r
X
i
v
:
g
r

q
c
/
0
5
0
8
0
7
9
v
2
1
3
A
u
g
2
0
0
7
Wormhole solution and Energy in Teleparallel Theory of Gravity
Gamal G.L. Nashed
Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
email:nashed@asunet.shams.edu.eg
An exact solution is obtained in the tetrad theory of gravitation. This solution is characterized
by twoparameters k
1
, k
2
of spherically symmetric static Lorentzian wormhole which is obtained
as a solution of the equation =
t
= 0 with = T
i,j
u
i
u
j
,
t
= (T
ij
1
2
Tg
ij
)u
i
u
j
where u
i
u
i
= 1.
From this solution which contains an arbitrary function we can generates the other two solutions
obtained before. The associated metric of this spacetime is a static Lorentzian wormhole and
it includes the Schwarzschild black hole, a family of naked singularity and a disjoint family of
Lorentzian wormholes. Calculate the energy content of this tetrad eld using the gravitational
energymomentum given by Mller in teleparallel spacetime we nd that the resulting form de
pends on the arbitrary function and does not depend on the two parameters k
1
and k
2
characterize
the wormhole. Using the regularized expression of the gravitational energymomentum we get the
value of energy does not depend on the arbitrary function.
1. Introduction
At present, teleparallel theory seems to be popular again, and there is a trend of analyzing
the basic solutions of general relativity with teleparallel theory and comparing the results. It
is considered as an essential part of generalized nonRiemannian theories such as the Poincar e
gauge theory [1] [7] or metricane gravity [8] as well as a possible physical relevant geometry
by itselfteleparallel description of gravity [9, 10]. Teleparallel approach is used for positive
gravitationalenergy proof [11]. A relation between spinor Lagrangian and teleparallel theory is
established [12]. In [13] it is shown that the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is
not consistent in presence of minimally coupled spinning matter. The consistency of the coupling
of the Dirac elds to the TEGR is demonstrated [14]. However, it is shown that this demonstration
is not correct [15, 16].
For a satisfactory description of the total energy of an isolated system it is necessary that the
energydensity of the gravitational eld is given in terms of rst and/or secondorder derivatives
of the gravitational eld variables. It is wellknown that there exists no covariant, nontrivial
expression constructed out of the metric tensor. However, covariant expressions that contain
a quadratic form of rstorder derivatives of the tetrad eld are feasible. Thus it is legitimate
to conjecture that the diculties regarding the problem of dening the gravitational energy
momentum are related to the geometrical description of the gravitational eld rather than are an
intrinsic drawback of the theory [17, 18]. Mller has shown that the problem of energymomentum
complex has no solution in the framework of gravitational eld theories based on Riemannian
spacetime [19]. In a series of papers, [19][22] he was able to obtain a general expression for a
satisfactory energymomentum complex in the teleparallel spacetime.
It was recognized by Flamm [23] in (1916) that our universe may not be simply connected,
there may exist handles or tunnels now called wormholes, in the spacetime topology linking widely
separated regions of our universe or even connected us with dierent universes altogether. That
such wormholes may be traversable by humanoid travellers was rst conjectured by Morris and
Thorne [24], thereby suggesting that interstellar travel and even time travel may some day be
possible [25, 26].
Morris and Thorne (MT) wormholes are static and spherically symmetric and connect asymp
totically at spacetimes. The metric of this wormhole is given by
ds
2
= e
2(r)
dt
2
+
dr
2
1 b(r)/r
+ r
2
(d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
) , (1)
where (r) being the redshift function and b(r) is the shape function. The shape function describes
the spatial shape of the wormhole when viewed. The metric (1) is spherically symmetric and
static. The geometric signicance of the radial coordinate r is that the circumference of a circle
centered on the throat of the wormhole is given by 2r. The coordinate r is nonmonotonic in
that it decreases from + to a minimum value b
0
, representing the location of the throat of the
wormhole, and then it increases from b
0
to +. This behavior of the radial coordinate reects
the fact that the wormhole connects two separate external universes. At the throat r = b = b
0
,
there is a coordinate singularity where the metric coecient g
rr
becomes divergent but the radial
proper distance
l(r) =
_
b
0
r
dr
_
1 b(r)/r
, (2)
must be required to be nite everywhere [27]. At the throat, l(r) = 0, while l(r) < 0 on the
have no horizon which implies that g
tt
must never allowed to be vanish, i.e., (r) must be nite
everywhere.
Traversable Lorentzian have been in vogue ever since Morris, Thorn and Yurtsever [28] came up
with the exciting possibility of constructing time machine models with these exotic objects. (MT)
paper demonstrated that the matter required to support such spacetimes necessarily violates the
null energy condition. Semiclassical calculations based on techniques of quantum elds in curved
spacetime, as well as an old theorem of Epstein et. al. [29], raised hopes about generation of such
spacetimes through quantum stresses.
There have been innumerable attempts at solving the exotic matter problem in wormhole
physics in the last few years [25, 30]. Alternative theories of gravity [31] evolving wormhole
spacetimes [32] [35] with varying denitions of the throat have been tried out as possible avenues
of resolution.
It is the aim of the present work to derive a wormhole in Mllers tetrad theory of gravitation.
To do so we rst begin with a tetrad having spherical symmetry with three unknown functions of
the radial coordinate [37]. Applying this tetrad to the eld equations of Mllers theory we obtain
a set of non linear partial dierential equations. It is our aim to nd a general solution to these
dierential equations and discuss its physical properties. In 2 a brief survey of Mllers tetrad
theory of gravitation is presented. The exact solution of the set of non linear partial dierential
equations is given in 3. In 4 the energy content of the tetrad eld is calculated and the form of
energy depends on the arbitrary function and does not depend on the two parameters k
1
and k
2
that characterize the wormhole is obtained. In 5 the energy recalculated using the regularized
expression of the gravitational energymomentum. Discussion and conclusion of the obtained
results are given in 6.
2. Mllers tetrad theory of gravitation
In a spacetime with absolute parallelism the parallel vector elds e
i
def.
= e
i
e
i
,
, (3)
where e
i
,
=
e
i
def.
=
ij
e
i
e
j
, (4)
where
ij
is the Minkowski metric
ij
= diag(+1 , 1 , 1 , 1).
We note that, associated with any tetrad eld e
i
does not determine the tetrad eld completely; for any local
Lorentz transformation of the tetrads b
i
and g
, where
def.
= e
i
e
i;
, (5)
where the semicolon denotes covariant dierentiation with respect to Christoel symbols. The
most general Lagrangian density invariant under the parity operation is given by the form [22]
def.
where
g
def.
= det(g
), (7)
and
def.
=
. (8)
Here
1
,
2
, and
3
are constants determined by Mller such that the theory coincides with general
relativity in the weak elds:
1
=
1
,
2
=
,
3
=
1
(1 2), (9)
where is the Einstein constant and is a free dimensionless parameter
+ H
= T
, F
= 0, (10)
where the Einstein tensor G
and F
are given by
H
def.
=
_
+ g
1
2
__
, (11)
and
F
def.
=
_
,
,
_
+
;
_
, (12)
and they are symmetric and skew symmetric tensors, respectively.
Mller assumed that the energymomentum tensor of matter elds is symmetric. In the
HayashiNakano theory, however, the energymomentum tensor of spin1/2 fundamental parti
cles has nonvanishing antisymmetric part arising from the eects due to intrinsic spin, and the
righthand side of antisymmetric eld equation (10) does not vanish when we take into account
the possible eects of intrinsic spin.
It can be shown [9] that the tensors, H
and F
, dened by
a
def.
=
1
3
, where
def.
=
, (13)
where
and F
vanish if the a
) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
A Dr 0 0
0 B sin cos
B
r
cos cos
B sin
r sin
0 B sin sin
B
r
cos sin
B cos
r sin
0 B cos
B
r
sin 0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (14)
where A, D, B, are functions of the radial coordinate r. The associated metric of the tetrad (14)
has the form
ds
2
=
B
2
D
2
r
2
A
2
B
2
dt
2
2
Dr
AB
2
drdt +
1
B
2
dr
2
+
r
2
B
2
(d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
). (15)
As is clear from (15) that there is a cross term which can be eliminated by performing the
coordinate transformation
dT = dt +
ADr
B
2
D
2
r
2
dr, (16)
using the transformation (16) in the tetrad (14) we obtain
(e
l
) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
A
1 D
2
R
2
(RD R
2
DB
) 0 0
ADRsin cos
1 D
2
R
2
(1 RB
) sin cos
cos cos
R
sin
Rsin
ADRsin sin
1 D
2
R
2
(1 RB
) sin sin
cos sin
R
cos
Rsin
ADRcos
1 D
2
R
2
(1 RB
) cos
sin
R
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
, (17)
where A, D and B are now unknown functions of the new radial coordinates R which is dened
by
R =
r
B
, B
=
dB(R)
dR
. (18)
Applying the tetrad elds (17) to the eld equations (10) we obtain the following non linear
partial dierential equations
(R) =
1
_
2
_
R
3
D
2
B
R
2
D
2
RB
+ 1
_
B
+
_
2R
3
DD
+ 5R
2
D
2
3
_
B
2
2
_
2R
2
DD
+ 4RD
2
2
R
_
B
+
_
2RD
+ 3D
_
D,
(R) =
1
__
2R
3
ADD
2R
3
D
2
A
+ 3R
2
AD
2
+ 2RA
A
_
RB
2
2
_
2R
3
ADD
2R
3
D
2
A
+3R
2
D
2
A+ 2RA
A
_
B
+
_
2R
2
ADD
2R
2
D
2
A
+ 3RAD
2
+ 2A
__
,
p(R) = T
3
3
=
1
RA
2
__
AR AD
2
R
5
B
2
AD
2
R
3
2AR
2
B
+ 2AD
2
R
4
B
+AR
3
B
2
_
A
+
_
A
2
R
A
2
R
4
DD
+AD
2
R
4
A
AD
2
R
5
A
+A
2
DR
5
B
+AR
3
A
+ 2A
2
D
2
R
4
B
A
2
R
2
B
2A
2
D
2
R
3
AR
2
A
_
B
+
_
A
2
DR
5
B
2
+A
2
DR
3
2A
2
DR
4
B
_
D
+
_
2D
2
R
3
2R 4D
2
R
4
B
+4R
2
B
_
A
2
+
_
A
2
R
5
D
2
+ 2D
2
R
5
A
2
A
2
R + 2AR
2
A
+ 7A
2
DR
4
D
3ADR
5
A
5AD
2
R
4
A
+5A
2
D
2
R
3
2R
3
A
2
_
B
2
+
_
A
2
R
3
2A
2
R
4
B
_
D
2
+
_
A4AD
2
R
2
_
A
+
_
9AD
2
R
3
A
3ARA
13A
2
DR
3
D
+ 6ADR
4
A
+A
2
8A
2
D
2
R
2
_
B
+
_
6A
2
DR
2
3ADR
3
A
_
D
+ 3A
2
D
2
R
_
, (19)
where
(R) = T
0
0
, (R) = T
1
1
, p(R) = T
2
2
= T
3
3
,
with (R) being the energy density, (R) is the radial pressure and p(R) is the tangential pressure.
(Note that (R) as dened above is simply the radial pressure p
r
, and diers by a minus sign from
the conventions in [24, 25].)
Now let us try to solve the above dierential equations (19).
The General Solution
It is our purpose to nd a general solution to the dierential equations (19) when the stressenergy
momentum tensor is not vanishing. From the rst equation of (19) when (R) = 0, we can get
the unknown function D(R) in terms of the unknown functions B(R) to have the form
D(R) =
1
1 RB
2m
R
3
+
B
R
(RB
2), (20)
substitute (20) into (19) we can obtain the unknown function A(R) in terms of the unknown
function B(R) to have form
A(R) =
1
(1 RB
)
_
_
_
_
_
_
k
2
+
k
1
1
2m
R
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (21)
As is clear from (20) and (21) that the solution depends on the arbitrary function B, i.e., we can
generate the pervious solutions obtained before by Nashed [38] by choosing the arbitrary function
B to have the form
B(R) = ln
_
_
_
R
_
_
R m + R
1
2m
R
_
_
_
_
_
2
1
2m
R
, and B(R) = 1. (22)
Using (20) and (21) in (10) we can get the components of the energymomentum tensor turn out
to have the form
(R) = 0, (R) =
1
_
2mk
1
R
3
_
_
k
1
+ k
2
1
2m
R
_
_
_
_
, p(R) =
1
_
mk
1
R
3
_
_
k
1
+ k
2
1
2m
R
_
_
_
_
.
(23)
The weak
0, + 0, + p 0, (24)
and null energy conditions
+ 0, + p 0 (25)
are both violated as is clear from (23). The violation of the energy condition stems from the
violation of the inequality + 0.
The complete line element of the above solution (20) and (21) is
ds
2
=
1
(R)dT
2
+
dR
2
2
(R)
+R
2
d
2
, where
1
(R) =
_
_
k
1
+ k
2
1
2m
R
_
_
2
,
2
(R) =
_
1
2m
R
_
,
(26)
with d
2
= d
2
+ sin
2
d
2
. If one replacing k
2
by k
2
at the above solution (20) and (21), the
resulting form will also be a solution to the non linear partial dierential equations (19). All the
above solutions have a common property that their scalar Ricci tensor vanishing identically, i.e.,
R({}) = 0.
The metric (26) makes sense only for R 2m so to really make the wormhole explicit one needs
two conditions patches
R
1
(2m, ), R
2
(2m, ),
which we then have to sew together at R = 2m. More discussion for such wormholes can be found
in [34]. We are interested in the evaluation of energy since it is the most important test for any
gravitational energy expression, local or quasilocal, since the geometrical setting corresponds to
an intricate conguration of the gravitational eld [18].
4. Energy content
The superpotential is given by
U
=
(g)
1/2
2
P
(1 2)g
] , (27)
where P
is
P
def.
=
(28)
with g
dS, (30)
where n
r
3
_
2mR
2
B
+ R
3
B
2
_
. (31)
Substituting from (31) into (30) we get
E(R) = 2mR
2
B
+ R
3
B
2
. (32)
We accept the formula of the energy to depend on the physical quantities but we do not accept the
formula to depend on an arbitrary function [18]. Now we are going to follow a procedure similar
to that follow by BrownYork formalism [42].
5. Regularized expression for the gravitational energymomentum
An important property of the tetrad elds that satisfy the condition
e
i
=
i
+ (1/2)h
i
(1/r), (33)
is that in the at spacetime limit e
i
(t, x, y, z) =
i
def.
= e
a
T
a
, (34)
is vanishing, i.e., T
= 0 for the
at spacetime [18, 43, 44]. It might be argued, therefore, that the expression for the gravitational
energymomentum (30) is restricted to particular class of tetrad elds, namely, to the class of
frames such that T
= 0 if e
i
) =
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(1 RB
R
2
B
2
2RB
0 0
R
2
B
2
2RB
sin cos (1 RB
) sin cos
cos cos
R
sin
Rsin
R
2
B
2
2RB
sin sin (1 RB
) sin sin
cos sin
R
cos
Rsin
R
2
B
2
2RB
cos (1 RB
) cos
sin
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. (35)
Expression (35) yields the following nonvanishing torsion components:
T
001
= B
, T
112
= r cos() cos B
, T
113
= sin() sin B
, T
114
=
sin() cos
(1 B
R
2
B
2R
,
T
124
= cos cos
R
2
B
2
2RB
, T
134
= sin() sin
R
2
B
2
2RB
, T
212
= Rcos() sin B
,
T
213
= Rsin() cos B
, T
214
=
sin sin
(1 B
R
2
B
2R
, T
224
= cos() sin
R
2
B
2
2RB
,
T
234
= sin() cos
R
2
B
2
2RB
, T
312
= Rsin()B
, T
314
=
cos()
(1 B
R
2
B
2R
,
T
324
= sin()
R
2
B
2
2RB
. (36)
Maluf et al. [18, 43, 44] discussed the above problem in the framework of TEGR and con
structed a regularized expression for the gravitational energymomentum in this frame. They
checked this expression for a tetrad eld that suer from the above problems and obtain a very
satisfactory results [43]. In this section we will follow the same procedure to derive a regularized
expression for the gravitational energymomentum dened by Eq. (30). It can be shown that one
can dened the gravitational energymomentum contained within an arbitrary volume V of the
threedimensional spacelike hypersurface in the form [39, 40]
P
=
_
V
d
3
x
0
, (37)
where U
is given by Eq. (27). Expression (37) bears no relationship to the ADM (Arnowitt
DeserMisner) energymomentum [44]. P
=
_
S
dS
0
. (38)
The eld quantities are evaluated on a surface S in the limit r .
In Eqs. (37) and (38) it is implicitly assumed that the reference space is determined by a set
of tetrad elds e
i
= 0 is satised. However, in
general there exist at spacetime tetrad elds for which T
a
(E) =
E
a
E
a
and U
0
(E) as the expression of U
0
constructed
out of the at tetrad E
i
is
dened by
P
=
_
V
d
3
x
_
U
0
(e) U
0
(E)
_
. (39)
This condition guarantees that the energymomentum of the at spacetime always vanishes.
The reference spacetime is determined by tetrad elds E
i
, obtained from e
i
by requiring the
vanishing of the physical parameters like mass, angular momentum, etc. Assuming that the
spacetime is asymptotically at then Eq. (39) can have the form
P =
_
dS
_
U
0
(e) U
0
(E)
_
, (40)
where the surface S is established at spacelike innity. Eq. (40) transforms as a vector under the
global SO(3,1) group [22]. Now we are in a position to proof that the tetrad eld (14) with (20)
and (21) yields a satisfactory value for the total gravitational energymomentum.
We will integrate Eq. (40) over a surface of constant radius x
1
= r and require r .
Therefore, the index in (40) takes the value = 1. We need to calculate the quantity U
0
01
and
we nd
U
0
01
(e)
=
1
4
Rsin()(
2m
R
RB
+ R
2
B
2
), (41)
and the expression of U
0
01
(E) is obtained by just making m = 0 in Eq.(41). it is given by
U
0
01
(E)
=
1
4
Rsin()(R
2
B
2
RB
). (42)
Thus the gravitational energy contained within a surface S of constant radius r is given by
P
0
=
_
R
dd
1
4
sin()
_
R(
2m
R
RB
+ R
2
B
2
) + (R
3
B
2
R
2
B
)
_
= 2m, (43)
this value of 2m is the value obtained by several dierent approach [40, 41]
6. Discussion and conculusion
In this paper we have applied the tetrad having spherical symmetry with three unknown
functions of the radial coordinate [37] to the eld equations of Mllers tetrad theory of gravitation
[22]. From the resulting partial dierential equation we have obtained an exact non vacuum
solutions. This solutions is characterized by an arbitrary function B(R) and from it one can
generates the other two solutions . The solutions in general are characterize by three parameters
m, k
1
and k
2
. If the two parameters k
1
= 0 and k
2
= 1 then one can obtains the previous solutions
[45]. The energymomentum tensor has the property that = 0. The line element associated with
these solutions has the form (26).
To make the picture more clear we discuss the geometry of each solution. The line element of
this solution in the isotropic form is given by
ds
2
=
1
(R)dT
2
+
dR
2
2
(R)
+ R
2
d
2
, where
1
(R) =
_
_
k
1
+ k
2
1
2m
R
_
_
2
,
2
(R) =
_
1
2m
R
_
.
If g
tt
= 0 one obtains a real naked singularity region. Outside these regions naked singularity does
not form and one obtains a traverse wormhole. The throat of this wormhole g
tt
(R = 2m) gives
the conditions that g
tt
= k
1
2
(k
1
= 0 is required to ensure the traversability). The properties
of this wormhole are discussed by Dadhich et. al. [34].
We calculate the energy content of the solution (20) and (21) using the energymomentum
complex given by [39, 40]. We nd that the energy does not depend on the two parameters k
1
and k
2
characterize the wormhole (32). On contrary it depends on the arbitrary function B(R).
This is in fact not acceptable we accept the energy to depend on the physical quantities like mass
m and the charge q etc.
Maluf et al. [18, 43, 44] have derived a simple expression for the energymomentum ux of
energymomentum of the gravitational eld on a volume V of the threedimensional spacelike
hypersurface. They [43, 44] gave this denition for the gravitational energymomentum in the
framework of TEGR, which require T
yield T
(E) = 0. They
show that [44] in the context of the regularized gravitational energymomentum denition it is
not strictly necessary to stipulate asymptotic boundary conditions for tetrad elds that describe
asymptotically at spacetimes.
Using the denition of the torsion tensor given by Eq. (34) and apply it to the tetrad eld
(35) we show that the at spacetime associated with this tetrad eld has a nonvanishing torsion
components Eq. (36). However, using the regularized expression of the gravitational energy
momentum Eq. (40) and calculate all the necessary components we nally get Eq. (43) which
shows that the total energy of the tetrad eld (14) with (20) and (21) does not depend on the
arbitrary function.
As a punchline we obtain a traversable wormhole in tetrad theory of gravitation given by
Mller [22] using a spherical symmetric tetrad given by Robertson [37] without using the line
element given by Eq. (1) [24]. Lemos et. al. [46] has studied MorrisThorne wormholes with a
cosmological constant using the tetrad form of the line element (1) in the diagonal form. Now one
can do the same procedure with the non diagonal tetrads given by the solutions (21) and (22).
Acknowledgment
The author would like to thank Professor J.G. Pereira Universidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil.
References
[1] Y.Itin, Class. Quant. Grav. 19 (2002), 173
[2] Y. Itin, J. Math. Phys. 46 (2005), 012501.
[3] F.W. Hehl, Y. Neeman, J. Nitsch and P. Von der Heyde, Phys. Lett. B78 (1978), 102.
[4] F.W. Hehl, Four Lectures on Poincar e gauge theory, in proceedings of the 6th. course on spin,
Torsion and supergravity, held at Eric, Italy, (1979), eds., P.G. Bergmann, V. De Sabbata
(Plenum, N.Y.) P.5.
[5] T. Kawai, phys. Rev. D49, (1994) 2862; phys. Rev. D62 (2000), 104014.
[6] M. Blagojevi c and M. Vasili c Class. Quant. Grav. 17 (2000), 3785.
[7] M. Blagojevi c and I. A. Nikoli c Phys. Rev. D62 (2000), 024021.
[8] F.W. Hehl, J.D. MacCrea, E.W. Mielke and Y. Neeman, Phys. Rep. 258 (1995), 1.
[9] K. Hayashi and T. Shirafuji, Phys. Rev. D19 (1979), 3524.
[10] J.Nitsch and F.W. Hehl, Phys. Lett. B90 (1980), 98.
[11] E.W. Mielke, Phys. Rev D42 (1990), 3388.
[12] R.S. Tung and J.M. Nester, Phys. Rev D60 (1999), 021501.
[13] M. Leclerc, Phys. Rev D71 (2005), 027503.
[14] E.W. Mielke, Phys. Rev D69 (2004), 128501.
[15] Yu.N.Obukhov and J.G. Pereira, Phys. Rev D69 (2004), 128502.
[16] Yu.N.Obukhov and J.G. Pereira, Phys. Rev D67 (2003), 044016.
[17] J. W. Maluf, J. Math. Phys. 35 (1994), 335.
[18] J. W. Maluf, J. F. da Rochaneto, T. M. L. Toribio and K. H. CastelloBranco, Phys. Rev.
D65 (2002), 124001.
[19] C. Mller, Ann. of Phys. 12 (1961), 118.
[20] C. Mller, Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk. 1 (1961), 10.
[21] C. Mller, Nucl. Phys. 57 (1964), 330.
[22] C. Mller, Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk. 39 (1978), 13.
[23] L. Flamm, Phys. Z. 17 (1916), 48.
[24] M. S. Morris and K.S. Thorne, Am. J. Phys. 56 (1988), 395.
[25] M. Visser, Lorentzian WormholesFrom Einstein to Hawking (American Institute of Physics,
New York, 1996).
[26] P. K. F. Kuhttig, Phys. Rev. D,67 (2003), 064015.
[28] M. S. Morris, K.S. Thorne and U. Yurtsever, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 (1988), 1446.
[29] H. Epstein, E. Glaser and A. Yae, Nuovo Cimento 36 (1965), 2296.
[30] M. Visser and D. Hochberg, Geometric Wormhole Throats,The internal structure of black
holes and spacetime singularities, (Haifa, Israel, JuneJuly 1997), grqc/9710001.
[31] D. Hochberg, Phys. Lett. B,251 (1990), 349; B. Bhawal and S. Kar, Phys. Rev. D,46 (1992),
2464.
[32] S. Kar, Phys. Rev. D,49 (1994), 862; S. Kar and D. Sahdev, Phys. Rev. D,53 (1996), 722.
[33] D. Hochberg and M. Visser, Phys. Lett.,81 (1998), 764; Phys. Rev. D,58 (1998), 044021.
[34] N. Dadhich, S. Kar, S. Mukherjee and M. Visser, Phys. Rev. D65 (2002), 064004.
[35] D. Hochberg and M. Visser, General dynamic wormholes and violation of the null energy
condition, Advanced School on Cosmology and Particle Physics , Spain 2228 June (1998),
grqc/9901020.
[36] K. Hayashi and T. Nakano, Prog. Theor. Phys. 38 (1967), 491.
[37] H.P. Robertson, Ann. of Math. (Princeton) 33 (1932), 496.
[38] G.G.L. Nashed submitted to IL Nouvo Cimento B
[39] C. Mller, Ann. of Phys. 4 (1958), 347; 12 (1961), 118.
[40] F.I. Mikhail, M.I. Wanas, A. Hindawi and E.I. Lashin, Int. J. of Theor. Phys. 32(1993), 1627.
[41] T. Shirafuji, G.G.L. Nashed and K. Hayashi, Prog. Theor. Phys. 95 (1996), 665.
[42] J.D. Brown and J.W. York, Jr., Quasilocal energyin general relativity, Proceedings of the
Joint Summer Research conference on Mathematical Aspects of Classical Field Theory, edited
by M.J. Gotay, J.E. Marsden and V. Moncrief (American Mathematical Socity, 1991); Phys.
Rev. D47 (1993), 1407.
[43] J. W. Maluf, M.V.O. Veiga and J. F. da Rochaneto, grqc/0507122..
[44] J. W. Maluf and J. F. da Rochaneto, phys. Rev. D64 (2001), 084014.
[45] G.G.L. Nashed, Gen. Rel. Grav. 34 (2002), 1047.
[46] J.P.S. Lemos, F.S.N. Lobo and S.Q de Oliveir, Phys. Rev. D,68 (2003), 064015.
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.