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CHAPTER 4

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. A substance is a brittle crystal that conducts electricity in molten liquid state only. Which type of substance is it? a. metallic crystal d. molecular crystal b. ionic crystal e. frozen gas c. covalent crystal 2. A substance is a solid that is ductile and malleable and conducts electricity and heat in the solid state. Which type of substance is it? a. metallic solid d. molecular solid b. ionic solid e. perfect crystal c. covalent solid 3. A solid is soft and has a low melting point. It does not conduct electricity. What type of solid is it? a. metallic solid d. molecular crystal b. ionic crystal e. plasma c. covalent solid 4. Which shape and bond angle are predicted by VSEPR theory for H2 O? a. linear, 180o d. bent, 109.5o o b. bent, 120 e. bent, less than 109.5o c. bent, less than 120o 5. What is the basis of metallic bonding? a. the attraction of metal ions for delocalized electrons b. the attraction between neutral metal ions c. the neutralization of protons by electrons d. the attraction of oppositely charged ions e. the sharing of two valence electrons between two atoms 6. When is ionic bonding likely to occur between two atoms? a. when both atoms have low ionization energy and low electron affinity b. when both atoms have high ionization energy and high electron affinity c. when both atoms have high ionization energy and low electron affinity d. when one atom has high ionization energy and high electron affinity, while the other has low ionization energy and low electron affinity e. when one atom has a high ionization energy and low electron affinity, while the other has a low ionization energy and a high electron affinity 7. Polar covalent bonds occur between a. atoms which both have equally high electronegativities b. atoms which have high but unequal electronegativities c. atoms which both have equally low electronegativities d. atoms which both have equally low ionization energies e. atoms which have low but unequal ionization energies 8. Which of the following bonds is likely to exhibit the greatest ionic character? a. H-F d. Cl-Cl b. F-F e. Cl-F c. H-Cl

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9. According to VSEPR theory, molecules adjust their shapes to keep which of the following as far apart as possible? a. pairs of valence electrons d. mobile electrons b. inner shell electrons e. lone pairs of electrons c. bonding pairs of electrons 10. Four pairs of electrons surrounding a central atom will be arranged a. pyramidally d. linearly b. spherically e. trigonally c. tetrahedrally 11. Diamond and graphite differ in that a. only graphite is composed of carbon atoms b. only graphite conducts electricity c. only graphite burns in oxygen to give carbon dioxide gas d. diamond is less dense than graphite e. diamond is a compound 12. Which of the following is a covalent network solid? a. sodium chloride d. asbestos b. carbon dioxide e. phosphorus c. brass 13. Intermolecular forces are a. forces within covalent molecules that hold them together b. electrostatic forces between ions c. bonds between hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water molecules d. attractive forces between separate covalent molecules e. covalent bonds within a network solid 14. What is the correct order of bond polarity of the bonds F-F, H-F and O-F beginning with the least polar? a. F-F, O-F, H-F d. H-F, F-F, O-F b. F-F, H-F, O-F e. O-F, H-F, F-F c. H-F, O-F, F-F 15. Which of the molecules, CO2 , H2 O, NH3 , and BF3, will be polar? a. CO2 , NH3 and BF3 d. CO2 , H2 O and NH3 b. H2 O and NH3 e. CO2 and BF3 c. H2 O and BF3 16. A molecule consisting of a central atom surrounded by two bonding pairs and two non-bonding (lone) pairs of electrons will be a. linear d. trigonal pyramidal b. tetrahedral e. trigonal planar c. bent 17. The shape of a BF ion will be a. trigonal pyramidal d. octahedral b. trigonal planar e. tetrahedral c. trigonal bipyramidal 18. The attractive forces that exist between all covalent molecules are known as a. dipole-dipole forces d. hydrogen bonds b. intramolecular forces e. dispersion forces c. covalent bonds

____ 19. Why does a central atom surrounded by 4 atoms have a tetrahedral shape instead of a square planar shape? a. orbitals are never at right angles to each other b. the lone pairs around the central atom push the 4 atoms into this configuration c. the angle in a tetrahedron is larger than in a square planar arrangement d. the 4 atoms want to be as close together as possible e. none of the above ____ 20. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to two other atoms with one lone pair of electrons? a. linear d. tetrahedral b. bent e. trigonal bipyramidal c. trigonal planar ____ 21. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to two other atoms with no lone pairs of electrons? a. linear d. trigonal planar b. bent e. see-saw c. trigonal pyramidal ____ 22. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to two other atoms with three lone pairs of electrons? a. linear d. trigonal planar b. bent e. see-saw c. trigonal pyramidal ____ 23. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to three other atoms with one lone pair of electrons? a. linear d. trigonal planar b. bent e. see-saw c. trigonal pyramidal ____ 24. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to two other atoms with two lone pairs of electrons? a. bent d. see-saw b. trigonal pyramidal e. square planar c. trigonal planar ____ 25. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to four other atoms with one lone pair of electrons? a. trigonal planar d. square pyramidal b. see-saw e. octahedral c. square planar ____ 26. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to four other atoms with two lone pairs of electrons? a. trigonal planar d. square pyramidal b. trigonal pyramidal e. octahedral c. square planar ____ 27. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to five other atoms with one lone pair of electrons? a. trigonal pyramidal d. square pyramidal b. trigonal planar e. octahedral c. square planar

____ 28. What would be the shape of a molecule containing a central atom attached to six other atoms? a. trigonal planar d. square pyramidal b. trigonal pyramidal e. octahedral c. square planar ____ 29. What would be the shape of BF3 ? a. trigonal planar d. square planar b. trigonal pyramidal e. none of the above c. tetrahedral ____ 30. Which of the following substances would be polar? a. carbon dioxide d. ammonium ion b. boron trifluoride e. sulfate ion c. ammonia ____ 31. Which of the following substances would not be polar? a. hydrogen chloride d. sulfur dioxide b. ammonia e. carbon dioxide c. water ____ 32. Which of the following is not a property of ionic solids. a. conduct electricity in solution d. contain positive and negative ions b. brittle e. ductile c. form a lattice ____ 33. Which forces exist between ammonia, NH3 , particles? I. Van der Waals II. metallic bonding III. hydrogen bonding IV. dipole a. I only d. I, III and IV only b. I and IV only e. I, II and III only c. I and II only ____ 34. Which forces exist between methane, CH4 particles? I. Van der Waals II. metallic bonding III. hydrogen bonding IV. dipole a. I only d. I, III and IV only b. I and IV only e. I, II and III only c. I and II only ____ 35. Which forces exist between hydrogen chloride, HCl, particles? I. Van der Waals II. metallic bonding III. hydrogen bonding IV. dipole a. I only d. I, III and IV only b. I and IV only e. I, II and II only c. I and II only

____ 36. Which forces exist between iron, Fe, particles? I. Van der Waals II. metallic bonding III. hydrogen bonding IV. dipole a. I only d. I, III and IV only b. I and IV only e. I, II and III only c. I and II only ____ 37. What causes high surface tension in water? a. the high boiling point of water d. the low density of ice b. the bent shape of the molecule e. none of the above c. hydrogen bonding ____ 38. When do ionic compounds conduct electricity? I. when warm II. when molten III. when dissolved IV. when gaseous a. II only d. I and II only b. I, II and III only e. II and III only c. IV only ____ 39. Which statement is the best description of hydrogen chloride, HCl? a. polar molecule d. ionic compound b. polar bonds, non polar molecule e. none of the above c. non polar molecule ____ 40. Which statement is the best description of carbon tetrachloride, CF4 ? a. polar molecule d. ionic compound b. polar bonds, non polar molecule e. none of the above c. non polar molecule ____ 41. Which statement is the best description of water, H2 O? a. polar molecule d. ionic compound b. polar bonds, non polar molecule e. none of the above c. non polar molecule ____ 42. Which statement is the best description of chlorine, Cl2 ? a. polar molecule d. ionic compound b. polar bonds, non polar molecule e. none of the above c. non polar molecule ____ 43. Which statement is the best description of potassium chloride, KCl? a. polar molecule d. ionic compound b. polar bonds, non polar molecule e. none of the above c. non polar molecule ____ 44. What type of substance is potassium chloride, KCl? a. ionic d. metallic b. molecular e. none of the above c. covalent network

____ 45. What type of substance is carbon dioxide, CO2 ? a. ionic d. metallic b. molecular e. none of the above c. covalent network ____ 46. What type of substance is graphite? a. ionic d. metallic b. molecular e. none of the above c. covalent network ____ 47. What type of substance is sodium, Na? a. ionic d. metallic b. molecular e. none of the above c. covalent network ____ 48. What type of substance is hydrogen sulfide, H2 S? a. ionic d. metallic b. molecular e. none of the above c. covalent network ____ 49. What type of substance is methane, CH4 ? a. ionic d. metallic b. molecular e. none of the above c. covalent network ____ 50. Identify the incorrect set of information about the shapes of molecules with single bonds only. Set A B C D E Lone pairs on central atom 0 0 0 1 2 Bonding pairs on central atom 3 4 6 3 2 Shape trigonal bipyramidal tetrahedral octahedral trigonal pyramidal V shaped

a. set A d. set D b. set B e. set E c. set C ____ 51. Which gaseous molecule is non polar? a. ozone, O3 d. NH3 b. HCl e. CH4 c. H2 O ____ 52. Which species is square planar? a. CF4 d. SF4 b. BF4 1e. XeF 4 c. PF4 1____ 53. How would Dr. Richard Bader probably describe a double bond? a. an electron density that is twice as high as a single bond b. a higher electron density than a single bond c. four electrons shared between two atoms d. all of the above e. none of the above

____ 54. What types of things does Dr. Robert J. LeRoy use computer simulations to study? a. behaviour of small molecules d. all of the above b. decomposition of small molecules e. none of the above c. intermolecular forces ____ 55. Why are diamonds so hard? a. because they are made of carbon b. because they are made of a three dimensional array of particles c. because it is able to conduct electricity d. because there are covalent bonds between particles e. none of the above ____ 56. What is the shape of hydrogen cyanide, HCN? a. linear d. octahedral b. trigonal planar e. trigonal pyramid c. tetrahedral ____ 57. What is the shape of ammonium, NH4 1+? a. linear d. octahedral b. trigonal planar e. trigonal pyramidal c. tetrahedral ____ 58. What is the shape of the nitrate ion, NO3 1-? a. linear d. octahedral b. trigonal planar e. trigonal pyramidal c. tetrahedral ____ 59. What is the shape of sulfur hexahydride, SH6 ? a. linear d. octahedral b. trigonal planar e. trigonal pyramidal c. tetrahedral ____ 60. Which species would have the biggest attraction with a proton, H+ ? a. sodium ion, Na d. nitrate ion, NO3 1-+ b. neon, Ne e. fluoride ion, F1c. methane, CH4 ____ 61. How will four pairs of electrons surrounding a central atom be arranged? a. pyramidally d. linearly b. spherically e. trigonally c. tetrahedrally ____ 62. Six pairs of electrons surrounding a central atom will be arranged a. tetrahedrally d. octahedrally b. spherically e. hexagonally c. trigonal bipyramidally ____ 63. "A partial positive charge at one end of a molecule combined with a partial negative charge at the other end of a molecule" describes... a. an orbital d. a photon b. an absorption spectrum e. a dipole c. a quantum

____ 64. What is the bond angle in a bent molecule, such as water? a. 90 b. 104.5 c. 107.3 d. 109.5 e. 120 ____ 65. What is the bond angle in a trigonal pyramidal molecule? a. 90 b. 104.5 c. 107.3 d. 109.5 e. 120 ____ 66. What is the bond angle in a trigonal planar molecule? a. 90 b. 104.5 c. 107.3 d. 109.5 e. 120 ____ 67. What is the shape of a molecule of carbon tetrachloride, CCl4 ? a. linear b. trigonal planar c. trigonal pyramidal d. tetrahedral e. angular ____ 68. What is the shape of a molecule of antimony(III) fluoride, SbF3 ? a. linear b. trigonal planar c. trigonal pyramidal d. tetrahedral e. angular ____ 69. What is the shape of a molecule of selenium tetrachloride, SeCl4 ? a. T-shaped b. seesaw c. trigonal bipyramidal d. square pyramidal e. square planar ____ 70. What is the shape of a molecule of krypton tetraiodide, KrI4 ? a. T-shaped b. seesaw c. trigonal bipyramidal d. square pyramidal e. square planar

____ 71. Predict the shape of a phosphate ion, PO4 3-. a. seesaw b. trigonal planar c. trigonal pyramidal d. tetrahedral e. square planar ____ 72. Predict the shape of OF3 +. a. seesaw b. trigonal planar c. trigonal pyramidal d. tetrahedral e. T-shaped ____ 73. Which compound has polar covalent bonds? a. AgCl2 b. CH4 c. Cl2 d. CF4 e. B2 H8 ____ 74. Which compound is truly covalent? a. SO2 b. MgO c. NH3 d. PCl3 e. P2 S3 ____ 75. Which molecule has a molecular dipole? a. CCl4 b. NF3 c. BeF2 d. CF4 e. CO2 ____ 76. Metals can be rolled into sheets and stamped into various forms. In contrast, diamond is very hard and brittle. Which explanation for these different properties is correct? a. Metals have semi-ionic bonds, whereas diamond has covalent bonds. b. The electrons that surround a metal atom are free to move through the metal. The bonding electron pairs in a diamond are held tightly between two carbon atoms in an overall tetrahedral pattern. c. The electrons of a metal are held more tightly to the parent atom than the electrons of carbon. Hence, the bonds in a metal are stronger than the bonds in diamond. d. Diamond has strong double bonds between carbon atoms. Metal bonds are normally single covalent bonds, which bend easily. e. Metals are made of metal atoms, whereas diamond is made of non-metal carbon atoms. ____ 77. Which bond is most polar? a. CO b. CN c. BO d. BN e. SO

____ 78. Which compound is the best example of a molecular solid held together by London dispersion forces? a. KI b. Na2 O c. H2 O d. CO2 e. NH3 ____ 79. Which compound is a network solid? a. NaCl (table salt) b. C25 H52 (paraffin wax) c. S8 (sulfur) d. mixture of C and Fe (steel) e. SiO2 (quartz) ____ 80. A pure substance melts at 113C and does not conduct electricity in either the solid or liquid state. How would you classify this substance? a. ionic solid b. network solid c. molecular solid d. metallic solid e. atomic solid ____ 81. A solid compound consists of ions bound in a crystal lattice. Which property would you not expect this solid to have? a. high melting point b. good conductivity in the solid state c. hard d. soluble in a polar solvent e. brittle ____ 82. A substance is a white powder, which melts at 660C to give a transparent liquid. The substance does not conduct electricity in its solid state, but it does conduct electricity in its liquid state. How would you classify the substance? a. ionic b. network c. molecular d. metallic e. atomic ____ 83. A substance is a white solid, which melts at a temperature greater than 700C. The substance is extremely hard and not workable. It is a poor conductor of heat and electricity in both its solid and liquid states. How would you classify the substance? a. ionic b. network c. molecular d. metallic e. atomic

____ 84. A substance is a silvery white solid, which melts at 675C to give a silvery liquid. The substance conducts electricity in both its solid and liquid states. How would you classify the substance? a. ionic b. network c. molecular d. metallic e. atomic ____ 85. A substance has an extremely low boiling point of 4 K. It is a clear, colourless gas at room temperature, and it does not conduct electricity in its liquid or solid state. How would you classify this substance? a. ionic b. network c. molecular d. metallic e. atomic