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# What is Calculus ?

alculus is the mathematics for motion and change . Calculus was first invented to meet the mathematical needs of the scientists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries . There are two primary branches of calculus : Differential Calculus dealt with the problem of calculating rate of change .

Calculus

Integral Calculus

dealt with the problem of determining a function from information about its rate of change .

Calculus is a very important branch of mathematics and has been applied widely in the scientific research and commercial fields . Examples : An architect will use integration to determined the amount of materials necessary to construct a curved dome over a sports area , as well as calculate the weight of dome and determine the type of support structure required , biologists use differential calculus to determine the exact rate of growth in a bacterial culture when different variables such as temperature and food source are changed . This research can help increase the rate of growth of necessary bacteria , or decrease the rate of growth for harmful and potentially threatening bacteria . A graphics artist uses calculus to determine how different three-dimensional models will behave when subjected to rapidly changing conditions . This can create a realistic environment for movies or video games. Doctors can use calculus to help build the discipline necessary for solving complex problems , such as diagnosing patients . The above examples show that calculus has widespread application in science , economics , engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient .

1. Introduction

To Limits

To approach the subject of calculus , we examine the idea of limits . We want to study the behaviour of f(x) when x is near a . In other words , when x is close to a ,what happens to f(x) ?

lim f ( x) = L
x a

## means that f(x) can be made to be as close to L as desired

by making x sufficiently close to a . Note that this statement can be true even if f(a) L .
Indeed , the function f(x) need not even be defined at a .

## Reading Material 1.1 The formal definition of limit Definition : lim f ( x) = L x c

For every > 0 , there exists a corresponding number > 0 such that for all x , 0<| x-c|< |f(x) -L|< * The proven of limit is not included in syllabus !

x 2

x2 2x . x2 4

(b)

lim

## [solution] x2 2 x x( x 2) lim 2 = lim x 2 x 4 x 2 ( x + 2)( x 2) x = lim x2 x + 2 2 = 2+2 2 = 4 1 = 2

2 x+3 (2 x + 3)(2 + x + 3) = lim 2 x 1 x 1 ( x + 1)( x 1)(2 + x 1 x + 3) 4 ( x + 3) = lim x2 () 1 x = lim x 2 ( x + 1)( x 1)(2 + x + 3) ( x 1) = lim x 2 ( x + 1)( x 1)(2 + x + 3) 1 = lim x 2 ( x + 1)(2 + x + 3) 1 1 = = 2(2 + 4) 8

1.2 Determine the value of a function when its variable approaches a certain value
. Example 2:

x a

the value of a

Note: x a

## (a) lim (0.2) =

x0

(b) lim
x 1

x2 + 1 x2

(c) lim
x 1

x2 1 x 1

(d) lim
x 3

x2 2x 3 x2 9

Example 3 :

(a) lim
x 1

x 1 x 1

(b) lim
x 2

x+2 2 x2 4

(c) lim

2x2 + 3 x x 2 4

2. Chords

, Normals , Tangent

## Consider any two points , A and B , on any curve .

The line joining A and B is called a chord . B The line that touches the curve at A is called the tangent at A . The point A (touch point) is called the point of contact.

Figure 1

## The Gradient Of A Curve

From figure 1 , since the curve is not a straight line , and hence its gradient is not constant . In fact , the gradient of a curve changes continuously from point to point . So , what is the gradient of a curve ? The gradient of a curve at a point A is defined as the gradient of the tangent drawn at the point A .
2.1 Find the gradient of a chord joining two points on a curve Example 4 : Determine the gradient of the chord AB as shown below

## (a) y 32-------------- B. y=2x

2

(b) y 10--------------- -F

y=x +1

## (c) y y=x2 4 5-------------------- B

2----------E 8------- A 0
0 2 4
1 3

x -4

From the definition , the gradient of a curve at any point is found by drawing a tangent to the curve at the particular point , but it is just a approximate values . To obtain more accurate value , the following method is needed .
2.2 Finding the first derivative of a function y = f(x), as the gradient of tangent to its graph.

y=x y

Q (3.05 , 9.30)
Tangent at P
P(3

9)

Complete the table below and hence determine the first derivative of the function y = x Gradient PQ Point Q (x2, y2) x2 -x1 y2 - y1 x2 y2 3.05 9.30 3.01 3.001 3.0001 When Q P , gradient PQ 6, then the gradient at point P = 6 so , the gradient of the tangent at P =
x0

lim

y dy = dx dx

= 6 at x = 3

Let P(x,y) be a point on the curve y = x2 . Consider a point Q on the curve whose coordinate is ( x + x, y + y ) Since P(x,y) is on the curve , then y = x2 -------------- (1) Since Q( x + x, y + y ) lies on the curve , then

y + y = ( x + x) 2 ----------- (2)

As Q approaches P , x becomes smaller and smaller , ie. x 0 . The gradient of PQ thus tend to the gradient of the tangent at P . Hence , as QP , gradient of PQ = The first principles of differentiation

2.3 H o w t o find the first derivative of polynomials using the first principles dy a) Let x be a small increment in x and y be the corresponding small increment in y. b) Substitute x and y in the equation y = f(x) with x + x and y + y respectively c) Express y in terms of x and x d) Find

y y and lim . x 0 x x

2

dy dx

## 2. Determine the first derivative of y = first principle .

4 3 by using x

Solution

Solution :

3. Differentiate the following functions from first principles : (i) y = x3 + 2x2 2 (ii) y =

x2 + 2

3. What is Differentiation ?
where Important : We call (pronounced dee y by dee x ) the gradient function , derived function or differential coefficient of y with respect to x. The process of finding the dy/dx is called differentiation .

3.1

Determining the first derivative of the function y = ax using formula 1. If y = k, where k is a constant then or
n

## 2. If y = ax where k is a constant and n is positive and negative integer

dy d = (k ) = 0 dx dx

## dy d = (ax n ) = nax n-1 dx dx n 1 n 3. If f(x) = ax , then f ( x) = anx . Notation f ( x) is read as f prime x

then

Example 6: Differentiate the following with respect to x : 3 4 x+ (a) y = (b) y = (x-1)( x 3 ) 2 x [ Solution :] [sol:] 1 1 3 4 3 x+ = x 2 + 4x 2 y= y = (x-1)( x 3 ) 2 x 2 = x x + 3x x 3 dy 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 = ( ) x 2 + 4( ) x 2 3 1 dx 2 2 2 = x 2 + 3x x 2 3 1 3 3 = x 2 2x 2 dy 3 3 1 1 1 1 4 = x2 + 3 x 2 0 dx 2 2 3 2 = 1 3 2 1 1 4 x x3 = x +3 x 2 2 2 3 1 = x +3 2 2 x

## x2 5x + 4 x [solution] x2 5x + 4 y= x 4 = x+5+ x = x + 5 + 4 x 1 dy = 1 + 4( x 2 ) dx 4 = 1- 2 x (c) y =

Example 7 : Find the coordinates of the points on the curve y = 2x3 4x2 + x + 1 at which the gradient is -1 . [Solution] y = 2x3 4x2 + x + 1 dy = 6 x2 8x + 1 dx As gradient = -1 , then dy = 1 dx 6 x 2 8 x + 1 = 1 3x 2 4 x + 1 = 0 (3x 1)( x 1) = 0 1 x = or x = 1 3 When x = 1 , y = 2(1)3 4(1)2 + 1 +1 = 0 . 1 1 3 1 2 1 26 When x = , y = 2( ) 4( ) + + 1 = 3 3 3 3 27 1 26 required points are ( , ) and ( 1, 0). the 3 27 b 2 Example 8: Given that the curve y = ax + has gradient 4 at the point A(1,5) , calculate the value of a and of b . x

Tangents
a)

## dy represents the gradient of the tangent of the curve y = f(x) dx

substituting x = p

b) The gradient of the tangent at a point A (p,q) on a curve y = f(x) can be determined by

dy

dx

c) The equation of the tangent at point P(x1,y1 ) on the curve y =f(x) can be determined by Finding the gradient, m, of the tangent at point P Use the formula y y1 = m (x x1) to find the equation of the tangent.

Example 10 : Find the coordinates of the point on the curve y = 2x x2 at which the tangent is perpendicular to the line y-2x= 3 .

Example 11: Find the equations of the tangents to the curve y=x2-3x-4 at its points of intersection with the x-axis , and find the co-ordinates of the point of intersection of these tangents ?

11

Example 12: Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = c2 , where c is a constant , at the point ( x

c ct , ) . If the tangent meets the axes of x and y in A and B , prove that the triangle AOB is t of constant area , where O is origin.

Normal To the a curve The equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at point P( x1 ,y1), can be determined by

Finding the gradient ,m1,of the tangent at point P, Finding the gradient, m2, of the normal at point P for which m1m2 = -1 using the formula y y1 = m2 (x x1) to find the equation of the normal

Example 11 : Find the equation of the normal for each of following equations and the corresponding points. (a) y = x - 4x + 1 at point (3,-2)
2

(b) y = 2x +

8 at point (1,10) x

11

Example 13: P is the point (4,7) on the curve y = x2 -6x + 15 . Find the gradient of the curve at P and the equation of the normal
at this point . Find the coordinates of the point where this normal cuts the curve again. The tangent at another point Q is perpendicular to the tangent at P . Find the x-coordinate of Q . [ Ans : 2 ; -1/2 ; x+2y-18=0 ; (3/2 , 33/4 ) ; 11/4 ]

Example 14:
The tangent to the curve y=ax2+bx + 2 at (1, + 10 at (-2,2) . Find the values of a and b .

## 1 ) is parallel to the normal to the curve y = x2 + 6x 2

Example 15:

The tangent at the point P(a,b) on the curve y = respectively. Show that PQ = RP .

11

11

2.Given f(x) =

## x+4 find the value of x if x1

1. Given y = (x + 1)(x -1) find (a) the gradient of the curve for which x = 2 (b) the equation of the tangent and the normal at x =2 Solution (a)

f ' (x) = -

## tangent and normal at that point..

b)

Exercise 12 : 1. Find the equation of the tangent on a curve 2 y = (x + 1)(2x + 5) at point (-1,6)

## 1 . Find the x-coordinates of the point. 2

3. The curve y = h x +

## Find the values h and k . (SPM 96)

k has the gradient of 2 at (-1, - 7 ) 4 4. Find the gradient of the curve y = at point 2 3x + 2 x 2
(-2, -1). Hence , find the equation of the normal . (SPM 98)

5 Find the equation of the tangent on a curve 2 y = 3x - 4x +2 which is parallel to the line y = 2x + 5

## 1 . Find the positive value of x x

for which f'(x) = 2 , Hence, find the equation of the tangent and normal.

Homework : Skill Practice 9.2 Page 216 Students will be able to:

6. Understand and use the concept of second derivative to solve problems 6.1 Determine the second derivative of function y = f (x). 6.2 Determine whether a turning point is maximum or minimum point of a curve using the second derivative

6.1

## Determine the second derivative of function y = f (x).

If : y = f(x), then
Example 13:

2 4

## 2 5 dy d y 1. Given that y = 4x + 2x find and 2 x dx dx

3

2 . Given that f(x) = (1-2x ) .Find f " (x) and f " (0)

## Exercise 13 : 1. Given that y = (1+x ) find

2 4

dy and dx

d 2y 2 dx

2. Given that y =

1 2 dy + 2 find and x x dx

d y dx 2

## 4. Given f(x) = (1 - x2)3 Find f ' and f "

d dy 5 .Given that y = x(3-x), Express y -x +12 y dx 2 dx 2 d y dy in term x. then solve y = 12 (SPM 95) 2 -x dx dx

## Homework : Text Book Exercise 9.6.1 page 231

Students will be able to:

3.

Understand and use the concept of maximum and minimum values to solve problems

3.1 Determine coordinates of turning points of a curve. 3.2 Determine whether a turning point is a maximum or a minimum point. 3.3 Solve problems involving maximum or minimum values.
3.1 Determining coordinates of turning points of a curve

Notes :
A curve y = f(x) has a turning point or stationary point where to the x- axis

## dy = 0. At this point the tangent is parallel dx

Example 14. Find the coordinates of the turning point of the following curve a) y = 8 x
2

b) y = 3x x

c) y = x +

4 -2 x

d)

y=

4x + 9 x

## Homework : Text Book Exercise 9.3.1 page 219

3.2 Determining whether a turning point is maximum or minimum point of a curve using the second derivative 3.3 Determining whether a turning point is a maximum or a minimum point

Notes :
The types of turning points of a curve y = f(x), can be tested as follows a) find

dy dy of the curve y = f (x) . then find the value of x for which =0 dx dx d y d y d y . If > 0 the point is minimum point or if < 0 the point is maximum point. dx 2 dx 2 dx 2
2. Show that the curve y = 5x - 5x +1 has only one turning point. Hence determine whether the turning point is maximum point or minimum point
2

b) Find the corresponding value of y by substituting the value of x into y = f(x) c) Determine whether a turning point is maximum or minimum point by substituting the values of x
2 2 2

into

Example 15 . 1. Find the coordinates of turning point of the curve 2 y = 12x - 3x .Hence determine whether the turning point is maximum point or minimum point.

Exercise 15
1. . Show that the curve y = 8x +

1 2x
2

## 2. Find the coordinates of turning point of the curve

turning point. Hence determine whether the turning is maximum point or minimum point [Ans :(1/2,6)min]

## x3 x 2 6x . Hence determine whether the turning y= 3 2

point is maximum point or minimum point. [ Ans (3,-27/2)min, (-2,22/3)max]

## Homework : Text Book Exercise 9.3.2 page 221

3.3 Solve problems involving maximum or minimum values. Example 16 ; 3 1. A piece of wire of length 60 cm is bent to form a 2. A solid cylinder with a x radius has a volume of 800cm 2 rectangle. Find the dimensions of the rectangle for a) Show that the total surface area, A cm . of the which the area is a maximum. [ Ans 15 cm] 1600 2 cylinder is given by A = 2x + b) Hence, find the value of x which makes the surface area a minimum [ Answer x = 5

Exercise 16 2 . 1. Given a rectangle of area 12 cm and length x cm express the perimeter, P, of the rectangle in terms of x . Hence find the minimum value of P . [Ans 2x +24/x, 8

2. x x

3]
y x y

The diagram shows a Seutas dawai pentagon ABCDE. If the panjangnya 100cm perimeter of the pentagon is 18 cm, find the values dibengkok kepada of x and y when the area bentuk yang is a maximum [ditunjukan dalam x= 4.22, y=2.67 ]

rajah disebelah Tunjukkan bahawa 2 luas bentuk itu Lcm ialah 2 300x - 60x . Cari i dan ila y

4.

## 4.1 Determining rates of change for related quantities Notes :

If y is a function of x and x is a function of time, t , then the link between y and t can be determine by chain rule .

dy dy dx = . If the rate of change is positive, it means increment and if the rate of change dt dx dt

is negative, it means decrement. Example 16 . a)The radius, r cm of a circle is 20 cm and it is -1 increasing at the rate of 3cms . At what rate is the area of the circle increasing. 2. The area of a circle is decreasing at the rate 2 cm s 2 How fast is the radius decreasing when the area is 32 cm
2 -1

Exercise 16 . a)The radius, r cm of a circle is 10 cm and it is -1 increasing at the rate of 4 cms . At what rate is the area of the circle increasing.

## 2. Two variable, x and y are related by equation y =

3x

If y is changing at a rate of 11.5 units per seconds , find the rate of change of x when x = -2

5 x

## Homework : Text Book Skill Practice 9.4 Pg 226

Students will be able to: 5. Understand and use the concept of small changes and approximations to solve problems. 5.1 Determine small changes in quantities. 5.2 Determine approximate values using differentiation

5.1 Notes :

## Determining small changes in quantities

1. Given a function y = f(x), then as x makes a small change, y will also change by a small quantity 2. The small change in x and y are denoted by x and y respectively 3. If the value of the value of

x
and

and

## are negative its means a small decrement in x and y respectively.

Example 16: 2 1. If y = 3x + 5x + 2, find the small change in y when x change from 3 to 3.02

2.Find the approximate change in volume of a sphere if its radius increase from 5 cm to 5.02

Exercise 16 2 1 Given that y = 2x - x , Find a) the small change in y when x change from 2 to 2.01 [Ans= - 0.02 ] b) the small change in y when x change from 2 to 1.99 [Ans = 0.02]

2. Given that y = 6x +x , find the small change in y when x decreases from 3 to 2.99

5.2

y dy x dx

where

## x is small amount of change in

y is small change in y

24 x
4

## , find the approximate value of

2.Given that y = 9x

24 4 (2.02)

[ Ans 1.44]

dy when y = 36. Hence dx find the small change in x when y increases 36.0 to 36.3 [ Ans 3, 0.1] , Find

2 3

Exercise 17
1. Given that y =

approximate value of

## 16 dy when x = 2. Find the , find 4 dx x 16 (1.98)

4

2.Given that y =

1
3

[Ans : -2 , 1.04]

1
3

0.9

x 1 [ Ans 1 ] 30

## . Find the approximate value of

SPM Questions

SPM 2003 P 2 2 a) Given that y = x + 5x, use differentiation to find the small change in y when x increases from 3 to 3.01. [Answer 0,11] b) Given that y = 14x (5 x), calculate i) the value of x when y is a maximum ii) the maximum value of y SPM 2003 P2 2 a) Given that y = x + 2x + 7 find the value of x if 2 dy 2 d y x + y = 8. [Answer x = 5/3 or x = -1 ] 2 + ( x - 1 ) dx dx b) 0.5m 0.6 m

[ 3 marks ]

[ 3 marks ]

[ 4 marks ]

Diagram 2 shows a conical container of diameter 0.6 m and heights 0.5 m. Water is poured into the container at a constant rate of 0.2 m s-1 { use
3

r 2 h
[ 4 marks ]

## Diagram 2 SPM 2004 P 1 2 4 3 a) Differentiate 3x ( 2x 5 ) with respect to x. [Answer 6x (6x-5)(2x-5) ]

b) Two variables , x and y are related by the equation y = 3x + [ 3 marks ]

[ 3 marks ]

SPM 2004 P 2

## Diagram 5 shows a part of the curve

y= A(1,3) y= 3 (2x 3 1) x

## 3 3 , which passed through A(1,3) (2x 1)

. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point A [ 4 marks ]

Diagram 5

3

[ 4 marks ]

V =

## 1 3 h + 8h , where h cm is the heights of the 3

3 -1

water in the container. Water is poured into container at the rate of 10 cm s . Find the rate of change of the -1 heights of the water in cm s , at the instant when its heights is 2 cm. [ 3 marks ]