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AP Euro Tina Kang Pd.2 2/24/11 Approaching WWI World War I was a defining event of the twentieth century.

It not only devastated the economic, social, and political order of Europe but its outcome ushered in an even more destructive war. Leaving numerous results, immediate and long-range causes had to be present also. Some longrange causes include nationalism, internal dissent, militarism, imperialism, and most importantly mutual defense alliances. As the world entered into the 20th century, an arms race began. Both Britain and Germany has increased their navies in this time period. Furthermore, In Germany and Russia, the military establishment began to have greater influence on public policy. This increase in militarism helped usher in the countries involved to war. Over time, countries in Europe created mutual defense agreements that facilitated the occurrence of war. Therefore, if one country was attacked, the allied countries defended them. Before World War I, there were alliances between Russia and Serbia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, France and Russia, Britain and France and Belgium, and Japan and Britain. When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got involved to defend Serbia. Germany seeing Russia assembling, declared war on Russia. France was then went against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the allies. The Alliances such as the Holy Alliance,the the Emperors League, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente played a pivotal role in the inducement of World War I. The Holy Alliance included Russia, Prussia, Austria and was signed on September 26th,1815. It was to fight revolution with the allied forces of all the sovereigns, who were to bear no interference with their rule. However, it increased more tensions between countries because it produced much distrust and suspicion among the European powers. it was first proposed by Russia's emperor Alexander I, after the fall of Napoleonic empire.The alliance proclaimed the intention of the three eastern monarch to rule exclusively on the basis of Christian principles and to work together to maintain peace and justice on all occasions. Also,it stressed the 'mystique of monarchy' which supported the divine right of kings and was completely hostile to democracy. In addition, alliances had

held Europe in a balance of power from the time of Chalemagne through Machiacelli and onward, but the alliance system in place during this period is referred to by historians as the Bismarckian Alliance system. In this system no one declared war because they knew the alliances would make war too costly. The Three Emperors League of 1973 failed when Russia and the Ottomans battled over the Balkans, and Russia was too near to Austria for their liking. Bismarck alienated Russia at the Congress of Vienna, but he wanted peace with Russia and unity in Eastern Europe. Although signed only by the three Emperors, it really was supported by every important military power in Europe with the exception of Great Britain, which adopted its policy of nonintervention. Excluding Britain from military power in Europe, he then created the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Huangary, which would last from 1879-1915. He pressed Russia and Austria into the Alliance of the Three Emperors in 1881, a mutual defense pact against the Ottomans in the balkans and France in the west. In the Triple Alliance, Bismarck tried to balance the power in his favor at the Congress of Berlin, and in so doing arranged an alliance between Italy, Austria, and Germany. They, along with Bulgaria, would be known as the Central powers in WWI. However, Italy switched sides in 1915. When Russia exited the Three Emperors League in 1885, Germany, in an attempt to keep peace with Russia, arranged the Russian German Reinsurance Treaty in which both promised neutrality if the other was attacked. William II did not like this friendly attitude toward Russia and dismissed Bismarck as a result of it and refused to renew the policy. France and Russia then became Allies. Preceding 1914, Europe had experienced fifty year of peace. However, building up to that point, issues were building up that would soon provoke the international crises Europe would face in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Alliances powers made tensions between countries and eventually leading them into a war. Some of the issues that were present were the power of Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and the alliances that were occurring within Europe. When Germany was unified, Bismarck already knew that the balance of power was going to be disrupted. Fearing a war between France, he made an alliance with the conservative powers of Austria-Hungary and Russia. As stated earlier, the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire served as a result of the latter crises the European nations has to deal with. The rivalry between Russia and Austria made matters worse since they both desired the Balkans for differing reasons. When Bismarck saw this as a threat, Germany served as a restraining influence over both lands. In addition to this, the Balkan states of Serbia and Montenegro declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Even though both were defeated, Russia attacked and defeated the Ottoman. When Russia gained a large part of the empire, its success caused the great powers to call for a congress of European powers to discuss the treaty. By the end of the meeting, Russia was only left with Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was under Austrian power.When Emperor William II came into

power, he dropped the treaty with Russia and therefore made France and Russia closer together. As time surpassed, Britain got closer to France. There were two alliances, the Triple Entente with Great Britain, France, and Russia and the Triple Alliance with Germany with Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Europe was now divided into two opposing camps that became more and more rigid and unwilling to cooperate. When the nations of the two alliances became involved in the series or crises in the 1900s over the remains of the Ottoman Empire, the stage was set for World War I. Ever since 1878; Bosnia and Herzegovina were under Austrian control. However, they were not allowed to annex them. By 1908, they failed to meet this regulation. This caused the two nations to rebel and to now desire independence. In addition to that, Russia was now opposed to Austria and was ready for war. When it got to that point however, William II intervened and Russia backed down. In 1912, European attention was brought back to the Balkans when Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Greece created the Balkan League and defeated the Ottomans in the first Balkan War. When they were unable to split the land, a second war transpired. The nations of Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire went against and defeated Bulgaria, which left it with a small amount of land. Tension also increased between Serbia and Austria as none of Serbias ambitions were being fulfilled because of Austria. By the beginning of 1914, the two alliances were looking at each other with suspicion. A lot of anxiety and pressure was building up between nations that were ready to get released. The Europeans age of progress would soon come to a shameful and bloody end. Clearly, the growing inter rivalries had led to the creation of several military alliances among the great powers as the 1870s. These alliance system had been designed to keep peace in Europe but it instead help push the continent into war. By 1914, Europe was divided into two rival camps. One alliance, the Triple Entente, which included Great Britain, France, and Russia. The other known as the Triple alliance included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia set off a chain reaction within the alliance system. The countries of Europe followed through on their numerous and complex pledges to support one another. Therefore, nearly all the nations of Europe soon were drawn into the war.