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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate?

An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

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WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE? AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MAJOR FACTORS BEHIND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM KHARIAN TO NORWAY
Sarfraz Khan, Mirza Rizwan Sajid, Maria Abbas Gondal and Hafeez-ur-Rehman University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan & Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract Present study was conducted in Tehsil Kharian, District Gujrat Pakistan. It has been observed that majority of the immigrants from Kharian town visit Norway. This emigration route was firstly explored by a few emigrants and later after settling there they invited other close relatives for family reunification. Generally this immigration grew dense with increased emigration rate from Kharian Tehsil. At present, over 30,000 Pakistani immigrants are living there with a significant number that reside in Oslo city and its suburbs. This study on the one hand aims at understanding the emergence and evolution of migration issue in the context of Pakistan while on the other hand it tries to highlight the global immigration links between Pakistan and Norway with reference to Kharian. Moreover, this study also investigated the major sources of motivation, main reasons, and aspirations of emigrants from Kharian to Norway. 50 respondents were selected through purposive sampling technique with inclusion criteria. The results presented in the tables revealed that family members and close relatives were the main source of motivation for emigration from Kharian to Norway while the data also predicts that majority of the emigrants close relatives living back in Pakistan aspire to visit Norway. People were also of the opinion that the remittances are vital not only for family members but also for the development of the community. Keywords: International migration, Reasons of migration, Motivational sources of migration, Norway, Kharian, Pakistan. INTRODUCTION Migration has been a blurry issue in case of Pakistan. From its inception, people have been moving in and out either for internal or international migration. First major migration this country had faced was the migration at the time of independence. This migration of people started with the movement of millions of people from India to Pakistan and vice versa. The Muslims moved from India to Pakistan in the hope for a better life, not just economically but
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

socially and religiously as well. As the population in Pakistan swelled with the movement of people from south to north, and from east to west, concurrently there started an internal migration of the masses from the rural areas to the urban. This internal migration has different phases and different prospects. Job opportunities in the cities were one of the major causes of migration. The other was faster development of communication systems, technological advancement, better civic systems which attracted the peasantry towards urbanized centres. Through this migration the urban growth happened. Population considerably swelled up. After the resettlement of the communities and a considerable shift from rural to urban setting these followed the phase of international migration. There are different reasons for international migration throughout the Subcontinent. It is said that, the lack of opportunities in the Subcontinent pushed people towards international migration. To accomplish the economic goals of the masses, government made liaisons with the some of the international states for the consumption of unskilled, semi-skilled and later on skilled labor. 1960s is one very significant decade in the history of the international migration from Pakistan. From 1960 the phenomena of migration started when Pakistani government took the initiatives to send the human resource to the Middle East and other Gulf States for short durations. It became fruitful not only for families left behind but also impacted national economy by an increase in foreign exchange. Few researches have been conducted to see the impact of the emigration in Pakistani society at both familial and national levels. Migration to the Gulf region took place in the early 1970s. By the early 1980s, some 2 million Pakistanis had migrated there. Initially, demand was for construction workers; later it switched to workers with skills in sectors such as transport, trade, social infrastructure and security services. Unlike migrants to developed countries, those in the Gulf included large numbers of uneducated from rural areas; their remittances home directly impacted on poverty (Gazdar, 2003). Middle East was not the only destination of the Pakistani immigrants; they further explored the new regions like Europe, Australia, Canada, and United States of America. According to Gazdar (2003) since the late 1980s and early 1990s, there have been new waves of migration by young men to the EU and North America. In the 1980s, under conditions of political and social repression in Pakistan, a large number of people escaped persecution by emigrating to Western Europe and North America. Certain periods of political and social repression in Pakistan were
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

associated with particular waves of migrations. Later on the migration trends tremendously changed when youth found different ways to migrate to the different destinations. In the same period there was a growing trend among well-off urban families to send their children to North America for higher education. These waves of emigration to developed countries followed the familiar pattern of young men establishing themselves and then calling their families and dependents over there. While on other hand some explored the states having demand for unskilled and semi-skilled labor. One such person from Kharian explored Norway in 1960s and through kinship network he helped others to emigrate there. The Pakistani immigration to Norway started as labor immigration at the end of the 1960s when there were no restrictions on immigration. Due to the strong thrust of Pakistani immigration to Norway, Norwegian immigration and integration policy in 1970s remained a policy primarily concerned with immigration from Pakistan (Brunborg et al., 2006). But after that policy strictness on the general labor migration, Pakistani Immigrants found other ways to capitalize the situation. They used the option of family reunification and helped other prospective immigrants to reach there. But by that time Norway was like a second home for the Pakistani migrants and those who are left behind aspired by the immigrants and are always struggling for opportunities to reach there. As a consequence a large number of arranged marriages contracted to enable Pakistani immigrants to Norway. They usually returned to Kharian for short time period and searched the spouses and then supported them to reach there. Resultantly the number of the Pakistani and specially Kharian immigrants increases. Bevanger (2004) opines that now they say that If we lived here, we didn't think we lived in Norway, we thought we lived in Pakistan, says Riaz Amad, one of the first working immigrants to come here from Pakistan in the early 1970s. Now there are over 30, 000 Pakistani immigrants living in Norway and majority of them belong to Kharian. Kharian is one of the three Tehsils of Gujrat. It consists of about 80, 000 people (GOP, 1998). This town in famous for mainly two reasons, firstly because of the big cantonment of Pakistan army and secondly due to the international migration especially in Norway. Lions share of the Norwegian immigrant population is of Pakistani origin. Most of the Norwegian Pakistanis hail from the region of Kharian, a Punjabi town that is sometimes referred to locally as Little Norway because all and sundry have their relatives in Norway (Laenen, 2005). People have strong kinship bindings and majority of the

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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

recent emigrations are through the spouse visa. This kinship network helps the prospective migrants to reach Norway. These links have been matured by Norway and Pakistan though inter-linkages of community members, business personnel, and consulates. Even the political campaigns for Norway general assembly elections start from Kharian because it affects their vote-bank. Majority of the Pakistani immigrants regularly visit Pakistan. They have build big houses here and only one or two family members are presently living in these big houses. In the case of Gujrat, Khan et al. (2009) opined that The emigrants are intending to improve their social status like food security of their dependants, construction of big houses. The flow of remittances from Norway is huge but its utilization is not in the right direction. People invest on non-productive activities, only for the sake of their prestige and show-off. This non-productive consumption of remittances does not affect the economic conditions of the community. The prime need of the day is to channelize this money towards productive activities. It might help in strengthening the economy of the community. The use of remittances on building big houses and buying luxurious cars works as a source of motivation for the others and they try to follow the same path of emigration in most of the cases. REVIEW OF LITERATURE This section is divided into two main parts. First part deals with the migration in Pakistan: a historical context, which mainly addresses the emergence and evolution of migration issue in Pakistan. Further the second part highlights the international migration linkages between Norway and Pakistan. Migration in Pakistan: A Historical Context International migration for employment is an inherent phenomenon of globalization though yet to receive due recognition in most countries. The growing migration from some countries and its salutary impact on their economy has led them to introduce measures to deal systematically with this multi-dimensional phenomenon. Migration provides opportunities to migrants to build their human, capital and social assets (Azam, 2005). In case of Pakistan this phenomenon is not very old. People started searching for international destinations for their economic survival. By the early 1980s, it was estimated that as many as 2 million Pakistanis had emigrated to this oil-rich region. The main destinations were Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, but
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

there was also substantial migration to other countries including Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain and Oman. Before the 1970s, migrant flow to the Gulf region was of three main types. The traditional bond with Muslim holy places in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere in the region attracted pilgrims, migrants and traders, and there were small communities of people of Pakistani origin that preceded the oil boom. There were also political connections-such as those between the Sultanate of Oman and the coastal region of Balochistan in Pakistan-that have given rise to migration to Oman from these regions (Gazdar, 2003). South Asian migration flows increased almost three-fold between 1977 and 1981. While Pakistani migration also rose somewhat, much of the increased flow during this period was accounted for by other south Asian countries with low initial levels (Abella, 1984). The reasons of such growth were evident because of internal economic uncertainties. As a result, unskilled, semi-skilled and later on skilled workers initially migrated to the Gulf States and other developing countries. Further the scope of migration increased when people started migration to the Scandinavian and other European countries including England. This immigration process further reached to America, Australia, and Canada. It provided more opportunities and options to the immigration population from Pakistan. Later, those who could afford migrated for higher studies. In this regard, Jan (2010) adds that The era of 1950s and then 1970s also witnessed a significant flow of economically motivated emigrants towards Europe and middle-eastern countries. At present, millions of Pakistani origin migrants are residing in different parts of the globe on permanent and temporary basis. Although the accurate details of Pakistani origin migrants are not available, but it is assumed that majority of them are based in middle-eastern states working as short-term contractual workers. So, these two decades were very productive in the sense of inflow of money to Pakistan, which helped in strengthening Pakistani economy. Further regarding this migration process Jan (2010) discussed that In this two way process, sending countries benefit from remittances while receiving countries benefit from the services of immigrant workers. Currently in the international migration discourse, the role of economic development has gained greater importance. The persistent income and demographic disparities between rich and poor countries is the main reason behind the international mobility of economically motivated migrants.

Keeping in view the population boom in the country, the requirement of the hour was to establish a strong economy which might help this growing number of population but unfortunately,
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

Pakistan as a state was unable to do so. For some time, government tried to boost the economy by starting the green revolution in the state but failed in pursuit of their aims in the longer run. At that time, it was essential for our state to build good ties with the immigrating countries when the space was created for international migration to the oil producing states and some developed states for manual and skilled labor. Syed (2006) opined in the same line by saying that Pakistan needs to strengthen its dialogue with host countries of its labour migrants, using the diaspora links and best practices in migration policy. The policy must not only utilize these links but also give shape to real coherence with the policies of receiving countries at bilateral, regional, and multi-lateral levels. For example Pakistan labor migration to the Middle East and Gulf countries is different from that to the other regions of the world, there addressing multicultural issues and cooperation with international organizations becomes very important. For example Pakistani Migration to Norway has been unique and different from migration to other countries. Migration Links between Pakistan and Norway As mentioned in the above section regarding the emergence and evolution of migration in the context of Pakistan, there were few countries, where Pakistanis migrated in search of technical jobs because masses from Pakistan were not skilled enough to work in the industries on professionals and skilled jobs. Norway was one of those states which welcomed the manual workers. In the same era Norway emerged as an immigrating state. Brunborg et al., (2006) has mentioned that In late 1960s Norway changed from being a country of emigration to a country of immigration. Norway was a country of emigration to North America for long periods, second only to Ireland in Europe. The first major group of immigrants from the developing world came from Pakistan, as well as from Turkey, Yugoslavia and Morocco. The first Pakistanis took the Norwegian society by some surprise we were not used to group of people who were that different from the average Norwegians. Most Norwegians assumed that they would go back home after working for some years, but they have stayed on and established families, most of them acquiring Norwegian citizenship. When first group of Pakistani migrants reached Norway, the native people thought that they might return to their home country after working for some time but they not only stayed there but also invited their relatives and the flow of migration matured within a few years. When Norwegians noticed this abnormal inflow of Pakistani immigrants they restricted the immigration process. But the immigrants group found a new rule of family reunification and then started to immigrate their close relatives via spouse visa. In this context
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

about the history of the Pakistani emigrants to Norway Hetland (2010) said that The first wave of Pakistani labour migrants came to Norway in the late 1960s to the mid 1970s, when strict visa regulations were introduced. The number of labour migrants has gone down and most Pakistani newcomers are now close relatives and spouses, categorized as family reunification. Over the forty years since the first migrants began coming, many Pakistani-Norwegian children have been born and grown up in the new land, and they now form the second generation of Norwegian citizens of Pakistani origin. Pakistani-Norwegians maintain close contact with their country of origin and most of them still marry in Pakistan, often their relatives. Quite a few marry from within the Pakistani-Norwegian community, some from Denmark where there is also a large Pakistani community. Pakistani- Norwegians rarely marry ethnic Norwegians, or other Europeans. On the process of Pakistani immigrants to Norway, Brunborg et al. (2006) asserts that In the first two decades, annual flow of migration from Pakistan was not high as compared to the later decades. The annual migration streams between Pakistan and Norway have fluctuated considerably, with more than one thousand immigrants per year in some years in the 1970s and 1980s. The immigration ban in 1975 caused a short change in the total number, but a lasting change in the sex composition. In 1971, 1000 men and 30 women immigrated to Norway from Pakistan. After 1975 family formation and reunification has dominated and gender balance has been in favor of women most of the time. But still there is male surplus. There are 14 900 firstgeneration Pakistani in Norway. In addition there are 11 000 people in Norway that have two Pakistani parents. The first Pakistanis came to Norway in 1967 and this is also the immigration group which has lived the longest in Norway. From 1967 to the stop in immigration 1974/1975 most Pakistanis came looking for work. Since 1975 most Pakistani immigration is due to reunification of families. This comprises both existing family members moving to Norway or that Pakistanis living in Norway marry a person living in Pakistan. of all Pakistani live in Oslo and /3 are house-holders. The level of education is low. Less than 11% of the Pakistani population has a college- or university education (NCS, 2004). Immigrants in Norway, as I have defined them, come from all over the non-western world, but there is a handful of countries that provide the bulk of this population. The largest chunk of immigrants hail from Pakistan, followed by Iraq, Vietnam, Somalia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Iran
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

and Turkey. The Pakistanis are also a unique group in terms of their length of residence in Norway, and in terms of the percentage of second-generation immigrants. To sum up the Pakistanis are the largest group, who have stayed the longest, thus making their share of second generation immigrants, i.e. of people born in Norway, the largest. The Vietnamese, and to a lesser extent the Turks, follow the Pakistanis pretty closely in terms of length of residence and share of second generation immigrants. The other immigrant groups are a recent history in Norway (Bergh, 2006). MATERIALS AND METHODS Gujrat is a very prominent district for international emigration in Pakistan. It consists of three Tehsils Gujrat, Kharian and Sarai Alamgir. Present study was conducted in Tehsil Kharian. This Tehsil is famous for large numbers of the emigrants to Norway. It is also known in the emigrants circles as a Khorway. There was no proper registration system of the emigrants which helped to find out the actual physical existence of the emigrant families. Therefore, purposive sampling was used and 50 emigrants families were selected as sample with the help of community elders. Second major hurdle during the search of respondents was that there were only a few members left behind and some of them were not available. Some of them refused to answer the questions because of some reservations. According to the selection criteria, there should be one family member presently living in Norway. A well structured questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire was filled by the head of the households of emigrants families. This data collection instrument consisted of following parts: 1. First part contained demographic information of the family and basic household characteristics of the emigrant. 2. Second part was about the main reasons of migration to Norway. 3. Third section provided information about the motivational sources of international migration from Kharian to Norway. 4. The last section deals with general migration trend and responses of the respondents regarding future immigration plans to Norway, role of private visa consultants, student migration, and impact of migration on Community. Descriptive statistics was calculated for qualitative and quantitative variables. Binomial Proportion test was used to see the difference between two category proportions. In case of more than two categories chi-square test of homogeneity was performed.

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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table No. 1 shows that most of the respondents of the present study have more than 35 years of age while 28% percent respondents have age of 46 years and above. The remaining respondents fall under the category of less than 35 years of age. Residual area plays an important role in the case of the emigration. The data presented in the table shows that more than half of the sample is from urban settings while remaining 46% of the respondents divided into semi-urban and rural settings. The data shows that 66% of the respondents were married while remaining 34% respondents fall under the categories of either single or widowed. Family structure of the emigrants families was also asked and the data present here shows that a majority (76%) of the respondents were living in a joint family system while only few (24%) belong to nuclear family structure. There is a huge impact of the emigration on the family income left behind as Khan et al. (2009) asserts that after emigration has made tremendous contribution to the family income which rose to almost 90% after the emigration of a family member. So, keeping in view the role of emigration on the income of the family, same question was asked and data presented here show that 82% of the sample having more than rupees 35000 monthly income.

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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

Table No. 1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents Age of the Respondents 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46& above Total Residential Area Urban area Semi area Rural area Total Marital Status Single Married Widowed Total Family Type Nuclear Joint Total Family Monthly Income Up to 5000 5001-10000 15001-20000 20001-25000 30001-35000 3500& above Total Table No. 2 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Frequencies 8 8 7 5 8 14 50 27 11 12 50 14 33 3 50 12 38 50 1 1 2 1 4 41 50 Percentage 16.0 16.0 14.0 10.0 16.0 28.0 100.0 54.0 22.0 24.0 100.0 28.0 66.0 6.0 100.0 24.0 76.0 100.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 2.0 8.0 82.0 100.0

Earning Hands In 50 1 2.28 1.591 Family 8 Educational 50 8 11.76 2.291 Status 16 For quantitative variables mean and standard deviation is calculated. The data presented in the table no 2 shows there are 2.28 on average earning members in each family. Average education is almost 12 years while every family has 3.40 members abroad with standard deviation of 2.38.
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

Table No. 3(A) Motivational Factor behind International migration from Kharian to Norway Family member Relatives Friends Media Total Observed N 24 13 8 5 50 Expected N 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 Residual 11.5 .5 -4.5 -7.5

Table No. 3(B) Motivational Factor behind International migration from Kharian to Norway Motivational Factors Chi-Square 16.720 Df 3 Asymp. Sig. .001 Table no 3 (A) and (B) show that almost 50% of the emigrants were motivated by their family members while on the other hand few emigrants were motivated either by relatives or friends. So, in case of Kharian, family network is the major motivational source for international migration. Chi-square test of homogeneity was used to see the difference between categories. Table No. 4 Migration Trends for Norway at Family Level

N Male Members Lived In Abroad Male Members Lived In Norway Female Members Lived In Abroad Female Members Lived In Norway 50 50 50 50

Minimum 1 1 0 0

Maximum 20 11 10 7

Mean 2.86 2.38 1.72 1.32

Std. Deviation 3.301 2.390 2.223 1.755

This descriptive table (Table no. 4) basically gives an idea about the emigration trends to Norway. it is very clear from the mean value of the data that overall mean value of male members living abroad is 2.86 from which 2.38 are living in Norway. It shows that mostly people who have a desire to go abroad actually wanted to go to Norway. Thats why there in a huge chunk of Kharian people in Norway and become a motivational force and vehicle for

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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

further emigration. This shows the huge trend of international migration from Kharian and majority of these are presently living in Norway. According to the official statistics of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2008) there are about 28,000 Pakistanis living in Norway and about 90% of these immigrants belong to Kharian. Statistics Norway (2011) portrays that there are 30,061Pakistani immigrants in Norway which come at the third number after Poland and Sweden. While on the other hand emigration ratio of the female is low as compared to male but the trends are same as of men. There are some other reasons that hinder women emigration like people do not allow them for international migration alone. They have to migrate either on the spouse visa or as a group visa which includes other family members too. So, a woman is purely dependent on the man in the case of international migration. According to Hamid (2010), in case of female migration, marriage plays a vital role. Women in Pakistan migrate either to join spouses or their parents. In Pakistan, both the Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) and the Labour Force Survey of 1998 found that more women than men were migrating internally. On closer inspection, many of these movements were marriage-related or to accompany spouses (Memon, 2005). While discussing the same issue in the context of Pakistani immigrants living in Norway, Brunborg et al. (2006) asserts that there is concern, however, about the large proportion of the people born in Norway of Pakistani-born parents who marry a person born in Pakistan. This is believed to slow down the development of the welfare of the Pakistani-Norwegians as well as their integration into Norwegian society. Table No. 5 (A) Reasons behind International Migration from Kharian to Norway Observed N Family and friends network Easy job Other attractions like facilities for immigrants Total 39 5 Expected N 16.7 16.7 Residual 22.3 -11.7

16.7

-10.7

50

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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

Table No. 5 (B) Reasons behind International Migration from Kharian to Norway Major Reasons 44.920 2 .000

Chi-Square Df Asymp. Sig.

When respondents were asked about the reasons of migration, they identified the importance of the family and friends network in this context. This proportion is significantly different from other categories. Chi-square test of homogeneity is significant for this category. As mentioned earlier that family network is one of the main reasons for such a high trend of international migration to Norway. In addition to that friends network might also play an important role in this regard. According to Liu (2001) the literature on networks and international migration demonstrates that migrant networks play an important role in determining whether an individual will migrate and that the role varies depending on gender and other characteristics of the individual and characteristics of the network itself. In this context Toma and Vause (2010) have argued that a major development in the study of international migration has been the acknowledgment of the importance of social networks in this phenomenon. According to the networks perspective, the migration decision is not taken by the individual acting autonomouslyas earlier tenants of the neo-classical economic models assumed-but takes place within larger social structures: families, friendship circles and origin communities (Boyd, 1989; Ritchey, 1976). As Tilly (1990) argues, networks, and not people, are at the centre of the migration process. The focus is thus placed on migrant networks, defined as sets of interpersonal ties that connect migrants, former migrants and non-migrants to one another through relations of kinship, friendship and shared community origin (Massey et al, 1993). At an individual level, the network hypothesis predicts that people who are socially related to current or former migrants have access to social capital that significantly increases the likelihood that they, themselves, will migrate. The general supposition is that a network connection to a prior migrant can lower the costs and risks of movement and increase the expected net returns to migration (Toma and Vause, 2010). Table No. 6 shows the statistical differences between categories of the variables, through using Binominal Test. First section of the table no 6 depicts that 82% respondents have the aspirations
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

to emigrate to Norway which are significantly different as compared to the remaining categories. Second section shows that marriage is not the main factor for international migration to Norway. Third section shows that in majority of the emigration, people copy others. So, the social setup is an influential factor in the aspirations of emigration to Norway. Fourth section gives the information regarding the role of visa consultants in the process. There are many private agencies which make the visa files and help the people but the respondents do think that it has nothing to with the emigration to Norway because people do not depend on the visa agencies. In the last section, it is obvious that people have their opinions that the emigration to Norway has an obvious impact on the community in general. It helps to increase the income of the household and it also contributes to education, health, and development of the community. In the context of impact of migration on community development Carling (2006) asserts that In Pakistan, as in many other emigration societies, the conspicuous nature of the emigrants spending on houses has led many to think that remittances have little positive impact on community development.

The remittances have a positive effect on the families left behind. These remittances can assist in improving the people, welfare in the area of origin, particularly the family members of family relations left behind. Family believes that working abroad is the only way to improve economic conditions of the household (Sadaf et al. 2010). Majority of the Pakistani immigrants living in Norway believed to belong to Kharian and they regularly send remittances to their family members left behind and this flow of money not only contributes to the development of the community they belong to but it also contributes to the national economy. In this context, Hetland (2010) opines that Remittances from Pakistanis abroad are also essential for the economy of Pakistan. A study carried out a few years ago showed that the remittances from Pakistani-Norwegians were sizeable and larger than the Norwegian development aid to the country, although it is difficult to know the exact amount because the value of gifts and other items are not estimated, and money is often taken home in connection with visits, in addition to regular transfers.

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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

Table No. 6 Migration Trend towards Norway


Binomial Test Observed Category Do you want to visit Norway? Group 1 Group 2 Total Is emigration higher due to the Group 1 factor of arranged marriages? Group 2 Total Do you think that people follow Group 1 others to go Norway? Group 2 Total Is emigration easy due to the help of visa agencies? Group 1 Group 2 Total Do you think that people can Group 1 easily go to Norway on student visa? Group 2 Total Is there any impact of the Group 1 emigration on the community? Group 2 Total No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes N 9 41 50 32 18 50 No Yes 5 45 50 33 17 50 28 22 50 10 40 50 Prop. .18 .82 1.00 .64 .36 1.00 .10 .90 1.00 .66 .34 1.00 .56 .44 1.00 .20 .80 1.00 .50 .000 .50 .480 .50 .033 .50 .000 .50 .065 .50 .000 Test Prop. Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

CONCLUSION Migration issue in the context of Pakistan remained consistent throughout later part of the twentieth century. Firstly, people were on the move soon after the creation of the country after British rule. Secondly, people migrated due to the rise of urbanization and related phenomenon. Thirdly, people explored international destinations to accommodate the economic need of their dependents and lastly there were also a few migrants who use internal channel of migration for acquiring higher degrees but this proportion was low. We have explored in the introduction section and review of literature that majority of Pakistani immigrants visited, in the first phase, to the oil producing states and in second phase they also crossed over other international borders. In
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Sarfraz et al. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from Kharian to Norway. In Sarfraz Khan and Hafeez-ur-Rehman (eds.) Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, (pp 16-31).

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