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1.

0 Introduction OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE


encyclopedia Open source software (OSS) began as a marketing campaign for free software. OSS can be defined as computer software for which the human-readable source code is made available under a copyright license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that meets the Open Source Definition. This permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form. It is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open source software is the most prominent example of open source development and often compared to user generated content. A report by Standish Group says that adoption of open source has caused a drop in revenue to the proprietary software industry by about $60 billion per year. From Wikipedia, the free

OPEN SOURCE HARDWARE


encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free

The Aurora 224: a 2 channel open source DJ mixer featuring 24 analog potentiometers, three linear sliders, and 8 buttons with LED feedback. Open source hardware refers to computer and electronic hardware that is designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software. Open source hardware is part of the open source culture that takes the open source ideas to fields other than software. An example of this is the Simputer project. Some of the impetus for the development of open source hardware was initiated in 2002 through the Challenge to Silicon Valley issued by Kofi Annan. Because the nature of hardware is different than software, and because the concept of open source hardware is relatively new, no exact definition of open source hardware has emerged. Because hardware has direct variable costs associated with it, no open source software definition can directly be applied without modification. Instead, the term open source

hardware has primarily been used to reflect the use of free/open source software with the hardware and the free release of information regarding the hardware, often including the release of schematics, design, sizes and other information about the hardware. The freely released information includes the hardware design and element distribution on the motherboard (i.e. a notebook where one can replace elements.) With the rise of reconfigurable logic devices, the sharing of logic designs is also a form of open source hardware. Instead of sharing the schematics, HDL code is shared. This is different from free/open source software. HDL descriptions are commonly used to set up SoC systems either in FPGAs or directly in ASIC designs. HDL modules, when distributed, are called semiconductor intellectual property cores, or IP cores.

2.0 The Latest Open Source Operating System (OS) 2.1 Meaning of open source OS Operating system
encyclopedia An 'operating system' (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer. The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. Almost all computers, including handheld computers, desktop computers, supercomputers, and even video game consoles, use an operating system of some type. Some of the oldest models may however use an embedded operating system, that may be contained on a compact disk or other data storage device. Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users. Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls. By invoking these interfaces, the application can request a service from the operating system, pass parameters, and receive the results of the operation. Users may From Wikipedia, the free

also interact with the operating system with some kind a software user interface (UI) like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI, commonly pronounced gooey). For hand-held and desktop computers, the user interface is generally considered part of the operating system. On large multiuser systems like Unix and Unix-like systems, the user interface is generally implemented as an application program that runs outside the operating system. (Whether the user interface should be included as part of the operating system is a point of contention.) Common contemporary operating systems include Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux and Solaris. Microsoft Windows has a significant majority of market share in the desktop and notebook computer markets, while servers generally run on Linux or other Unix-like systems. Embedded device markets are split amongst several operating systems.

2.2 Examples of open source Os joomla


Joomla! is an open source content management system platform for publishing content on the World Wide Web and intranets as well as a Modelviewcontroller (MVC) Web application framework. It is written in PHP, stores data in MySQL and includes features such as page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls,

search, and support for language internationalization

pidgin

Pidgin (formerly named Gaim) is a multi-platform instant messaging client, based on a library named libpurple. Libpurple has support for many commonly used instant messaging protocols, allowing the user to log into various different services from one application. The number of Pidgin users was estimated to be over 3 million in 2007.Both Pidgin and libpurple are free software, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

3.0 The Latest Open Source Application Software 3.1 Meaning of open source application software Application software
encyclopedia Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. This should be contrasted with system software which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. In this context the term application refers to both the application software and its implementation. A simple, if imperfect analogy in the world of hardware would be the relationship of an electric light bulb (an application) to an electric power generation plant (a system). The power plant merely generates electricity, not itself of any real use until harnessed to an application like the electric light that performs a service that benefits the user. From Wikipedia, the free

3.2 Examples of open source application software

Examples of software applications are word processors, spreadsheets, and media players. Multiple applications bundled together as a package are sometimes referred to as an application suite. Microsoft Office, OpenOffice.org, and iWork 08, which bundle together a word processor, a spreadsheet, and several other discrete applications, are typical examples. The separate applications in a suite usually have a user interface that has some commonality making it easier for the user to learn and use each application. And often they may have some capability to interact with each other in ways beneficial to the user. For example, a spreadsheet might be able to be embedded in a word processor document even though it had been created in the separate spreadsheet application. User-written software tailors systems to meet the user's specific needs. User-written software include spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, graphics and animation scripts. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. In some types of embedded systems, the application software and the operating system software may be indistinguishable to the user, as in the case of software used to control a VCR, DVD player or microwave oven.

4.0 The Latest Development in ICT Comparison between VAIO CR & VAIO SZ VAIO
CPU Operating System Main Memory

VAIO CR (VGN-CR35G)
Intel Core 2 Duo Processor T8100 (2.10GHz) Genuine Windows Vista Home Premium 2GB DDR2 (upgradeable up to 4GB)

VAIO SZ (VGN-SZ79GN)
Intel Core 2 Duo Processor T9300 (2.50GHz) Genuine Windows Vista Bussiness 2GB DDR2 (upgradeable up to 4GB)

Hard Disk Optical Drive Display Bluetooth Security Camera Battery Life Weight (with battery) Supplied Accessories

200GB DVDRW/R DL/RAM 14.1 wide WXGA (clear bright LCD Lite) Bluetooth MOTION EYE Up to 4 hours* 2.5kg AC Adaptor(VGP-AC19V20), Lithium-ion battery(VGPBPS9/S) RM4488

250GB DVDRW/R DL/RAM 13.3 wide WXGA (clear bright LCD: White LED) Bluetooth trusted Platform Module/Fingerprint Sensor MOTION EYE Up to 7 hours* 1.75kg AC Adaptor(VGP-AC19V26), Lithium-ion battery(VGPBPS10), Memory Card Adapter(VGP-MCA20A) RM7988

Price

5.0 Pervasive Computing 5.1 Meaning of pervasive computing


Pervasive computing is the trend towards increasingly ubiquitous (another name for the movement is ubiquitous computing), connected computing devices in the environment, a trend being brought about by a convergence of advanced electronic - and particularly, wireless - technologies and the Internet. Pervasive computing devices are not personal computers as we tend to think of them, but very tiny - even invisible - devices, either mobile or embedded in almost any type of object imaginable, including cars, tools, appliances, clothing and various consumer goods - all communicating through increasingly interconnected networks. According to Dan Russell, director of the User

Sciences and Experience Group at IBM's Almaden Research Center, by 2010 computing will have become so naturalized within the environment that people will not even realize that they are using computers. Russell and other researchers expect that in the future smart devices all around us will maintain current information about their locations, the contexts in which they are being used, and relevant data about the users. The goal of researchers is to create a system that is pervasively and unobtrusively embedded in the environment, completely connected, intuitive, effortlessly portable, and constantly available. Among the myriad of tools expected to support these are: application-specific integrated circuitry (ASIC); speech recognition; gesture recognition; system on a chip (SoC); perceptive interfaces; smart matter; flexible transistors; reconfigurable processors; field programmable logic gates (FPLG); and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). A number of leading technological organizations are exploring pervasive computing. Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Although new technologies are emerging, the most crucial objective is not, necessarily, to develop new technologies. IBM's project Planet Blue, for example, is largely focused on finding ways to integrate existing technologies with a wireless infrastructure. Carnegie Mellon University's Human Computer Interaction Institute (HCII) is working on similar research in their Project Aura, whose stated goal is "to provide each user with an invisible halo of computing and information services that persists regardless of location."

5.2 Examples of pervasive computing


Advanced high bandwidth networking services Networked devices, sensors, instruments, interfaces Information and computational resources, organized as a ubiquitous service grid Converged telecommunication including global wireless voice and data broadband networks

Human-machine interaction technologies Software "agent" technologies