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VV >Y1111> W LL 1LV
Flowers Trees
Reptiles and Antphihians
Seashores Fishes
Rocks and Minerals
The Anerican Southwest
The Anerican Southeast
W +1+111W;
The Anerican Northwest
These books ovailable in two editions:
Limp Bound $1.00 De Luxe Cloth $2.50
5?C15 1M FU11 CO1O8
H E R B E RT S. ZI M, P h . D.
Director, Welder Wildlife Foundation;
Formerly Asshtanl Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Sponsored by
The Wildlife Management Institute
Thi s book is one of the most ambi ti ous attempted i n the
Gol den Nature Gui de series. Because of its scope, unusu
al probl ems had to be sol ved al l al ong the way. The end
was achi eved because of the cooperati on of many people
who felt it i mportant to have a rel i abl e begi nner' s gui de
to i nsects. The authors express thei r appreciati on to all
who parti ci pated.
The arti st, James Gordon I rvi ng, made a superb contri
buti on. Hi s wi fe, Grace Crowe I rvi ng, hel ped in feld
studies, col l ecti ng, and research. Robert T. Mitchell was
most hel pful -i n compi l i ng lists from whi ch the ori gi nal
selecti ons were made; i n checki ng data; i n prepari ng
maps. Speci mens came from the Patuxent Research Ref
uge, the U. S. Nati onal Museum, and Melvi l le W. Osborne,
Rahway, N. J. Numerous speci alists generousl y ofered
suggesti ons on the plates-Wil l i am D. Field, Edward A.
Chapi n, Wi ll i am H. Anderson, Austi n H. Clark, George B.
Vogt, Reece I. Sai ler, Hahn W. Capps, L. L. Cartwri ght,
Paul W. Oman, Ashley B. Gurney, Barnard D. Burks, Kar l
V. Krombein, Ross H. Arnett, Jr. , Marion R. Smith, Al an
Stone, John G. Francl emont, Arthur B. Gahan, Curtis W.
Sabrosky, Grace B. Gl ance, C. F. W. Muesebeck, and
In the present revi si on, si x addi ti onal pages of i nfor
mation have been added, plus a listi ng of scientifc names.
We hope readers will fnd thi s full er and more attractive
volume more useful .
MYJc !!'I
H. S. Z.
f ti;1in 1iof:

and Writers Press, Inc. Printed in the U.S.A. by Wester n Printing and Lithographing
Com pany. Published by Golde n Press, Inc., Rockefeller Center, New York Z0, N. Y.
Published Si multaneously in Canada by The Musson Book Company , Ltd., Toronto
By deal i ng onl y with common, i mportant, and showy
i nsects, thi s book wi l l hel p the novice begi n a fasci nati ng
study. To i dentify an i nsect, turn to the key to the i nsect
groups (orders) on pages 4 and 5. This key may pl ace
your speci men wi thi n one of J groups. Thumb through
the secti on i ndicated t o fnd your speci men or somethi ng
si mi l ar. Study al l the i l l ustrati ons t o become aware of
i nsects you mi ght not otherwise notice. You may thus be
come abl e to i dentify some at frst si ght. Don't be dis
appoi nted wi th fai l ures. It may take an expert a year or
more, after fndi ng an i nsect, to make a fnal i denti fca
ti on. If you can pl ace i n thei r proper orders a quarter of
the i nsects you fnd, you have made a good start.
I nsects i n this book are often shown on thei r food pl ants.
Immature forms often appear wi th the adul t. If you can
not i dentify an i mmature i nsect, try to raise it to maturity.
In advanced study the Latin sci enti fc names of speci es
are used for greater preci si on i n desi gnati on . .ci entifc
_ names of species i l l ustrated i n thi s book are given on
pages J55-J57.
On pl ates, approxi mate l engths are given in i nches
("w. " i ndicates wi dth of wi ngs).
Range maps show occurrence of speci es withi n the
United States, j ust over the Mexi can border, and about
200 mi l es northward i nto Canada. Since di stri buti on of
many speci es i s l ittl e known, ranges given are onl y ap
proxi mate. Where ranges of two or more i nsects appear
on one map, each has a di ferent
col or or l i ne pattern, as i n the sam
pl e here. A red ti nt over a l i ne pat
tern i ndicates greater abundance (as
on page J7). Each caption is on or
next to the col or to whi ch i t refers.

KIN (Orthoptera), pages 17-28. Medium to
large insects. Live on land. Forewings leathery.
Hindwings folded fan-like (some have no wings).
Development gradual. Chewing mouth- parts.
EARWIGS (Dermaptera), page 29. Small insects
with typical pincerlike tail. Usually four small
wings. Segmented antennae. Development
TERMITES (lsoptera), pages 30-31. Ant-like in
sects, small and soft-bodied. Some have four
long wings. Live in colonies. Specialized
"castes" for working, fghting. Chewing mouth
parts. Development gradual.
LICE (Anoplura), page 32. Small, wingless in
sects with piercing and sucking mouth-parts.
Body fattened. Legs with clas for clinging to
warm-blooded animals.
SECTS (Homoptera), pages 33-41. Small to me
dium insects, most with two pairs of similar
wings held sloping at sides of body. Jointed
beak for sucking attached to base of head.
Land insects. Some scale-like.
TRUE BUGS (Hemiptera), pages 42-49. Range
from small to large in size. Two pairs of wings,
with forewings partly thickened. Jointed beak
for sucking arises from front of head. Develop
ment is gradual.
pages 50-51. Fairly large insects with two pairs
of long, equal-sized wings. Body long and slen
der. Antennae short. Immature insects are
aquatic. Development in three stages.
(Piecoptera), page 52. Both with two pairs of
transparent, veined wings. In mayfies, hind
wings are smaller; in stonefies they are larger.
Mayfies have long, 2- or 3-pronged tails.
NERVE-WINGED INSECTS (Neuroptera), pag
es 53-55. The two pairs of wings, usually equal
in size, are netted with veins. Four stages of de
velopment: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Chew
ing mouth-parts. Long antennae.
SCORPIONFLIES (Mecoptera), page 56. Small
insects with two pairs of slender, generally spot
ted wings. Legs long. Antennae long also.
Beak-like, chewing mouth-parts. Larvae live in
CADDISFLIES (Trichoptera), page 57. Most lar
vae live in fresh water. Some build or.namented
case. Adults with two pairs of wings with long,
silky hairs and with long antennae. Mouth-parts
pages 58-101. Medium to large insects with two
pairs of scaly wings. Sucking mouth-parts. An
tennae knob-like or feathery. Development in
four stages.
FLIES AND THEIR KIN (Diptera), pages 102-
108. Two-winged, small to medium insects, with
sucking mouth-parts. Antennae small, eyes large.
Second pair of wings reduced to balancing or
gans. Development in four stages.
BEETLES (Coleoptera), pages 109-135. Fore
wings modifed to thickened covers. Hind wings
thin, folded. Size from small to large. Chewing
mouth-parts. Antennae usually short. All have
four life stages. Some aquatic.
BEES, WASPS, AND ANTS (Hymenoptera),
pages 136-149. Small to medium-size insects;
many social or colonial. Two pairs of thin, trans
parent wings. Hindwings smaller. Mouth-parts
for chewing or sucking. Only insects with "sting
ers." Development in four stages.

You can't hel p seei ng i nsects, for they are found every
where, even in the Antarctic. They have been on this earth
some 200 mi l l i on years, and seem here to stay. More i n
sects a

nd more ki nds of i nsects ar e known than al l other

ani mal s vi si bl e to the naked eye. I nsects have been cal l ed
man's worst enemy. They are. But some have economi c
val ue, and for other reasons we woul d be hard put to
exist wi thout them. Insects are gems of natural beauty,
zool ogical mysteries, and a constant source of i nterest.
WHAT I NSECTS ARE I nsects are rel ated to crabs and
l obsters. Li ke these sea ani mal s they possess a kind of
skel eton on the outside of thei r bodies. The body itsel f i s
composed of three di vi si ons: head, thorax, and abdomen.
The thorax has three segments, each wi th a pai r of jointed
l egs; so an i nsect normal l y has si x l egs. Most i nsects al so
have two pairs of wings attached to the thorax, but some
have onl y one pai r, and a few have none at al l . Insects
usual l y have to sets of jaws, two ki nds of eyes-si mpl e
and compound-and one pai r of antennae.
So much for the typical i nsects, but many common ones
are not typical. The thorax and abdomen may appear to
run together. Immature stqges (larvae) of many insects
are worm-like, though their six true legs and perhaps
some extra false ones may be counted. Immature insects
are often difcult to dentify. It is also hard to tell the sex
of some insects. In some groups males are larger or have
larger antennae or diferent markings. The female is
sometimes marked by a spear-like ovipositor for laying
eggs extending from the base of the abdomen.
lN5ECI kELAIlVE5 A number of insect-like animals
are confused with insects. Spiders hove only to body
divisions and four pairs of legs. They hove no antennae.
Some spiders do not live in webs. Other insect-like animals
hove the head and thorax joined like the spiders. Crus
taceans have at least fve pairs of legs and two pairs of
antennae. Most live in water (crab, lobster, shrimp), but
the lowly sowbug is a land crustacean. Centipedes and
millipedes have many segments to their bodies with one
pair of legs (centipedes) or two pairs (millipedes) on each.
Centipedes have a pair of long antennae; millipedes have
a short pair. Millipedes often coil up when disturbed.

NUMBER OF I NSECTS The i nsect group is by far the

largest group of ani mal s i n the worl d. Over 60, 000
speci es have been identifed, but one authority says thi s
may be onl y 10 percent of the i nsects yet to be di scovered.
The cl ass of i nsects is di vi ded i nto some 25 orders. One
order encompasses the moths and butterfi es; one, the
termites; another, the beetl es. The beetl es al one i nclude
some 250,000 species. There are more ki nds of beetl es
than ki nds of al l other ani mal s known, outsi de the i nsects.
Butterfi es and moths total over 1 1 0,000 ki nds. Bees,
wasps, and ants number 100,000; true bugs, 55,000 or
more. The student of i nsect l ife need never l ack material .
Over 15,000 species have been found around New York
City. Anyone can fnd a thousand species in his vi ci nity if
he l ooks for smal l i nsects as wel l as for l arge, showy ones.
I NSECTS AND MAN Whether certai n i nsects are to be
considered hel pful to man or otherwise, depends as much
on man as i t does on i nsects. Our ways of farmi ng and
rai si ng ani mal s have provided some i nsects which mi ght
otherwi se be rare wi th conditi ons enabl i ng them to mul
t i pl y a thousandfol d. Only about 1 percent of i nsects are
harmful , but these destroy about 1 0 percent of our crops,
causi ng a loss of bi l l ions of dol l ars annual l y. Other i nsects
are parasitic on other ani mal s, and some are known to
carry di seases.
On the other hand, thi s woul d be a sorry world without
i nsects. We. woul d have no appl es, grapes, or cl over, much
l ess cotton, and fewer oranges and garden vegetabl es,
for these and many other common pl ants depend on i n
sects to pol l i nate thei r fowers. And there woul d be no
honey, of course. Some i nsects ai d t he process of decay,
a process that is essenti al to l ife. Some i nsects hel p control
others, and al l hel p mai ntai n a bal ance in nature.
I NSECTS I N THEI R PLACE I n the broad view, i nsects
pl ay an i mportant natural rol e, not onl y in ways that bene
ft man but as food for many ki nds of fsh, amphi bi ans,
bi rds, and mammal s. Many of our songbi rds depend al
most enti rel y on an i nsect di et. Every fsherman knows how
fresh-water game fsh go after i nsects. Insects hel p make
our ri ch pl ant l ife and wi l dl ife possi bl e. Keep thi s broad
vi ew i n mi nd when peopl e start tal ki ng about wi despread
i nsect control -somethi ng that may become possi bl e with
newer chemi cal s. Local control may be successful and
useful t o man, but control on a l arge scal e mi ght cause
more harm than i t woul d prevent, because i nsects are so
i mportant to most other ki nds of l ife about us.
CONTROL OF I NSECTS There are ways to suppl ement
the natural control of i nsects by bi rds and other ani mal s.
We encourage those harml ess i nsects whi ch prey on harm
ful ki nds. We can excl ude i nsects wi th screens, di scourage
thtm wi th repel l ents, trap them or poi son them. Many of
the newer poisons are hi ghly efective. But si nce there are
so many ki nds of i nsects whi ch l i ve and feed in so many
diferent ways, there i s no singl e best method to get rid
of them. Yet, with concerted efort some dangerous i n
sects have been wi ped out over fai rl y l ar ge areas. A
uni que exampl e of thi s was the compl ete destruction of
the Mediterranean frui t fy, whi ch menaced the ci trus crop
i n 20 Fl ori da counti es.
I f you have an i mportant i nsect probl em, consul t your
l ocal Board of Heal th or your County Agent. Often ento
mol ogists ( i nsect speci al ists) at uni versities or museums
can be of assistance. Fi nal l y, you can turn to the U. S.
Department of Agri cul ture, Bureau of Entomol ogy, Wash
i ngton 25, D. C. , where experts are worki ng on nearl y
every phase of i nsect l i fe and i nsect control .
FAMI LY TREE OF I NSECTS The ancestor of al l i nsects
was probabl y a segmented worm- l ike creature much l i ke
pri mitive protura, si l verfsh, spri ngtai l s, and ki n. As l ong
as 200 mi l l i on years ago, roaches and other i nsects were
common. Today there are 20 to 26 orders of i nsects (de
pendi ng on the cl assi fcati on), i ncl udi ng over 600,000
species. Most of the 1 2,000 ki nds of fossi l i nsects i dentifed
are si mi l ar to l i vi ng speci es. for rel ati onshi ps of i nsects,
see "fami l y tree" above.
SI LVERFISH-primitive insect with
direct, gradual development



CHI NCH BUG-more advanced insect,

with incomplete metamorphosis or de
velopment in three stages
Nymphs Nymphs
HOUSE FLY-advanced, modern insect,
with complete metamorphosis or devel
opment in four growth stages
Insects fol l ow diferent devel opmental patterns. I n the
si mpl est, the newl y hatched i nsect i s l i ke a mi niature
adul t. It grows and mol ts (sheds its ski n) t i l l i t reaches
adul t si ze. I n i ncompl ete metamorphosi s an i mmature
nymph hatches, grows, devel ops wi ngs, and by stages
becomes an adul t. Compl ete metamorphosi s i nvol ves
( 1 ) egg, (2) l arva, (3) pupa or resti ng stage, 4) adul t.
I NSECT STRUCTURE is marked by three body di vi si ons
(page 6), si x j oi nted l egs, one pai r of antennae, and
usual l y one or two pai rs of wi ngs. The outer coveri ng,
or exoskel eton, i s often horny. Mouth-parts are com
pl icated. I nternal l y, i nsects possess many of the organs
whi ch are further devel oped i n hi gher ani mal s. They
have a di gestive tract and auxi l i ary di gestive organs.
Breathi ng i s done by ai r tubes spreadi ng i nternal ly from
openi ngs cal l ed spi racl es. The head i s tube-l ike; bl ood
ci rcul ati on i s si mpl e. Respi rati on, di gesti on, and ci rcul a
ti on are shown i n the l ongit udi nal secti on (above) and
cross-secti on ( l eft) of t he grasshopper, a typical i nsect.

Digestive tract
The nervous system (bel ow) shows
showing brain. nerves,
and gangl ions
the si mpl e brai n, whi ch exerts
very l ittl e control over the body.
Gangl i ons serve as nerve centers
for nearby parts of the body.
for sucking nectar
Insect structures show vast vari ati on.
Adapted to many envi ronments, i nsects
l ive successful l y in nearl y every part
of the worl d. They have di gestive sys
tems for al l ki nds of pl ant and ani mal
food. They thrive on everythi ng from
wood to bl ood. A few speci es do not
eat at al l i n the adul t stage. Mouth
parts are adapted for chewi ng, suck
i ng, pi erci ng and sucki ng, and l appi ng.
Equal l y i nteresti ng adaptati ons are
seen in
i nsect wi ngs, body coveri ngs,
and reproductive organs. The typical
i nsect l eg (as of a grasshopper) has
fve parts. Grasshopper hi nd l egs are
speci al ized for j umpi ng. The house fy
has pads whi ch enabl e i t to wal k up
wi ndows. In honeybees, the hi nd l eg
i s adapted to store and carry pol l en,
and the forel eg to groom and cl ean
antennae and body. Insect structures
make a fasci nati ng study.
. Our knowledge of many i nsects is
sti l l so i ncomplete that a serious am
ateur can l ook forward to becomi ng
a s peci al i st doi ng hi s own scientifc
WHERE TO LOOK Practical l y everywhere: i n fel ds,
gardens, woods, roadsi des, beaches and
swamps; under stones, rotted l ogs and leaves.
look i n fowers, on grass; on animal s, too.
You' l l fnd i nsects i n the ai r; i n and on water;
on and i n the ground.
WHEN TO LOOK I nsects are most com
mon in l ate summer and earl y fal l , but ex
perienced col l ectors can fnd them in al l
seasons. Some groups of i nsects ar e more
common at ni ght; remember that when col -
l ecti ng. I n wi nter, concentrate on protected
spots, as under stones and bark. Watch for
i nsects in egg cases or in the resti ng stage
( pupae).
'WHAT TO DO Studying i nsects is not
confned to catchi ng them and mounti ng
them i n col l ections. Rai si ng l ive insects to
study thei r habits i s exciti ng. Anyone can
have an i nsect zoo i n ol d glass j ars. Col l ect
i mmature i nsects ( l arvae), provide them
wi th proper food, and watch them grow.
Watch caterpi l l ars shed thei r ski ns, spi n
a cocoon or chrysal is, and fnal l y emerge
as a moth or a butterfy. See worm-l ike
l arvae become fi es or beetles. Raise a col
ony of ants, bees, or termites. You wi l l
l earn more from l ive i nsects than from
dead speci mens.
Whatever you do with i nsects, you wi l l
need some understandi ng of what i nsects are
and how they l ive. Use thi s book, then read some
of the other books suggested. Most i mportant,
go out and l ook at i nsects. Catch them i f you
wi sh, but watch them frst. See how they
move, how they feed and what they do.

COLLECTI NG I NSECTS An i nsect col l ec
ti on can be val uabl e for study or reference
i f it is used. Using a col l ecti on means more
than making a col l ecti on, though thi s step must come frst.
Fortunatel y, begi nners can col l ect i nsects wi th si mpl e,
l ow-cost equipment. Not al l i nsects are chased with a net.
Hang an ol d bedsheet out at ni ght with a smal l l i ght i n
front of it. Rol l t he bottom i nto a funnel , wi th a j ar set
beneath. Insects hitti ng the sheet wi l l rol l down i nto the
jar. Si mi l ar traps are descri bed i n reference books. Try
the easiest methods and pl aces frst-as your
wi ndow screens or near a l arge neon
sign. Just gather the i nsect harvest there.
EQUI PMENT Any l arge, wide
mouthed j ar wi l l serve for con
fni ng and rai si ng i nsects. Ti e
some gauze or netti ng over
the top. To ki l l speci mens use
a wi de-mouthed bottl e wi th absorbent coton or sawdust
on the bottom, wet wi th a tabl espoon or so of carbon
tetrachl ori de or carbona. Cover thi s wi th a sheet of
ti ght-ftti ng cardboard punched ful l of pi nhol es. Because
cyani de is such a dangerous poison, cyani de bottles
shoul d be made. and used onl y by experi enced col l ectors.
A l i ght net wifh a long handl e i s good for catchi ng i nsects
on the wi ng. A heavi er net is better for "sweepi ng"
through the grass or for catchi ng water i nsects.
Ci gar boxes with a layer of heavy corrugated card
board on the bottom to hol d pi ns are fne for stori ng speci
mens. Use a mothbal l to deter i nsect pests. Purchase and
use i nsect pi ns; ordi nary ones are too heavy. lear n the
tricks that make mounti ng neat and attractive. A book for
records i s essential ; so are l abel s. later you may want
spreadi ng boards, pi nni ng bl ocks, and other accessories.
Col l ecti ng and preservi ng speci mens requi res real ski l l .
Read frst; then practice with any i nsects you may fnd i n
your own yar d. Ski l l wi l l come with experi ence.
i nteresti ng and exciti ng than col l ecti ng. I nstead of l earn
i ng a l ittl e about many i nsects, l earn a l ot about a few.
Fi el d studies can involve unusual probl ems on whi ch there
i s l ittl e or no sci entifc i nformation. How do ants recognize
one another? How does temperature afect the fi ght of
butterfi es? How much does a caterpi l l ar eat? Can
beetl es recogni ze col or? Such probl ems can be i nvesti
gated i n your own yard if you are i nterested. Many i nsects
are known onl y i n the adul t form; few facts are known
about the rest of thei r l ife cycl es. Constant observation
of wil d speci mens, or detail ed study of captive ones reared
under natural conditi ons, may yi el d many new and i nter
esti ng facts.
WALKI NGSTI CKS are l arge, usual l y wi ngl ess i nsects
with legs al l about the same l ength, di sti ngui shi ng them
from the mantises ( pp. 24-25) . Wal ki ngsticks l ive and feed
on l eaves of oak, l ocust, cherry, and wal nut, occasi onal l y
causi ng damage. The femal e's 1 00 or so eggs are dropped
si ngl y to the ground to hatch the fol l owi ng spri ng. As
young grow, they mol t or shed their
ski n fve or si x ti mes; otherwise they

: -.
are si mi l ar to adul ts. Mal es are
smal l er than femal es.

KATYDIDS The mal e of the true katydi d makes the per
si stent "katydi d" cal l , whi ch, comi ng as often as once a
second, is an accepted part of a summer's eveni ng. Some
katydi ds are tree dwel l ers, feedi ng on l eaves of cherry,
oak, mapl e, and appl e. Others live in the grass. Most are
green, with thi n, l eaf- l i ke wi ng-covers, and so have the
advantage of protective col orati on. However, some spe
cies are brown or even pink. Al l have l ong antennae. At
the base of the outer wings or wi ng-covers of the mal es
are rasps and ri dges whi ch, when rubbed l i ke a fddl e
and bow, produce the cal l s of the di ferent speci es. Katy
dids hear by "ears" on the upper part of thei r front l egs.
The femal es, recogni zed by the l ong ovi posi tor, l ay
thei r oval eggs on l eaves or twi gs earl y i n the fal l . About
1 00 to 1 50 are l ai d. When the young emerge i n the spring,
they resembl e thei r parents, but are much smal l er, l i ghter
i n col or, and l ack wi ngs. In the South, two broods are
produced each season.
NWL AND CAMEL CRICKETS These nocturnal crick
ets l ive under rocks i n moist pl aces, or mostl y under
ground. The l arge mol e cricket burrows near the surface,
eating young roots and ki l l ing seedl i ngs. In the South, it
destroys peanuts, strawberries, and other garden crops.
The pal e brown, spoted, wi ngl ess camel (or cave) cricket
i s identifed by its hi gh, arched back.
Though a scavenger, i t often be
comes a nuisance around green
femal 1. male smal l er
MORMON CRICKET This serious pest of Western
grains and other crops is partly controlled by insect para
sites, small mammals, and birds. Gulls saved the crops of
the early Mormon settlers from hordes of these crickets
which descended upon them. The large, clumsy insects
devour everything in their path, including each other.
Some Western I ndians considered
them a delicacy and ate them roast-

ed. Small clusters of eggs are laid in

the ground by the female.

FI ELD CRI CKETS These common, large-headed, black
or brown crickets are nocturnal. Their shrill musical night
song is made by rubbing the forewings. Though vegetari
ans; they may eat other insects and each other. In cap
tivity, these crickets make fne pets. Field crickets damage
crops and occasionally invade homes, even eating cloth
ing. Eggs are laid in the ground in
fall. The young nymphs emerge in
the spring and develop thei r adult
wings in several stages.
AMERICAN COCKROACH The common roach, bane
of housewives, traces its ancestry back to the Coal Age.
The large brown species are more common in the South.
Some kinds live in houses and barns, others in felds. They
eat all kinds of food and destroy books, rugs, and cloth
ing. They prefer moist, dark places and usually come out
at night. This roach difers from the
smaller German roach or croton bug
is probably native in our tropics.
(pp. 152-153). The American roach
MANTISES These l arge, sl ender, odd i nsects, the most
fami l i ar of whi ch is general l y cal l ed the prayi ng mantis,
are becomi ng more common. The Chi nese and European .
mantises, i ntroduced here more than 50 years ago, have
spread widel y through the East. Mantises are predators,
feedi ng mai nl y on i nsect pests. If confned, mantises are
l i kel y to turn canni bal . They are col ored a protective
green and brown. Hard to see on fol i age, they wait in
ambush, graspi ng passi ng i nsects with thei r spi ny forel egs.
The wi ngs are nearl y transparent.
lutz says these are the onl y i nsects that can l ook over
their shoul ders. In fal l , after mati ng, the femal e may eat
the al e. She lays several hundred eggs i n a frothy mass
that dri es l i ke hardened brown foam. Egg cases can be
found in wi nter and brought i ndoors to hatch. The young,
si mi l ar to adults but l i ght yel l ow, are
di fcul t to rai se. The Carol i na manti s
i s smal l er than the others. It i s one of
20 nati ve speci es found most com
monl y i n the South.
c l osel y rel ated i nsects. Some speci es mi grate; others do
not. Al l are si mi l ar, with short antennae and l arge hear
i ng organs on the abdomen. Most are good fiers, though
some ki nds are wi ngl ess. Locusts and grasshoppers destroy
crops, especi al l y in the West, where they are more com
mon; but they serve as food for l arger bi rds, smal l mam
mal s, and other ani mal s. Femal es l ay 20 to 100 eggs i n
the ground or i n rotted wood. See p. 28 for the l ife hi story
of one s peci es. The nymphs mature in 2 to 3 months.
!life size)
EARWIGS are marked by short, l eathery forewi ngs and
a pi ncer-l i ke abdomi nal appendage whi ch i s more pro
nounced i n mal es. From thei r abdomi nal gl ands earwi gs
exude a l i qui d with a tar- l i ke odor. They are noctur nal ,
spendi ng t he day i n crevices or damp pl aces. The'l egend
of thei r creepi ng i nto ears of sl eepi ng i s untue.
Some ki nds are carnivorous, feedi ng
on other i nsects. Young nymphs are
wi ngl ess and gradual l y devel op
adul t form.
TERMI TES Though someti mes cal l ed whi te ants, ter
mi tes are not ants, and some are not white. Of some 2,000
species, onl y about 40 are found in this country. Many
more are tropi cal . These hi ghl y social i zed insects l i ve i n
col oni es composed of four di stinct castes. The ki ng and
the queen, and the wi nged termites whi ch can become
ki ngs and queens of new col oni es, form the frst caste.
The enl arged and al most hel pl ess queen produces thou
sands upon thousands of eggs. Most of these hatch i nto
whi ti sh, bl i nd workers who make up the second caste.
Sol diers wi th l arge heads and jaws, and nymphs whi ch
take over the task of reproducti on shoul d the ki ng or
queen di e, make up the l ast two castes.
With the aid of protozoa l i vi ng in thei r di gestive tracts
termites feed on wood and do some $40,000,000 worth
of damage annual l y to bui l di ngs i n thi s country. The young
pass through si x stages i n two years
as they devel op i nto adul ts. Tropi cal
termites bui l d huge nests or mounds,
often hi gher than a man.

SE 0.1
LI CE are mi nute, wi ngl ess, disease-carryi ng i nsects that
l i ve and breed on thei r hosts. Al l are parasites. Biti ng l ice
(bird l ice), a di stinct group, feed on hai r, feathers, and
fragments of ski n. The sucki ng l i ce take the host's bl ood
di rectl y, by means of sucki ng mouth-parts. The hog l i ce
i n. ) are the l argest of thi s group. The head l ouse i n
fects humans and i s known to carry typhus, trench, and
rel apsi ng fever. Si x to 12 generations of l ice may mature
annual l y. Young, si mi l ar to adults, devel op rapi dl y.
TREEHOPPERS The common green and brown tree
hoppers are smal l , wi nged, sucki ng i nsects of curi ous and
pecul i ar shapes. They l ive on many pl ants, feedi ng on the
sap. Because of thei r protective col or and form, they are
usual l y noti ced onl y when movi ng. Near l y 200 speci es
are known i n thi s country, many with
bi zarre shapes. Eggs are l ai d in stems
and buds, someti mes causi ng mi nor
damage. Eggs hatch the fol l owi ng
spri ng. Young are si mi l ar to adul ts.
LEAFHOPPERS These aHractive, slender, multicolored
insects are often abundant on plants where they can feed
by sucking the sap. This causes wilting and injury to grape,
apple, clover, beet, and other plants. Besides, leafhoppers
carry virus diseases from plant to plant and thus become
serious pests.
Leafhoppers exude "'honeydew" as they feed. This is
a somewhat sweet surplus sap which attracts ants and
bees, which feed on it. Leafhoppers are well known as
prodigious jumpers. They are sometimes called dodgers
because of the way they slip out of sight when disturbed.
The female lays eggs in stems and leaves. Two or more
generations are produced each year. late eggs winter
over and hatch in spring. Adults hibernate and emerge
in spring also. The young that hatch resemble the adults
and pass through 4 or 5nymph stages before they mature.
leafhopper populations in felds may
reach as hi gh as a million per acre.
Of some 2,000known species, about
700 are found in the United States
CI CADAS The cicadas, whose steady hum fl l s the l ate
summer ai r, are more often heard than seen. Mal es make
the sharp sound wi th pl ate- l i ke organs on the thorax.
Some speci es are cal l ed harvestfi es because of thei r l ate
summer appearance; others are cal l ed 1 7-year l ocusts,
though the 75 species of ci cadas difer wi del y in the ti me
they take to mature. The femal es cut sl its i n young twi gs
and deposi t eggs i n them. Thi s habi t causes damage i n
nurseri es and orchards, because t he sl it twi gs break easi l y
i n the wi nd. As the wi ngl ess, scal y young hatch, they drop
to the ground, burrow i n, and stay there 4 to 20 years
(dependi ng on the speci es and the l ati tude) as nymphs
l ivi ng on j uices sucked from roots. The ful l - grown nymph
cl i mbs a tree trunk. The ski n spl its down the back; the
adul t emerges. "Broods" or l arge col oni es may emerge
en masse. Adults ordi nari l y l i ve about a week-l ong
enough to mate and start another
d. Many are eaten
by bi rds,
------------"- _
whi ch gather to feast on these abun-
dant i nsects.

SPI TTLEBUG Female spittlebugs make a froth on stems
and grasses to cover thei r eggs. The young nymphs make
a froth also to cover themselves while feeding. Open the
small mass of bubbles and you are likely to see the small,
dull, squat insect inside. Spittlebugs are also called frog
hoppers because the adults hop about from plant to plant
and seldom fly. Though spittlebugs
are of minor importance, some kinds
injure pine trees and various gar
den plants.
APHI DS ore mi nute sucki ng i nsects, wi ngl ess or wi th
transparent or col ored wi ngs. They are abundant on many
pl ants, causi ng damage by sucki ng j uices or transmitti ng
vi rus di seases as they feed. Some form and l i ve i n gal l s.
Most have compl i cated l i fe hi stori es. Onl y wi ngl ess fe
mal es emerge from the eggs i n spri ng. These produce
generati ons of femal es al l summer-someti mes a dozen.
Winged femal es devel op i n the fal l . Thei r young are
normal mal es and femal es, which, after mati ng, produce
the eggs from whi ch new aphids emerge i n spri ng.
SCALE INSECTS are a l arge group of smal l sucki ng
i nsects. I ndividual l y mi nute, these i nsects l ive i n col onies
whi ch often cover branches, tigs, and leaves of the
pl ants on which they feed by sucking j uices. Species difer
markedl y i n appearance. Many have a scal e- l ike cover
ing and are i mmobi l e when mature. Other species l ack
scal es, but are covered with a "honeydew" secretion eaten
by bees and ants. These species move very l ittl e. legs are
poorly devel oped. Mal es are smal l er and difer from the
femal es; when mature they have smal l wi ngs.
Scale insects attack and injure citrus, apple, and other
fruit trees, and greenhouse and ornamental plants. Scales
are difcult to control. ladybugs, certain small wasps,
and other natural enemies are used in fghting them.
Reproduction is complicated. Most scale insects spend
the winter as eggs, which the female deposits under her
shell before she dies. The eggs hatch in spring and the
young move to fresh growth before they settle down under
O scale. Some species produce several generations of
females before normal sexual reproduction takes place.
hundred speci es of sti nkbugs and shieldbugs i n thi s coun
try. Al l have the fattened, shi el d-shaped body. Most suck
pl ant j uices but some feed on other i nsects. Most are col
ored green or brown, to match thei r envi ronment, and are
not easi l y noticed. A bl ack speci es common on bl ack
berri es and raspberri es is so wel l concealed i t i s someti mes
eaten. The col orful harl equi n bug is an excepti on, even
to its unusual eggs. The young, hatchi ng from the eggs,
pass through a series of growth stages t i l l the nymphs
become adul ts. The odor, whi ch comes from two gl ands
on the thorax and whi ch gives sti nkbugs thei r name, i s
al so characteristic of a number of other bugs. Bi rds are
not bothered by the odor and commonl y feed on the i n
sects. The harl equi n bug and several other speci es are de
structive to garden crops. The shi el dbugs are very si mi l ar to
sti nkbugs. In these speci es, the shi el d,
which devel ops from the thorax, i s
so l arge that it covers a good part of
the abdomen.
SQUASHBUGS cause considerable damage to squash,
pumpkins, gourds, and related crops by sucking juices
from leaves and stems of young plants. The bugs have a
strong, ofensive odor. Eggs, laid in late spring, hatch in
about 2 weeks. The attractive nymph is green, soon turn
ing brown or gray. Adults hibernate over the winter. The
tachinid fly, which lays its eggs in
nymphs and adult squashbugs, par
asitizes these pests and helps reduce
their numbers.
BUG 0.4"
BUG 0.5"'
MI LKWEED BUGS These bl ack and red or orange
bugs are si mi l ar and cl osel y rel ated to the ti ny destructive
chi nch bug (p. 47). About 200 species are grouped in the
sam e famil y wi th the mi l kweed bugs, but most are much
smal l er and l es attractive in col or and pattern. Mi l kweed
bugs feed on al l vari eties of mi l kweed and are of Hw
economi c i mportance. Adul ts whi ch
hi bernate over the wi nter produce

young in l ate spri ng. The nymphs

mature and breed by l ate summer.
feeUng on ophU
AMBUSH BUG These smal l , oddl y shaped predators
form a mi nor group of some 25 species. Thei r habi t is to
l i e conceal ed in fowers, graspi ng any smal l i nsects whi ch
may come by. Thei r front l egs are modi fed for hol di ng
thei r vi cti ms; the mouth, for teari ng and sucki ng. Interest
i ng because of thei r bi zarre forms and feedi ng habits, the
ambush bugs l ack economi c i mpor
tance. Not common enough to con
trol i nj uri ous i nsects, they do eat
benefci al ones al so.
CHINCH BUG Though small, almost minute, chinch
bugs reproduce so. rapidly they overrun grain felds,
destroying the crops as they feed on plant juices. The
annual damage in this country runs into millions. About
500 eggs are deposited in grass or grain. Nymphs are
red, becoming gray or brown with age. Two or three gen
erations may develop in one season.
The tarnished plant bug, somewhat
larger, and of a related family, is
destructive to many kinds of fruits.
AQUATI C BUGS are found in nearl y every pond and
stream. A few speci es are mari ne al so. Al l are remark-
. abl e for thei r adaptati ons to l ife on or bel ow the surface.
Nearl y al l are predaceous, attacki ng other i nsects, snai l s,
smal l fsh,' etc. In turn, these i nsects are food for l arger
fsh and water bi rds. The water striders, taki ng advantage
of surface tensi on on water, stay on the surface wi thout
breaki ng through. They skate al ong wi th remarkabl e
speed. Other water bugs spend most of their ti me under
water. Some carry down air on the surface of thei r bodi es
and use thi s for respi rati on. Other speci es breathe ai r that
i s di ssol ved i n the water. I n most cases, the young resembl e
the adults and mature after a series of nymphal stages.
The water-boatmen have an erratic swi mmi ng pattern.
The backswi mmers, as thei r name i ndicates, swi m on thei r
backs, but can al so fy. The gi ant water bugs, someti mes 2
i nches or more in l ength, prefer quiet water. Si nce thei r
bite can produce a pai nful swel l i ng, the amateur col l ector
shoul d exercise cauti on. When abundant these gi ant water
bugs are harmful i n fsh hatcheries.


near ponds and moist meadows. The former, also known as
darning needles or stingers, are reputed to be dangerous.
They are, but only to small insects which they eat on the
wing. Dragonfies, larger than damselfies, rest with wings
outstretched. The smaller, more delicate damselfy rests
with wings folded. Both lay eggs on water plants or in
water, and the nymphs develop there. These leave the
water after several growing stages; the skin splits and the
adult emerges.
MAYFLI ES AND STONEFLI ES are unrelated (p. 4) yet
are similarly adapted to aquatic environments. The !00
or so species of mayfies have transparent, veined wings
and a long, forked tail. Myriads of short-lived adults are
seen on mating flights or near lights. The stonefies include
some 200species. The nymphs, like those of mayfies, live
in water and are important food of fresh-water fsh. Both
nymphs take several years to reach the adult stage. Adult
stonefies have transparent wings, but do not fy very
much or very often.
LACEWI NGS serve a double natural function. The adults
are sometimes eaten by birds. The larvae feed on aphids
and other destructive insects, earning the name aphid
lions. Many of the larvae of the 20or more kinds of brown
lacewings cover themselves with remains of aphids and
other debris. Golden-eye lacewings (some 50 ies)
stalked eggs which the larvae some
times eat. larvae spin silky cocoons
from which they emerge as delicate,
thin-winged adults.
DOBSON FLY The ferocious-looking adult male is
harmless. The long mandibles are used in the mating,
which ends its short life. The female lacks these exag
gerated mouth-parts. She lays a mass of thousands of
eggs on plants overhanging a pond or stream. The lar
vae emerge, drop into the water, and spend the next
three years feeding on smaller water

life. Fishermen prize the largl lar-

vae, called hellgrammites, as live

AMT LI ONS are so named because the larvae of mem
bers of this family have odd feeding habits. Eggs are laid
on the ground. When one hatches, the larva digs a pit in
sand or sandy soil and lives almost completely buried at
the bottom. Should an ant or other small insect tumble in,
it is seized in powerful jaws and sucked dry. As the larva
matures, it builds a silken cocoon,
in which it pupates. The adult resem
bles a miniature, drab damselfy
with short antennae.

SCORPIONFLIES are not poisonous, and resemble
scorpions only in the modified tips of their abdomens.
Eggs are deposited in the soil, where they develop into
larvae. After the larvae pupate, the fly-like adults emerge
to live as scavengers, feeding on dead or disabled insects.
Adults are found on plants. They do not fly well or often.
One group of small, almost wing-

less scorpionfies live in northern

woods and are active even on snow

in winter.
CADDISFLIES include !7 families and over 200 species.
The unusual larvae, so common in fresh water, are best
known. These build cases of sand or plant debris, cement
ed together by silk. Cases built by diferent species are
distinctive. After the adults mate in fights over the water,
the female lays several hundred eggs on submerged
rocks or plants. Larvae feed on small
water plants and animals, and in .--
turn are food of many fsh. larvae
pupate in the larval case.

antennae of butterfy (l eft) a n d moth
BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS The largest, most attrac
tive, and best-known insects are grouped together in the
order Lepidoptera, the butterfies and moths. The order

scales of butterfies
includes 75 families of moths
and 5 of butterfies. About
7,000 species are known in
North America. All, except
very few, have two pairs of
wings. These and the body
are covered with scales or
modifed hairs, which give moths and butterfies their
color. The mouth-parts of adults are modifed into a suck
ing tube which is rolled into a tight coil when not in use.
Lepidoptera have four stages of development: egg,
larva (caterpillar), pupa (cocoon or chrysalis), and
adult. Most butterfy eggs are laid singly or a few at Q
time and are unprotected. Many moths lay a large num
ber of eggs in one place and may cover the egg mass
with a protective coat
ing which includes
hairs and scales from
the female's body.
There is no rule of
thumb for distinguish
ing caterpillars of
co1erp or
moths from those of butterfies. Both have chewing mouth
parts and some kinds do tremendous damage to crops.
Most caterpillars have 6 true legs on the thorax, and
from 4 to 1 0 unjointed false legs on the abdomen. A few
have irritating hairs or spines. Many caterpillars spin a
silken cocoon, some
t i mes covered wi th
hairs, in whi ch they
pupate. The butterfy
larvae make no co
coon but form a less
protected chrysalis.
Some Lepi doptera
wi nter as pupae;
some emerge i n a
short time.
The adult moth and
butterfy are usually
q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ,
though one group, the skippers, shows intermediate char
acteristics. Butterfies usually fy by day; moths ordinarily
fy by night. The former customarily rest wi th thei r wi ngs
folded back; moths rest with thei r wings i n a hori zontal
position. The antennae of butterfies are thin, ending in
a knob. Those of moths never end in knobs and are often
feathery. Though some butterfies are more attractive,
the moths form a larger, more diverse, and more im
portant group.

MONARCH Thi s common, attractive butterfy has
spread i nto Asi a and Austral i a. Mal es are i denti fed by
a bl ack spot on the thi rd vei n of the hi ndwi ng. Two or
three generati ons grow in one summer. I n fal l . swarms
of adul ts mi grate southward, coveri ng enti re trees when
they stop to rest. They do not hi bernate, as i s someti mes
.. .
bel i eved. Te pal e green,
coni cal
- - -.
eggs hatch H 3 to 5 days mto l ar
vae whi ch feed on mi l kweed. The
l arvae are not often eaten by bi rds .
VI CEROY Thi s butterfy i s noted because i n col or, pat
tern, fi ght, and habits i t mi mi cs the monarch. Li ke the
monarch i t i s abundant i n l ate summer. But the vi ceroy
i s smal l er and has curved bl ack l i nes crossi ng the vei ns
of the hi ndwi ngs: I ts eggs, and the l arvae whi ch feed on
popl ar and wi l l ow, resembl e those of the purpl es ( p. 2),

to whi ch the vi ceroy i s rel ated. The
l arvae hi bernate i n rol l ed l eaves for
the wi nter. There are two genera-
ti ons or more a year.
PURPLES The banded purpl e has a conspi cuous whi te
band across its wi ngs with a border of red and bl ue spots
on the hi ndwi ngs. Eggs are l ai d on leaves of wi l l ow, bi rch,
and popl ar, on whi ch the l arvae feed. The red-spotted
purpl e i s so named for its red spots on the under si de
al ong the wi ng borders and at the base of the hi ndwi ngs.
The l arvae feed on wi l d cherry, wi l l ow, and other trees,
preferri ng shaded woods.

BUCKEYE Though i t is most common in the South and

West, t he buckeye i s occasi onal l y found i n t he North.
The eye-spots make i denti fcati on of the buterfy easy.
The buckeye l ays i ts green, ri bbed eggs on pl antai n,
stonecrops, or gerardi a, and it i s on these pl ants t hat its
l arvae feed. The l arva forms a brown
chrysal is from
which the adul t eventual l y emerges.
Buckeyes are medi um-si zed butter
fi es. They are often found i n open
fel ds. I n the South there are to
si mi l ar species, wi th smal l er eye
spots on the hi ndwi ngs.
1 .0" W. J.
. w. 1 . 7
0. 9" W. 2. 9"

FRI TI LLARI ES The friti l l ari es, one of the l argest groups
of butterfies, are found not onl y in thi s country but i n
many other parts of the worl d as wel l . The fami l y of
whi ch they are the most i mportant members has front
l egs whi ch are reduced i n size and hel d cl ose to the
body. Onl y 4of the 6 l egs are used i n wal ki ng. Fri ti l l aries
are mostl y medi um-sized butterfies, orange or reddi sh
above, with si l very or l i ght spots on the under si de of the
hi ndwi ngs. Someti mes the mal es are a bri ghter red on
top than the femal es.
The diferent species of friti l l aries are distinct enough
to make general statements about them di fcul t. The
eggs are general l y coni cal i n shape and ornamented
with ri dges. Al l the caterpi l l ars are spi ny, with the spi nes
on the head a bi t longer than the others. Most feed at
night on such pl ants as vi ol ets, gol denrods, and other
composites. Whil e the earl y stages of the common frit
i l l ari es are known, there are many l ess common speci es,
and i nformati on on the egg and caterpi l l ar of these
species is i ncompl ete. The chrysal i s of fri ti l l aries i s usual l y
angul ar, forked at the top, and bordered wi th knobs. I t
i s often browni sh.
Of the many friti l l aries, those i l l ustrated are among
the most common and best known. The Gul f friti l l ary
bel ongs to a diferent group from the others and is not
consi dered a "true" friti l l ary.
W. 1.
LMtLKtbHLb PM bPLl NLtb Of thi s group
of smal l , attractive butterfies, the two i l l ustrated are wel l
known. The Bal ti more caterpi l l ar i s bl ack, wi th orange
bands and bl ack bri stl es. I t feeds on turtl ehead and re
l ated pl ants. Bal ti mores are common l ocal l y, often i n
moist areas. The checkerspot l acks t he bri l l i ant orange of

the Bal ti more. The caterpi l l ar i s en-

ti rel y bl ack, wi th l onger bri stl es. I t

feeds on pai nted cups and monkey

fowers, whi ch are common i n the
- '
0. " W. Z. b"
ANGLE WI NGS Thi s group of smal l and medi um
si zed butterfi es has angul ar, notched forewi ngs. The
hi ndwi ngs often have short tai l s. Of 25 speci es found i n
thi s country, the question mark ( al so cal l ed the viol et-ti p),
comma, and the mourni ng cl oak ( p. ) are best known.
The browni sh l arvae of the question mark feed on hop,
el m, and nettl e. The greeni sh, often
"= . _ ___ _.-. _ *
pal e comma caterpi l l ar feeds on net-
tl es. Both caterpi l l ars have branched
spi nes on each body segment.
MOURNING CLOAK Thi s butterfy, l i ke the other
angl e wi ngs, hi bernates as an adul t and hence makes its
appearance very earl y in spri ng. Dark, barrel - shaped
eggs ar e soon l ai d on twi gs of popl ar, el m, hackberry,
or wi l l ow. The gregari ous caterpi l l ars occasi nal l y i nj ure
a tree by stri ppi ng the fol i age. The mourni ng cl oak i s
the enti re northern hemi sphere. I n

common and wi del y di stri buted over
he North it has one brood a year;
U the South, two.

. .
0.8" W. 2.0"
PAI NTED LADY Two of these three closely related but

terflies are difcult to distinguish. But the red admiral is

clear and unmistakable because of the red bands on its
forewings and red borders on its hindwings. The red ad
miral is found the world around in the northern hemi
sphere. The light green eggs are barrel-shaped. The cater
pillar feeds on hops, ramie, and nettles. American painted
lady is restricted to North America. Its upper side is very
similar to that of the painted lady. The under side is distinct
0.8" W. Z.Z"
in having two large "eye-spots" which the painted lady
lacks. The American's larvae are spiny and black, with
rows of white spots. I t feeds on arrowweed, cudweed, and
other everlastings. The painted lady or thistle butterfy is
reported to be the most widely distributed of all known
butterflies. This may be because burdock, thistles, sunfow
ers, nettles, and other plants which

larvae eat are widely distributed also. \ . -ieo

Caterpillar is greenish, with black

spots and light, branched spines.


NYMPHS AND SATYRS About 0 speci es make up

t hi s l arge group of smal l t o medi um-si zed butterfies, most
of whi ch are dul l browni sh or gray i n col or. Thei r charac
teristic marki ngs are eye-spots on the under si des of the
wi ngs. Most prefer open woods and mountai n areas, gen
eral l y i n the north. The caterpi l l ars of these speci es are
smooth, and taper toward both the head and the tai l ,
whi ch i s al ways forked. The l arvae of t he eyed brown have
a pai r of red horns at each end. Thei r food i s grass and
sedge. The pearl y-eye is sl i ghtl y l arger i n size, and its
l arvae si mi l ar H appearance. The common wood nymph
has a pai r of yel l ow patches on each forewi ng surround
i ng the purpl i sh eye-spots. The mal e has two smal l eye
s pots on the hi ndwi ngs. Marki ngs vary a good deal . The
l arvae l ack the horns of the frst two speci es. The l ittl e
wood satyr i s smal l er, wi th eye-spots on both fore- and
hi ndwi ngs. I t prefers open forests

and thi ckets. The l arva has no red at

al l ; its col or varies from greeni sh to g__

pal e brown. I t, too, feeds on grasses.

| |

` =.
eOr y ye
.9 w. 1 .
.b w. 1 . "
COPPERS AND BLUES This large family of small but
terfies includes over 2,000 species, but not many species
are found in this country. These butterfies are common.
The family has three groups. The hairstreaks are usually
brownish or bluish, with hair-like tails at the tip of the
hindwings. About 0 species of hairstreaks live in the
United States. The second group, the coppers, are nearly
all a copper-red color with black markings. There are
some 1 8 species. The American copper is proba,bly our
most common butterfy. It is found everywhere east of the
Rockies. The last group, the blues, are very small. Western
0. 4"
w. 1 . 0"
. 9 w. 1 . 1 "
0. 2" w. 0. 6"
pygmy bl ue, wi th a wi ngspread of a bit over 7z i nch, is
our smal l est butterfy. Bl ues are more common in the West.
Some 40 speci es, vari abl e in form and di fcul t to i dentify,
are l i sted for the United States. The spri ng azure has over
1 3 di ferent vari ati ons. The caterpi l l ars of al l thi s fami l y
are short, thi ck, and sl ug-l i ke. Some are fatened and
covered wi th tne hai r. They feed on a vari ety of
pl ants i ncl udi ng oak, hickory, hops,
and sorrel . One species has a car
nivorous caterpi l l ar whi ch devours
pl ant l i ce.

0. 7" w. 1 .
CABBAGE BUTTERFLY Thi s al l -too-common speci es
ranges over most of the northern hemi sphere. I t frst en
tered thi s country i n 1 868 and wi thi n 20 years had spread
to the Rocki es. Now these i nsects are found i n every cab
bage fel d; the green caterpi l l ars feed al so on mustard
and rel ated wi l d I ents. Two or three broods mature each

year, the l ast brood hi bernati ng as

the chrysal i s and emergi ng i n earl y
spri ng. Adul ts often fy i n focks of a
dozen or two.
SULPHURS Dozens of common or cl ouded sul phurs
hover as a yel l ow cl oud over roadsi de puddl es. Thei r col or
i s vari abl e; femal es are pal er, wi th yel l ow spots i n borders
of forewi ngs. There are two generati ons annual l y. The
al fal fa butterfy, al so varyi ng. i n col or, is someti mes pal e.
I t al so is common al ong roadsi des, i n fel ds and gardens.
The l arva is si mi l ar to the common
sul phur's, but has pi nk stri pes. Both
these l arvae feed on cl over, al fal fa, lciie,
and other l egumes.

SWALLOWTAI LS Here are our l argest and most
attractive butterfi es. Over 20 speci es occur in the United
States and many others are found el sewhere, maki ng the
swal l owtai l s a group that is wi del y known, admi red, col
lected, and studi ed. Cl osel y rel ated to the swal l owtai l s
are the parnassi ans, more common i n the West. These l ack
the "tai l " on the hi ndwi ngs t hat gives the swal l owtai l s
thei r name. The caterpi l l ars pupate on the ground. The
mountai n butterfy i s an exampl e of thi s group.
The swal l owtai l s are predomi nantl y bl ack or yel l ow.
Some speci es occur i n several forms. The femal e ti ger
swal l owtai l may be ei ther yel l ow or bl ack, the bl ack form
bei ng more common i n the South. Swal l owtai l eggs are
usual l y round, fattened at the base. The caterpi l l ars are
general l y smooth, l acki ng spi nes, though the pi pevi ne
swal l owtai l s have feshy horns (p. 8!) . Al l the l arvae can
emit a rather strong, musky odor whi ch may protect them.
The chrysal i s rests on i ts tai l end, supported by a l oop
of si l k at the mi ddl e. There are often two broods a year.
The swal l owtai l s i l l ustrated here are easy to i dentify i n
spite of vari ati ons i n col or. Thei r caterpi l l ars and food
pl ants are shown on the next page. The zebra swal l owtai l
has t he l ongest t ai l of any native speci es. The gi ant swal
l owtai l i s the l argest, wi th a spread of 4 to 5!z i nches.
I t i s most common i n the Southeast. Its l arvae are occa
si onal l y destructive to citrus orchards. Both mal e and
femal e bl ack swal l owtai l have a doubl e row of yel l ow
spots, but those of the femal e are smal l er. Yel l ow spots on
the forewi ngs and greeni sh hi ndwi ngs mark the spi cebush
swal l owtai l . The pi pevi ne swal l owtai l l acks the yel l ow
SPI CEBUSH on sassafras ZEBRA on pawpaw
PI PEVI NE on plpevlne
BLACK on parsley
GI ANT on orange
TI GER on wi l d cherry
and thei r food pl ants
0.3" W. 0.9"
SKI PPERS About 200 kinds of skippers are native, and
this is only one-tenth of the total number. Their rapid,
darting fight gives them their name. These small butter
fies have characteristics of moths. Some rest with the
hindwings or both wings horizontal as moths do. The
smooth caterpillars have large heads and thin "necks. "

They feed on locust, clover, and
other plants. The silver-spotted skip-
per is the most common of the large
M h | |

s 1ppers. any are muc sma er

than this.
resent a fami l y of some 20 Ameri can speci es. Acrea i s
one of the most common eastern moths, easi l y i denti fed
by the spotted abdomen. The mal e is i l l ustrated. The fe
mal e' s hi ndwi ngs are white. Caterpi l l ars feed on grasses
and garden pl ants. The banded wool or I sabel l
moth caterpi l l ar, abundant i n
ed on pl antai n and ^
l ated pl ants. I t hi bernates as l arva
and pupates in spri ng. Both l arvae
use hai r i n maki ng cocoons.
SPHI NX MOTHS Some !00 speci es of these thick
bodi ed, narrow-wi nged moths l i ve i n this country. Thei r
common names, as tomato worm and tobacco worm, i n
di cate the foods sought by some l arvae. leaves, and
someti mes frui ts, are eaten. Some l arvae feed on potatoes
and on wi l d members of the potato fami l y. Other speci es
eat bi rch, wi l l ow, catal pa, grape, and other pl ants,
occasi onal l y damagi ng nurseries and vi neyards. The
l arvae are l arge and usual l y have a tai l or horn. Some
rear back i nto a bel l i gerent attitude when mol ested, but
none are poi sonous, as is someti mes bel i eved. Braconi d
cocoons of
braconld wasp
on sphi nx l orva
wasps l ay thei r eggs i n the l ivi ng caterpi l l ars, which the
wasp l arvae eat. Caterpi l l a-rs of Sphi nx moths covered
wi th wasp cocoons are often seen. Caterpi l l ars pupate in
the ground, and some may be recogni zed by the free
tongue case, whi ch forms a loop at one end. The com
mon adults are i denti fed by abdomi nal or wi ng
marki ngs. The sucki ng-tube mout h
is l ong, enabl i ng Sphi nx moths to '
get nectar and pol l i nate tubul ar >
( Jo
fowers, such as ni coti ne, petuni a, .
honeysuckl e, and trumpet vi ne.

1 . " w. 4. Z
AILANTHUS SILK MOTH Thi s moth was i mported
from Chi na, where a coarse grade of si l k i s obtai ned from
its cocoons. Si nce !8! it has become frml y establ i shed
in the East. The si l k i ndustry, whi ch it was hoped this
moth woul d start, never materi al i zed. The l arge cater
pi l l ars are control l ed by natural enemies, and si nce they

feed chi efy on ai l anthus, a weed

tree, they are not harmful . These are


the onl y l arge moths with white tufts

on the abdomen.
CECROPI A MOTH The large, tubercl e-studded cecro
pi a l arvae feed on cherry, maple, wi l l ow, and many other
pl ants. The l arge, tough, brown cocoons are fr ml y
attached t o branches and are easi l y found i n wi nter. Out
doors, the huge moths emerge in l ate spri ng or summer,
but when cocoons are brought i ndoors they hatch earl i er.
The emergence of the adul t i s a si ght

to see. The wri nkl ed, vel vety wi ngs
unfol d ti l l they are 5 or i nches

across-somethi ng worth watchi ng!

` -~

1 . 0" W. 3. 4"
PROMETHEA MOTH This moth, sometimes cal l ed
the spi cebush si l k moth, has a bl ui sh-green l arva wi th wo
pai rs of short red horns near the head. I t feeds on sassa
fras, wi l d cherry, t ul i p tree, and sweet gum, as wel l as
on spi cebush. Col l ect the compact cocoons, each wrapped
in a dry l eaf, and watch the adults emerge in spri ng.
Recogni ze t he mal e by i t s darker

maroon col or. The femal e is a i t

l arger, l i ghter, an d browner, w1 th

sl i ghtl y di ferent marki ngs.
. .
1 . 3" w. b. J
POLYPHEMUS MOTH Because of its gi gantic size
and the "eye-spots" on the wi ngs, this ni ght-fyi ng si l k
moth was named after the one-eyed gi ant, Pol yphemus,
of Greek mythol ogy. The green l arvae, someti mes over d
i nches l ong, feed on oak, hi ckory, el m, mapl e, bi rch, and
other trees and shrubs. They s pi n thei r pl ump cocoons
either on the ground or attached to
tig. These moths are more com
mon i n the South, where there are
to broods a year.
0 MOTH female
1 . 1 " W. Z. "
W MOTHS Three very si mi l ar species are found i n thi s
country. The l arvae are of parti cul ar i nterest, for thei r
sharp spi nes are mi l dl y poi sonous. Recogni ze them by
thei r hori zontal red-and-white stri pe. Handl e them wi th
care when you fnd them-on corn and other garden and
wi l d pl ants. I chneumon fi es ( p. 1 37) often attack the
l arvae. The cocoon i s found on the

ground in dead l eaves. The adul t

mal e i s smal l er than the femal e and

has bri ght yel l ow forewi ngs .
LUNA MOTH Thi s handsome moth, with its stri ki ng
l ong tai l s and del icate green col or, makes a l asti ng i m
pression on those who see i t for the frst ti me. I t i s O
favorite with col l ectors of moths and butterfi es. The
l arvae, smal l er than the other ni ght-fiers, feed on sweet
gum, wal nut, hi ckory, and persi mmon. The cocoons are
usual l y spun on the ground. Mal e
and femal e are si mi l ar in appear- '
ance. Some have more purpl e on the

borders of the wi ngs than others.


V !
UNDERWING MOTHS There are over 1 00 speci es of
these attractive moths in the United States, and a vari ety
of underwi ngs can be found in every l ocal ity. Col l ect
them i n woods at ni ght after pai nti ng tree trunks and
stumps wi t h a mi xture of brown sugar and fermented frui t
j ui ce as bai t. When the adul t rests on bark wi th its wi ngs
fol ded, it can scarcel y be seen. I n
fi ght, the bri ght col ors of the under
wi ngs are i n sharp contrast to the
drab pattern of the forewi ngs.
1 . 8" w. 4. 6"
l arva
on white oak
cl osel y rel ated to the l arge si l k moths. The hai ry i mperi al
caterpi l l ar, wi th short horns near the head, vari es from
green to brown. I t feeds on pi ne, hi ckory, oak, mapl e,
and other trees. No cocoon i s formed, the pupa resti ng i n
the ground. The forewi ngs of the mal e are purpl i sh; those
The l arvae of regal moths, wh1 ch
""" -.
of the femal e are ri cher i n yel l ows.

feed on wal nuts, have l arge, red,

curved horns.
. .

husked sweet corn has seen the greeni sh or brown l arva
of the corn earworm, found al most everywhere. I t feeds on
other garden crops, too, and pupates underground. The
European corn borer became establ ished near Boston i n
1 91 7 and has spread widel y si nce, doi ng mi l l ions of

doll ars' damage to corn. The l arvae

bore into stal ks, weakeni ng and

breaki ng them. Control is di fcul t, as

y OrO OrwOrm
borers l ive i n wi l d pl ants also.
seen in l ate summer, are recognized by thei r tufted
white hai rs and attractive contrasti ng col ors. They are
pests of most shade and ornamental trees and are best
control l ed by destroyi ng cocoons in wi nter. The egg
masses are l ai d by the wi ngl ess femal es on the surface of
thei r cocoons. Eggs hatch in spri ng,
the l arvae are not noticeabl e
ti l l sumer. Adults are smal l and i n-
conSpi CUOUS.

GYPSY MOTH The gypsy and the brown-tai l moth are

European rel atives of the white-marked tusock moth
whi ch, unfortunatel y, have become establ i shed i n thi s
country. The l arvae, somewhat si mi l ar to tussock moths,
wi thout tussocks, eat the l eaves of most shade and forest
trees. They tend to feed at ni ght. Larvae pupate i n mi d-
summer and adul ts emerge shortl y.

The femal e fi es but l ittl e. She l ays a
mass of eggs, coveri ng them with
hai r and scal es. These hatch i n spri ng.


These two pests of forest, shade, and ornamental trees
are not closely related, but are often confused. Both build
webs, but that of the fall webworm covers the leaves. The
tent caterpillar web, built only in spring, is usually at the
crotch of branches. Adult webworms, with variable black
spots on forewi ngs, lay eggs on

leaves. Tent caterpillar egg masses
are found on twigs. Remove them in

| h
. .
ieii . | | o
wr nter to contro t t s r nsect
o| |
. b w. 1 . Z"
w ng e88
femo e
CANKERWORMS These pests of appl e, other fruit, and
shade trees are worth watchi ng as they l ope al ong on
thei r true and fal se l egs. Someti mes they spi n a si l ken
thread and hang suspended i n mi d-ai r. Fal l and spri ng
cankerworms are equal l y obnoxi ous. The wi ngl ess femal es
l ay thei r eggs on bark. After feasti ng on l eaves, the
l arvae pupate underground. The
adul ts emerge l ate in fal l and can
be trapped by bands of sticky
paper around tree trunks.
9um on +un
PEACHTREE BORER l arvae enter the tree as soon as
they hatch from the eggs, whi ch have been l ai d on the
bark. The l arvae burrows can be recogni zed by exudi ng
gum on the surface. After spendi ng the wi nter as a l arva,
the borer pupates i n a crude cocoon. The adul t emerges
i n about a month and mates. The femal e l ays a new mass
of several hundred eggs. Thi s pest
is O native i nsect whi ch i s bel i eved _
to have fed on wi l d pl um and cherry
before peaches were i ntroduced.

CODLI NG MOTH Thi s pest is so wi despread that
sprayi ng appl e trees for its control i s a routi ne operati on.
I ntroduced from Europe, the codl i ng moth i s now wi del y
di stri buted. Ti ny eggs are deposited on l eaves. As they
hatch, the l arvae enter the new frui t. Later, l arvae hatch
from eggs l ai d on the appl es. After feedi ng i n the fruit,
l arvae pupate on the bark. There

are often several generati ons a year.

Late l arvae hi bernate and pupate
the fol l owi ng spri ng.
=a <
i n ba9
BAGWORMS ore common but become seri ous pests onl y
l ocal l y. Thei r l ife hi story i s strange. The wi ngl ess and
footl ess femal e, after mati ng, crawl s bock i nto her "bog"
and l ays hundreds of yel l ow eggs, whi ch hatch i n spri ng.
The young l arvae feed on l eaves of many ki nds of trees,
bui l di ng their coni cal bogs as they feed. later they bi nd
thei r bogs to twi gs and pupate. The
mol e emerges, seeks the femal e, and
motes. Several rel ated moths make
bogs whi ch ore si mi l ar i n design.
! UZ
0. 3"
MOSQUI TOES This large group of small but important
insects has been ampl y studied as part of public-health
campaigns against mal aria and yel l ow fever. The con
quest of mal aria is a scientific mil estone. The common
carriers of the disease, the anopheles mosquitoes, are
recognized by the "three-pronged" beak of the femal e
and by the ti l ted position they assume when resting. The
aedes mosquitoes, one of which carries yel low fever, are
more like the common house and swamp mosquito in
appearance. The disease carrier is limited to tropics and
! UJ
larvae anc pMp
adult 0.
subtropics. Female culex mosquitoes lay rafts of several
hndred eggs, which hatch in a few days into larval wrig
glers. In a week or so these pupate, and the adults soon
emerge. Male mosquitoes are harmless. Their beaks are
not ftted for piercing. Females bite and hence can trans
mit disease. They are the only ones which buzz. Mosqui
toes have been controlled by draining swamps and by
the wide use of insecticides. The possibility of long-range
dangers in these methods, particularly when applied by
inadequately informed persons, needs further study.

\ U4
CRANE FLIES Adul t crane fies are someti mes mistaken
for giant mosquitoes. But the adults, often seen around
el ectric l i ghts, may not eat at al l . Some are apparentl y
predaceous. The femal e l ays several hundred eggs on
damp soi l . The l arvae burrow i nto the ground or decayi ng
wood. Onl y a few attack pl ants. I n a few weeks they
pupate, and i n about a week appear

as adul ts. Crane fies form a l arge

group, with over 1 000 speci es in thi s


0. 8"
! UD
FLIES i ncl ude seri ous pests of pl ants and ani mal s whi ch
cause l osses runni ng i nto mi l l i ons. The vast maj ority ore
harml ess; some speci es ore benefcial . The robber fy
preys on i nsects, some l arger than i tsel f. The deer fy and
t he bl ock fy con make a camper mi serabl e. March fies
(whi ch ore more common l ate i n spri ng) ore often seen on
fowers. The bl ock horse fy, someti mes a ful l i nch l ong,
bites severel y. Many fies transmi t disease as they bi te i n
fected ani mal s and then others. I nsect repel l ents and i n
sectici des ore useful i n control l i ng them.
1 U
bLUtbLLt M KttMbLLt fLl tb
are attrac
tive i nsects, but thoroughl y obnoxi ous otherwi se. Eggs
are l ai d on dead ani mal s, garbage, sewage, or i n open
wounds of ani mal s. Some rel ated speci es parasitize and
ki l l ani mal s and even man. Eggs hatch very soon after
bei ng l ai d; l arvae are mature in l ess than 2 weeks. The
short l ife cycl e means several gen
erati ons a season; onl y conti nual
sprayi ng wi l l keep these pests under
control .
TACHI NI D AND OTHER FLI ES Tachinid fies are
benefcial insects which help control injurious ones. More
than 1 , 400 species have been described. Because these
fies are prolifc, their value as parasites is increased.
Syrphid fies, known as fower or drone fies, are similar
insects. They are often seen approaching a fower, coming
to an abrupt stop and hovering in mid-air. The larvae eat
aphids and scales. The fuzzy, squat bee fy lives in hives,
and its larvae often attack and feed on larvae of bees
and other insects.
mal e . Z beaded-wi n9
vesti gial wing
FRUI T FLY These smal l and rather i mportant fi es are
often seen around rotti ng or fermenti ng frui t. Thei r cl ai m
to fame rests on sci enti fc uses to whi ch t hey have been
put. Fruit fi es have been used i n hundreds of experi ments
deal i ng wi th i nheri tance. They have probabl y been stud
i ed from thi s angl e more i ntensely than any other ani maL
The fact t hat t hei r l ife cycl e i s l ess than 2 weeks enhances
thei r val ue i n thi s work. They are easi l y grown i n the
l aboratory, where i nteresti ng forms have appeared natu
ral l y or from exposure to experi mental radi ati on.
! U7
TI GER BEETLES These handsome beetles are often seen
on summer afternoons darting in and out of paths. They
are widely distributed and quite common, but agile, swift,
and difcult to catch. Eggs are laid in the soil. The preda
tory larvae, locally called "doodlebugs," dig deep bur
rows and wait at the openings to
catch passing insects in their power-
ful jaws. Some tiger beetles living on
beaches or other sandy areas are
protectively colored gray.

! ! U
JAPANESE BEETLE When these Japanese i nsects were
fi rst di scovered on pl ants in New Jersey i n 1 9 1 6, ex
perts coul d scarcel y fnd a dozen. Now thousands can
be col l ected dai l y, and control i s a seri ous probl em. The
smal l , whi te grubs feed on the roots of grasses, damag
i ng l awns. The l arvae di g deep for wi nter and pupat e
the fol l owi ng spri ng. The adults
emerge in mi dsummer and feed on
cul ti vated pl ants and frui ts. After
mati ng, eggs are deposi ted in soi l .
! ! !
! ! Z
LPl LM PM LVt btbLtb form a fami l y of over
1 00 speci es, i n two groups: the carri on and the buryi ng
beetl es. The former are smal l er, fattened i nsects whi ch,
as scavengers, feed on decayi ng ani mal matter. Some
ki nds are predators, feedi ng on worms and i nsects; a few
eat pl ant s. Both l arvae and adul ts have si mi l ar feedi ng
habis. It is reported that )he l arger
, -~

burymg beetl es, some brr ghtl y col -

ored, di g under the carcass of O

smal l ani mal ti l l it fal l s i nto the hol e
(Lted s
eci es
and i s actual l y buri ed to serve as food for the l arvae. The
eggs are deposi ted on t
e corpse. The l arvae of some
speci es devel op rapi dl y, reachi ng maturity i n about a
week. Rove beetl es, whi ch are al so scaveng

rs or pred
ators, have short wi ng-covers and superfci al l y resembl e
t he earwi gs ( p. 29) . They are a l arger group-over !,000
species are reported for this country.
Some l ive in fungi or i n ants' nests.
Some squi rt a mal odorous mi st or
dropl et at enemi es.
! ! 4
CLICK BEETLES form a fami l y of some 500 Ameri can
speci es. The eyed el ater is a stri ki ng exampl e. If it fal l s
or l ands on its back, i t l i es qui etl y for perhaps a mi nute.
Then, wi th a l oud cl i ck, it fi ps i nto the ai r. If i t is l ucky,
it l ands on its feet and runs away; otherwise it tri es agai n.
The l arvae of cl i ck beetl es, known as wi reworms, l ive i n the
ground or i n rotten wood. Most cl i ck
beetl e l arvae feed on roots, i njuri ng
potatoes and other crops. Some eat
other i nsects.
CATERPI LLAR HUNTERS are a group of fai rl y l arge
and very attractive beetl es. The fami l y to whi ch they
bel ong i s al so l arge (some 2,000 Ameri can species) and
i s rel ated t o the ti ger beetl es ( p. 1 09). These beetles are
al l predaceous, feedi ng on insects and other smal l ani
mal s. Larvae of the caterpi l l ar hunters attack and feed on
caterpi l l ars of the gypsy moth and
tent caterpi l l ars. Some adults squi rt
an acri d fui d on their victi ms or on
unwary col l ectors.
! !
fl LfLl Lb are not flies at al l , but soft- bodied beet l es,
and most unusual insects. About 50species are known in
this country, and many more, even more marvelous, ore
found widely distributed in the tropics. The light-giving
property, or luminescence, is not confned to the adults.
I n some species the eggs and larvae glow also. The
females of some species are wingless: these ore known
as glowworms. Firefies are of little economic importance.
They add to the pleasure of a summer's night: the tropical
display of thousands of these insects fashing in unison
is breathtaking. Fireflies have posed a probl em which
scientists have not yet solved-that of "cold" light. The
study of this phenomenon may have wide practical ap-
plications. In the species shown, it is the last segment of
the abdomen which contains the light-producing tissue.
This is very fatty and includes a network of nerves and
airtubes. Through the latter, oxygen for the li ght-produc
ing process is obtained. In ordinary rapid oxi dation much
more heat than light is produced; here, heat production
is negligible.
The larvae live underground or in rotted wood or
rubbish. They feed on small insects. The adults are re
ported to eat the same food, but

some of the common frefies may not

feed at all in the adult stage. Put

some in a iar and watch the action.
Gl owworm
Ot er Ft reft es
! ! d
LADYBI RD BEETLES are probabl y the best known and
most val ued of our beetl es. We have some 350 speci es
i n this country, though the fami l y i s worl d-wi de i n dis
tri buti on. Lutz says the name can be traced back to the
Mi ddl e Ages, when these beetl es were dedicated to the
Vi rgi n-hence the name l adybi rd or l adybug. Both l arvae
and adul ts of many species feed on aphi ds. In Cal iforni a,
where these pests and scal e i nsects cause seri ous damage
to ci trus trees, native and i mported l adybi rd beetl es have
been successful l y used to hol d the pests in check. When
the cottony-cushi on scal e from Austral i a (pp. 40-41 ) be
gan to spread through Cal iforni a orange groves, the
entire i ndustry was threatened. An Austral i an l adybug
which feeds entirely on the scal e was imported and within
a few years the scale was under control. About 3,000
beetles will protect an acre of trees. The common species
are generally similar in appearance but difer in the num
ber of spots. All have very short legs, which distinguish
these beetles from other garden beetles (pp. 120- 125).
ladybird beetles lay their eggs on plants infected with
aphids or scales. The larvae feed on the aphids and pass
through four growth stages. When mature, they pupate in
the remains of the last larval skin.
Adults assemble by the thousands be- `

fore cold weather sets in and hiber -
ladybi rds
1 5-
nate under fallen branches or rocks.
Ladybi rd

Garden beetl es are pests of the garden as wel l as the
farm. They are the ones we spray, dust, and pi ck. Other
beetl es are destructive i n the garden al so, as the May
beetl e, Japanese beetle, and several weevi l s. These
beetl es i l l ustrate the point that any cul tivated crop i s a
banquet for the ri ght pl ant-eati ng i nsects. It takes eternal
vi gi l ance t o keep our cultivated pl ants heal thy and un
spoi l ed for our own use.
MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE i s rel ated to the common l ady
bird, and i s one of the fai rl y large group of the l adybi rd
fami l y that feed on pl ants. Eggs are l ai d on the undersi des
of l eaves. Spi ny, yel l ow l arvae eat the soft l eaf ti ssue,
l eavi ng the vei ns behi nd. They eat pods too, stri ppi ng a
pl ant in short order. Adul ts have si mi l ar feedi ng habits.
Bean beetles feed on members of the pea fami ly, wi l d and
cul tivated-peas, beans, al falfa, and soybeans.
COLORADO POTATO BEETLE is an exampl e of how a
rel ativel y uni mportant i nsect can change its rol e as the
envi ronment changes. Thi s beetl e was once native to the
Rocki es, l ivi ng on ni ghtshade and other wi l d members of
the potato fami l y. When settl ers began to grow potatoes,
thi s new food gave the beetles a fresh start. They pros
pered and spread, ti l l they now exist in practi cal ly al l of
the 4d states. Eggs are l ai d in cl usters on the l eaves, whi ch
l arvae eat. larvae pupate i n the ground. The adul ts
emerge and conti nue to feed on potatoes.
STRI PED BLI STER BEETLE or stri ped potato beetl e has
i nteresti ng rel atives that parasitize bees. Thi s speci es has
a compl ex l ife hi story wi th unusual l arvae. I t feeds on
potatoes, tomatoes, and rel ated pl ants. Other speci es feed
on gol denrod, alfal fa, cl over, and other wi l d pl ants .
orvo n roo18 of corn
CUCUMk IL5 The striped and spotted cucum
ber beetles are common garden pests. The l arvae of the
former attack roots, and the adults eat l eaves of cucum
ber, squash, and rel ated pl ants. The 1 2-spotted cucumber
beetl e is an even worse pest, feedi ng on many other pl ants
besides those of the squash fami l y. I t appears earl y in the
season and stays l ate. I n the South, the l arvae atack the
roots of corn, oats, and other grasses.
ASPARAGUS BEETLES, to species of them, ravage the
asparagus crop. Adults hi bernate in the ground, emerg
i ng i n spri ng to feed on young shoots. Eggs are soon
l ai d and l arvae attack shoots, "l eaves," and fruit, stri p
pi ng the pl ant. The l ife cycl e takes onl y about a month,
so there are several broods a year. Both speci es, the
common asparagus beetle and the spotted asparagus
beetl e, were i ntroduced from Europe, one about 90, and
the other about 70, years ago.
i nsects frst requi res a knowl edge of whi ch pests are i n
vol ved and somethi ng of thei r eati ng habits. I f you
cannot identify the i nsect, seek ai d of your county
agent, col l ege of agri cul ture, museum, or the U.S. Depart
ment of Agri cul ture. Once you know the i nsect, proper
control measures can be l earned from the same sources.
State and Federal agricul tural agenci es have pamphl ets
on control of garden pests. The
pamphlets are avai l abl e (usual l y
free or at a nomi nal cost) upon
request. Methods of pest control
are bei ng constantl y changed to
meet new conditi ons.
WATER BEETLES are not to be confused with water bugs
{pp. 48-49), though they are found i n the same habitat.
The whi rl i gi g beetl es, true to their name, whi rl or swi m
at the surface. They di ve when di sturbed and are good
fi ers al so. Eggs are l ai d on water pl ants; l arvae feed on
water ani mal s. Eggs of di vi ng beetl es are deposited i n the
ti ssues of water pl ants. They hatch i nto l arvae commonl y
known as water ti gers, whi ch attack water i nsects, smal l
fs h, and even one another. After a month or so, l arvae
pupate i n the ground. Adul ts are active al l year. Thei r
method of carryi ng a bubbl e of ai r down wi th them at the
ti p of thei r abdomen is i nteresti ng to watch.
These and other water i nsects can be kept i n an aqua
ri um and fed bits of meat. The water scavengers, the
l argest water beetl es, are someti mes over d i nches l ong.
Eggs are l ai d i n a si l ken wrappi ng, attached to a foati ng
leaf. The predaceous l arvae feed l i ke those of di vi ng
beetl es. Pupae form i n soi l by l ate summer, and emerge
i n about 2 weeks. Adults al so are active i n al l seasons.
They carry ai r as a fl m on the undersi de of the body.
MAY BEETLES or June bugs form a group of over 1 00
Ameri can speci es, wi del y distri buted and difcul t to con
trol . White eggs are l ai d i n an earth-covered bal l ami d
roots on whi ch the white grubs feed for 2 or 3 years.
These pupate underground i n fal l , and adults appear the
fol l owi ng spri ng. Adul ts feed on l eaves of many common
trees. They are atracted to el ectri c
l i ghts. Bi rds and smal l mammal s,
such as skunks and even pi gs, root
out grubs and eat them.
GREEN JUNE BEETLE Often cal l ed the fgeater, thi s
beetle feeds on many pl ants, eati ng roots, stems, and
l eaves. Larvae ar e found i n soi l or manure. They move
by bristl es on thei r backs i nstead of by their short l egs.
Adults fy i n l arge numbers, maki ng a l oud buzzi ng
whi ch is somewhat si mi l ar to the buzzi ng of bumbl ebees.
These i nsects are more common i n
the South, where the adul ts damage
apricots, fgs, grapes, mel ons, and
other feshy fruits.
! d
SCARAB BEETLES, i ncl udi ng the rose chafer, Japanese
beetle, and May beetl e, form a l arge fami l y total l i ng
more than 30,000 speci es, of whi ch wel l over 900 are
found i n thi s country. Many are scavengers, adapted
for l ivi ng i n or on the ground. larvae are usual l y l arge
white grubs found i n the soi l . Of the many scarabs, the
dung beetl es or tumbl ebugs are outstandi ng. These are
the beetl es hel d sacred by the Egypti ans. The adults form
bal l s of dung and rol l them about givi ng the i mpression
of bei ng i ndustri ous workers. Eggs are l ai d in the bal l ,
whi ch i s buri ed. The feroci ous- l ooki ng rhi noceros beetl es
and thei r rel atives, the ox beetl es, are the l argest of the
scarabs. Al l are harml ess. Some are 2 i nches l ong; much
l arger tropi cal forms occur. Mal es have mor e promi nent
horns than femal es. The l arvae are found i n rotted wood
or ri ch soi l . Col l ectors pri ze the curi ous adul ts.
I d1
1 . 4"
STAG AND HORN BEETLES are related to scarabs. The
large stags are so named because the huge mandibles
of the males resemble the antlers of stags. Mouth-parts of
the females are much smaller. large white grubs are
found in rotted wood-more commonly in the South than
el sewhere. Horned-beetle larvae and adults are often
found in large colonies in burrows
in rotted logs. These beetles make
noise by rubbing wing-covers or
legs. The adults are harmless.
l arvae are the "meal worms" used for feedi ng bi rds and
other smal l pets. They feed on stored gr ai n and hence ar e
seri ous pests. There are a l arge number of cl osel y rel ated
speci es. The l arvae of pri onus beetl es are known as round
headed borers. These attack roots of frui t and ornamental
trees, grape, and other pl ants. The
antennae, wi th overl appi ng pl ates,
sl i ghtl y l onger i n the mal e, i dentify
the pri onus beetl es.
of many beetles bore into wood, but fat-headed borers
(Buprestids), l i ke exampl e above, and l onghorned borers
(Cerambycids), represented by the l ocust and el der borers
and the pi ne sawyer, are vi ci ous pests of orchard, shade
and forest trees. larvae of fat-headed borers (at l east 500
speci es i n thi s country) feed mostl y just beneath the bark,
whereas l onghorned borers (over 1 ,000 speci es) usual l y
channel far i nto the trunk. The attractive l ocust borer adul t
i s often found on gol denrod.
! JO
WEEVI LS are small beetles with mouth-parts modifed
into a downward-curving beak or snout. Many are impor
tant pests of grain. The damage done by weevils is esti
mated at over $500,000,000 annually. For years, as the
cotton boll weevil spread north from Mexico, warnings of
the danger went unheeded. The plum curculio damages
peach, cherry, and plum trees. Nut weevils are found in
acorns and all other edible nuts. The granary weevils,
found in grain, are prolifc, with a life cycle of only 4
weeks. Some feed on the roots, others on stored grain.
1 J
HORNTAI L 1 . 9"
HORNTAILS AND SAWFLI ES, cl osel y rel ated, bel ong
wi th the bees and wasps but l ack the constri cted ab
domen. Horntai l s l ay thei r eggs on dead or dyi ng trees.
The l arvae are borers, whi ch pupate in thei r deep tun
nel s. Most sawfy l arvae feed on l eaves. Horntai l s are
hosts to the i chneumon fi es ( next page), whi ch parasitize
the l arvae. The femal e i chneumon
fy can l ocate a horntai l burrow un
der several i nches of wood and de
posit her eggs therei n.
1 J
I CHNEUMON FLI ES, of whi ch there are over 3,000
American speci es, pl ay an i mportant rol e in control l i ng
many harmful i nsects. They are more cl osel y rel oted to
wasps than to fies. Thei r l arvae are parasites of cater
pi l l ars and of l arvae of beetl es, fies, and other pests. The
femal e i chneumon fy, wi th her unusual l y l ong ovi positor,
attracts attenti on and i s someti mes
feared by those who do , not know
she is harml ess. Thi s ovi positor can
pierce several i nches of wood.

CARPENTER ANTS Of over 2,500 species of ants
known, al l are social animals, living and working to
gether in ways that have astonished laymen and natural
ists al ike. Among t he most familiar of insects, t hey have
inspired many a comparison with human society. Car
penter ants and their relatives form one of the l argest
groups of ants. They bui l d nests and burrows in dead
wood, logs, and the ti mbers of buildings, where they may
do considerabl e damage if al l owed to spread. Carpenter
ants are found the worl d over in
temperate regions. The workers,
whi ch are inferti l e femal es, are
among the largest known ants.
FI RE AND CORNFI ELD ANTS The fre ants of the
Southeast have been known to atack baby bi rds and sti ng
them to death. Cornfel d ants are l ess feroci ous and more
i nteresti ng. These ants eat the sweet secreti ons of corn
root aphi ds. Aphi ds l ay eggs i n the ant burrows. When
these hatch i n spri ng, the ants pl ace the aphi ds on knot
weed roots ti l l the corn is pl anted and growing. Then the
ants transfer the aphi ds to the corn roots, thus i nsuri ng a
constant food suppl y. Cornfel d ants are widel y distri bu-
ted and very abundant. Lutz states g

that they are the most abundant of

al l our i nsects, a fact whi ch makes

these smal l ants i mporant.

HOUSEHOLD ANTS Pharaoh's ants are smal l but nu
merous. They are common i nvaders of homes, feedi ng on
any sweet foodstufs. The Argenti ne ant, native to that
country and Brazi l , was frst found i n New Orl eans i n
1 891 , and has si nce become a seri ous househol d and
garden pest 1 n the South. They may i nvade nests of other
ants and hives of bees. Fortunatel y they are semitropical
and are l i mited in thei r movement northward. These ants
protect aphi ds to secure the honey-dew they produce.
Li tl e bl ack ants are found outdoors more than withi n.
! 4!
_ I NSECT GALLS are not wel l understood. Smal l , wasp
l i ke i nsects (Cyni pids), fies, and others l ay eggs i n pl ant
tissues. Each i nsect sel ects a speci fc pl ant. As eggs hatch,
t he pl ant ti ssues around t he l arvae begi n to swel l , form
i ng a characteristic gal l . The l arvae feed on pl ant j ui ces
and pupate i n the gal l . The adul t emerges by burrowi ng
through the si de. Some gal l s are l ar ge and woody, some
soft, some knobby and spi ny. Best-known gal l s are the
oak appl es and the gal l s commonl y seen on roses, bl ack
berry, and gol denrods.
! 4Z
MUD WASPS Several fami l i es of wasps are repre
sented among those bui l di ng thei r nests with mud. Potter
wasps are sol itary, each bui l di ng a vase-shaped nest of
mud on pl ants. These wasps prey on caterpi l l ars and
beetl e l arvae. Most mason wasps, i n t he same fami l y as
the potters, nest i n burrows i n t he soi l , but t he speci es
i l l ustrated makes a cl ay nest on a branch. Best- known
mud wasps are the mud daubers, whi ch make l arge nests
on wal l s i n attics or deserted bui l di ngs. The femal e bui l ds
the nest of many mud cel l s. I n each she pl aces several
paral yzed spi ders or other i nsects before she l ays the
egg and seal s the cel l . The bl ue mud dauber uses nests
made by the common mud dauber. The femal e moistens
the cel l wal l , di gs through, removes the contents, and
refl l s the cel l with her own spiders and egg. The cuckoo
wasp, named after the European cuckoo, awaits i ts oppor

tunity and l ays its eggs in the nest of a mud dauber

whi l e the l ater is of searchi ng for a vi cti m. The cuckoo
wasp l arvae feed on i nsects provided for the young mud
! 4J

! 44
VELVET ANTS Velvet ants are so named because the
wi ngl ess femal es are ant- l i ke. They are parasites of wasps
and bees, especial l y of the sol itary species. The femal e
wasp can real l y sti ng, but the mal es do not. The femal e
crawl s down the burrow and ki l l s the owner with a pow
erful sti ng. She then l ays her egg on the owner' s l arva,
which her own l arvae l ater eat. The
sol itary, thread-waist was p i l l us
trated bel ow is one of several ki nds
parasitized by velvet ants.
CI CADA KI LLER Thi s l arge sol itary wasp di gs a bur
row a foot or so deep. I n si de passages the femal e stores
adul t ci cadas whi ch she has paral yzed by sti ngi ng. The
heavy ci cadas are dragged up a tree by the ki l l er ti l l
she can get enough al titude to _ fy back to her burrow.
When the egg hatches, the l arva feeds on the hel pl ess
ci cada. In a week it i s f ul l grown
and pupates i n a l oose cocoon. I t
emerges the fol l owi ng summer, com
pl eti ng i ts l ife cycl e.
\ 4
PAPER WASPS are the common wasps everyone l earns
to know sooner or l ater by pai nful experi ence. The com
mon paper wasp bui l ds an unprotected paper nest out of
wood i t chews up. The nest i s hung under eaves or i n
barns, or i n other sheltered sites. No food i s pl aced i n
these nests. After the eggs hatch, the young are fed dai l y
ti l l they pupate. The bal d-faced or whi te-faced hornet
bui l ds an oval , covered nest; some nests can accommo
date over 1 0,000 hornets. Unferti l ized eggs devel op i nto
drones or mal es. Ferti l ized eggs grow i nto workers or
queens, dependi ng on the food eaten. Queens make smal l
brood nests i n earl y spri ng. Yel l ow j ackets, whi ch are
cl osel y rel ated, bui l d nests of varyi ng size, some under
ground, some hi dden i n rock wal l s or under l ogs. An
empty fel dmouse nest i s often used.
0. 8"
BEES are disti ngui shed from wasps in a number of mi nor
ways. Thei r l egs have "pol l en baskets" of sti f hai rs, and
t he body is hai ry al so. Bumbl ebees ar e l arger than most
others. Thei r el ongated mouth-parts enabl e them to pol
l i nate red cl over, whi ch no other bee can do. Nests are
made underground by the ferti l e femal es (queens), whi ch
survive the wi nter. The col ony consi sts of a queen, work
ers, and drones. Sweat bees, smal l and bri l l iantl y col ored,
nest i n the ground. They are attracted to perspi rati on;
hence thei r name. leaf-cutti ng bees are l arger and bri ght-
l y col ored al so. Thei r nests, made underground, are l i ned
and di vi ded wi th l eaves whi ch the bees have cut i n oval s
or ci rcl es from roses and other pl ants. The honeybee i s
probabl y the best known of al l i nsects. Honey has been
obtai ned from wi l d and from kept col onies far back i nto
history. I n maki ng honey, bees pol l i nate frui t trees and
other pl ants. A normal col ony of a queen, workers, and
drones may contai n up t o 50,000 bees. Peri odi cal l y bees
swarm, and the ol d queen goes of to found a new col ony,
l eavi ng a young queen behi nd.
\ 4V
beetl es are cl osel y rel ated to l arder beetl es and to
other s pecies whi ch destroy speci mens in museums. They
eat al l kinds of ani mal matter, thri vi ng on rugs, wool ens,
fur, l eather, and hai r. The l arvae whi ch do the damage
can be control l ed by chemi cal repel l ents, poi sons, and
sprays. Adul t cl othes moths do no harm. Femal es l ay
white oval eggs on cl othi ng, l eather, etc. These hatch i n
about a week i nto l arvae, whi ch may feed for a year on
your pri zed possessi ons before they pupate.
PESTS OF ANI MALS are many and cause severe l osses.
Dog feas spread from dogs to peopl e and may, i n some
areas, carry pl ague. They al so i nfest other domestic ani
mal s. Control by dusti ng. Other species are si mi l ar. The
sheep ti ck, a speci es of fy, feeds by sucki ng bl ood. The
eggs hatch i n the body of the femal e, and the l arvae
devel op to maturity before bei ng deposi ted. Control is
achieved by sheari ng and di ppi ng the sheep. The squal i d
duck l ouse is typi cal of bi rd l i ce (not rel ated t o speci es on
page 32) whi ch l i ve on wi l d and domestic bi rds.

I nsects that do us harm have been freel y scattered through
the pages of t hi s book. Some have sai d t hat these six
l egged creatures are man's worst enemies. Here are more
we shoul d know to be forewarned and so forearmed.
SILVERFISH The most pri mitive i nsect, yet sti l l
capabl e
of eati ng
starch from book bi ndi ngs, wal l paper, and
cl othi ng. Common i ndoors, especi al l y i n war m
pl aces.
AMERI CAN DOG TICK No i nsect thi s: note i ts 4 pai rs
of l egs. Common enough and often brought i ndoors after
a wal k through fel ds and woods. Check cl othi ng and body
i mmedi atel y. I f attached to ski n, remove by touchi ng ti ck
with al cohol . Ticks may transmi t seri ous vi rus diseases.
BEDBUG Thi s fat-bodied househol d pest, once estab
l i shed, may spread rapi dl y. May have 3 or 4 generati ons
annual l y. Femal e l ays white eggs i n cracks; eggs hatch i n
a week or so. Destroy with DDT or other spray.
LARDER BEETLE (Dermestes) These smal l beetl es can
be seri ous pests wherever food i s stored. The acti ve, hai ry
l arvae feed on al l ki nds of meat, l eather, and other ani
mal products. Four or more generati ons are produced an
nual l y. Wi del y di stri buted i n the ol d worl d and the new.
HOUSE FLY Thi s is the most common and most de
spi sed of al l the fi es. Publ i c heal th campai gns have not
destroyed it. Associated with garbage and fl th, fies can
reproduce a generation a month when temperatures are
favorabl e. Screeni ng, s prayi ng wi th Li ndane residual
spray, swQtti ng, and sanitati on are recommended.
GERMAN COCKROACH or croton bug, native of Eu
rope, has become wi del y establ i shed i n ci ti es.
i ke the
si l verfsh it is omni vorous and damages books. I ts presence
does not necessari l y i ndi cate uncl eanl i ness, and i t is not a
proved carri er of disease l i ke fies. Li ndane residual spray
and Chl ordane are recommended for control of roaches.
The study of i nsects requires a careful bal ance of what
you can l earn frst-hand and what you can l earn from
others. Books and museum exhi bits refect years of re
search and experi ence of experts. Col l ecti ons and fel d
studi es must be suppl emented by what you read.
MUSEUMS often have systematic, habitat, and l ocal ex
hi bits. Curators are gl ad to hel p you i dentify speci mens.
Check col l eges and universities, as wel l as l arge city
and state museums. local i nqui ries are always best.
BOOKS TO READ The U. S. Dept. of Agricul ture and
many state departments publ ish bul l eti ns on i nsects of
economi c i mportance. Write to Supt. of Documents,
Washi ngton 25, D. C. , for price l ist of i nsect bul l eti ns.
Make l ocal i nqui ry for state publ icati ons. Some general
books are l i sted bel ow. Try them frst before turni ng to
more detai l ed vol umes and technical reports.
Comstock, J. H., AN I NTRODUCTI ON TO ENTOMOLOGY, Comstock Publ i shi ng
Co. , I thaca, New York, . A technical col l ege text but a good system
otic guide. A book for the student who wants to "get his teet h" into the
subj ect.
Jaques, H. E. , How To KNoW THE I NSECTS, Wm. C. Brown Co. , Dubuque,
I owa, . An i l l ustraied gui de to the more common orders of i nsects,
with h el pful hints on maki ng col l ections. A good book for the serious
Kl ots, A. B. , A FI ELD Gui DE TO THE Bu"EOFLI ES, Houghton Mi ffl i n Co. , Boston,
b . Butterfl ies are such a wel l -known and atractive group of i nsects
that a book on them bel ongs i n a general l i st. This i s the best modern
gui de; accurate, and with col or i l l ustrations.
Lut1, Frank b. FI ELD BooK OF I SECTS, G. P. Putnam' s Sons, New York, Jb.
Thi s ol d stand-by wi l l ai d i n the identification of about 1 ,4 species.
About hal f are i l l ustrated.
Swai n, Ral ph, THE I NsECT Gui DE, Doubl eday and Co. , New York, . An
excel l ent, fi nel y I l l ustrated book that describes the orders and pri nci pal
fami l i es of i nsects .
Urquhart, F. A. , I NTRODUCI NG THE I NSECT, Henry Hol t and Co. , New York,
. A sound "fi rst reference. " ' si mpl e and non-techni cal , but i ncl udi ng
al l common orders and fami l ies. Has easy-to-use keys as an aid t o i den
ti fi cati on. Ampl e bl ack-and-whi te i l l ustrations.
Heavy type indicates page where species are illustrated. In scientifc
names the genus nome is frst, then the species. If the genus nome is ab
breviated, i t is the some as the genus nome preceding. The abbreviation
"sp." indicates that the description applies to more than one species.
1 7 Diapheromera femorata. 41 Cottonycushion: l cerya
1 8 Bush: Scudderia sp.
True: Peterophyl l a
Meal y Bug: Pseudococcus sp.
camel l ifolia.
Oystershel l : Lepi dosaphes
19 Microcentrum sp.
ul mi.
20 Mol e: Gryl l otalpa
42 Harl equin: Murgantia
hexadactyl a.
hi strionica.
Camel : Ceuthophil us sp.
Euschistus: Euschistus sp.
21 Anabrus si mpl ex.
43 Shiel dbug: Eurygaster
22 Acheta assi mi lis.
al ternate.
23 Peripl aneta americana.
Green Stinkbug: Acrosternum
24 Stagmomantis carol ina.
44 Anasa tristis.
25 Paratenodera sinensis.
45 Smal l : Lygaeus kal mii.
26 American: Schistocerca
Large: Oncopel tus fasciatus.
46 Phymata pennsyl vanica.
Carol i na: Di ssosteira carolina.
47 Chinch: Bl i ssus l eucopterus.
27 Lubber: Brachystola magna.
Tarni shed Plant: Lygus
Migratory: Melanopl us
l ineol aris.
48 Water Boatman: Corixa sp.
28 Mel anopl us femur-rubrum.
Backswi mmer: Notonecta sp.
29 Dermaptera. 49 Water Stri der: Gerris sp.
30 l soptera. Giant Water : Lethocerus
32 Head: Pedicul us humanus
50 Anax junius.
Short-nosed: Haematopinus
51 Ten-spot: Li bel l ul a pul chel l a.
Blackwing: Cal opteryx
Crab: Phthi rus pubis.
macul ate.
Body: Pedicul us humanus
52 Mayfy: Ephemerida.
Stonefy: Plecoptera.
33 Ceresa bubal us.
53 Golden-eye: Chrysopa
34 Red-banded: Graphocephal a
Brown: Hemerobius sp.
Lateral : Cuerna costal i s.
54 Corydal us cornutus.
35 Potato: Empoasca fabae.
55 Myrmel i oni dae.
3-banded: Erythroneura
56 Panorpa sp.
57 Trichoptera.
Rose: Typhl ocyba rosae.
60 Danaus pl exippus.
36 Magicicada septendecim.
61 Li meniti s archi ppus.
62 Banded: Limenitis arthemi s.
37 Ti bicen sp.
Red-spotted: L. astyanax.
38 Phi laenus sp.
63 Preci s coeni a.
39 Aphidae.
64 Great Spangl ed: Speyeria
40 San Jose: Aspidiotus cybel e.
perni ci osus. Meadow: Boloria toddi .
Terrapi n: Lecani um Vari egated: Euptoi eta claudia.
ni grofasciatum. Regal : Speyaria idal ia.
b SCI ENTI FI C NAMES ( continued l
65 Gul f: Agraul i s vani l l ae. 83 Acrea: Esti gmene acrea.
Si lver-bordered: Bol oria Banded Wool l ybear: I sla
myri na. isabel l a.
Regal : Speyeria i dal i a. 84 Protoparce qui nquemacul ata.
66 Speyeri a cybel e. 85 Cel eri o l i neata.
67 Checkerspot: Euphydryas sp. 86 Samia wal keri.
Bal ti more: E. phaeton. 87 Hyal ophora cecropi a.
68 Question Mark: Pol ygoni a 88 Cal l osami a promethea.
i nterrogation is. 89 Antheraea pol yphemus.
Comma: P. comma. 90 Automeris i o.
69 Nymphal i s antiopa. 91 Actias l una.
70 Amer. Pai nted Lady: Vanessa 92 Ul troni a: Catocal a ul troni a.
vi rgi ni ensis. Cl ouded Locust: Euparthenos
Red Admi ral : V. atal anta. nubi l i s.
71 Vanessa cardui. 93 Eades i mperi al i s.
72 Eyed Brown: Lethe eurydice. 94 Corn Earworm: Hel i othi s
Pearl y Eye: L. portl andi a. umbrosus.
73 Common Wood Nymph: Minois Eur. Borer: Pyrousta nubi l al i s.
a l ope. 95 Hemerocampa l eucostigma.
Li ttl e Wood Satyr: Euptychia 96 Porthetri a di spar.
cyme I a. 97 Fal l Webworm: Hyphantrla
74 Gray Hai rstreak: Strymon cunea.
me l i nus. Tent: Mal acosoma sp.
Purpl i sh C. : Lycaena hel l oides. 98 Al sophi l a pometari a.
American: L. americana. 99 Sanni noi dea exi tiosa.
Bronze: L. thoe. 1 00 Carpocap.a pomonel l a.
75 Eastern-tai l ed: Everes 1 01 Thyridopteryx
comyntas. ephemeraeformi s.
Mari ne: Leptotes marinus. 1 02 Anophel es: Anophel es sp.
Spri ng: Lycaenopsis argi ol us. Aedes: Aedes sp.
Western Pygmy: Brephi di um 1 03 Cul ex sp.
exi l i s. 1 04 Ti pul idae.
76 Pieris rapae. 1 05 Robber: Asi l i dae.
77 Common: Col ias phi Iodice. Deer: Chrysops sp.
Al fal fa: C. eurytheme. March: Bi bi oni dae.
78 Spi cebush: Papi l i o troil us. Bl ack Horse: Tabanus atratus.
Parnassius: Parnassius 1 06 Bl uebottl e: Cal l i phora sp.
smi ntheus. Greenbottl e: Phoeni ci a sp.
Gi ant: Papi l i o cresphontes. 1 07 Syrphi d: Syrphi dae.
79 Zebra: Papi l i o marcel l us. Tachi ni d: Tachi nidae.
Bl ack: P. asterius. Bee: Bombyl i us maj or.
Tiger: P. gl aucus. 1 08 Drosophi l a mel anogaster.
81 Spicebush: Papi l i o troi l us. 1 09 Six-spotted: Ci ci ndel a
Zebra: P. marcel l us. sexguttata.
Pipevi ne: P. phi l enor. Purpl e: C. purpurea.
Bl ack: P. asterius. 1 1 0 Macrodactyl us subspi nosus.
Gi ant: P. cresphontes. 1 1 1 Popi l l i a j aponi ca.
Tiger: P. gl aucus. 1 1 2 Carrion: Si l pha americana.
82 Arcti c: Carterocephal us Bl ack Carri on: S. ramosa.
pal aemon. 1 1 3 Amer. Buryi ng: Necrophorus
Si l ver-spotted: Epargyreus americanus.
cl arus. Hairy Buryi ng: N. tomentosus.
Cl oudy Wing: Thorybes Hairy Rove: Creophil us
bathyl lus. vil losus.
SCI ENTI FI C NAMES l contlnued l
1 1 4 Alaus oculatus.
1 1 5 Cal asoma scrutator.
1 1 6 lampyri dae.
1 1 8 Nine-spotted: Coccinel l a
Convergent: Hi ppodami a
1 1 9 Two-spotted: Adal i a
bi punctata.
Fifteen-spotted: Anati s
1 21 Epi l achna vari vestis.
1 22 Colo. Potato: leptinotarsa
deceml i neata.
Striped Blister: Epi cauta
vi ttata.
1 23 Twelve- spotted: Di abrotica
undeci mpunctata.
Stri ped: Acal ymma vittata.
1 25 Common: Crioceris asparagi.
Spotted: C.
duodeci mpunctata.
1 26 Whi rl i gi g: Gyri nidae.
Water Scavenger: Hydrophi l us
triangul aris.
1 27 Dytiscus sp.
1 28 Phyl lophaga sp.
1 29 Cotinus niti da.
1 30 Dung: Phanaeus vindex.
Rhinoceros: Xyl aryctes
Tumblebugs: Canthon l aevis.
1 3 1 Unicorn: Dynastes ti tyus.
Ox: Strategus antaneus.
1 32 Horn: Passalus cornutus.
Stag: Pseudolucanus
capreol us.
1 33 Darkl i ng: El eodes sp.
Meal worm: Tenebrio mol i tor.
Ti l e-horned: Prionus
1 34 locust: Megacyl l ene robini ae.
El der: Desmocerus pal l i atus.
Flat-h&aded: Buprestis rufpes.
Pine Sawyer: Monochamus sp.
1 3 5 Cotton Bol l : Anthonomus
grandi s.
Pl um: Conotrachel us
Nut: Bal aninus sp.
Bi l lbug: Sphenophorus sp.
1 36 Tremex cal umba.
1 37 Megarhyssa atrata.
1 38 Camponotus herculeanus.
1 39 Fire: Solenopsis geminata.
Cornfel d: Lasius ni ger.
1 40 littl e Bl ack: Monomorium
Pharaoh's: M. pharaonis.
Argentine: l ridomyrmex
humi l i s.
1 41 Oak Appl e: Amphi bol i ps sp.
El l iptical Goldenro: Gnori
moshema gal laesol i dagi ni s.
Goldenrod: Eurasia
sol i daginis.
Bl ackberry: Di astrophus sp.
1 42 Potter-: Eumenes fraternus.
Mason: Ancistrocerus
1 43 Mud Dauber: Sceliphron
Cuckoo: Chrysis sp.
Blue Mud: Chalybion
cal i fonicum.
1 44 Velvet Ant: Dasymutil l a sp.
Cow Ki l ler: D. occidentalis.
Solitary Wasp: Ammophila
1 45 Sphecius speciosus.
1 46 Pol i stes annul ari s.
1 47 Bal d-foced: Vespula macul ata.
Yel low Jacket: V. sp.
1 48 Bumblebee: Bombus sp.
Sweat Bee: Hal ictus sp.
1 49 leaf-cutti ng: Megachile sp.
Honeybee: Apis mel lifera.
Fl ower: Augochlora sp.
1 50 Carpel: Anthrenus
scrophul ariae.
Block Carpel: Attagenus
pi ceus.
Clothes: Tinea pel l ionel l a.
1 51 Dog Fl ea: Ctenocephalides
Sheep Tick: Melophagus
Duck louse: li peurus
squal idus.
1 53 Silverfsh: lepi sma
Amer. Dog Tick: Dermacentor
variabi l is.
Bedbug: Ci mex loctul ari s.
Larder: Dermestes l ardarius.
House Fl y: Musca domestica.
Ger. Cockroach: Blatel l a
Asterisks (*)denote pages on which illustrations appear.
Acrea moth, *83 Bi l lbug, * 1 35 Cicada ki l ler, * 1 45
Aedes mosquito, * 1 02 Bl ackberry knot gal l , Cicadas, *36-*37
Ai l anthus si l k moth, * 1 41 Cl ick beetles, * 1 1 4
*86 Bl ack carpet beetle, Cl othes moth, * 1 50
Al fal fa butterfy, n * 1 50 Cl ouded locust under-
Ambush bug, *46 Bl ack carrion beetle, wing moth, *92
American burying * 1 1 2 Cl oudy wing skipper,
beetle, * 1 1 3 Black fy, 1 05 *82
American cockroach, Bl ack swal l owtai l , *79, Cockroaches, *23,
*23 80, *81 . 1 52- * 1 53
American copper, *74 Bl ackwing damsel fy, Cocoon, *59
American dog tick, *51 Codl ing moth, * 1 00
1 52- * 1 53
Bl uebottle fy, * 1 06
Col l ecting, 1 4- 1 6
American grasshopper, Bl ue butterfies, 74- *75 Colorado potato beetle,
*26 Blue mud dauber, * 1 43 1 20, * 1 22
American painted l ady, Body l ouse, *32 Comma, *68
*70-71 Books, reference, 1 54 Common asparagus
Angl e wings, *68-*69 Borers, *94, * 1 34 beetl e, 1 24-* 1 25
Angul ar-winged Bronze copper, *74 Common mud dauber,
katydid, * 1 9 Brown lacewing, *53 1 42- * 1 43
Annual cicada, *37 Brown-tai l moth, 96 Common sul phur, *77
Anophel es mosquito, Buckeye butterfy, *63
Common wood nymph,
* 1 02
Bufal o treehopper, *33
Antennae, *58
Bugs, *42-*49, * 1 28;
Convergent l adybird
Ant l i ons, *55
see also specifc
beetl e, * 1 1 8
Ants, * 1 38- * 1 40; see
Copper butterfies, *74
also specifc names
Bumblebee, * 1 48
Corn borer, *94
Aphi d-l ion, 53
Bush katydid, * l B
Corn earworm, *94
Aphids, *39
Butterfies, 58_.82
Cornfel d ants, * 1 39
Aquatic bugs, *48- *49
see also names
Cotton boll weevi l ,
Arctic ski pper, *82
* 1 35
Argentine ant, * 1 40
Cabbage butterfy, *76
Cottony-cushi on scal e,
Asparagus beetles,
Caddisfies, *57
1 24-* 1 25 Camel cricket, *20 Cow ki l l er wasp, * 1 44
Backswimmer, *48-49
Bagworm, * 1 01
Bal d-faced hornet,
1 46-* 1 47
Baltimore, *67
Banded purple, *62
Banded wool l ybear,
Bean beetles, 1 20- * 1 21
Bedbug, 1 52- * 1 53
Bee fy, * 1 07
Bees, * 1 48-* 1 49
Beetles, * 1 09- * 1 35,
* 1 50, * 1 52-* 1 53;
see also names
Cankerworms, *98
Crab l ouse, *32
Carol ina grasshopper,
Crane fy, * 1 04
Cri ckets, *20-*22
Carol ina mantis,
Croton bug, 23, 1 52
Cuckoo wasp, * 1 43
Carpenter ants, * 1 38
Carpel beetle, * 1 5
Carrion beetles, * 1 1 2
Caterpi l l ar hunter, * 1 1 5
Caterpi l l ars, *59, *64-
*66, *81
Cave cricket, *20
Cecropia moth, *87
Checkerspols, *67
Chinch bug, * 1 1 ,. *47
Cucumber beetles,
* 1 23, 1 24
Cul ex mosquito, 1 03
Damsel fies, 50-*51
Darkl ing beetles, * 1 33
Darning needles, *50
Deer fy, * 1 05
Di vi ng beetl e, * 1 27
Dobson fy, *54
Dog fea, * 1 51
I NDEX l contlnued l
Doodlebugs, * 1 09 Gul f fritil l ary, *65, 0 Locust borer, * 1 3-
Dragonfies, 50- 51 Gypsy moth, *96 Locusts, 26
Drone fy, 1 07
Hairstreaks, *74
Longhorn beetles, 1 34
Duck louse, * 1 51 Lubber grasshopper,
Dung beetle, * 1 30- 1 31
Hairy burying beetle,
* 1 1 3
Luna moth, *91
Earwig, *29, 1 1 3
Hairy rove beetl e, * 1 1 3
Eastern tail ed bl ue, *75
Harl equin bug, *42--3
Mantises, %7J
Elder borer, * 1 34
Harvestfy, 36
March fy, * 1 05
Euschistus, *42
Head l ouse, *32
Marine blue, *75
Eyed brown butterfy,
Hel l grammites, *54
Mason wasp, * l 42
Honeybee, * 1 49
May beetle, 1 20, * 1 28,
Eyed el ater, * 1 1 4
Horn beetle, * 1 32
1 30
Hornets, 1 46-* 1 47
Mayfies, 52
Fal l cankerworm, *98
Horntai ls, * 1 36
Meadow fritil l ary, *64
Fiel d cricket, *22
Horse fy, bl ack, * 1 05
Meal worm beetl e, * 1 33
Fifteen-spotted l ady-
House fy, *1 1 , 1 52-* 1 53
Meal y bug, *41
bird beetl e, * 1 1 9
Househol d ants, * 1 40
Melon aphid, *39
Figeater, 1 29
Househol d pests, * 1 40,
Metamorphosis, 1 1
Fi re ants, * 1 39
* 1 50, 1 52- * 1 53
Mexican bean beetle,
Firefies, * 1 1 6- *1 1 7
House mosquito, 1 02-
1 20-* 1 21
Fl at-headed borer,
* 1 03
Migratory grasshopper,
* 1 34
I chneumon fy, 1 36,
Fl ea, dog, * 1 51
* 1 37
Milkweed bugs, *45
Flies, * 1 1 , * 1 04-* 1 08,
I mperial moth, *93
Mol e cricket, *20
* 1 37, * 1 51 - * 1 53
I nsect gal l s, * 1 41
Monarch butterfy, *60
Fl ower bee, * 1 49
I nsects:
Mormon cricket, *21
Fl ower fy, 1 07
col lecting, 1 4- 1 6
Mosquitoes, * 1 02-* 1 0
Fritil l aries, *64-*65, 66
control , 9, 1 24, 1 52
Moths, *82- * 1 01
Froghoppers, 38
devel opment of, * 1 1
characteristics of,
Fruit fy, * 1 08
family tree, * 1 0
parts of; *6, * 1 2- *1 3
Mountain butterfy, 80
Gal l s, insect, * 1 41
rel ati ves of, *7
Mourning cloak, 68, *69
Gorden beetles, 1 1 9,
l o moth, *90
Mud wasps, * 1 42- * 1 43
1 20- 1 25
I sabel l a moth, *83
Museums, 1 54
German cockroach, 23,
1 52-* 1 ,3
Japanese beetl e, * 1 1 1
Nine-spotted l adybird
Giant swal l owtail, *78,
June bugs, * 1 28
beetle, * 1 1 8
80, *8f
Katydids, * 1 8- * 1 9
Nut weevil , * 1 35
Giant waterbug, *49
Nymphs, *72-*73
Gl owworms, 1 1 6-1 1 7 lacewings, *53
Oak appl e gal l , * 1 41
Gol den-eye lacewing, LCdybi rd beetles,
Ox beetle, * 1 31
* 5 * 1 1 8- *1 1 9, 1 20
Oystershel l scal e, *41
Gol denrod gal l s, * 1 41 Larder beetle, 1 52-
Granary weevils, 1 35 * 1 5 Painted l ady, 70-*71
Grasshoppers, *26-*28 Lateral leafhopper, *34 Paper wasp, * 1 46
Gray hairstreak, *74 Leaf-culling bee, 1 48- Parnassius, *78, 80
Great spangl ed friti l - * 1 49 Peachtree borer, *99
lory, *64, *66 Leafhoppers, *34-*35 Pearl y eye butterfy,
Greenbottle fy, * 1 06 Lice, *32, * 1 51 *72-73
Green darner, *. Littl e bl ack ant, * 1 40 Peri odical cicada, *36-
Green June beetl e, * 1 29 Littl e wood satyr, *73 37

I NDEX ( continued )
Pests: Scientifc names, 1 55
Ti cks, * 1 51 - * 1 5
ani mal , * 1 51 , 1 52-
Scorpionfies, *5 Ti ger beetl es, *I 09
* 1 53 Seventeenyeor locust, Tiger swal lowtai l , *79,
garden, 1 24
36 80, *81
househol d, * 1 40, Sheep tick, * 1 51 Ti l ehorned prionus,
* 1 50, 1 52- * 1 53
Shi el dbugs, 42- *43 * 1 33
Pharaoh' s ant, * 1 40
Short-nosed cattl e Tobacco worm, 84
Pigeon horntai l , * 1 36
louse, *32 Tomato hornworm,
Pine sawyer, * 1 3.
Si l k moth, *86 *84
Pi pevine swal lowtai l ,
Si l ver-bordered fri ti l - Treehoppers, '33
80, *81
l ory, *65 Tumbl ebug, * 1 30- 1 31
Pl um curculio, * 1 35
Si lverfsh, 1 52-* 1 53 Tussock moth, *95, 96
Pol yphemus moth, *89
development of, * 1 1 Twel ve-spotted cucum-
Potato beetles, 1 20,
Si lverspotted ski pper, ber beetle, * 1 23,
* 1 22
*82 1 24
Potato leafhopper, *35
Si x- spotted tiger Two-spotted ladybird
Potter-wasp, * 1 42
beetle, *1 09 beetl e, * 1 1 9
Praying mantis, 24- *25
Skipper butterfies, *82
Ul tronia underwing
Prionus beetl es, * 1 33
Sol i tary wasps, * 1 44,
C Promethea moth, *88
* 1 45
moth, *92

Pupa, *59
Sphinx moths, a4-*a5
Underwing moths, *92
Purples, *62
SpicebuJh moth, 8a
Unicorn beetl e, * 1 31

Purpl e ti ger beetle,
Spicebush swal lowtai l ,

Variegated friti l lary,

z * 1 0 1a, ao, at

Purpl ish copper, *74

Spi der, 7
Vel vet ant, * 1 4

Question mark, *6a

Spittl ebug, *3a
Viceroy butterfy, *61
Spotted asparagus

beetle, 1 24-* 1 25
Viol et-tip, 6a
Range maps, use of, 3
Spring azure, *75

Red admi ral , *70

Wal kingsticks, * 1 7
Red-banded leafhop-
Squashbugs, *4
Wasps, * 1 42-* 1 47

Stag beetles, * 1 32
per, *34
Stinkbugs, 42-*43
Water beetl es, * 1 26-
Red-l egged grasshop-
* 1 27
Stonefies, *52
Water boatman, *48-49
per, *28
Striped bl i ster beetle,
Red-spotted purple, *62
1 20, * 1 22
Water bugs, *48-*49
Water scavenger, * 1 26
Regal frit i l l ary, *64-
Striped cucumber
Water strider, *49
beetle, * 1 23, 1 24
Regal moth, 93
Sul phurs, *77
Water tigers, 1 26-* 1 27
Rhinoceros beetle, * 1 30-
Swal l owtai l s, *7a-a1
Webworm, fal l , *97
1 31
Swamp mosqui to, 1 02
Weevil s, * 1 35
Robber fy, * 1 05
Western bl ues, *75
Sweat bee, * 1 4
Whirl i gig beetl es,
Rose chafer, * 1 1 0, 1 30
Syrphid fy, * 1 07
Rose leafhcpper, *35
* 1 26-* 1 27
Round-headed borers,
Tachinid fy, *44, * 1 07
Whi te ants, 30
* 1 33
Tarnished pl ant bug,
Whi te-faced hornet,
Rove beetles, 1 1 2-* 1 1 3
1 4- * 1 47
Ten-spot dragonfy, *51
Wi reworms, * 1 1 4
San Jose scal e, *40
Tent coterpi l iar, *97
Wool lybear, a3
Satyrs, *72- *73
Termites, *30- *31
Yel low jackets, 1 46-
Sawfi es, 1 36
Terrapin scal e, *40
Scal e insects, *40- *41
Thi stl e butterfy, 71
* 1 47
Scorab beetl es, 1 1 0, Three-banded l eaf
Zebra swal l owtail ,
* 1 30- * 1 31 , 1 32 hopper, *35
*79, ao, at
HERBERT S. ZI M, Ph. D. , outstandi ng authority
on sci ence educati on and formerl y Professor
of Educati on, University of I l l i nois; is wel l

known in professi onal ci rcl es and to a wi de

readi ng publ i c. He is co-author of the Gol den
Nature Gui des: Birds, Flowers, Insects, Stars,
Trees, Reptiles and Amphibians, Mammals,
Seashores, Fishes, Weather, and Rocks and
CLARENCE COTTAM, Ph. D. , i s assi stant di
rector of the U. S. Fi sh and Wi l dl ife Servi ce. A
nati onal authori ty on wi l dl ife, he has to hi s
credi t nearl y 200 publ i cati ons.
JAMES GORDON I RVI NG has exhi bited
pai nti ngs at the American Museum of Natural
Hi story and the National Audubon Society. I n
the Gol den Nature Gui de seri es he has i l l us
trated Mammals, Birds, Insects, Reptiles and
Amphibians, Stars, and Fishes.
1 H LLU N N T1 U K U 1
are an introduction to the world of nature, presenting
those things which are most common and most easily
seen. Each guide has been written by an outstanding
authority on science education-Dr. Herbert 5. Zim,
University of Illinois-in cooperation with a noted
specialist. Identifcation is made easy by over 1UU
fullcolor paintings in each book. These are rendered
mostly from life by an outstanding artist and have
been checked, corrected, and rechecked by speci alists.
rONsOuLu UY 1uLYitu|lLMANacLMLN1 xs1| 1U1L