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GROUNDING, LIGHTNING PROTECTION AND SURGE PROTECTION For Telecommunications Sites
Author: Rohit Narayan BE Electrical: CPEng. MIEAust
Date: 6 February 2006
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ABN 70 078495646
Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.erico.com
In the field telecommunications, many companies and personnel, talk about having grounding problems or about the efforts that are being made to improve the grounding of a site. In many cases, despite many efforts, problems associated with grounding and lightning, continue to affect the network reliability and indeed cost a lot in repair and lost revenue. In this paper, attempt has been made to help the designer of the grounding and lightning protection system, design a practical and cost effective system. In summary there are 5 aspects of lightning protection, surge protection and grounding that are looked at.
1. Ideal Indoor Grounding Arrangement 2. Ideal Outdoor Grounding Arrangement 3. AC Surge Protection 4. MDF Surge Protection for Telephone Lines 5. Direct Strike Lightning protection.
Generally, the order of importance of points 1 to 4) will remain the same for all sites powered by mains power. However, points 5 may go up in the order of priority for sites that have tall masts or located on a mountaintop.
Ideal Indoor Grounding Layout
Figure 1, below shows the ideal arrangement of the grounding system inside a telecommunications equipment room. This arrangement is not always possible due to certain constraints at the site or if the site is existing. Alternative layouts, can be implemented. However when that is done efforts should be made to minimize ground loops between the AC Power ground, telecommunications building earth and telecommunications tower earth.
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SEB shall be installed in close vicinity to the MDF. The case study at the end of this paper discusses. whereby the SEB is not in close vicinity of the AC Main Switchboard.erico.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: email@example.com Web: www. Page 3 of 22 . SEB 6) MDF UPS AC Power to Racks MDF AC Main Switch Board AC Distri bution 3) Telecom Ground Electrode 2) Bonding Terminal 4) AC Power Ground Electrode Figure 1 : Ideal Layout for the Indoor Grounding in a Telecommunications Equipment Room Notes: 1) A Service Ground Bar. and the AC Main Switchboard.com DC Power to Racks Rectifiers DC AC Communications Racks Communications Racks 5) CEB 7) Battery Ground 1) Service Ground Bar. The Service Ground Bar shall be a minimum of 50mm x 5 mm. examples which demonstrate improvised yet effective designs.
6) The ground conductor from the MDF to the SEB shall be a minimum of 35mm2. Flexible conductors of equal to or greater than 70 mm2 CSA are preferred. 7) It is common practice in telecommunications to have positive grounded. 3) Telecommunications Ground Electrode. shows the arrangement of grounding if batteries are opposite in polarity.com 2) A bonding terminal. All the equipment can be grounded to the CEB and a single run of grounding conductor can be run to the SEB. In the absence of the CEB. Page 4 of 22 . For larger repeater sites the telecommunications ground resistance shall be less than 2 ohms. Many electricity authorities do not specify a maximum value. This terminal. CET shall be provided as a means of connecting the SEB to the ground bar inside the AC Main Switchboard for equipotential bonding. Flexible conductors of equal to or greater than 70 mm2 CSA are preferred.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. than this electrode is not required. other than the change in polarity.com Web: www. The equipotential bonding conductor shall be a minimum of 35 mm2 and less than a total length of 5 metres in an ideal layout. For a large telephone exchange or switch the ground resistance shall be less than 1 ohms.erico. The recommended layout of the telecommunications ground is discussed later. The size of the battery grounding conductor is depended on the Ampere-Hour rating of the batteries and consultation with relevant standards or standards of battery manufacturers shall be used as a guide to choosing the conductor size. should prefebrably be inside an enclosure out the AC Main Switchboard and clearly be labeled as “ Telecommunications Bonding Terminal” or “Communictations Earth Terminal”. 4) AC Ground Electrode. T arrangement will be no he different of negative ground is used. for AC Power. Figure 2. The minimum size of the grounding conductors shall be 35 mm2. The resistance of this electrode shall be as specified by the local electricity authority or local standards. If the electricity authority or the standards allow the telecommunications ground electrode to be used as common grounding. If multiple battery banks exist with opposite polarities they can still be grounded at the SEB. it is a good practice to have a communications ground bar close to equipment racks. Most authorities not do allow the use of common grounds for telecommunications and AC Power. 5) CEB. THE CEB can be installed below a false floor or and top of equipment racks on cable trays. Communications Ground Bar. The resistance to ground for the telecommunications ground shall be less than 5 ohms. For the ease of installation. it is an acceptable practice to run individual ground cables from the equipment to the SEB.
com +12 Volts 0 Volts Telecommunica tions Service Ground Bar 0 Volts Connect to • • Various Telecom Racks MDF Lightning Protection Ground . The grounding arrangement will be exactly the same Telecommunications Ground Electrode Figure 2: Typical Grounding of Multiple Batteries with Opposite Polarities Page 5 of 22 .ABN 70 078495646 12 Volt Battery Charger or Rectifier * Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.48 Volts • Rectifier or Rack Power system * Note: * The rectifier or the battery charger can be substituted for a Solar Regulator.erico.
FEB 6) Tower Ground 5) Feeder Ground 4) Feeders 1) Ring Earth 2) Vertical Ground Electrode Communications Mast 3) Tower Ground Figure 3 : Ideal Layout for the Indoor Grounding in a Telecommunications Equipment Room Page 6 of 22 .ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: email@example.com Ideal Outdoor Grounding Layout Figure 3. below shows the ideal arrangement of the grounding system outside telecommunications hut.erico. Alternative outdoor ground electrode system needs designing on a case basis if the suggested layout below is not possible to implement. This arrangement is not always possible due to certain constraints at the site or if the site exists. Where the telecommunication equipment is installed in a large multi functional building or several floor above the ground floors this layout may not be possible.com Web: www. Telecommunications Hut or Building SEB 6) Feeder Ground Bar.
These shall be grounded on the top on the mast and at the bottom of the mast using appropriate grounding kits. Page 7 of 22 . in excess of 10 metres can be used to improve the ground resistance to the recommended values. It is not practical to drive very long electrodes in one piece.2 metres to. 2) Vertical ground electrodes.erico. drilled holes can be made to facilitate the installation. shall be a minimum of 2 electrode lengths. The recommended conductor for the buried ring ground is 25 x 3 mm tinned copper tape. the spacing between these vertical ground rods.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. A ring earth around the telecommunications building is recommended.com Notes: 1) Ring Earth. The recommended depth of burial for the tape is 450 mm below ground level. Radials buried at a depth of 450 mm and made of 25 x 3 mm tinned copper can be used to reduce ground impedance. As a rule of thumb. 3) Tower ground. The radial lengths can vary from 5 metres to 50 metres. GEM. at the point of entry. these feeders shall be grounded using appropriate grounding kits. Generally these ground electrodes are driven into the ground. The tower ground layout is very similar to the building ground layout. around the electrode. Where coaxial surge protectors are not used.com Web: www. Alternative arrangements can be multiple radials or crows foot design.4 metre lengths can be used with couplers to join individual sections to achieve greater driven depths. 4) Feeders running from the tower to the building are either coaxial type or waveguides.2 to 2. which is acceptable. However this will mean that the building and the tower ground resistance could not be measured independently. of depth varying from 1. All underground connections shall be CADWELD. Where the soil is too hard to be driven into or there is a need to apply ground enhancement material. 5) Where Coaxial feeders are used. 6) Ideally the tower ground should be connected to the FEB so that it can be disconnected for the purpose of testing. as this arrangement allows the ground potential rise or the EPR around the building to be kept as close as possible to equal. where there is limitation in implementing a ring earth. they shall be provided with surge protection and grounded to the FEB. at the FEB. It is common to have the tower ground connected to building ground underground. Sectional rods of 1.
The IEC standards require SPD’s tested for common power system applications. 25%. Surges in the power and copper based telephone lines can also originate from lightning strikes that have struck objects. in many cases. some distance from the actual site. noise control and dissipation of any lightning energy. • • • • • Maximum Discharge Current. It is important to have adequate surge protection on the AC mains and on telephone lines. or Imax The Imax gives an indication of the amount of surge energy the SPD will be able to handle without getting damaged. Having a good ground alone is not enough to minimize damage due to these surges caused by distance strikes.erico. in the case of the telecommunications towers being hit by lightning strikes. or Uc as defined by IEC standards The Voltage Rise Attenuation. 2) Nominal Discharge Current or In In is an indication of how long the device will last in the power system. that SPD’s are only good for one shot of a lightning surge. or Up Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage. It is worth highlighting a common misunderstanding. 50%. or the resultant dv/dt on the application of the voltage waveform in Figure 4 below. the SPD can handle. This section discusses the selection of surge protection of AC power. to withstand 15 impulses at In followed by 10%. The Imax. Page 8 of 22 . The graph in Figure 1 is taken out of AS1768 2003 Interim Standard and provides a depiction of what these wave shapes look like. The best starting point in the selection of surge protection devices is to look at the following 5 ratings and decide which one is most suitable for the application. 1) Maximum Discharge Current. will withstand more surges and last longer. Surges can also occur in power lines due to switching of circuit breakers in the power systems under fault conditions. is the maximum single shot current. even miles away. with a higher In rating. or Imax Nominal Discharge Current or In Voltage Protection Level. The current and the voltage of the wave shapes at which this single shot is applied.com Surge Protection for AC Mains A telecommunications site needs good grounding for the purpose of good reference ground. 75% and 100% of Imax. In is a multiple shot rating of a SPD. This is not true and there are many devices available that may withstand thousands if not tens of thousands of surges.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. Obviously a SPD.com Web: www. are defined by IEC standards.
is a better device in terms of limiting the voltage across an equipment. Uc is a guide to how rugged the SPD is against over voltages. or Up Typically. The way a SPD works. 4) Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage. The graph in Figure 3 below shows what the Up is with respect to the applied standard voltage wave shape and the clamp voltage.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. The Up characterises the performance of a SPD in limiting the voltage. Page 9 of 22 . The Up indicates how well the SPD.com Figure 4 Standard Voltage and Current Wave Shapes 3) Voltage Protection Level. SPD’s are connected between the phase and the ground or the neutral in the case of MEN systems. is that remains open circuit at nominal voltages. the SPD will temporarily short out to ground. but if the voltage exceeds its clamp voltage. This is perhaps the reason that SPD’s are also commonly referred as surge diverters. or Uc as defined by IEC standards SPD’s are voltage-limiting devices and it is important to select a SPD that will not attempt to clamp slight over voltages at 50 Hz.erico. clamps an applied surge and hence a SPD with a lower Up. This enables the excess energy to be diverted to ground. If the SPD attempts to clamps the voltage continuously.com Web: www. then this can either result in damage to the SPD or even a fire hazard if the SPD get hot. Figure 5 shows typical wiring of SPD’s.
Up Clamp V Figure 6 – Voltage Protection Level.erico.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. Up Voltage After Clamping by SPD Time in micro seconds Page 10 of 22 .com Mains Supply 63 Amps 16 mm 2 Surge Diverter SPD Neutral CB or Fuse Ground Various Loads Figure 5 – Typical Wiring of SPD’s Peak Voltage is approximately 6000V Voltage Applied Voltage Voltage Protection Level.com Web: www.
For example. that is. In. a simple scheme would have a SPD with low Up and a high Imax and In at the Main Switchboard an no subsequent downstream protection. the importance of the systems or the processes being protected. The yardsticks described above. 5) The Voltage Rise Attenuation. the SRF’s take care of the amplitude and the dv/dt factors both.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. the frequency of occurrence of surges. Figure 8 below. In a larger installations there may be a need to install a SPD at the main switch board. explains the performance of CRITEC TSG SRF. Page 11 of 22 . both. Uc and Up can still be used to define performance of surge reduction filters. Imax. It is widely recognised that electronic equipment is at danger of being damaged. CRITEC TDS MT 277 Imax = 100 kA In = 80 kA Up= 750 V at 3 kA(8/20µs) CRITEC DSD1100 Imax = 100 kA In = 50 kA Up= 850 V at 3 kA(8/20µs) Figure 7 : Comparing Two SPD’s It is worth pointing out that there are several schemes that can be used for choosing installation locations of SPD’s. the SRF’s also reduces the voltage rise time or dv/dt. surge reduction filters are used as finer protection. that two SPD’s which have identical Imax ratings may have starkly different In. SRF’s. Up and Uc. as coarse primary protection and SPD’s on distribution boards as finer secondary protection. from large amplitudes and high rise time associated with power surges. the sensitivity of the equipment being protected. or the resultant dv/dt In critical applications.erico. While surge diverters or SPD’s take care of the amplitude factor only. The CRITEC TDS MT 277 is the better choice in this example. The choice of the scheme depends on cost. This example demonstrates.com Example: Comparing Performance Yardsticks of Two Products.com Web: www. But other than lowering the voltage to which the equipment is exposed.
com Figure 8 : Operation of CRITEC TSG SRF It is strongly recommended to use surge reduction filters. In a telecommunications site consuming currents between up to 200 Amps. Up. SRF’s are an economical yet robust solution to comprehensive AC Power surge protection. In. Page 12 of 22 .ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www. Uc and dv/dt performance in telecommunications applications. or an SRF with good Imax.erico.
erico.com Mains Supply Main Switch CRITEC SRF Various Loads eg. UPS. Rectifiers Figure 9: Physical Appearance and Wiring Schematic of CRITEC SRF for AC Power Protection Page 13 of 22 .com Web: www.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico.
For the ease of discussion.erico. in a very similar manner that they couple into power lines. and is most sensitive to noise and surges in the differential mode. Common Mode Surge Differential Mode Surge Figure 11 – Common and Differential Mode Surges Page 14 of 22 .com Surge Protection for Telephone MDF Lightning surges can get coupled into telephone lines. The subject of telephone line protection is a comprehensive subject. This is an important observation and derives from the fact that these twisted pairs are balanced. The topology of the right has a gas arrestor followed by a secondary clamp device. Figure 10 – Topologies for Telephone Line Protection The surges that occur from each line to ground. The following diagram illustrates the idea of a common mode and differential mode surge. and hence noise signals or surge energy is coupled onto both wires equally. The receiving telecommunications equipment is looking for differential signals. usually do so of the same magnitude at the same time.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: email@example.com Web: www. which is usually a semiconductor device. two topologies for providing telephone surge protection at MDF will be compared in Figure 10. The two topologies on the left are essentially identical from a protection point of view and have a single gas arrestor between the lines. hence the name common mode. much the same as power line protection. That is. the telecoms equipment is generally more robust against common mode L-G signals.
Equipment protected by these protection modules are protected from common and differential mode surges and are strongly recommended for critical applications or for facilities that experience frequent lightning damage. Figure 13 – Physical Appearance of Surge Protection Devices for Krone LSA MDF Page 15 of 22 .ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. However because it is not possible to short out the two lines at exactly the same moment. The differential mode surge is lower in energy and the secondary devices can handle these. The secondary devices also have a lot better clamp performance than the primary gas arrestor. Figure 12 – Multiple Stage Protectors – To Provide Common and Differential Mode Protection The series elements are needed to coordinate the operation of the primary and secondary clamping elements. Figure 12.com Web: www. Hence in critical applications. that are designed to reduce the resulting differential mode surge to a minimum.erico. a differential mode transient develops which is very damaging to the end equipment. the use of single stage gas arrestor modules at MDF is not adequate. shows two topologies. It should be noted that the gas arrestor at the front end can handle a lot more energy than the secondary device and hence the co-ordination is important to ensure that this stage works first.com A single stage gas arrestor installed at the MDF ensures that both the lines are shorted to ground momentarily to take bulk of the energy down to ground when a surge occurs. below.
will be far less than in the case when a bare conductor or the tower itself is use as the down-conductor. can cause some surges in the feeders. The ERICORE then runs along a leg of the tower away from the routes of feeders. An enhanced air terminal. The tower legs generally have a low impedance to ground and a dedicated conductor ensures that there is no reliance on incidental connections. Even in this cases.comprising of bare cable or tape is installed on the tower to connect the lightning rod to the ground.com Direct Strike Lightning Protection for Telecommunications Towers Direct lightning strikes. provided there is adequate. called the ERICORE is routed in the core of the FRP and connects to the bottom of the Dynsaphere via a special HV termination. In absence of surge protectors. Hence the tower and the antennae mounted on the tower get electrified. in addition to bonding on the top and the bottom of the mast. with higher effectiveness than conventional lightning rods. FRP. Because magnetic fields that occur during a lightning strike. there is no electrical isolation between the tower and the down-conductor. For exceptionally tall mast. the amount of lightning energy coupled into feeders.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. methods there are system available which can isolate the lightning energy away from the tower and the antennae itself. bonding to ensure that everything rises in potential together. the feeders should be grounded at the point of entry as a minimum. for the antennae and the feeder system to liven up and electrify to the high voltages that a lightning strike produces. that antennae feeders. the ERITECH Dynasphere is mounted on top of the telecommunications mast on a 3-4 metres long fibre glass reinforced pole. down to the tower ground. A special downconductor. then it is critical. While the method described above has been around for many years. The traditional approach to lightning protection on towers. If this method is deployed. which is described below. For users who would like to consider newer. to telecommunications towers are a reasonably regular occurrence. it is recommended that the feeders be grounded to the tower every 20 to 30 metres apart. are grounded at the top and bottom of the mast and that there are surge protectors at the point of entry of these feeders in the building.erico. This is not a problem in many cases. Page 16 of 22 . In some cases a dedicated downconductor . it is not totally palatable to accept that it is okay.com Web: www. It is acknowledged that this separation distance cannot be achieved in certain circumstances. a separation distance of greater than 2 metres is recommended between the ERICORE and the feeders. more so on mountain tops and in certain parts of the world. is to have a lightning rod on the top connected to the tower. An example of this is System 3000 lightning protection system. The ERICORE is designed to isolate energy away from the tower and the feeders and keep induced surges on feeders to a minimum. The FRP provides isolation between the air terminal and the tower and ensures that the lightning does not flash over and electrify the mast or the antennae. In this method of lightning protection.
ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Figure 14 – System 3000 Using Dynasphere Air Terminal Dynasphere Air Terminal Fibre Glass Mast (4.erico.6metre) Mounted with suitable brackets. ERICORE Downconductor Bond Downconductor to Mast Base and Ground Page 17 of 22 .com Web: www.
If the desired ground resistance is not achieved. • • Page 18 of 22 . either in the calculation or after physical installation. Specialised ground testing equipment is needed to carry out this test.5 ohms to 5 ohms. below demonstrate how an improvised design can still be effective. For example the site may be existing with telephone cables entering on one of the building and terminating at the MDF and the power cables entering the opposite end terminating at the Main Switchboard. the size and extent of the grounding system required can be calculated. These values range from 0. ground Enhancement Material and EGel – Earth Gel. The use of Bentonite is also common . however the case study. If there is a need to reduce the resistance. It is advisable. From the results of this test. It is not possible in the scope of this paper to discuss all the permutations that may exist. a soil resistivity test be carried out. In many instances it is not possible to implement all these recommendations. the first option would be to seek advise from manufacturers of the telecommunications equipment on the higher value obtained. Generally bentonite will not give as much of an improvement as these other compounds would The recommendations in this paper are based on an ideal site. that prior to installing a grounding system. The soil resistivity test is carried out on the surface of the ground and no deep penetration is needed.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. due to site constraints.com Other Factor to Consider in the design of Grounding and Lightning protection System for Telecommunications Some other factors that need considering when designing a grounding and lightning protection system for a telecommunications site are: • Manufacturers of equipment and various standards call for specific values of ground resistance for the telecommunications grounding system.erico. then there are specialized product like GEM.com Web: www.
Due to a large potential different between the AC Earth electrode and the Telecom Earth Electrode. The earth connection between the DB and the telecommunications SEB did not physically exist. entered the AC MSB or the AC Main Switchboard. shown in dotted lines. At that moment the Telecom Earth will be close to zero volts.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: email@example.com Web: www. through the rectifiers. The AC MSB then supplied the DB or the AC Distribution board with a power feed. via the telecom racks to the SEB and through to the telecom earth electrode. there was an incidental earth bond. is that the AS MSB and the SEB should be next to each other and connected via a bonding terminal. The problem that exists. via DB. existed at a small telephone exchange. a large current. will flow from the AC MSB.com Case Study The layout below in Figure 15. However. is that if there is a lightning surge coming via the power line. via rectifiers.erico. it will increase the Earth Potential rise. This current will flow through small conductors and possibly through the circuit boards within the equipment and almost certainly cause massive damage. EPR of the AC Earth Electrode. The easy answer to this problem. In practice it is not easy to move the AC MSB and the SEB around that easily. which feed DC power to the telecom racks. AC Earth Electrode AC MSB MDF Telecommunications Room Telecom Racks SEB Foyer D B Rectifier Telecom Electrode Figure 15 – A Bad Earth Arrangement Layout Page 19 of 22 . The power cables.
com Improvisation Number 1. While this is not ideal. as the current flow from AC MSB to SEB will still occur as previously. 70 mm2 cable be installed to bond the DB to the SEB. AC Earth Electrode AC MSB MDF Foyer D B Communications Room SEB Telecom Electrode Figure 16 : Slightly Improved Layout Page 20 of 22 . The immediate improvement that can be done on this site is that a solid conductor of say. there is a solid connection between DB and SEB which will equalize the voltage reasonable quickly. but.com Web: www.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The other improvisation that has been done is that. while we do not have a ring earth.com Improvisation Number 2 In Figure 17 the SEB has been physically moved close to the AC MSB and an equipotential conductor of a short length is used to connect the SEB to the AC power earth. Hence the EPR in the ground outside is kept as close as possible to zero between the AC MSB and the telecommunications room.erico. AC Earth Electrode AC MSB 25 x 3 mm Cu Tape buried 450mm UG Telecom Electrode SEB Equipotential Bonding using 70 mm2 cable and disconnect link D B 2 x 70 mm2 Green Yellow Main Telecom Ground Conductor CEB 1. or communications earth bar where all the telecommunication racks are grounded. This connection is via the new SEB.com Web: www.5 metre Copper Bonded Roads spaced 2.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. However. a partial ring starts near the AC MSB and terminated near the telecommunications room.5 to 3 metres apart Figure 17: Greatly Improved Layout Page 21 of 22 . The old SEB is now used as a CEB. there is no connection between the CEB and the ground electrode system directly. Now if there was an EPR at the AC MSB then the telecom earth potential will be at a similar level and there will be no flow of current through equipment.
Ideal Outdoor Grounding Arrangement 3.ABN 70 078495646 Ph: +613 9894 2677 Fax: +613 9894 3216 Email: rnarayan@erico. yet comprehensive guide to the design and implementation of an effective and practical grounding and lightning protection system. In summary the paper takes a comprehensive look at the following : 1. MDF Surge Protection for Telephone Lines 5. AC Surge Protection 4. This paper provides a summarized. Ideal Indoor Grounding Arrangement 2. it does provide adequate discussion to enable the designer to come up with an ideal design or an improvised design if the ideal cannot be achieved.com Web: www.com Conclusion The subject of telecommunications grounding and lightning protection is indeed very broad. Page 22 of 22 .erico. While the paper does not cover every possible scenario that may exist. Direct Strike Lightning protection. due to constraints at the site.
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