each group.000 (which actually means less than 0. We want to know if our groups are significantly different in terms of their scores on the dependent variable (phy4).8 percent of the variance.op).05. value to be greater than 0. Read across to the Sig.05. 1. check that the details are correct (eg. In this example. 6. There is no significant difference in the quality of life (physical dimension) for subjects in the ECCE group and Phaco group. 5. . The final table in the ANCOVA output (Estimated marginal means) provides us with the adjusted means on the dependent variable for each of our groups. You want the Sig. value is 0. In fact it explained 37% of the variance in the dependent variable (eta squared of 0. The details in the table labeled Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances allow you to check that you have not violated the assumption of equality of variance. then your groups differ significantly. mean scores). 3. This value also indicates how much of the variance in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable. If this value is smaller than 0. In this case our value is 0.50 INTERPRETATION OF OUTPUT FROM ONE-WAY ANCOVA There are a number of steps in interpreting the output from ANCOVA.371 multiplied by 100). In this case we have not violated the assumption because our Sig. Find the line in the table which corresponds to the covariate (phy1). Find the line corresponding to your independent variable (type. 4.05 (and therefore significant) this means that your variance are not equal. The value in this case is only 0.393. as indicated by the corresponding eta squared value. In the box labeled Descriptive Statistics. Convert the eta squared value to a percentage by multiplying by 100. In the line corresponding to covariate (phy1) you will see that the Sig.008 (a small effect size). You should also consider the effect size. after controlling for scores on the quality of life (physical dimension) administered prior to the operation. while controlling the independent variable (type. If the value in this column is less than 0. 2.05.408. and that you have violated the assumption. therefore is not significant.op) and read across to the column labeled Sig.

It is also a good idea to include the number of cases in each of your groups. and the ‘adjusted’ mean (and standard error) for the two groups. then you would include the means at phys1 and phys4. The ‘adjusted’ mean (controlling for the covariate) is provided in the Estimated marginal means table. You can get these by running Descriptives. p = 0. homogeneity of variance. as indicated by an eta squared value of 0. If the same scale is used to measure the dependent variable (phys4) and the covariate (phys1). and reliable measurement of the covariate. there was no significant difference between the two operation groups on post-operation scores on quality of life (physical dimension). In presenting the results of this analysis you also provide a table of mean for each of the groups. F = 0. The independent variable was the type of operation (ECCE and Phaco) and the dependent variable consisted of scores on quality of life (physical dimension) administered after six months operation.737. The ‘unadjusted’ mean is available from the Descriptive statistics table. Preliminary checks were conducted to ensure that there was no violation of the assumptions of normality.008.371. eta squared = 0. . After adjusting for pre-operation scores. linearity. There was a relationship between pre-operation and post-operation scores on the quality of life (physical domain).393.51 PRESENTING THE RESULTS FROM ONE-WAY ANCOVA The result of this one-way analysis of covariance could be presented as follows: One-way between-groups analysis of covariance was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different operation performed to treat cataract. homogeneity of regression slopes. If the different scale is used to measure the covariate you would provide the ‘unadjusted’ mean (and standard deviation). Patients’ scores on the pre-operation administration of the quality of life (physical dimension) were used as the covariate in this analysis.

Research on males (or higher level of education) sometimes yield quite different results when repeated using female (or lower level of education) samples. Scores range from 0 – 100. File CIS Variable Variable label type. The message here is to consider the possibility of moderator variables in your research design and. Often these moderator variables are individual difference variables. age and level of education. one dependent continuous variable. This will allow us to broaden the analysis to see if level of education is acting as a moderator variable in influencing the effectiveness of the two operations. Suppose that in reading further in the literature. categorical variables (with 2 or more levels or conditions). We found that no significant difference between the two groups. Total scores on the quality of life (physical dimension) administered 6 months after the operation. it moderates or influences the effect of the other independent variable. characteristics of individuals that influence the way in which they respond to an experimental manipulation or treatment condition. include then in your study. phys4 . In that analysis we were interested in determining which operation (ECCE or Phaco) was more effective in increasing the quality of life (physical dimension). Scores range from 0 – 100. as these can play an important part in influencing the results. where appropriate. and one / more continuous covariates. It is important if you obtain a non-significant result for your one way ANCOVA that you consider the possibility of moderator variables. We are interested in the possibility of a significant interaction effect between level of education and operation group. some research suggested there might be a difference in levels of education respond to different operations. High scores indicate higher levels of quality of life. In your own research always consider factors such as gender.52 TWO-WAY ANCOVA Two-way ANCOVA involves 2 independent. High scores indicate higher levels of quality of life. This is. The example that will be used here is an extension of that presented in the one-way ANCOVA. Details of example In the example presented below we will use the same data with an additional independent variable (level of education).op Type of operation educatio Level of education phys1 SF-36 (physical dimension) scores preoperation SF-36 (physical dimension) scores 6 months post-operation Coding instructions 1 = ECCE 2 = Phacoemulsification (Phaco) 1 = Primary / No schooling 2 = Secondary 3 = Tertiary Total scores on the quality of life (physical dimension) administered prior to the operation. Sometimes in the literature you will see this additional variable described as a moderator.

A main effect for your second independent variable (level of education) 3. One or more continuous covariates (scores on quality of life (physical dimension) at pre-operation – phys1) ANCOVA will control for scores on your covariate(s) and then perform a normal twoway ANOVA. Whether there is a significant interaction between the two. One continuous dependent variable (scores on quality of life (physical dimension) at six months post-operation – phys4) 3. normality. . Assumptions: All normal two-way ANOVA assumptions apply (eg. In the Dependent Variables box put your dependent variable (phys4). From the menu at the top of the screen click on: Analyze General Linear Model Univariate 2.53 Summary for two-way ANCOVA Research question: Does levels of education influence the effectiveness of two type of cataract operations (ECCE and Phaco) ? Is there a significant difference in post-operation quality of life (physical dimension) between three levels of education in their response after cataract operation ? At least four variables are involved: 1. This will tell you if there is: 1. Two categorical independent variable with two or more levels (levels of education: 1 = Primary / No Schooling. types of operation: ECCE / Phaco) 2. 3 = Tertiary. 2 = Secondary. Procedure for two-way ANCOVA 1. A significant main effect for your first independent variable (type. This should be checked first. homogeneity of variance). Additional ANCOVA assumptions are similar with the one-way ANCOVA.op) 2.

Homogeneity tests 11. and type of operation – type. adjusted for the influence of the covariate. Click on the arrow to move it into the box labeled Display Means for. 10. level of education – educatio. Click on Full Factorial in the Specify Model section. 6. Descriptive Statistics b. In the top section labeled Estimated Marginal Means click on your first independent variable (eg. 4. 8. In the bottom section of the Options dialogue box click on: a.op) 9. Repeat for the second independent variable (eg. Click on the Options button. type. Click on the extra interaction term included (eg. This will provide you with the mean scores on your dependent variable split for each group.op*educatio).op ). Click on the Model button. 7. Observed Power d. Estimated of Effect Size c. In the Covariate box put your covariate(s) (phys1) 5. Move this into the box. Click on Continue. type. The output generated by this procedure is shown below. In the Fixed Factor box put your two independent or grouping variables (eg. educatio). Click on Continue and then OK. Univariate Analysis of Variance Between-Subjects Factors Type of Operation 1 2 Level of 1 Education 2 3 Value Label ECCE Phaco Primary Secondary Tertiery N 50 50 29 54 17 .54 3.

0556 88.3208 18.0 0 0 .O P 2 7 0 .6946 16.1 9 8 .3 0 5 2 7 0 .6 4 3 a .7 1 0 1 .8 3 8 E D U C A T IO 1 5 6 9 .OP * EDUCATIO T e s t s o f B e t w e e n .5 6 2 9 2 2 5 .7588 N 12 30 8 50 17 24 9 50 29 54 17 100 a Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable: PHYS4 F 5.9 9 1 N o n c e n t.0000 84.OP+EDUCATIO+TYPE.1 2 3 T o ta l 7 5 7 9 7 5 .6 8 2 .7 9 1 .0 1 8 1 .8 7 5 5 6 6 .6000 78.1865 13.9 0 0 6 8 .2707 22.0 0 0 .0 0 0 .0 9 5 9 .4 6 2 7 9 .4887 16.4 6 2 ( A d ju s te d R S q u a r e d = .3 8 1 5 7 .5 0 3 5 7 .5 2 0 1 6 0 .2 8 5 1 1 0 3 7 . E ta S q u a r e dP a r a m e te r P o w e r .7 8 1 T Y P E .7 5 1 .0 1 0 . Deviation 23.6667 90.0 0 0 .7931 88. Design: Intercept+PHYS1+TYPE.55 Descriptive Statistics Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Type of Operation Level of Education ECCE Primary Secondary Tertiery Total Phaco Primary Secondary Tertiery Total Total Primary Secondary Tertiery Total Mean 69.5294 85.3 0 5 1 .7 3 3 3 .0000 17.4500 Std. C o m p u te d u s in g a lp h a = .9135 15.0 0 0 .2222 86.7504 11.000 Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups.7 5 0 df 6 1 1 1 2 2 93 100 99 M e a n S q u a re F 2 1 3 8 .2917 87.0 3 4 . R S q u a r e d = .5 0 3 T Y P E . a.9 0 0 PHYS1 9 2 2 5 .8 9 0 4 .8 3 8 1 .0 7 0 7 .0 0 0 C o r r e c te d T o ta l 2 7 8 0 4 . O b s e r v e d a S ig .8100 13.0 5 b .2 5 0 .5 6 2 1 .7 7 1 1 3 .6 8 2 7 8 4 .0 0 0 .4 2 4 6 8 . .5833 88.3000 85.2941 87.O P * E D U C A T IO1 3 3 .1011 10.4 6 5 1 E rro r 1 4 9 7 2 .0 4 1 .6 2 7 In te r c e p t 1 1 0 3 7 .4 2 7 ) .S u b je c t s E f f e c t s D e p e n d e n t V a r ia b le : P H Y S 4 T y p e III S u m S o u rce o f S qu a re s b C o r r e c te d M o d e l 1 2 8 3 2 .9752 12.962 df1 5 df2 94 Sig.

262 83.761 95.782 79.089 83.4000.078 86.399 87.697 a.490 91.486 a 85. Level of Education Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Level of Education Primary Secondary Tertiery Mean Std.557 79.223 a 1. Type of Operation * Level of Education Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Type of Operation Level of Education ECCE Primary Secondary Tertiery Phaco Primary Secondary Tertiery Mean Std. Type of Operation Dependent Variable: PHYS4 Type of Operation ECCE Phaco Mean Std.739 98.636 a 2.203 92. 3.662 79.676 a 87.745 3.857 81.648 a 4.679 82.56 Estimated Marginal Means 1.833 a 1.010 87. Error 78.740 a 88.969 90.520 a.767 90. Error 83. Evaluated at covariates appeared in the model: PHYS1 = 82. Error 71. 2.4000.946 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 79.591 88.140 a 2.716 96.962 a 3.883 3.809 2.080 86.270 82.633 91.005 a. Evaluated at covariates appeared in the model: PHYS1 = 82.231 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 64.854 a 2. Evaluated at covariates appeared in the model: PHYS1 = 82. .319 89.118 a 4.083 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound 74.415 80.4000.618 83.

The value in this case is 0. then the interaction is significant. as indicated by the corresponding eta squared value. We want to know if there is a significant main effect for any of our independent variables (type. level. Convert the eta squared value to a percentage by multiplying by 100. ‘Adjusted’ refers to the fact that the effect of the covariate has been statistically removed.05 (and therefore significant) this means that your variance are not equal.1% of the variance in the dependent variable (eta squared of 0. The main effects for level of education is significant (p = 0. The other piece of information that we can gain from this table concerns the influence of our covariate. You should also consider the effect size. check that the details are correct (eg. In fact it explained 38. If this value is smaller than 0. This significant interaction effect suggests that patients respond differently to the two operation based on their level of education. 5. because the effect of one independent variable is dependent on the level of the other independent variable.05.034.op or level of education) and whether the interaction between these two variables is significant. In the line corresponding to covariate (phys1) you will see that the Sig. 2. . Read across to the column labeled Sig. we are able to explain 7 percent of the variance. This value also indicates how much of the variance in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable. therefore our result is significant. value is 0.op). 6.198). You want the Sig.op*educatio). then the two main effects are not important. The final table in the ANCOVA output (Estimated marginal means) provides us with the adjusted means on the dependent variable for each of our groups. In the box labeled Descriptive Statistics.010) but for type of operation is not statistically significant (p = 0.000 (which actually means less than 0. If the interaction is significant. Of most interest is the interaction. and that you have violated the assumption. 4. This indicates whether there is a significant relationship between the covariate and the dependent variable. so we will check this first. 1. value to be greater than 0. In this case our value is 0. In this example.57 INTERPRETATION OF OUTPUT FROM TWO-WAY ANCOVA There are a number of steps in interpreting the output from a two-way ANCOVA. The details in the table labeled Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances allow you to check that you have not violated the assumption of equality of variance. split according to each of our independent variables separately and then jointly. 3.070 (moderate to large effect size). The main ANCOVA results are presented in the table labeled Test Of BetweenSubjects Effects.381 multiplied by 100). number in each group. Find the line corresponding to the interaction effect (type. while controlling the independent variable (type.05. Find the line in the table which corresponds to the covariate (phys1). Read across to the Sig.0005) and therefore our covariate is significant. mean scores). If the value in this column is less than 0.

F = 3. . then you would include the means at phys1 and phys4. The ‘adjusted’ mean (controlling for the covariate) is provided in the Estimated marginal means table. p = 0. homogeneity of regression slopes. homogeneity of variance. The dependent variable consisted of scores on quality of life (physical dimension) administered after six months operation.034.198). linearity. These results suggest that patients respond differently to the two operation based on their level of education. there was a significant interaction effect. After adjusting for pre-operation scores. and reliable measurement of the covariate. The main effects for level of education was statistically significant (F = 4.875. The independent variable was the type of operation (ECCE and Phaco) and level of education. You can get these by running Descriptives.58 PRESENTING THE RESULTS FROM TWO-WAY ANCOVA The result of this two-way analysis of covariance could be presented as follows: A 2 by 2 between-groups analysis of covariance was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two different operation performed to treat cataract. with a moderate to large effect size (eta squared = 0.070).520. but for type of operation was not significant (F = 1. If the same scale is used to measure the dependent variable (phys4) and the covariate (phys1). Preliminary checks were conducted to ensure that there was no violation of the assumptions of normality. In presenting the results of this analysis you also provide a table of means for each of the groups. and the ‘adjusted’ mean (and standard error) for the two groups. If the different scale is used to measure the covariate you would provide the ‘unadjusted’ mean (and standard deviation). It is also a good idea to include the number of cases in each of your groups. The ‘unadjusted’ mean is available from the Descriptive statistics table. p = 0.682.010). Patients’ scores on the preoperation administration of the quality of life (physical dimension) were used as the covariate to control for individual differences. p = 0.

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