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THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATION SYSTEM The education system of the country includes formal and non-formal education.

Compared to other Asiancountries, the Philippine education system differs in a number of ways. Basic education in the Philippines is only 10years as against 12 in other countries. The Philippine education system is closely related to the American

system of formal education while other Asian countries are influenced by the English, French or Dutch system. The Philippines isusing a bilingual medium of instruction. Certain subjects are taught in English and the rest in the national language whichis Filipino. 2.1 Formal education The formal education is a sequential progression of academic schooling at three levels, namely,elementary,

secondary and tertiary or higher education. The structure of the formal system of education is illustratedbelow. THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Elementary education The first level, elementary or primary education, consists of compulsory six grades (Grades 1-6) for age group of 6 to 11. In addition, there is optional pre-school education which consists of

kindergarten schooling andother preparatory courses. At the age of 3 or 4, a pupil may enter nursery school, and at 6 years old proceeds to gradeone. Secondary education The second level, secondary education, corresponds to four years of high school for age group of 12to 15, the prerequisite of which is completion of elementary education. Higher education

The third level is tertiary or higher education where a student enters at age 16. Higher educationconsists of collegiate, masters and doctorate degree programs in various fields or disciplines including the post-secondary schooling leading to one-, two- or three-year non-degree technical or vocational courses.As of 1998, there are 46,654 schools in all levels, of which, 85 percent is public (see Table 1). Of the38,774

elementary schools, 92 percent is public. In the secondary level, of the 6,598 schools, 60 percent is public. And of the 1,282 higher education institutions, 20 percent is public. Enrolment statistics for all levels are shown in Table 2. 2.2 Non-formal education Non-formal education is an organized learning activity aimed at attaining a set of objectives outside theestablished formal system

intended for a particular clientele, especially the outof-school youth or adult illiterates whocannot avail themselves of formal education. Courses are skillsoriented and range from 6 to 10 months. 3. HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

Higher education lies at the apex of the education system. The philosophy, mission, vision and goals of higher education in the

Philippines as cited below are embodied in a comprehensive document of the Commission on Higher Education entitled Long-Term Higher Education Development Plan, 1996-2005. Philosophy In an environment of freedom, excellence and relevance, higher education harnesses, develops and catalyzesthe constructive and productive use of the full potentials and capabilities of

Filipino men and women into becomingcreative, decisive, competitive, critically thinking and acting individuals who contribute to the: 1) realization of Filipinoidentity and strong sense of national pride; 2) cultivation and inculcation of moral and spiritual foundation; 3) attainment of political maturity, economic stability and equitable social progress; and 4) preservation and

enrichment of the historicaland cultural heritage of the Filipinos, as a people and a nation. Mission Higher education shall be geared towards the pursuit of better quality of life for all Filipinos by emphasizing theacquisition of knowledge and formation of those skills necessary to make the individual a productive member of society. Itshall accelerate the development of

high-level professionals who will search for new knowledge, and provide leadership inthe various disciplines required by a dynamic and self-sustaining economy. Higher education shall likewise be used toharness the productive capacity of the countrys human resource base towards international competitiveness. Vision 2005 Higher education would have provided and expanded

opportunities for the technologically useful knowledgeand skills development of Filipinos, and would have constructively advanced the capabilities of Filipinos in society. Itwould have produced in the Filipinos the ability to critically think, act positively and contribute to the full development of the family, community and the larger society. Goals

The attainment of empowered and globally competitive Filipinos shall be ensured through: 1) provision of undergraduate and graduate education which meet international standards of quality and excellence; 2) generation anddiffusion of knowledge in the broad range of disciplines relevant and responsive to the dynamically changing domesticand international environment; 3) broaden the access of

deserving and qualified Filipinos to higher educationopportunities; and 4) optimization of social, institutional, and individual returns and benefits derived from the utilization of higher education resources. 3.1 Coordination of the higher education system Previously, the administration, supervision and regulation of higher education rests on the

Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) through its Bureau of Higher Education. However, in 1994, two laws were passedin Congress: 1) Republic Act No. 7722 creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED); and 2) Republic Act No.7796 creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA).As a result of the trifocalization of education in

1994, the DECS now concentrates only in theadministration, supervision and regulation of basic education (elementary and secondary education). TESDA, an agencyattached to the Department of Labor, is the one which oversees the post-secondary technical and vocational educationincluding skills orientation, training and development of out-of-school youth and unemployed

community adults. On theother hand, the system governance and policy guidance over public and private higher education institutions as well asdegreegranting programs in all postsecondary educational institutions rest on CHED, a department-level agency,independent from and co-equal with DECS. The CHED coordinates the programs of higher education

institutions andimplements the policies and standards. 3.2 Types of higher education institutions There are presently 1,282 higher education institutions in the country, broken down into: 98 stateuniversities and colleges, 105 CHEDsupervised institutions, 35 local universities and colleges, 14 other governmentschools, and 1,030 private institutions.

State universities and colleges (SUCs) are institutions funded by the national government. They havetheir own charters and are thus autonomous from CHED. CHED-supervised institutions are non-chartered colleges,directly under the supervision of CHED and whose annual budget allocation is integrated in the government

budgetappropriation for CHED. Local universities and colleges previously called community colleges are those operated,supported and maintained by local government units. In addition, there are other government schools offeringbachelors degrees and/or graduate degrees and advanced training such as military and police academies

which aresupervised and regulated by the Department of National Defense and Philippine National Police. Private institutions , on the other hand, are owned and administered by private individuals, groups or corporations. These are classified either as sectarian or non-sectarian colleges and universities. Sectarian schools (279)are usually nonstock, non-profit institutions, owned and operated by

religious orders. Nonsectarian schools (751) areowned by private corporations which are not affiliated to any religious organizations, majority are stock, a few are non-stock, non-profit corporations, and a number are foundations. 3.3 Institutional governance The CHED oversees the higher education system. It is an agency attached to the Office of the Presidentof the Philippines for administrative

purposes. CHED is responsible for administering and supervising both public andprivate higher education institutions in the Philippines. Higher education institutions establish and maintain their own internal organization. The framework of their organization is generally divided into two areas, namely: policy formulation and policy implementation. Theformulation and/or

approval of all policies, rules and standards in the school is the main function of the Governing Board.The implementation of policies and the management of the school operations are vested in the administration headed bythe President.The SUCs autonomy is assured by their individual charters. They are authorized to open curricula andinstitutional programs, and award their own degrees. However, on July 22, 1997, a

landmark legislation was madeenacting into law Republic Act 8292 otherwise known as the Higher Education Modernization Act of 1997. This Actprovides among others for the uniform composition and powers of the governing boards of SUCs with the Chairman of CHED as the Chair of the governing boards of all SUCs (previously chaired by the DECS Secretary). With this new set-up, in effect this

places all SUCs under the supervision, policy and development mandate of CHED. This enables theCHED to exert influence or provide proper guidance on the quality and directions of the academic programs as well as onthe internal operations of the SUCs.The private institutions, on the other hand, experience some degree of freedom only when their programsare Level III accredited. This means they

are already deregulated and can initiate reforms in their curricular offeringswithout the need for CHEDs approval. Otherwise, private schools have to apply for permit from CHED to open a course,and they have to apply for recognition of their programs in order to be allowed to graduate their students. Recognition of programs is granted if the institutions have fully complied the minimum

requirements prescribed by CHED. With regard toawarding of certificate, diploma or degree to students, this is done only if all academic requirements have satisfactorilybeen completed by the students. After verification of the information, the CHED issues a Special Order number which isnoted in the students transcript of records.In the case of CHEDsupervised institutions and

local universities and colleges, the CHED monitors theimplementation of policies, rules and standards. These institutions have to secure authority from CHED if they want toopen a course. If their program offerings have the necessary authority from CHED (or DECS previously), their graduatesare automatically recognized.

4. CHARACTERISTICS OF DEGREES AND DIPLOMAS The titles and description or abbreviation of the degrees and diplomas granted by the higher education institutions are as follows:Undergraduate level 1) Certificate, Diploma and Associate Programs These titles are awarded upon completion of programs requiring three months to three years of

study.These are non-degree technical or vocational education programs leading to skills proficiency which aremostly terminal in nature. Some one-, two-, and threeyear courses are components of ladder-typebachelors degree programs. 2) Bachelors Degree (Bachelor (B.), Bachelor of Arts (A.B.), Bachelor of Science (B.S.)) These titles are awarded upon completion of a minimum of

four years of study on a semestral basis. Someprograms however, require more than four years of study. If on trimester basis, the program may becompleted in less than four years.Graduate level 1) Certificate and Diploma Programs These titles are awarded upon completion of one or two years of study beyond the bachelors degree whichare

not equivalent to a masters degree. 2) Masters degree (Master (M.), Master of Arts (M.A.), Master of Science (M.S.), Master of Professional Studies (M.P.S.) These titles normally requires completion of four semesters of course work, about two years in duration.Some masters programs require a thesis, some do not.

3) Doctoral Degrees (Doctor (D.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)) These titles are awarded upon completion of two or three years of study beyond the masters degree. Adissertation is a requirement for graduation in the doctoral programs. 5. DISCIPLINES OR FIELDS OF STUDY All undergraduate and graduate degrees and diploma in the Philippines are

classified under the following nine(9) clusters of disciplines: 1) Agriculture Education; 2) Business and Management Education; 3) Engineering andArchitecture; 4) Health Profession Education; 5) Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication; 6) InformationTechnology; 7) Maritime Education; 8) Science and Mathematics; and 9) Teacher Education. Following are the fieldsor

disciplines included in each cluster. Agriculture Education Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering, Fisheries, Forestry and Veterinary MedicineBusiness and Management Commerce, Business Management/Administration , Economics, Business Economics, Accountancy,Banking and Finance, Marketing, Office Management, Secretarial

Administration, Customs AdministrationEngineering and Architecture Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electronics andCommunication Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, Geodetic Engineering,Aeronautical Engineering, Aerospace

Engineering, Aircraft Maintenance Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mining Engineering, Sanitary Engineering Architecture, Industrial Design Health Profession Anatomy, Anasthesiology, Biochemistry, Clinical Pathology, Legal Medicine, Microbiology, Neurology,Obstetrics, Opthalmology and Otorhinalaryngology, Parasitology, Pathology,

Pediatrics, Pharmacology andTherapeutics, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiology, Community Medicine, Health, Psychiatry,Radiology, Surgery and Orthopedics Nursing, Midwifery, Physical and Occupational Therapy, Nutrition and Dietetics, Optometry, MedicalTechnology, Dentistry Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication

Literature, Philosophy, Arts and Music History, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, and Anthropology Broadcasting, Film, Journalism, Advertising, Public Relations, Communication Research, CrossCulturalCommunication and Popular Culture Legal Education (Laws, Jurisprudence) Criminology Education Information Technology

Computer Science, Information Technology, Information Management, Information Science, Computer DataProcessing Management, Computer TechnologyMaritime Education Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Marine Transportation, Marine Engineering, Basic MerchantMarine Course Science and Mathematics

Natural Sciences and Applied Sciences such as Biology, Botany, Microbiology, Physiology, Zoology,Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physics, Geology, Astronomy, Meteorology, Oceanography, Metallurgy,Pharmacology Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Statistics, Applied StatisticsTeacher Education Elementary Education, Secondary

Education, Agricultural Education, Fisheries Education, IndustrialEducation 6. INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE DIPLOMA The diploma or certificates being granted after completion of a degree contain information on the name of therecipient of the degree, the title awarded and the field of study, the university or college

conferring the diploma and itsauthorized signatories which are usually the President/Head and the Dean or Registrar. 7. STUDY PROGRAMS 7.1 Sequence and duration of studies The minimum required total number of credits units for four-year bachelors degree programs rangesfrom 120 to about 190 units.For the required minimum number of units for the general

education subjects in all baccalaureateprograms, there are two options. Option A consisting of 63 units is meant for tertiary courses of study in the Humanities,Social Sciences and Communication. Students majoring in fields other than the Humanities, Social Sciences andCommunication may follow another set of minimum requirements consisting of 51 units (Option

B).Subject Number of UnitsOption A Option BEnglish 9 6Filipino 9 6Literature 6 -Mathematics 6 6Natural sciences 6 6Science Elective 3 3Humanities 6 9 (including Literature,Art, Philosophy)Social sciences 12 12Mandated Subject 6 3TOTAL 63 51For graduate programs, the minimum number of credit units are as follows: M a s t e r s program -------------30 - 3 6 u n i t s (24 to 30 units

of course work, inclusive of required common core subjects of about 12 units, plusadditional 6 units for thesis) Doctoral program -------------45 - 60 u n i t s (inclusive of required common core subjects of 12 units or more and 12 units of doctoral dissertation)It should be noted that the number of units over and above the minimum requirement varies

from one institutionto another. Within course programs, there are no general regulations as to sequence.One unit of credit is one hour lecture or recitation each week for the period of a complete semester of 16 to 18 weeks. Inall courses, two and a half to three hours of laboratory work, and, in technical courses, three hours of drafting or shopwork, are regarded as the equivalent of one hour of recitation or

lecture.Following are the duration of study of programs offered in the Philippines: Course programs Minimum number of yearsUndergraduate Science and Mathematics 4 Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication 4 Information Technology 4 Health-Related 4-5

Medicine(4 years baccalaureate plus 4 years proper) 8 Veterinary Medicine 6 Dentistry (2 years pre-dental plus 4 years proper) 6 Engineering and Architecture 5 Marine Engineering 4 Business and Management 4

Agriculture Education 4 Teacher Education 4 Law (4 years baccalaureate plus 4 years proper) 8 Criminology 4Graduate Masters program 2 Doctoral program 3 7.2 Work experience as part of the curriculum

In some fields of study like Business Education, Teacher Education, Engineering, Agriculture, Medicineand other Health-Related courses, work experience during a semester is required. This can be in the form of practical, on-the-job training or occupational internship, community work or extension activities.Furthermore, it is recognized that education and the acquisition of higher

expertise can also take place inthe workplace and beyond the confines of the classroom. In view of this, on May 10, 1996, Executive Order No. 330 wasissued to implement the Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and Accreditation Program (ETEEAP) as an integralpart of the educational system in the Philippines. A system of academic equivalency and validation of the knowledge andexperience derived by

individuals from relevant work experiences and highlevel, non-formal and informal training towardthe awarding of an appropriate academic degree is being implemented by the Commission on Higher Education throughthe deputized higher education institutions. 7.3 Grading system The higher education institutions normally give oral and written examinations

to evaluate the studentsperformance in a particular semester. Aside from these, students interest, attitude and attendance as well as submissionof class requirements such as term papers, projects, etc. are generally included in computing the final grades.The higher education institutions use letters, grade point average or percentages in rating the studentsperformance. Below

is the grading system commonly used in the undergraduate and graduate programs: Letter Meaning Grade Point Percentage A Excellent 1.00 97-1001.25 94-96A- Very good 1.50 91931.75 88-90B+ Good/above average 2.00 85-872.25 8284B- Passed 3.00 75C Conditional Failure 4.00F Failure 5.00 Below 75W WithdrawnUW Unauthorized WithdrawalINC

IncompleteNC No CreditDRP Dropped 8. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS Generally, each higher education institution adopts a certain admission policy. Some institutions require passing theentrance examination and medical examination. Some adopt open admission but selective retention. As part of the

academic freedom being enjoyed by the higher education institutions, it is their right to determine who shall be admitted tostudy. The specific admission requirements are described below. 8.1 Undergraduate programs Eligible for admission to the baccalaureate programs are graduates of secondary education. There arehowever some special admission

requirements for dentistry, medicine and law programs.In dentistry, the applicant-student who wishes to continue in the dentistry proper should get a Certificateof Admission (COA) from the institutions they wish to enroll. He must be a graduate of a predentistry course whichshould include 15 units of English, 3 units of Mathematics, 10 units of Chemistry, 5 units of Physics, 10 units of Zoology,

5units of Botany, 12 units of Social Science subjects, 9 units of Filipino and 3 units of Personal and Community Hygiene.In medicine, students who have finished a four-year baccalaureate degree and wish to pursuemedicine as a second degree should pass the National Medical Admission Test (NMAT) and secure a Certificate of Eligibility to Medicine (CEM) from the institutions they wish to

enroll. The applicant must have earned 15 units of Biology,10 units of Chemistry, 9 units of Mathematics, 5 units of Physics and 12 units of Social Science subjects.Likewise, students who wish to pursue a degree in law should have a fouryear baccalaureate degreeand secure a Certificate of Eligibility for Law (CEL) from the institutions they wish to enroll. The applicant

must haveearned 18 units of English, 6 units of Mathematics and 18 units of Social Science subjects. 8.2 Graduate programs Admission to the masters program requires entrants to have a general weighted average of at least 85 or B or 2 in the undergraduate course. On the other hand, a weighted average of at least 1.75 in the masters degree is arequirement for admission to the doctorate program.

9. DEGREE CONFERRING AGENCIES The individual higher education institutions confer the degrees. State universities and colleges are authorized todo so by virtue of their respective charter. The private institutions are authorized to confer degrees if their programofferings are recognized by the Commission on Higher Education (previously by DECS). Similarly, the

CHED-supervisedinstitutions and local universities and colleges are allowed to confer degrees if their program offerings have the necessaryauthority from CHED. 10. ASSESSMENT AND ACCREDITATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS The Commission on Higher Education is the agency of government which is mandated to set and

enforceminimum standards for programs and institutions of higher learning and at the same time, monitor and evaluate their performance for appropriate incentives as well as imposition of sanctions such as diminution or withdrawal of subsidy,recommendation on the downgrading or withdrawal of accreditation, program termination or school closure. It is

alsotasked to set standards, policies and guidelines for the creation of new schools as well as conversion or elevation of schools to institutions of higher learning.To attain standards of quality over and above the minimum required by the government, the Commission onHigher Education encourages and provides incentives to public and private institutions whose programs are accredited.The

Commission authorizes the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines (FAAP) as the agency that wouldcertify the accredited status of programs granted by the different accrediting agencies, namely: the Association of Christian Schools and Colleges Accrediting Agency, Inc. (ACSC-AAI), the Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools,Colleges and Universities (PAASCU),

the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities Commission onAccreditation (PACUCOA), and the Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges and Universities of the Philippines(AACUP).The major steps in the accreditation process are as follows: 1) institutional selfsurvey or self-evaluation; 2)preliminary visit (4 to 6 months after the start of self-

survey); 3) formal survey visit (a minimum of 6 months after preliminary visit); and 4) decision by governing board of accrediting agency.The levels of accreditation are as follows:a. Level I applicant status: for programs which have undergone a preliminary survey visit and are certified by the FAAP asbeing capable of acquiring an accredited status within two years;b. Level II accredited status: for

programs which have been granted accredited status by any of the member agencies of the FAAP and whose status is certified by the latter;c. Level III accredited status: for programs which have at least been reaccredited and have met additional requirementsbased on criteria/guidelines set by FAAP; andd. Level IV accredited status: institutions which have distinguished themselves in a broad area of

academic disciplinesand enjoy prestige and authority comparable to that of international universities.The benefits for the different accreditation levels are as follows:a. Level I - partial administrative deregulation.b. Level II full administrative deregulation, financial deregulation in terms of setting tuition and other fees, partialcurricular autonomy, authority to graduate students without

prior approval of CHED and without need for SpecialOrders, priority funding assistance, priority for government subsidy for faculty development, right to use on itspublications or advertisements the word ACCREDITED, and limited visitation/inspection and/or supervision byCHED.c. Level III all the benefits for Level II and full curricular deregulation.

d. Level IV all the benefits for Levels II and III, award of grants/subsidies from the CHEDs Higher EducationDevelopment Fund (HEDF), and grant of charter or full autonomy. 11. DIPLOMAS AND PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE The government regulates the practice of profession in the Philippines. Graduates in the following fields areentitled to practice their profession if

they pass the licensure or board examinations being given by the ProfessionalRegulation Commission (PRC): Accountancy Mechanical Engineering Aeronautical Engineering Medical Technology Agricultural Engineering Medicine Architecture Metallurgical Engineering Chemical Engineering Midwifery Chemistry Mining Engineering Civil

Engineering Naval Architecture andMarine Engineering Criminology Nursing Customs Broker Nutrition and Dietetics Dentistry Optometry Electrical Engineering Pharmacy Electronics & CommunicationsEngineering Physical Therapy Environmental Planning Occupational Therapy Forestry Radiologic Technology Geodetic Engineering Sanitary

Engineering Geology Social work Library Science Veterinary Medicine Marine Deck Teacher Education Marine Engineering Interior Design Master Plumbing Landscape ArchitectureIn the case of law, the Supreme Court administers the bar examination. 12. INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF DEGREES

The Philippines is a signatory of UNESCO Regional Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas andDegrees in Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific which was held in Bangkok, Thailand on December 12-16, 1983.However, the Congress of the Philippines has not yet ratified this agreement. TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOLS IN THE PHILIPPINES, 1998Level

Number of Schools TotalPublic Private Elementary 35,550 3,224 38,774Secondary 3,955 2,643 6,598Higher Education 252 1,030 1,282Total 39,757 6,897 46,654 TABLE 2: ENROLMENT STATISTICS IN THE PHILIPPINES, SY 19971998Level Number of Schools TotalPublic Private Elementary 11,238,015 921,480 12,159,495Secondary

3,601,353 1,378,442 4,979,795Higher Education 515,024 1,616,928 2,131,952Total 15,354,392 3,916,850 19,271,242 Data Source : Department of Education, Culture and Sports (CHED). 1998 Fact Sheet. Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Development Indicators on

Higher Education (19901999). May 1998.


is a term defined by theOxford English Dictionaryas an

individual's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". It usually is considered to pertain toremunerative work (and sometimes also

formaleducation).A career is traditionally seen as a course of successive situations that make up a person'sworklife. One can have asportingcareer or amusicalcareer

without being a professional athleteor musician,b ut most frequently "career" in the 20th centuryreferenced the series of jobs or positions by which one earned one's money. It tended to

look only at the past.As the idea of personal choice and self direction picks up in the 21st century, aided by the power of the Internet and the increased acceptance of

people having multiple kinds of work, the idea of a career is shifting from a closed set of achievements, like achronologicalrsu mof past jobs, to a defined set of pursuits looking

forward. In its broadest sense, career refers to an individualswork an d life roles over their lifespan.In the relatively staticsocietiesbefore modernism,many workers would often

inherit or take up a single lifelong position (a place or role ) in theworkforce, and the concept of anunfolding career had little or no meaning. With the spread duringthe

Enlightenment of the idea of progress and of the habits of individualistselfbetterment, careers became possible, if not expected.Career Assessments are tests that come in a

variety of forms and rely on both quantitativeand qualitative methodologies. Career Assessments can help individuals identify and better articulate their unique interests,

values, and skills.Career counselors, executiv e coaches,career development centers,and outplace ment companiesoften administer career assessments to help

individuals focus their search on careers that closely matchtheir unique personal profile.Career counselingadvisors assess people's interests, personality, values

and skills, andalso help them explore career options and research graduate and professional schools.Career counseling provides one-on-one or group professional assistance in

explorationand decision making tasks related to choosing a major/occupation, transitioning into theworld of work or further professional training. The field is vast and includes

career placement, career planning, learning strategies and student development.By the late 20th century a plethora of choices (especially in the range of potential professions

) and more widespreadeducatio nhad allowed it to become fashionablet o plan (or design) a career: in this respect the careers of the career counsellor and of the career advisor

have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th/early 21stcenturies to have dual or multiple careers, either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional

identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. EconomistRichard Florida notes this trend generally and more specifically

among the "creative class."