r
X
i
v
:
g
r

q
c
/
0
4
0
1
0
8
3
v
1
1
8
J
a
n
2
0
0
4
Thin shells around traversable wormholes
Francisco S. N. Lobo
(x
+
) and g
(x
), in terms
of independently dened coordinate systems x
+
and x
,
respectively, with induced metrics g
+
ij
and g
ij
. The hypersurfaces are isometric, i.e., g
+
ij
() = g
ij
() = g
ij
(), in terms
of the intrinsic coordinates, invariant under the isometry. A single manifold M is obtained by gluing together M
+
and M
.
The three holonomic basis vectors e
(i)
= /
i
tangent to have the following components e
(i)

= x
/
i
,
which provide the induced metric on the junction surface by the following scalar product
g
ij
= e
(i)
e
(j)
= g
(i)
e
(j)

. (1)
We shall consider a timelike junction surface , dened by the parametric equation of the form f(x
(
i
)) = 0. The
unit normal 4vector, n
, to is dened as
n
f
x
f
x
1/2
f
x
, (2)
with n
= +1 and n
(i)
= 0. The Israel formalism requires that the normals point from M
to M
+
[10].
The extrinsic curvature, or the second fundamental form, is dened as K
ij
= n
;
e
(i)
e
(j)
, or
K
ij
= n
_
2
x
j
+
i
x
j
_
. (3)
Note that for the case of a thin shell K
ij
is not continuous across , so that for notational convenience, the discontinuity
in the second fundamental form is dened as
ij
= K
+
ij
K
ij
.
Now, the Lanczos equations follow from the Einstein equations for the hypersurface, and are given by
S
i
j
=
1
8
(
i
j
i
j
k
k
) , (4)
where S
i
j
is the surface stressenergy tensor on .
The rst contracted GaussKodazzi equation or the Hamiltonian constraint
G
=
1
2
(K
2
K
ij
K
ij
3
R) , (5)
with the Einstein equations provide the evolution identity
S
ij
K
ij
= [T
/8] . (6)
The convention [X] X
+

and X (X
+

+ X
)/2 is used.
The second contracted GaussKodazzi equation or the ADM constraint
G
(i)
n
= K
j
ij
K,
i
, (7)
with the Lanczos equations gives the conservation identity
S
i
ji
=
_
T
(j)
n
_
. (8)
3
In particular, considering spherical symmetry considerable simplications occur, namely
i
j
= diag
_
_
.
The surface stressenergy tensor may be written in terms of the surface energy density, , and the surface pressure,
p, as S
i
j
= diag(, p, p). The Lanczos equations then reduce to
=
1
4
, (9)
p =
1
8
(
) . (10)
III. CUT AND PASTE TECHNIQUE: THINSHELL WORMHOLES WITH A COSMOLOGICAL
CONSTANT
In this section we shall construct a class of wormhole solutions, in the presence of a cosmological constant, using
the cutandpaste technique. Consider the unique spherically symmetric vacuum solution, i.e.,
ds
2
=
_
1
2M
r
3
r
2
_
dt
2
+
_
1
2M
r
3
r
2
_
1
dr
2
+ r
2
(d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
). (11)
If > 0, the solution is denoted by the Schwarzschildde Sitter metric. For < 0, we have the Schwarzschildanti de
Sitter metric, and of course the specic case of = 0 is reduced to the Schwarzschild solution. Note that the metric
(1) is not asymptotically at as r . Rather, it is asymptotically de Sitter, if > 0, or asymptotically antide
Sitter, if < 0. But, considering low values of , the metric is almost at in the range M r 1/
. For values
below this range, the eects of M dominate, and for values above the range, the eects of dominate, as for large
values of the radial coordinate the largescale structure of the spacetime must be taken into account.
The specic case of = 0 is reduced to the Schwarzschild solution, with a black hole event horizon at r
b
= 2M.
Consider the Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime, > 0. If 0 < 9M
2
< 1, the factor g(r) = (1 2M/r r
2
/3)
possesses two positive real roots, r
b
and r
c
, corresponding to the black hole and the cosmological event horizons of
the de Sitter spacetime, respectively, given by
r
b
= 2
1/2
cos(/3) , (12)
r
c
= 2
1/2
cos(/3 + 4/3) , (13)
where cos 3M
1/2
, with < < 3/2. In this domain we have 2M < r
b
< 3M and r
c
> 3M.
For the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter metric, with < 0, the factor g(r) =
_
1 2M/r +r
2
/3
_
has only one real
positive root, r
b
, given by
r
b
=
_
3M

_
1/3
_
_
3
_
1 +
1 +
1
9M
2
+
3
_
1
1 +
1
9M
2
_
_
, (14)
corresponding to a black hole event horizon, with 0 < r
b
< 2M.
A. The cutandpaste construction
Given this, we may construct a wormhole solution, using the cutandpaste technique [2, 7, 8]. Consider two vacuum
solutions with and remove from each spacetime the region described by
{r
a a > r
b
} , (15)
where a is a constant and r
b
is the black hole event horizon, corresponding to the Schwarzschildde Sitter and
Schwarzschildanti de Sitter solutions, equation (12) and equation (14), respectively. The removal of the regions
results in two geodesically incomplete manifolds, with boundaries given by the following timelike hypersurfaces
{r
= a a > r
b
} . (16)
Identifying these two timelike hypersurfaces,
+
=
= d
2
+ a
2
() (d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
) , (17)
where is the proper time as measured by a comoving observer on the wormhole throat.
B. The surface stresses
The imposition of spherical symmetry is sucient to conclude that there is no gravitational radiation, independently
of the behavior of the wormhole throat. The position of the throat is given by x
=
_
_
1 2M/a a
2
/3 + a
2
1 2M/a a
2
/3
, a, 0, 0
_
, (18)
where the overdot denotes a derivative with respect to .
The unit normal to the throat may be determined by equation (2) or by the contractions, U
= 0 and n
= +1,
and is given by
n
=
_
a
1 2M/a a
2
/3
,
_
1 2M/a a
2
/3 + a
2
, 0, 0
_
. (19)
Using equation (3), equation (11) and equation (19), the nontrivial components of the extrinsic curvature are given
by
K
=
1
a
_
1 2M/a a
2
/3 + a
2
, (20)
K
=
M/a
2
a/3 + a
_
1 2M/a a
2
/3 + a
2
, (21)
Thus, the Einstein eld equations, equations (9)(10), with equations (20)(21), then provide us with the following
surface stresses
=
1
2a
_
1 2M/a a
2
/3 + a
2
, (22)
p =
1
4a
1 M/a 2a
2
/3 + a
2
+ a a
_
1 2M/a a
2
/3 + a
2
. (23)
We also verify that the above equations imply the conservation of the surface stressenergy tensor
= 2 ( + p)
a
a
(24)
or
d (A)
d
+ p
dA
d
= 0 , (25)
where A = 4a
2
is the area of the wormhole throat. The rst term represents the variation of the internal energy of
the throat, and the second term is the work done by the throats internal forces.
C. Linearized stability analysis
Equation (22) may be recast into the following dynamical form
a
2
2M
a
3
a
2
(2a)
2
= 1 , (26)
5
which determines the motion of the wormhole throat. Considering an equation of state of the form, p = p(), the
energy conservation, equation (24), can be integrated to yield
ln(a) =
1
2
_
d
+ p()
. (27)
This result formally inverted to provide = (a), can be nally substituted into equation (26). The latter can also
be written as a
2
= V (a), with the potential dened as
V (a) = 1
2M
a
3
a
2
(2a)
2
. (28)
One may explore specic equations of state, but following the PoissonVisser analysis [15], we shall consider a linear
perturbation around a static solution with radius a
0
. The respective values of the surface energy density and the
surface pressure, at a
0
, are given by
0
=
1
2a
0
_
1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3 , (29)
p
0
=
1
4a
0
1 M/a
0
2a
2
0
/3
_
1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3
. (30)
One veries that the surface energy density is always negative, implying the violation of the weak and dominant
energy conditions. One may verify that the null and strong energy conditions are satised for a
0
3M for a generic
, for a generic cosmological constant [16].
Linearizing around the stable solution at a = a
0
, we consider a Taylor expansion of V (a) around a
0
to second order,
which provides
V (a) = V (a
0
) + V
(a
0
)(a a
0
) +
1
2
V
(a
0
)(a a
0
)
2
+ O
_
(a a
0
)
3
, (31)
where the prime denotes a derivative with respect to a, d/da.
Dene the parameter () = dp/d = p
is normally
interpreted as the speed of sound. Evaluated at the static solution, at a = a
0
, using equations (29)(30), we readily
nd V (a
0
) = 0 and V
(a
0
) = 0, with V
(a
0
) given by
V
(a
0
) =
2
a
2
0
_
2M
a
0
+
3
a
2
0
+
_
M/a
0
a
2
0
/3
_
2
1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3
+ (1 + 2
0
)
_
1
3M
a
0
_
_
, (32)
where
0
= (
0
).
The potential V (a), equation (31), is reduced to
V (a) =
1
2
V
(a
0
)(a a
0
)
2
+ O
_
(a a
0
)
3
, (33)
so that the equation of motion for the wormhole throat presents the following form
a
2
=
1
2
V
(a
0
)(a a
0
)
2
+ O
_
(a a
0
)
3
, (34)
to the order of approximation considered. If V
(a
0
) < 0 is veried, then the potential V (a
0
) has a local maximum at
a
0
, where a small perturbation in the wormhole throats radius will provoke an irreversible contraction or expansion
of the throat. Thus, the solution is stable if and only if V (a
0
) has a local minimum at a
0
and V
(a
0
) > 0, i.e.,
0
_
1
3M
a
0
_
<
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
Ma
0
2 (1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3)
. (35)
We need to analyze equation (35) for several cases. The right hand side of equation (35) is always negative [16],
while the left hand side changes sign at a
0
= 3M. Thus, one deduces that the stability regions are dictated by the
following inequalities
0
<
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
Ma
0
2 (1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
> 3M (36)
0
>
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
Ma
0
2 (1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
< 3M. (37)
One may analyze several cases.
6
1. De Sitter spacetime.
For the de Sitter spacetime, with M = 0 and > 0, equation (35) reduces to
0
<
1
2 (1 a
2
0
/3)
, for 0 < a
0
<
_
3/. (38)
The stability region is depicted in the left plot of gure 1.
2. Antide Sitter spacetime.
For the antide Sitter spacetime, with M = 0 and < 0, equation (35) gives
0
<
1
2 (1 + a
2
0
/3)
, for a
0
> 0 , (39)
and the respective stability region is depicted in the right plot of gure 1.
Stable
De Sitter solution
(> 0)
4
3
2
1
0
Stable
(< 0)
Antide Sitter solution
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1 2 3 4 5
0
<
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
2 (1 2M/a) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
> 3M , (40)
0
>
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
2 (1 2M/a) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
< 3M . (41)
The stability regions are shown in the left plot of gure 2.
4. Schwarzschildanti de Sitter spacetime.
For the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter spacetime, with < 0, we have
0
<
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
+ Ma
0
2 (1 2M/a
0
+  a
2
0
/3) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
> 3M (42)
0
>
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
+ Ma
0
2 (1 2M/a
0
+  a
2
0
/3) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
< 3M (43)
The regions of stability are depicted in the right plot of gure 2, considering the value 9M
2
= 0.9. In this case,
the black hole event horizon is given by r
b
1.8 M. We verify that the regions of stability decrease, relatively to the
Schwarzschild case.
7
Stable
= 0
Stable
6
4
2
0
2
4
6

2
Stable
Stable
9 M = 0.9
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
FIG. 2: We have dened = a0/M. The regions of stability are depicted for the Schwarzschild and the Schwarzschildanti
de Sitter solutions, respectively. Imposing the value 9M
2
= 0.9 in the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter case, we verify that the
stability regions decrease relatively to the Schwarzschild solution.
5. Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime.
For the Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime, with > 0, we have
0
<
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
Ma
0
2 (1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
> 3M (44)
0
>
1 3M/a
0
+ 3M
2
/a
2
0
Ma
0
2 (1 2M/a
0
a
2
0
/3) (1 3M/a
0
)
, a
0
< 3M. (45)
The regions of stability are depicted in gure 3 for increasing values of 9M
2
. In particular, for 9M
2
= 0.7 the
black hole and cosmological horizons are given by r
b
2.33 M and r
c
= 4.71 M, respectively. Thus, only the interval
2.33 < a
0
/M < 4.71 is taken into account, as shown in the range of the respective plot. Analogously, for 9M
2
= 0.9,
we nd r
b
2.56 M and r
c
= 3.73 M. Therefore only the range within the interval 2.56 < a
0
/M < 3.73 corresponds
to the stability regions, also shown in the respective plot.
We verify that for large values of , or large M, the regions of stability are signicantly increased, relatively to the
= 0 case.
IV. A THIN SHELL AROUND A TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLE
As an alternative to the thinshell wormhole, constructed using the cutandpaste technique analyzed above, one
may also consider that the exotic matter is distributed from the throat r
0
to a radius a, where the solution is matched
to an exterior vacuum spacetime. Thus, the thin shell connes the exotic matter threading the wormhole to a nite
region, with a deltafunction distribution of the stressenergy tensor on the junction surface.
We shall match the interior wormhole solution [1]
ds
2
= e
2(r)
dt
2
+
dr
2
1 b(r)/r
+ r
2
(d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
) , (46)
to the exterior vacuum solution
ds
2
=
_
1
2M
r
3
r
2
_
dt
2
+
_
1
2M
r
3
r
2
_
1
dr
2
+ r
2
(d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
) , (47)
at a junction surface, . Thus, the intrinsic metric to is given by
ds
2
= d
2
+ a
2
(d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
) . (48)
Note that the junction surface, r = a, is situated outside the event horizon, i.e., a > r
b
, to avoid a black hole solution.
8
2
Stable
9 M = 0.3
Stable
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
3 4 5 6
2
9 M = 0.5
Stable
Stable
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
Stable
Stable
9 M = 0.7
2
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
2
Stable
9 M = 0.9
Stable
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
FIG. 3: We have dened = a0/M. The regions of stability for the Schwarzschildde Sitter solution, imposing 9M
2
= 0.3,
9M
2
= 0.5, 9M
2
= 0.7 and 9M
2
= 0.9, respectively. The regions of stability are signicantly increased, relatively to the
= 0 case, for increasing values of 9M
2
.
Thus, using equation (3), the nontrivial components of the extrinsic curvature are given by
K
+
=
M
a
2
3
a
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
, (49)
K
(a)
_
1
b(a)
a
, (50)
and
K
+
=
1
a
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
, (51)
K
=
1
a
_
1
b(a)
a
. (52)
The Einstein equations, equations (9)(10), with the extrinsic curvatures, equations (49)(52), then provide us with
the following expressions for the surface stresses
=
1
4a
_
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
_
1
b(a)
a
_
, (53)
p =
1
8a
_
_
1
M
a
2
3
a
2
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
_
1
b(a)
a
_
_
, (54)
with = 1 + a
(a). If the surface stressenergy terms are null, the junction is denoted as a boundary surface. If
surface stress terms are present, the junction is called a thin shell, which is represented in gure 4.
9
a r
0
(int) (ext)
t
Identify
a r
0
t
n
Surface
stresses
(S )
i
j
(ext) (int)
FIG. 4: Two copies of static timelike hypersurfaces, , embedded in asymptotic regions, separating an interior wormhole
solution from an exterior vacuum spacetime. Both copies are identied at the wormhole throat, r0. The surface stresses reside
on , and members of the normal vector eld, n
, are shown.
The surface mass of the thin shell is given by
M
shell
= 4a
2
= a
__
1
b(a)
a
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
_
. (55)
One may interpret M as the total mass of the system, in this case being the total mass of the wormhole in one
asymptotic region. Thus, solving equation (55) for M, we nally have
M =
b(a)
2
+ M
shell
__
1
b(a)
a
M
shell
2a
_
6
a
3
. (56)
A. Energy conditions at the junction surface
The junction surface may serve to conne the interior wormhole exotic matter to a nite region, which in principle
may be made arbitrarily small, and one may impose that the surface stressenergy tensor obeys the energy conditions
at the junction, [2, 26].
We shall only consider the weak energy condition (WEC) and the null energy condition (NEC). The WEC implies
0 and + p 0, and by continuity implies the null energy condition (NEC), + p 0.
From eqs. (53)(54), we deduce
+ p =
1
8a
_
_
(2 )
_
1
b(a)
a
1
3M
a
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
_
_
. (57)
We shall next nd domains in which the NEC is satised, by imposing that the surface energy density is nonnegative,
0, i.e.,
_
1 b(a)/a
_
1 2M/a a
2
/3.
1. Schwarzschild solution
Consider the Schwarzschild solution, = 0 and we impose that the surface energy density is nonnegative, 0.
For the particular case of 1, from equation (57) we verify that + p 0 is readily satised for a.
For 1 < < 2, the NEC is veried in the following region
2M < a 2M
_
1
2
1
_
. (58)
10
For convenience, by dening a new parameter = 2M/a, equation (58) takes the form
1
1
2
< 1 . (59)
For = 2, the NEC is satised for 2/3, i.e., a 3M. For > 2, we need to impose the NEC in the region of
equation (59); with + p < 0 for < ( 1)/( 1/2).
2. Schwarzschildde Sitter solution
For the Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime, > 0, we shall once again impose a nonnegative surface energy density,
0. Consider the denitions = 9M
2
and = 2M/a.
For < 2 the condition + p 0 is readily met for
0
, with
0
given by
0
=
27
4
2
(2 )
_
(1 ) +
_
1
2
_
_
. (60)
Choosing a particular example, for instance = 0.5, consider gure 5. The region of interest is shown below the
solid line, which is given by
r
= 27
2
(1 )/4. The case of = 0.5 is depicted as a dashed curve, and the NEC is
obeyed to the right of the latter.
For = 2, then the NEC is veried for and 2/3, i.e., r
b
< a 3M, with r
b
given by equation (12). This
analysis is depicted in gure 5, to the right of the dashed curve, represented by = 2.
For the case of > 2, the condition + p 0 needs to be imposed in the region
0
r
; and + p < 0 for
<
0
. The specic case of = 5 is depicted as a dashed curve in gure 5. The NEC needs to be imposed to the
right of the respective curve.
=2
= 0.5 =5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
FIG. 5: Analysis of the null energy condition for the Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime. We have considered the denitions
= 9M
2
and = 2M/a. Only the region below the solid line is of interest. We have considered specic examples, and the
NEC is obeyed to the right of each respective dashed curves, = 0.5, = 2 and = 5. See text for details.
3. Schwarzschildanti de Sitter solution
Considering the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter spacetime, < 0, once again a nonnegative surface energy density,
0, is imposed. Consider the denitions = 9M
2
and = 2M/a.
For 1 the condition + p 0 is readily met for and . For 1 < < 2, the NEC is satised in the region
0
, with
0
given by
0
=
27
4
2
(2 )
_
(1 ) +
_
1
2
_
_
. (61)
The particular case of = 1.8 is depicted in gure 6. The region of interest is delimited by the axis and the area
to the left of the solid curve, which is given by
r
= 27
2
( 1)/4. Thus, the NEC is obeyed above the dashed curve
represented by the value = 1.8.
11
For = 2, then + p 0 is veried for and 3/2, i.e., r
b
< a 3M, with r
b
given by equation (14). Thus,
the NEC is obeyed to the right of the dashed curve represented by = 2, and to the left of the solid line,
r
.
For the case of > 2, the condition + p 0 needs to be imposed in the region
r
0
. The specic case of
= 3 is depicted in gure 6 as a dashed curve. Thus, the NEC needs to be imposed in the region to the right of the
respective dashed curve and to the left of the solid line,
r
.
=2
=1.8
=3
0
1
2
3
4
5
FIG. 6: Analysis of the null energy condition for the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter spacetime. We have considered the denitions
= 9M
2
and = 2M/a. The only area of interest is depicted to the left of the solid curve, given by r = 27
2
( 1)/4.
For the specic case of = 1.8, the NEC is obeyed above the respective curve. For the cases of = 2 and = 3, the NEC is
veried to the right of the respective dashed curves, and to the left of the solid line. See text for details.
B. Specic cases
Taking into account equations (53)(54), one may express p as a function of by the following relationship
p =
1
8a
_
_
(1 ) + (
1
2
)
2M
a
(2 )
3
a
2
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
4a
_
_
. (62)
We shall analyze equation (62), namely, nd domains in which p assumes the nature of a tangential surface pressure,
p > 0, or a tangential surface tension, p < 0, for the Schwarzschild case, = 0, the Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime,
> 0, and for the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter solution, < 0. In the analysis that follows we shall consider that M
is positive, M > 0.
1. Schwarzschild spacetime
For the Schwarzschild spacetime, = 0, equation (62) reduces to
p =
1
8a
_
_
(1 ) + (
1
2
)
2M
a
_
1
2M
a
4a
_
_
. (63)
To nd domains in which p is a tangential surface pressure, p > 0, or a tangential surface tension, p < 0, it is
convenient to express equation (63) in the following compact form
p =
1
16M
(, , )
1
, (64)
with = 2M/a and = 8M. (, , ) is dened as
(, , ) = (1 ) +
_
1
2
_
_
1 . (65)
One may now x one or several of the parameters and analyze the sign of (, , ), and consequently the sign of p.
12
Fixed , varying and . For instance, consider a xed value of , varying the parameters (, ), i.e., consider a
xed value of a
(a) and vary the values of the junction radius, a, and of the surface energy density, . It is necessary
to separate the cases of = 0, > 0 and < 0, respectively.
Firstly, for the case of = 0, equation (65) reduces to (, = 0, ) =
2
/2, which is always positive, as
0 < < 1, implying a tangential surface pressure, p > 0.
Secondly, for > 0, the qualitative behavior can be represented by the specic case of = 1, corresponding to a
constant redshift function and depicted in gure 7. For nonpositive values of and a surface pressure, p > 0, is
required to hold the thin shell structure against collapse. Close to the black hole event horizon, a 2M, i.e. 1,
a surface pressure is also needed to hold the structure against collapse. For high values of and low values of , a
surface tangential tension, p < 0, is needed to hold the structure against expansion. In particular, for the constant
redshift function,
(r) = 0, and a null surface energy density, = 0, i.e., = 1 and = 0, respectively, equation
(65) reduces to () =
2
/2, from which we readily conclude that p is nonnegative everywhere, tending to zero at
innity, i.e., 0. This is a particular case analyzed in [20]. Note that a surface boundary, with p = 0 and = 0, is
given by = ( 1)/( 1/2), for > 1.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
2
0
2
(,)
FIG. 7: The surface represents the sign of p for the Schwarzschild spacetime, = 0, with a constant redshift function,
(r) = 0,
i.e., = 1. For nonpositive values of and , we have a surface tangential pressure, p > 0. For extremely high values of
(close to the black hole event horizon) and , a surface pressure is also required to hold the structure against collapse. For
high and low , we have a tangential surface tension, p < 0. See text for details.
Finally, for the < 0 case, the qualitative behavior can be represented by the specic case of = 1, depicted in
gure 8. For nonnegative values of and for , a surface pressure, p > 0, is required. For low negative values of
and for low values of , a surface tension is needed, which is somewhat intuitive as a negative surface energy density
is gravitationally repulsive, requiring a surface tension to hold the structure against expansion.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
2
0
2
(,)
FIG. 8: The surface is given by equation (65) for the Schwarzschild spacetime, = 0, with = 1. For nonnegative values of
and , we have a surface tangential pressure, p > 0. For negative values of and low , a tangential surface tension, p < 0,
is required to hold the structure against expansion. See text for details.
13
2. Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime
For the Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime with > 0, to analyze the sign of p, it is convenient to express equa
tion(62) in the following compact form
p =
1
16M
(, , , )
_
1
4
27
2
, (66)
with = 2M/a, = 8M and = 9M
2
. (, , , ) is dened as
(, , , ) = (1 ) +
_
1
2
_
4
27
(2 )
1
4
27
2
. (67)
One may now x several of the parameters and analyze the sign of (, , , ), and consequently the sign of p.
Null surface energy density. For instance, consider a null surface energy density, = 0, i.e., = 0. Thus, equation
(67) reduces to
(, , ) = (1 ) +
_
1
2
_
2
(2 )
4
27
. (68)
To analyze the sign of p, we shall consider a null tangential surface pressure, i.e., (, , ) = 0, so that from equation
(68) we have the following relationship
0
=
27
4
2
(2 )
_
(1 ) +
_
1
2
_
_
, (69)
with = 2, which is identical to equation (60).
For the particular case of = 2, from equation (68), we have (, = 2, ) = (3/2 1). A surface boundary,
(, = 2, ) = 0, is presented at = 2/3, i.e., a = 3M. A surface pressure, (, = 2, ) > 0, is given for > 2/3,
i.e., r
b
< a < 3M, and a surface tension, (, = 2, ) < 0, for < 2/3, i.e., 3M < a < r
c
.
For < 2, from equation (68), a surface pressure, (, , ) > 0, is met for <
0
, and a surface tension,
(, , ) < 0, for >
0
. The specic case of a constant redshift function, i.e., = 1, is analyzed in [20] (For this
case, equation (69) is reduced to
0
= 27
3
/8, or M = a
3
/3). For the qualitative behavior, the reader is referred to
the particular case of = 0.5 provided in Fig. 5. To the right of the curve a surface pressure, p > 0, is given and
to the left of the respective curve a surface tension, p < 0.
For > 2, from equation (68), a surface pressure, (, , ) > 0, is given for
0
< <
r
, and a surface tension,
(, , ) < 0, for <
0
. Once again the reader is referred to g. 5 for a qualitative analysis of the behavior for the
particular case of = 5. A surface pressure is given to the right of the curve and a surface tension to the left.
Note that for the analysis considered in this section, namely, for a null surface energy density, the WEC, and
consequently the NEC, are satised only if p 0. The results obtained are consistent with those of the section
regarding the energy conditions at the junction surface, for the Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime, considered above.
3. Schwarzschildanti de Sitter spacetime
For the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter spacetime, < 0, to analyze the sign of p, equation (62) is expressed as
p =
1
16M
(, , , )
_
1 +
4
27
2
, (70)
with the parameters given = 2M/a, = 8M and = 9M
2
, respectively. (, , , ) is dened as
(, , , ) = (1 ) +
_
1
2
_
2
+
4
27
(2 )
_
1 +
4
27
2
. (71)
As in the Schwarzschildde Sitter solution we shall analyze the case of a null surface energy density, = 0, i.e., = 0.
14
Null surface energy density. For a null surface energy density, = 0, i.e., = 0, equation (71) reduces to
(, , ) = (1 ) +
_
1
2
_
2
+ (2 )
4
27
, (72)
To analyze the sign of p, once again we shall consider a null tangential surface pressure, i.e., (, , ) = 0, so that
from equation (72) we have
0
=
27
4
2
(2 )
_
( 1)
_
1
2
_
_
, (73)
with = 2, which is identical to equation (61).
For the particular case of = 2, from equation (72), we have (, = 2, ) = (3/2 1), which is null at = 2/3,
i.e., a = 3M. A surface pressure, (, = 2, ) > 0, is given for > 2/3, i.e., r
b
< a < 3M, and a surface tension,
(, = 2, ) < 0, for < 2/3, i.e., a > 3M. The reader is referred to the particular case of = 2, depicted in gure
6. A surface pressure is given to the right of the respective dashed curve, and a surface tension to the left.
For 1, a surface pressure, (, , ) > 0, is given for and . For 1 < < 2, a surface pressure, (, , ) > 0,
is given for >
0
> 0; and a surface tension, (, , ) < 0, is provided for 0 < <
0
. The particular case of
= 1.8 is depicted in gure 6, in which a surface pressure is presented above the respective dashed curve, and a
surface tension is presented in the region delimited by the curve and the axis.
For > 2, a surface pressure, (, , ) > 0, is met for
r
< <
0
, and a surface tension, (, , ) < 0, for >
0
.
The specic case for = 3 is depicted in gure 6. A surface pressure is presented to the right of the respective curve,
and a surface tension to the left.
Once again, the analysis considered in this section is consistent with the results obtained in the section regarding
the energy conditions at the junction surface, for the Schwarzschildanti de Sitter spacetime, considered above. This
is due to the fact that for the specic case of a null surface energy density, the regions in which the WEC and NEC
are satised coincide with the range of p 0.
C. Pressure balance equation
One may obtain an equation governing the behavior of the radial pressure in terms of the surface stresses at
the junction boundary from the following identity [2, 27]:
_
T
total
n
n
_
=
1
2
(K
i +
j
+ K
i
j
) S
j
i
, where T
total
=
T
g
/8 is the total stressenergy tensor, and the square brackets denotes the discontinuity across the thin
shell, i.e., [X] = X
+

. Taking into account the values of the extrinsic curvatures, eqs. (49)(52), and noting
that the tension acting on the shell is by denition the normal component of the stressenergy tensor, = T
n
n
,
we nally have the following pressure balance equation
_
+
(a)
+
8
_
(a)
8
_
=
1
a
_
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
+
_
1
b(a)
a
_
p
_
_
M
a
2
3
a
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
+
(a)
_
1
b(a)
a
_
_
2
, (74)
where the superscripts correspond to the exterior and interior spacetimes, respectively. Equation (74) relates the
dierence of the radial tension across the shell in terms of a combination of the surface stresses, and p, given by
eqs. (53)(54), respectively, and the geometrical quantities.
Note that for the exterior vacuum solution we have
+
= 0. For the particular case of a null surface energy density,
= 0, and considering that the interior and exterior cosmological constants are equal,
=
+
, equation (74)
reduces to
(a) =
2
a
_
1
2M
a
3
a
2
p . (75)
For a radial tension,
(a) > 0, acting on the shell from the interior, a tangential surface pressure, p > 0, is needed
to hold the thin shell form collapsing. For a radial interior pressure,
(a), the
redshift function, in terms of , takes the following form
(r) =
1
_
r
a
_
, (76)
with = 0. With this choice of (r), may also be dened as = 1 + (a). The case of = 0 corresponds to
the constant redshift function, so that = 1. If < 0, then (r) is nite throughout spacetime and in the absence
of an exterior solution we have lim
r
(r) 0. As we are considering a matching of an interior solution with an
exterior solution at a, then it is also possible to consider the > 0 case, imposing that (r) is nite in the interval
r
0
r a.
One of the traversability conditions was that the acceleration felt by the traveller should not exceed Earths gravity
[1]. Consider an orthonormal basis of the travellers proper reference frame, (e
0
, e
1
, e
2
, e
3
), given in terms of the
orthonormal basis of the static observers, by a Lorentz transformation. The travellers fouracceleration expressed in
his proper reference frame, a
= U
_
1
b
r
_
1/2
e
(e
c
2
, (77)
where = (1v
2
)
1/2
, and v being the velocity of the traveller [1]. The condition is immediately satised at the throat,
r
0
. From equation (77), one may also nd an estimate for the junction surface, a. Considering that (1b(a)/a)
1/2
1
and 1, i.e., for low traversal velocities, and taking into account equation (76), from equation (77) one deduces
a  1c
2
/g
. (78)
Providing a value for  1, one may nd an estimate for a. For instance, considering that  1 10
10
, one nds
that a 10
6
m.
Another of the traversability conditions that was required, was that the tidal accelerations felt by the traveller
should not exceed the Earths gravitational acceleration. The tidal acceleration felt by the traveller is given by
a
= R
, where U
 g
0
 = R
r
t r
t
 g
/2c
2
, which can be regarded
as constraining the metric eld (r), i.e.,
_
1
b
r
__
+
b
r b
2r(r b)
)
2
_
2c
2
. (79)
At the throat, r = r
0
, and taking into account equation (76), then equation (79) reduces to (b
1)
(r
0
)/2r
0
 g
/2c
2
or
a =
_
b
1  1c
2
g
r
2
0
_
1/
r
0
. (80)
considering the equality case.
Using eqs. (78) and (80), one may nd an estimate for the throat radius, by providing a specic value for .
Considering = 1 and equating eqs. (78) and (80), one nds
r
0
=
_
b
1  1
2
c
4
g
2
_
1/3
. (81)
16
Kuhttig [28, 29, 30] proposed models restricting the exotic matter to an arbitrarily thin region under the condition
that b
(r
0
) 1, then the embedding diagram will are out very slowly, so
that from equation (81), r
0
may be made arbitrarily small. Nevertheless, using the form functions specied in [1] we
will consider that b
1 near
the throat, so the the wormhole will are out very slowly. Therefore, from Eq. (81) the throat will be relatively
small, so that we may assume that r
0
0, as in [29]. Consider that a space station is situated just outside the
junction surface at a, from which the intrepid traveller will start his/her journey. Thus, the total time of the trip
will be approximately t
total
4
_
2a/g
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