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\ A. El-Saied Refaee Approved by: PDCS Mgr.\ Mohamed Reda Mr. SM\ Monir Hamed

Methods for measuring elongations of tensile test 1. Introduction Due to increase of EZZDK catalogue with many new steel grades, and due to elonga tion measuring problems recently (variation of elongation measured manually vers us elongation measured by extensometer); Unifying of elongation measuring method s should be done according to recent standards. 2. Method of measuring elongation Generally there are two methods for measuring elongation (EL): Manual method

Figure 1 Elongation can be measured manually after tensile test by knowing the initial ga uge length as following steps: Fitting the two fractured pieces of the tensile specimen after tensile t est together. Measuring the final length of gauge length. Then elongation can be measured according to the following formula: EL= ( L_final- L_(initial ))/L_initial 100

As: Lfinal: is the final gauge length after tensile test (after fracture as figure 1 ) Linitial: is the initial gauge length before tensile test

Measuring by extensometer: Extensometer fitted to the tensile specimen during tensile test can measure elon gation automatically. N.B.: Both elongation measuring methods are acceptable according to ASTM A37011, ASTM E8/E8M-09, DIN EN 10002-1 & JIS Z 2241.

Due to the lack of precision in fitting fracture ends together, the elon gation after fracture using the manual methods of the proceeding paragraphs gene rally is higher than the elongation determined with extensometers, so that all p recautions should be taken to decrease excess L occurs due to misalignment betwee n two fractured pieces. 3. Comparison between international standards for measuring elongation According to ASTM A370-11 & ASTM E8/E8M-09

Figure 2 There are two fracture areas A & B (figure 2): If the fracture within area A (middle half of gauge length): Elongation is measured by one of the two methods mentioned in 2.1 & 2.2. If the fracture within area B (all area outside A): Elongation value is not correct and the test needs to be repeated.

According to DIN EN 10002-1 Figure 3 There are three fracture areas A, B & C (figure 3): If the fracture within area A (middle one third of gauge length): Elongation is measured by one of the two methods mentioned in 2.1 & 2.2. If the fracture within area B (One third of gauge length nearest gauge m ark and inside gauge length):

Figure 4

And if the extensometer elongation record is higher than min. standard acceptabl e limit no further measuring is needed if not, elongation can be measured manual ly according to the following steps: Before the test, subdivide the original gauge length into N equal parts.

After the test, use the symbol X to denote the gauge mark on the shorter piece and the symbol Y to denote on the longer piece, the subdivision which is at the same distance from the fracture as mark X.

If n is the number of intervals between X and Y, the elongation after fracture i s determined as follows: If N-n is an even number (figure 4.a) Measure the distance between X and Y and the distance from Y to the grad uation mark Z located at: (N-n)/2 intervals beyond Y Calculate the percentage elongation after fracture using the equation : x 100

El=(XY+2YZ-L_g)/L_g

If N-n is an odd number (figure 4.b) Measure the distance between X and Y and the distance from Y to the grad uation mark Z' and Z'' located at: (N-n-1)/2 and (N-n+1)/2 intervals beyond Y Calculate the percentage elongation after fracture using the equation : El=(XY+YZ^'+YZ^''-L_g)/L_g x 100

If the fracture within area C (outside all gauge length): Extensometer cannot give a correct record for the elongation in this case as fra cture happened outside the gauge length so that manual measurement is the only w ay for measuring elongation in this case that is by following steps: Use the same method if the fracture takes place in B but using longer ga uge length. After calculation of elongation using a longer gauge length convert the elongation value using methods for conversion in ISO 2566/1.

Figure 5 There are three fracture areas A, B & C (figure 5): If the fracture within area A (middle half of gauge length):

Elongation is measured by one of the two methods mentioned in 2.1 & 2.2. If the fracture within area B (One fourth of gauge length nearest gauge mark and inside gauge length):

Figure 6 If the extensometer elongation record is higher than min. standard acceptable li mit no further measuring is needed if not elongation can be measured manually ac cording to the following steps (figure 6): In advance, divide the gauge length into suitable number of equal parts and mark graduation lines on them. After the test, fit the fractured parts together, determine the graduati on (a) nearest to the symmetrical point of the gauge mark on the shorter piece ( e1) with respect to the point of fracture (f), and measure the (e1a). Denote the number of equal divisions between the gauge mark (e2) and (a) as n on the longer fractured test piece: If the n is an even number, measure the distance between (a) and (b) locat ed at n/2 intervals in the direction to (e2) from (a). If the n is an odd number, measure the distance between (a) and (b) locate d at the center of graduation marks of (n-1)/2 and (n+1)/2 intervals. The estimated value is calculated from the following formula: Estimated EL= (e_1 a+ 2ab-Gauge length)/(Gauge length) 100 Where e1a : distance between e1 and a (mm) ab : distance between a and b (mm) Gauge length : Original gauge length (mm)

If the fracture within area C (outside all gauge length): Elongation value is not correct and the test needs to be repeated.

4. Summary

Standard

ASTM

DIN EN JIS

Number A370-11 & E8/E8M-09 10002-1 Z 2241 Figure 2 3 5 Fractured area (acc. each standard) A B A B C A B C Place middle 1/2 of Lg All outside A Middle 1/3 of Lg 1/3 of L g nearest gauge mark & inside Lg Outside all Lg middle half of Lg 1/4 of Lg nearest gauge mark & inside Lg Outside all Lg Action Extensometer or ordinary manual method Retest Extensometer or ordinary manual method Special manual method Only by special manual method followed b y conversation Extensometer or ordinary manual method Special manual method Retest Mentioned at 2.1 & 2.2 2.1 & 2.2 3.2 B 3.2 C 2.1 & 2. 2 4.2 B -

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