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Urine Turbidity The turbidity of the urine sample is gauged subjectively and reported as: clear, slightly cloudy,

cloudy, opaque, or flocculent. Normally, fresh urine is clear to very slightly cloudy. Excess turbidity results from the presence of suspended particles in the urine. The cause can usually be determined based on the results of the microscopic urine sediment examination. Common causes of abnormal turbidity include :
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increased cells (RBC, WBC) numerous crystals bacteria

Turbid (cloudy) urine may be a symptom of a bacterial infection, but can also be caused by crystallization of salts such as calcium phosphate. Proteinuria is a condition characterized by the presence of greater than normal amounts of protein in the urine. It is associated with a variety of different diseases and is sometimes seen in those who are apparently healthy. Mild or transient proteinuria may become more severe over time. Proteinuria due to the presence of excess small proteins in blood may be seen in multiple myeloma (free immunoglobulin light chains) and in conditions that cause the breakage of red blood cells (release of hemoglobin) like having a blood loss above the average amount. Also, proteinuria is usually seen to a postpartum mother since she s prone to infection, and infections may cause proteinuria.

Hematuria is the presence of blood, specifically red blood cells, in the urine. Hematuria is a sign that something is causing bleeding in the genitourinary tract: the kidneys, the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder (ureters), the prostate gland (in men), the bladder, or the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body (urethra).Bleeding may happen once or it may be recurrent. In our case, because of the prolonged labor due to improper contractions during delivery, the bladder bleeds and becomes distended. This condition could also cause urinary tract infection. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. If a urinalysis detects presence of leukocytes in the urine with no nitrates, it could be an indication that the patient is suffering from an infection of the urinary system. Leukocytes are white blood cells that combat infections in the body but their presence in urine most often points towards a bacterial infection. The normal levels of leukocytes in the urine are somewhere around 0-10 lev/vl but if these levels exceed 20 lev/vl, there's an underlying problem or an issue that one needs to worry about. The level of leukocytes, if in excess, can have an effect on one's kidneys or bladder. In some cases, it

has been known to affect both. During pregnancy, it is possible that the WBC levels in urine increase and there is a possibility of protein contamination from the vagina. As far as the urinary tract is concerned, there are three types of epithelial cells, called, squamous, transitional and renal tubular cells. While squamous epithelial are found on the skin, in the vagina and outer parts of the urethra, transitional ones are located in the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis. Renal tubular cells are found in the nephrons of the kidney. As per microscopic analysis of the urine sediment, the epithelial cells in the urine are classified as per the type and quantity. The quantity is given as 'occasional', 'moderate', 'few' or many. As mentioned above, the presence of a few epithelial cells, especially, the squamous and transitional ones are considered as normal in both men and women. Presence of renal tubular cells are not normal and in large numbers, can be a sign of some serious kidney problem. Even large numbers of transitional cells can be an indication of serious conditions. Large numbers of squamous epithelial cells in urinalysis may also be due to contamination of the urine. The most common causes of epithelial cells in urine are infections, inflammation and malignancies. However, your health care provider can read the results of urinalysis and diagnose the problem. Thus, determining the type and quantity of epithelial cells in the urine will help in diagnosing the condition. For example, many transitional epithelial cells in urinalysis can be due to bladder infection. Casts are quantified for reporting as the number seen per low power field (10x objective) and classified as to type (e.g., waxy casts, 5-10/LPF). Casts in urine from normal individuals are few or none (and are usually hyaline or granular in nature). The presence of numerous casts is solid evidence of generalized (usually acute) renal disease, it is not a reliable indicator of prognosis. If the underlying cause can be removed or diminished, regeneration of renal tubular epithelium can occur (provided the basement membrane remains intact).

The principal function of hemoglobin is to combine and transport oxygen from the lungs following inhalation, and then deliver it to all body tissues, where it is required to provide energy for the chemical reactions of all living cells. Carbon dioxide (produced as the waste product of these reactions) is transported to the lungs in the blood and is then released when we exhale. If anemia is suspected, a simple blood test can be taken to detect a shortage of red blood cells or hemoglobin. Any adult who has a hemoglobin content of less than 12 grams/100ml blood in women, and less than 13.5 grams/100 ml in men, is diagnosed as having anemia. A specific diagnosis is necessary because each type of anemia has a different cause and therefore, a different treatment. Anemia is caused by a shortage of the mineral iron, which is necessary to produce hemoglobin. This shortage can be caused by a variety of conditions, among them a drastic blood loss, such as giving birth or delivery; during delivery, the normal blood loss of a patient is 300-500mL.

White blood cells help fight infection through a process known as 'phagocytosis' wherein they surround the foreign organisms and then destroy it. Along with fighting infection, white blood cells also help produce, transport and distribute antibodies to build the body's immune system. In case of acute infection, the white blood cells produce a substance known as the colony-stimulating factor (CSF), which stimulates the bone marrow to increase the white blood cell production. The production of the cells can be doubled within a few hours. An elevated white blood cell count (above '30000' cells per micro-

liter) indicates is not a specific disease by itself but may indicates Infection. Decreased hematocrit indicates anemia, such as that caused by iron deficiency or other deficiencies. Further testing may be necessary to determine the exact cause of the anemia.Other conditions that can result in a low hematocrit include vitamin or mineral deficiencies, recent bleeding, cirrhosis of the liver, and malignancies. Pregnancy usually causes slightly decreased hematocrit values due to extra fluid in the blood.
There are many possible causes for an abnormally high neutrophil count. A neutrophil level that is more than 8000 is considered to be abnormally high. One basic cause of a high neutrophil count is when a high level of stress is placed on the body. The stress can due to many factors such as nervousness, exercise, or seizures (involuntary muscle movements due to overexcitement of nerve cells in the brain). Another cause is a sudden infection from bacteria. Hemolytic anemia can cause a high neutrophil count. Hemolytic anemia is a condition in which the red blood cells are destroyed earlier than they should be. Red blood cells help carry oxygen to the blood. Low levels of lymphocytes (large granular) can lead to conditions such as cancer or an infection in a person. On the other hand, low levels of lymphocytes (T cell or B cells) can indicate a less threatening condition (than cancer) of infection. Of course, these conditions must be handled thoroughly and with every precaution under the guidance of qualified doctor.

Low monocyte counts generally do not cause specific symptoms. It is most likely that the signs of some type of an infection will be noticed by someone suffering from a low monocyte blood count. A low monocyte blood cell count increases susceptibility to infections. The degree of increased risk depends on the severity and cause of the monocytopenia, as well as the patient's overall medical condition. The most common types of infections resulting from monocytopenia are caused by bacteria that normally resides on human skin or those that are in the gastrointestinal and urinary tract.