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0 Introduction OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE
encyclopedia Open source software (OSS) began as a marketing campaign for free software. OSS can be defined as computer software for which the human-readable source code is made available under a copyright license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that meets the Open Source Definition. This permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form. It is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open source software is the most prominent example of open source development and often compared to user generated content. A report by Standish Group says that adoption of open source has caused a drop in revenue to the proprietary software industry by about $60 billion per year. From Wikipedia, the free
OPEN SOURCE HARDWARE
From Wikipedia, the free
The Aurora 224: a 2 channel open source DJ mixer featuring 24 analog potentiometers, three linear sliders, and 8 buttons with LED feedback. Open source hardware refers to computer and electronic hardware that is designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software. Open source hardware is part of the open source culture that takes the open source ideas to fields other than software. An example of this is the Simputer project. Some of the impetus for the development of open source hardware was initiated in 2002 through the Challenge to Silicon Valley issued by Kofi Annan. Because the nature of hardware is different than software, and because the concept of open source hardware is relatively new, no exact definition of open source hardware has emerged. Because hardware has direct variable costs associated with it, no open source software definition can directly be applied without modification. Instead, the term open source
sizes and other information about the hardware. pass parameters. that may be contained on a compact disk or other data storage device. Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users. design. Users may From Wikipedia. The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine. one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. a notebook where one can replace elements. or IP cores.0 The Latest Open Source Operating System (OS) 2. As a host. Almost all computers. the free . Instead of sharing the schematics. HDL modules.hardware has primarily been used to reflect the use of free/open source software with the hardware and the free release of information regarding the hardware. Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls. are called semiconductor intellectual property cores. desktop computers. HDL code is shared.) With the rise of reconfigurable logic devices. use an operating system of some type. including handheld computers. This is different from free/open source software. and receive the results of the operation. the sharing of logic designs is also a form of open source hardware. when distributed. 2. supercomputers. the application can request a service from the operating system.e.1 Meaning of open source OS Operating system encyclopedia An 'operating system' (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer. and even video game consoles. The freely released information includes the hardware design and element distribution on the motherboard (i. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. often including the release of schematics. HDL descriptions are commonly used to set up SoC systems either in FPGAs or directly in ASIC designs. Some of the oldest models may however use an embedded operating system. By invoking these interfaces.
2 Examples of open source Os joomla Joomla! is an open source content management system platform for publishing content on the World Wide Web and intranets as well as a Model–view–controller (MVC) Web application framework. (Whether the user interface should be included as part of the operating system is a point of contention. Embedded device markets are split amongst several operating systems. commonly pronounced “gooey”).also interact with the operating system with some kind a software user interface (UI) like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI. and support for language internationalization pidgin . On large multiuser systems like Unix and Unix-like systems. RSS feeds. the user interface is generally considered part of the operating system. It is written in PHP.) Common contemporary operating systems include Microsoft Windows. search. while servers generally run on Linux or other Unix-like systems. 2. news flashes. Microsoft Windows has a significant majority of market share in the desktop and notebook computer markets. polls. For hand-held and desktop computers. stores data in MySQL and includes features such as page caching. printable versions of pages. blogs. the user interface is generally implemented as an application program that runs outside the operating system. Linux and Solaris. Mac OS.
This should be contrasted with system software which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities. 3. but typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. Libpurple has support for many commonly used instant messaging protocols. In this context the term application refers to both the application software and its implementation. not itself of any real use until harnessed to an application like the electric light that performs a service that benefits the user. The power plant merely generates electricity. A simple. based on a library named libpurple. From Wikipedia. released under the terms of the GNU General Public License.Pidgin (formerly named Gaim) is a multi-platform instant messaging client. the free 3. allowing the user to log into various different services from one application. The number of Pidgin users was estimated to be over 3 million in 2007. if imperfect analogy in the world of hardware would be the relationship of an electric light bulb (an application) to an electric power generation plant (a system).0 The Latest Open Source Application Software 3.2 Examples of open source application software .Both Pidgin and libpurple are free software.1 Meaning of open source application software Application software encyclopedia Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform.
50GHz) Genuine Windows Vista® Bussiness 2GB DDR2 (upgradeable up to 4GB) . are typical examples. For example. Even email filters are a kind of user software.0 The Latest Development in ICT Comparison between VAIO CR & VAIO SZ VAIO CPU Operating System Main Memory VAIO CR (VGN-CR35G) Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Processor T8100 (2. 4. and several other discrete applications. spreadsheets. In some types of embedded systems. scientific simulations. And often they may have some capability to interact with each other in ways beneficial to the user. word processor macros. Users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. Microsoft Office.10GHz) Genuine Windows Vista® Home Premium 2GB DDR2 (upgradeable up to 4GB) VAIO SZ (VGN-SZ79GN) Intel® Core™ 2 Duo Processor T9300 (2. as in the case of software used to control a VCR. and media players. a spreadsheet. and iWork 08.Examples of software applications are word processors. DVD player or microwave oven.org. a spreadsheet might be able to be embedded in a word processor document even though it had been created in the separate spreadsheet application. User-written software tailors systems to meet the user's specific needs. which bundle together a word processor. The separate applications in a suite usually have a user interface that has some commonality making it easier for the user to learn and use each application. Multiple applications bundled together as a package are sometimes referred to as an application suite. the application software and the operating system software may be indistinguishable to the user. User-written software include spreadsheet templates. OpenOffice. graphics and animation scripts.
including cars.0 Pervasive Computing 5. Lithium-ion battery(VGPBPS9/S) RM4488 250GB DVD±RW/±R DL/RAM 13. either mobile or embedded in almost any type of object imaginable.1” wide WXGA (clear bright LCD Lite) Bluetooth™ MOTION EYE Up to 4 hours* 2. tools. a trend being brought about by a convergence of advanced electronic . connected computing devices in the environment. Memory Card Adapter(VGP-MCA20A) RM7988 Price 5. According to Dan Russell.and particularly. director of the User .devices.all communicating through increasingly interconnected networks.5kg AC Adaptor(VGP-AC19V20).75kg AC Adaptor(VGP-AC19V26).technologies and the Internet. Hard Disk Optical Drive Display Bluetooth Security Camera Battery Life Weight (with battery) Supplied Accessories 200GB DVD±RW/±R DL/RAM 14. wireless . clothing and various consumer goods . appliances. Lithium-ion battery(VGPBPS10).1 Meaning of pervasive computing Pervasive computing is the trend towards increasingly ubiquitous (another name for the movement is ubiquitous computing).3” wide WXGA (clear bright LCD: White LED) Bluetooth™ trusted Platform Module/Fingerprint Sensor MOTION EYE Up to 7 hours* 1. but very tiny .even invisible . Pervasive computing devices are not personal computers as we tend to think of them.
Russell and other researchers expect that in the future smart devices all around us will maintain current information about their locations. and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). speech recognition. flexible transistors. smart matter. whose stated goal is "to provide each user with an invisible halo of computing and information services that persists regardless of location. sensors. reconfigurable processors. to develop new technologies. gesture recognition. is largely focused on finding ways to integrate existing technologies with a wireless infrastructure. and constantly available. necessarily. field programmable logic gates (FPLG). instruments. Among the myriad of tools expected to support these are: application-specific integrated circuitry (ASIC). The goal of researchers is to create a system that is pervasively and unobtrusively embedded in the environment. Carnegie Mellon University's Human Computer Interaction Institute (HCII) is working on similar research in their Project Aura. the contexts in which they are being used. Although new technologies are emerging. interfaces Information and computational resources. A number of leading technological organizations are exploring pervasive computing.2 Examples of pervasive computing Advanced high bandwidth networking services Networked devices. Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). and relevant data about the users. the most crucial objective is not. IBM's project Planet Blue. system on a chip (SoC). effortlessly portable. for example. by 2010 computing will have become so naturalized within the environment that people will not even realize that they are using computers." 5. intuitive. perceptive interfaces.Sciences and Experience Group at IBM's Almaden Research Center. completely connected. organized as a ubiquitous service grid Converged telecommunication including global wireless voice and data broadband networks .
Human-machine interaction technologies Software "agent" technologies .
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