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# Contents

Dedication Preface Chapter 1 Electromagnetic Waves 1.1 Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves 1.1.1 Wave Velocity 1.1.2 Frequency and Wavelength 1.1.3 SpaceTime Relationships 1.1.4 Polarization 1.1.5 Rays and Wavefronts 1.1.6 Spherical Waves and the Inverse-Square Law 1.1.7 Field Intensity and Power Density 1.1.8 Decibel (Logarithmic) Expression of Attenuation 1.1.9 Absorption 1.2 Radio-Wave Optical Principles 1.2.1 Refraction 1.2.2 Reection 1.2.3 Principle of Images 1.2.4 Interference 1.2.5 Huygens Principle: Diffraction 1.3 Radiation and Reception 1.3.1 Requirements for Radiation 1.3.2 Reception and Reciprocity 1.4 Environmental Wave-Propagation Effects 1.4.1 The Earth Environment 1.4.2 Beyond-the-Horizon Propagation 1.4.3 Reection from the Earths Surface 1.4.4 Variations in Earths Reection Coefcient 1.4.5 Wave Nomenclature 1.4.6 Transionospheric Propagation 1.4.7 The Radio-Transmission Equation References Problems and Exercises ii xv 1 2 2 3 4 6 7 8 10 12 13 15 15 18 21 22 25 26 28 30 31 31 32 35 39 40 41 42 44 44
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Chapter 2 Transmission Lines 2.1 Basic Transmission-Line Concepts 2.1.1 Equivalent-Circuit Line Representation 2.1.2 The Lossless Innite Line 2.1.3 Reection and Standing Waves 2.2 Transmission-Line Equations 2.2.1 Steady-State Lossless Line Equations 2.2.2 Some Important Special Line Conditions 2.2.3 Impedance-Admittance Relationships 2.2.4 Reection Coefcient and VSWR 2.2.5 Standing-Wave Patterns 2.2.6 Determination of Load Impedance by Standing-Wave Measurement 2.2.7 Attenuation 2.3 Impedance Matching and Power Division 2.3.1 The Matching Principle 2.3.2 Stub Transformers 2.3.3 Power Dividers 2.4 Forms of Transmission Lines 2.4.1 Characteristic Impedances 2.5 Waveguides 2.5.1 Phase and Group Velocities 2.5.2 Cutoff Frequency 2.5.3 Rectangular Waveguides 2.5.4 Modes of Propagation 2.5.5 Impedance in Waveguides 2.5.6 Impedance Matching in Waveguides 2.5.7 Transmission-Line-to-Waveguide Coupling 2.5.8 Waveguide Junctions 2.5.9 Other Forms of Waveguide 2.6 Hybrid and Directional Couplers References Problems and Exercises Chapter 3 Antenna Parameters 3.1 Antenna Structures 3.1.1 Size 3.1.2 Supports 3.1.3 Feed Lines 3.1.4 Conductors 3.1.5 Insulators 3.1.6 Weather Protection

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Radiation Pattern 3.2.1 Coordinate Systems 3.2.2 Denition of Pattern 3.2.3 Patterns in a Plane 3.2.4 Absolute and Relative Patterns 3.2.5 Near-Field and Far-Field Patterns 3.2.6 Free-Space and Earth-Reection Patterns 3.3 Directivity and Gain 3.3.1 Denitions of Directivity and Gain 3.3.2 Solid Angle 3.3.3 Radiation Intensity 3.3.4 Directivity 3.3.5 Gain 3.4 Effective Area and Friis Transmission Equation 3.5 Beamwidth 3.5.1 Practical Signicance of Beamwidth 3.5.2 Beamwidth Denition 3.5.3 Principal-Plane Beamwidths 3.6 Minor Lobes 3.7 Radiation Resistance and Efciency 3.8 Input Impedance 3.9 Bandwidth 3.10 Polarization 3.11 Interdependencies of Gain, Beamwidths, and Aperture Dimensions References Problems and Exercises Chapter 4 Basic Radiators and Feed Methods 4.1 Short Dipoles 4.1.1 Dipole Radiation 4.1.2 Pattern of an Elemental Dipole 4.1.3 Radiation Resistance 4.1.4 Directivity 4.1.5 Beamwidth 4.1.6 Input Impedance 4.1.7 Short Dipole with Nonuniform Current Distribution 4.1.8 Short Vertical Antenna with Ground Image 4.1.9 Top-Loaded Antenna 4.2 Current and Voltage in Longer Antennas 4.3 The Half-Wave Dipole

3.2

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Long-Wire Antennas 4.4.1 Patterns of Resonant Antennas 4.4.2 Radiation Resistance and Directivity 4.4.3 Patterns of Nonresonant Antennas 4.4.4 Polarization 4.4.5 Effect of the Ground and Other Factors 4.4.6 Uses of Long-Wire Antennas 4.5 Loop Antennas 4.5.1 The Small Loop 4.5.2 Other Loop Antennas 4.6 Helical Antennas 4.7 Horn Radiators 4.8 Slot Radiators 4.9 Patch or Microstrip Antennas 4.10 Surface-Wave and Leaky-Wave Antennas 4.11 Basic Feed Methods References Problems and Exercises Chapter 5 Arrays 5.1 Basic Array Theory 5.1.1 The Two-Isotropic-Element Array 5.1.2 Pattern Versus q and f 5.1.3 Parallel-Dipole Two-Element Array 5.1.4 Mutual Coupling 5.1.5 Input and Mutual Impedances, and Radiation Resistance 5.1.6 Principle of Pattern Multiplication 5.1.7 Effects of Element Directivity and Mutual Coupling 5.2 Multielement Uniform Linear Arrays 5.2.1 Radiation Pattern 5.2.2 Broadside Linear Arrays 5.2.3 Endre Arrays 5.3 Parasitically Excited Endre Arrays 5.4 Planar and Volume Arrays with Uniform Aperture Distribution 5.4.1 Planar Arrays 5.4.2 Pattern Versus q and f 5.4.3 Volume Arrays and Plane Reectors 5.5 Linear Array Pattern Calculations 5.5.1 General Equations for Array Patterns 5.5.2 Linear Array Patterns

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Broadside Linear Array Patterns Grating Lobes Comparisons: Broadside Array and Continuous Aperture Antenna 5.5.6 Endre Array Patterns 5.6 Array Tapering for Side-Lobe Reduction 5.6.1 Introduction 5.6.2 Amplitude Tapering of Broadside Arrays: General 5.6.3 Dolph-Chebyshev Synthesis 5.6.4 Simplied Calculations for Dolph-Chebyshev Patterns 5.6.5 The Taylor Distribution 5.6.6 Other Low-Side-Lobe Array Distributions 5.7 Planar Arrays: Patterns, Directivity, and Gain 5.7.1 Introduction 5.7.2 Principal Plane Patterns: Equal Element Spacings 5.7.3 Separable Aperture Distributions 5.7.4 Patterns Versus q and f: Equal Amplitude, Separable Arrays 5.7.5 Summary of Planar Array Patterns 5.7.6 Beamwidth and Gain of Broadside Arrays 5.8 Some Other Array Types 5.8.1 Long-Wire Arrays 5.8.2 Horn and Slot Arrays 5.8.3 Patch or Microstrip Arrays 5.8.4 Phased Arrays for Scanning 5.9 General Remarks on Mutual Coupling References Problems and Exercises Chapter 6 Reectors and Lenses 6.1 Focusing and Collimation 6.1.1 Focusing by a Parabolic Reector 6.1.2 Paraboloids and Parabolic Cylinders 6.1.3 Space Attenuation for Point and Line Sources 6.2 Beamwidth and Directivity 6.2.1 Shape of Aperture 6.2.2 Primary and Secondary Patterns 6.2.3 Beamwidth 6.2.4 Directivity 6.3 Reector Illumination 6.3.1 Primary Pattern Requirements

## 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.5.5

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6.3.2 Taper and Side Lobes for Elliptical Apertures 6.3.3 Optimum Illumination Taper 6.3.4 Line-Source Feeds 6.3.5 Feed-Positioning Requirements 6.3.6 Cassegrain Feeds 6.4 Radiation Patterns of Horn Antennas 6.4.1 Horn Patterns, in General 6.4.2 Shapes of Major Lobes 6.4.3 Measured Wide-Beamwidth Horn Patterns 6.4.4 Summary 6.5 Pattern Calculation and Reector Antenna Design 6.5.1 General Remarks 6.5.2 Aperture Distribution and Pattern of a Half Parabolic Cylinder 6.5.3 Steps for Reector Antenna Design 6.6 Reector Construction 6.6.1 Fabrication Methods 6.6.2 Reector Surface Accuracy Requirements 6.7 Corner-Reector Antennas 6.8 Lens Antennas 6.8.1 Optical Lenses 6.8.2 Lens Surface Congurations 6.8.3 Lens Refracting Media 6.8.4 Variable-Index-of-Refraction Lenses 6.8.5 Focusing with Dielectric and Metal Plate Lenses 6.8.6 Dielectric Lenses 6.8.7 Metal Plate Lenses 6.8.8 Geodesic Luneberg Lenses 6.9 Beam Steering by Feed Offset 6.10 Pattern Calculations for Continuous Apertures 6.10.1 Historical Note on Aperture Analyses 6.10.2 Continuous Line Source 6.10.3 Aperture Analysis: General 6.10.4 Apertures Having Separable x and y Distributions 6.10.5 Equivalent Linear Apertures in Principal Planes 6.10.6 Circular Apertures 6.10.7 Patterns Versus q and f: A Summary 6.11 Comparison of Directive Antenna Types References Problems and Exercises

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Chapter 7 Antennas with Special Properties 7.1 Broad-Band Antennas 7.1.1 Basic Broad-Band Principles 7.1.2 Broad-Band Dipoles 7.1.3 Biconical Antennas 7.1.4 Monopoles 7.1.5 Folded Dipoles 7.1.6 Superturnstile Antenna 7.1.7 Miscellaneous Broad-Band Dipoles and Other Radiators 7.2 Frequency-Independent Antennas 7.2.1 The Log-Periodic Principle 7.2.2 Practical Log-Periodic Designs 7.2.3 Equiangular Log-Periodic Antennas 7.2.4 Self-Complementary Antennas 7.2.5 Spiral Antennas 7.3 Antennas for Multiple Polarizations 7.3.1 Antennas for Circular Polarization 7.3.2 Polarizers and Dual-Mode Transducers 7.3.3 Corrugated Horn Feeds 7.4 Omnidirectional Antennas 7.5 Electrically Small Antennas 7.6 Direction-Finding Antennas 7.6.1 Low-Frequency Null Systems 7.6.2 Beam-Maximum Systems 7.6.3 Lobing Antennas 7.7 Mechanical Scan Antennas 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Rapid Mechanical Scan Antennas 7.8 Low-Noise Receiving Antennas 7.9 Synthetic-Aperture Antennas 7.10 Antennas with Extremely Low Side Lobes 7.11 Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, Method of Moments, and Fractals 7.11.1 Geometric Theory of Diffraction 7.11.2 Method of Moments 7.11.3 Fractals and Fractal Antennas References Problems and Exercises

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Chapter 8 Electronically Steered Arrays 8.1 Phased Array Principles 8.1.1 Time Delay and Phase Shift Requirements 8.1.2 Effective Aperture Versus Scan Angle 8.1.3 Frequency-Scan Antennas 8.1.4 Array Bandwidth 8.1.5 Phased Array Patterns 8.1.6 Grating Lobes 8.2 Beam-Steering Technology 8.2.1 Phase Shifters 8.2.2 Effects of Phase Quantization 8.2.3 Effects of Element Mutual Coupling 8.2.4 Time Delayers 8.3 Phased Array Feed System Technology 8.3.1 Feed Systems 8.3.2 Active Arrays and T/R Modules 8.3.3 Alternative Congurations, Including Subarrays 8.3.4 Butler Matrix 8.3.5 Array Sum and Difference Patterns 8.3.6 Microstrip and Printed-Circuited Technology 8.3.7 Conformal Arrays 8.4 Adaptive Array Antennas 8.4.1 Background System Developments 8.4.2 Adaptive Beam-Forming Arrays 8.4.3 Space-Time Adaptive Processing 8.5 Examples of Electronically Steered Arrays References Problems and Exercises Chapter 9 Antenna Measurements 9.1 Antenna Patterns, General 9.1.1 Radiating Near- and Far-Field Patterns 9.1.2 Pattern Statistics: Near- and Far-Field Statistical Gain 9.2 Far-Zone Pattern Measurements 9.2.1 Low-Frequency Techniques 9.2.2 High-Frequency Techniques 9.2.3 Far-Field Ranges 9.3 Compact Ranges 9.4 Near-Field Antenna Measurements 9.4.1 Planar Near-Field Measurements

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9.4.2 Cylindrical Near-Field Measurements 9.4.3 Spherical Near-Field Measurements 9.5 Polarization Measurement 9.6 Scale-Model Measurements 9.7 Antenna Pattern Measurement Equipment 9.8 Directivity and Gain Measurements 9.8.1 Absolute-Field-Strength Method 9.8.2 Standard Gain Antennas 9.8.3 Power-Measurement Methods 9.8.4 Gain Measurement by Comparison 9.9 Antenna Efciency 9.9.1 Radiation Efciency 9.9.2 Aperture Efciency 9.10 Radiation Resistance 9.11 Impedance Measurements 9.11.1 Standing-Wave Method 9.11.2 Network Analyzers 9.12 The Smith Chart 9.13 Antenna Noise Measurement 9.13.1 Elementary Noise Theory 9.13.2 Antenna Noise Temperature 9.13.3 Measurement Techniques 9.13.4 Low-Noise-Temperature Comparison Sources 9.13.5 Measurements Using Ambient Temperature Noise Sources 9.14 System Noise Calculations 9.14.1 Noise Figure 9.14.2 System Noise Temperature References Problems and Exercises Answers to Problems Appendices A. B. Maxwells Equations References Polarization Theory B.1 Elliptically Polarized Waves Resolved into Linearly Polarized Components B.2 Elliptically Polarized Waves Resolved into Circularly Polarized Components

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## 427 431 433 433 435

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C. D.

E. F. G.

H. I.

Relationships between Linearly and Circularly Polarized Components References Review of Complex-Variable Algebra Complex Reection Coefcients and Multipath Effects D.1 Fresnels Equations D.2 Reection Coefcients for Smooth Land and Sea D.3 Reection Coefcients for Rough Surfaces D.4 Pattern-Propagation Factor F D.5 Flat Earth Geometry D.6 Multipath Dependencies on Frequency, Polarization, and Surface Roughness D.7 Spherical Earth Geometry D.8 Divergence Factor References Radomes References Far-Zone Range-Approximation and Phase Error References Radiating Near and Far Fields, and the Obliquity Factor G.1 The Radiating Fields G.2 Principal-Plane Patterns Versus Range References Path Length Differences from a Planar Aperture Effects of Random Aperture Phase Errors References

B.3

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## Supplemental Materials (SM)

The publisher has posted a list of supplemental materials (SM) to an accompanying website at: www.scitechpub.com/blakelong3.htm Within the text of the book you will nd references to the specic SM sections that relate to the material being covered. A computer icon ( identify sections that refer to the SM. ) is used in the margin to further

SM 1.0 Reection Coefcients for Flat, Smooth Surfaces SM 1.1. Reection Coefcients-Flat, Smooth Sea SM 1.2. Reection Coefcients-Flat, Smooth Land SM 2.0 Spherical Earth Geometry SM 3.0 Earth Effects on Patterns and Multipath Propagation SM 3.1. Ground Effects on Elevation Patterns SM 3.2. Pattern Range Illumination Versus Observation Height SM 3.3. Multipath Versus Range, Flat Conducting Surface SM 3.4. Multipath Versus Range, Rough Flat Land SM 3.5. Multipath Versus Range, Spherical Earth SM 3.6. Divergence Factor Comparisons SM 4.0 Antenna SM 4.1. SM 4.2. SM 4.3. SM 4.4. SM 4.5. SM 4.6. SM 4.7. SM 4.8. SM 4.9. Radiation Analyses Radiating Near and Far Fields, Uniform Aperture Approximation Relative Gain Versus Range Random Aperture Phase Errors Radiating Near and Far Field Patterns of an Array Radiating Near Field along an Aperture Linear Array Pattern, Quadratic Phase Distribution Steered Array Patterns Versus Phase Steered Array Patterns at Two Frequencies Pattern of Parabolic Cylinder with Offset Feed

Preface

## Evolution of the Third Edition

This new edition was prepared for use in a one-semester rst-year graduate night class at the Southern Polytechnic State University located in Marietta, Georgia, where student backgrounds vary widely. At least half the students are from overseas and hold a bachelors degree in electrical engineering or electronics. Of those from the United States, about half have degrees in electrical engineering, and the remainder hold degrees in electrical engineering technology. Generally, the students are older than a typical rstyear graduate student, being 25 to 35 years of age. A few of the students have excellent backgrounds in vector calculus and the use of Maxwells equations, while some of the older ones may need to refresh their abilities with the phasor calculations of electrical circuits. The computer capabilities of the students also vary widely. Many of the entering graduate students are procient in use of MATLAB or Mathcad software, but sometimes they are experienced with neither and rarely both. Additionally, some students who have been away from academics a few years may have little computer prociency. Thus, to expedite the class learning on antennas with computer analyses, Mathcad, which is easily read without prior experience, is used in classroom lectures. For class assignments, students are allowed to use whatever computer software they choose. Mathcad software

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is used most often, with MATLAB being the second most popular choice. Often, original MATLAB users, after switching to Mathcad, have expressed appreciation for their introduction to Mathcad for its relative ease of use and intuitive qualities. Because of the wide differences in student backgrounds, and after considering the available textbooks, Blakes Antennas, Second Edition, was selected for adoption because of its superior readability. Due to the books age, the selection required preparing and distributing materials for updating and expanding the text and adding appendices. Consequently, the present book evolved into one that retains the benets of Blakes second edition but expands the subject material suitably for a senior or graduate level textbook.

Background Assumed
Most antenna textbooks are written for students procient with vector calculus and begin with the use of Maxwells equations in the development of antenna theory. Such books often do not meet the needs of many students and practicing engineers who, because of their backgrounds or personal interests, desire a more direct path for assimilating antenna fundamentals and their connection to application topics of antenna engineering. Although antenna theory is founded on Maxwells equations, understanding their concepts does not require advanced mathematics. At the beginning of each antenna course, the revising author (MWL) uses Appendix A, Maxwells Equations, to address the key postulates of Maxwell and provide a brief introduction to, or review of, the essential equations. Thus, Maxwell equations are discussed with the goal of expressing their meaning in words. Then, the concepts of displacement current, interdependence of changing electric and magnetic elds, and wave propagation are described, and thus Maxwells equations are underscored as the ultimate truth but thereafter considered outside the scopes of antenna design, performance analysis, and measurements.

Organization
This book was prepared with the intention of providing a comprehensive antenna text that can be readily understood by persons with undergraduate educations in engineering, science, or technology. The chapter titles follow: Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Electromagnetic Waves Transmission Lines Antenna Parameters Basic Radiators and Feed Methods Arrays Reectors and Lenses Antennas with Special Properties Electronically Steered Arrays Antenna Measurements

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It is to be noted that Appendix C discusses complex-variable algebra. Although its contents will be familiar to most readers, it is included because some may nd parts of it useful for review.

## Data les of computer scripts

Where appropriate, the appendices and the downloadable data les are referenced in the chapters for providing a more complete treatment of antennas. In the Deluxe Edition, a full-featured copy of Mathcad 14.0 is included so that readers can easily create their own computer analyses. The downloadable data les provide computer solutions in both Mathcad and MATLAB to problems in the areas that follow:

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reection coefcients for surfaces versus dielectric properties, conductivity, polarization, surface roughness, and incidence angle earths multipath effects on antenna patterns versus surface properties, antenna and observation heights and separation distance, and polarization for at and spherical earth models. radiating near and far elds from arrays and continuous aperture antennas, as functions of aperture phase and amplitude distributions and random aperture errors. The les also include a supplemental chapter in PDF on the creation of antenna radiation eld graphics using Mathcad. It was prepared by student Aaron Loggins as one of three project assignments in a one-semester antenna course. Files can be downloaded from the publishers web page for this book: www.scitechpub.com/blakelong3.htm

Acknowledgements