r
X
i
v
:
0
7
0
9
.
0
6
1
6
v
1
[
g
r

q
c
]
5
S
e
p
2
0
0
7
Vacuum shell in the SchwarzschilddeSitter world
S V Chernov
and V I Dokuchaev
_
1
2M
r
8
3
r
2
_
1
dr
2
r
2
d, (1)
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 3
where M is the Schwarzschild mass, is a vacuum energy density and d = d
2
+
sin
2
d
2
. This metric has the following specic properties. The positive roots of
equation
1
2M
r
8
3
r
2
= 0 (2)
dene the radii of event horizons in this metric. The number of positive roots (and so
the number of event horizons) depends on the ratio of M and 1/
8, if
M = m
2
. In the case M < m
2
there are two distinctive event horizons:
r
h2
= 2
_
p
3
cos
_
3
+
1
3
arctan
4p
3
27q
2
1
_
; (3)
r
h3
= 2
_
p
3
cos
_
3
1
3
arctan
4p
3
27q
2
1
_
, (4)
where p = 3/(8) and q = 3M/(4). It can be shown that r
h2
< r
h1
< r
h3
<
3r
h1
.
See in the Fig. 1 the corresponding CarterPenrose diagrams for global geometry of the
Schwarzschildde Sitter spacetime [9, 15].
The basic equation of motion for a thin vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter
spacetime, resulting from the matching of the inner and outer metrics on the shell, can
be written in the following form [7, 8, 10, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23]:
4 =
in
_
2
+1
8
3
in
2m
in
out
_
2
+1
8
3
out
2m
out
. (5)
In this equation = () is a shell radius, is a proper time measured by an observer
at rest with respect to this shell, is derivative with respect to a proper time, is a
surface energy density on the shell (in the discussed vacuum case =const), m
in
and
m
out
is the Schwarzschild mass of the inner and outer region respectively,
in
is an energy
density of the inner region,
out
is an energy density of the outer region and symbols
in,out
= 1. These symbols equal to 1, if radius of a twodimensional sphere is growing
in the direction of an outgoing normal, and equal to 1 in the opposite case.
For a further analysis we rewrite the equation of motion (5) in the energy
conservation form (1/2)
2
+ U() = 0, with an eective potential
U() =
1
2
(m
out
m
in
)
2
32
2
4
m
out
+ m
in
2
(m
out
m
in
)
out
in
12
2
(
in
+
out
+ 6
2
)
2
4
in
out
18
2
2
, (6)
which is shown in the Fig. 2. Values of
in
and
out
in the equation of motion (5) in the
energy conservation form are dened by relations
in
= sign
_
m
out
m
in
+
4
3
(
out
in
)
3
+ 8
2
3
_
; (7)
out
= sign
_
m
out
m
in
+
4
3
(
out
in
)
3
8
2
3
_
. (8)
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 4
a
b
c
T
+
T
+
T
+
T
+
T
+
T
R
+
R
T
+
R
T
+
R
+
Figure 1. The CarterPenrose diagrams for the Schwarzschildde Sitter metric. In the
case (a), when M < m
2
, there are event horizons. There is only one event horizon in
the case (b), when M = m
2
. In the case (c), when M > m
2
, the event horizon is absent.
Diagrams (b) and (c) are shown for the case of expansion. The regions T
+
and T
and also zero and innity lines are swapped in the corresponding (nonshown) diagrams
for the case of contraction. The oppositely directed null lines in these diagrams and
in the following ones are not necessarily perpendicular to each other due to arbitrary
deformation of the coordinate systems.
We will consider the general case when a surface energy density of the shell may be
as positive and negative. It must be noted that for the positive value of there is the
exceptional case, when
in
= 1 and
out
= 1. In this case the equation of motion (5)
has no solution. It would be also seen in the following CarterPenrose diagrams.
It is useful to dene the following two quantities, one with a dimension of mass,
m = m
out
+ m
in
, and one dimensionless, = (m
out
m
in
)/(m
out
+ m
in
). With this
denitions it is seen from (7) that
in
changes its sign at () =
1
, where
3
1
=
3m
4(
in
out
6
2
)
, (9)
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 5
0
m<m
0
U
0
m>m
0
U
Figure 2. The graphs of potential function U() from (6) at m < m
0
(left) and
m > m
0
(right).
provided that (i) > 0 and
in
>
out
+ 6
2
or (ii) < 0 and
in
<
out
+ 6
2
.
Respectively,
out
changes its sign when () =
2
, where
3
2
=
3m
4(
in
out
+ 6
2
)
, (10)
provided, that (iii) > 0 and
in
>
out
6
2
or (iv) < 0 and
in
<
out
6
2
.
Now we consider a behavior of the eective potential (6). The zeros of this potential,
U() = 0, dene the bounce points of solution when = 0. The maximum of potential
(6) is at the point =
max
, where
3
max
= my
max
=
9
2
4
m
_
1 +
out
in
6
2
+
_
_
1+
out
in
6
2
_
2
+
2
2
9
2
4
[(
in
+
out
+ 6
2
)
2
4
in
out
]
_
_
[(
in
+
out
+ 6
2
)
2
4
in
out
]. (11)
This maximum corresponds to the zero of potential, U(
max
) = 0, at m = m
0
, where.
m
0
=
y
max
__
1 +
y
max
9
2
[(
in
+
out
+ 6
2
)
2
4
in
out
]
+
out
in
6
2
+
2
16
2
2
y
max
_
3/2
. (12)
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 6
The potential U(
max
) > 0 at m < m
0
and vise versa. A second derivative of the
potential (6) is
d
2
U
d
2
=
m
3
4(
out
+
in
) + 12
2
2
3
(13)
9
2
m
2
16
2
6
_
out
in
3
+
m
4
3
_
2
< 0.
It is negative everywhere, and so there is no of a stable equilibrium point for the equation
of motion (5).
At the next step let us dene the values of parameter m when radii
1
and
2
(where
in
and
out
change the sign) coincide with the bounce points of the equation of motion
(5). The corresponding solution of equation U(
1
) = 0 is m = m
1
, where
m
1
=
_
3
4(
in
out
6
2
)
_
1 +
in
+out+6
2
in
out6
2
_
3
. (14)
Respectively, the corresponding solution of equation U(
2
) = 0 is m = m
3
, where
m
3
=
_
3
4(
in
out
+ 6
2
)
_
1 +
in
+out+6
2
in
out+6
2
_
3
. (15)
By using (12), (14) and (15) it can be shown that both m
1
< m
0
and m
3
< m
0
.
There are degenerate cases when the inner and outer regions with respect to the
shell have only one event horizon. The inner Schwarzschildde Sitter metric has only
one event horizon when m = m
21
, where
m
21
=
1
(1 )
18
in
. (16)
Respectively, the outer Schwarzschildde Sitter metric has only one event horizon when
m = m
22
, where
m
22
=
1
(1 + )
18
out
. (17)
It can be veried that both m
21
> m
0
and m
22
> m
0
.
For the following analysis of the dynamical evolution of the shell it is important
to know the values of potential (6) at the event horizons of both the inner and outer
metrics,
h in
= (
h in1
,
h in2
,
h in3
) and
h out
= (
h out1
,
h out2
,
h out3
), respectively. By
using equation (2) for the inner event horizon radius, r =
h in
, and equation (6) for
potential, after some algebraic manipulation we obtain
U(
h in
) =
_
2
_
in
mout
6
2
m
in
(1+
out
6
2
)
+
hin
_
1+
out
in
6
2
__
2
[8
h in
(
h in
2m
in
)]
0. (18)
Analogously, for the outer event horizon r =
h out
we obtain
U(
h out
) =
_
2[
outm
in
6
2
m
out
_
1+
in
6
2
_
] +
hout
_
1+
in
out
6
2
__
2
[8
h out
(
h out
2m
out
)]
0. (19)
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 7
0
a) U(), m>m
21
U
b)
0
c) U(), m=m
21
U
d)
h in1
Figure 3. An eective potential (6) and the corresponding CarterPenrose diagrams
for the case > 0,
out
>
in
+ 6
2
and values of the rolling mass parameter m in
the range m > m
21
(graphs a and b) and m = m
21
(graphs c and d). See Section 3.1
for details.
The equality in (18) and (19) is achieved only at m = m
1
(inner metric), where
h in
=
1
,
and, respectively, at m = m
3
(outer metric), where
h out
=
2
. In other words, the points
of event horizons of both the inner and outer metrics,
h in
and
h out
cannot be below
the potential in the Fig. 2. The gravitational radius
h2
for both in and out metrics
is changed in the range 0
h2
h1
, and, therefore, it is placed at the left of the
potential curve. In a similar way, the gravitational radius
h3
is changed in the range
h1
h3
3
h1
, and, therefore, it is placed at the right of the potential curve.
Now we have all necessary ingredients for the investigation of possible motions of
the thin vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter metric.
3. Dynamical evolution of vacuum shell
3.1. Case of > 0 and
out
>
in
+ 6
2
First of all we consider a simple case, when > 0 and
out
>
in
+6
2
(another similar
case when < 0 and
in
>
out
+ 6
2
may be analyzed in a similar way). In this case
in
=
out
= 1, as it follows from (7) and (8). Therefore, there are no radii
1
and
2
.
It can be shown that in this case m
21
> m
22
,
h in1
>
h out1
and
h in3
>
h out3
.
The rolling parameter of our classication scheme is a mass parameter m and we
start from the large value of this parameter.
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 8
a)
0
b) U(), m=m
22
U
c) d)
h in3
h out1
h in2
Figure 4. An eective potential (6) and the corresponding CarterPenrose diagrams
for the case > 0,
out
>
in
+ 6
2
and values of the rolling mass parameter
m in the range m
22
< m < m
21
(graph a), m = m
22
(graphs b and c) and
m
22
> m > max(m
0
, m
) (graph d).
If m > m
21
, then an event horizon is absent and initial expansion (or contraction)
of the shell is unbounded (there is no bounce point). The corresponding potential U()
and the CarterPenrose diagram is shown in the Figs. 3a and 3b respectively. Here and
further below the CarterPenrose diagrams are shown only for an initially expanding
envelope. The corresponding diagrams for contracting envelope are easily reproduced
from the expanding ones by symmetry reection with respect to the median horizontal
line (except for some special cases).
At m = m
21
, the rst event horizon appears in the inner metric,
h in1
. See Figs. 3c
and 3d for the corresponding potential and diagram.
If m
22
< m < m
21
, then there are two event horizons,
h in2
and
h in3
. See Fig. 4a
for the CarterPenrose diagram, while the potential has a similar form as in the previous
two cases (Figs. 4a and 3c).
At m = m
22
, the rst event horizon appears in the outer metric,
h out1
<
h in3
.
We prove that
h in2
<
h out1
. Indeed, this inequality may be written in the form
(1 + )/(1 ) > 2
out
/(3
out
in
). For > 0, if we will prove the inequality
1 > 2
out
/(3
out
in
), then we prove our statement. The last inequality is evident
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 9
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
a) U(), m
0
>m>m
, m
<=
h out2
=
h in2
U
b)
c) d)
h in3
h out3
h out2
h in2
Figure 5. An eective potential (6) and the corresponding CarterPenrose diagrams
for the case > 0,
out
>
in
+6
2
and values of the rolling mass parameter m in the
range m < m
0
(graphs a, b and c), m
< m < m
0
(graphs b and d) and m < m
< m
0
(graphs b and c).
by remembering that
out
>
in
+ 6
2
. So for m = m
22
the event horizon
h out1
is
located between
h in2
and
h in3
. See Figs. 4b and 4c for the corresponding potential
and the CarterPenrose diagram of an expanding shell.
If m
22
> m > max(m
0
, m
), where m
> m
0
and m
> m > m
0
, then the arrangement of event horizons is
h out2
<
h in2
<
h out3
<
h in3
. The CarterPenrose diagram for an expanding shell
is shown in the Fig. 8d.
If m < m
0
, the region appears, where potential U() is positive (see Fig. 5a).
Now solutions for () have the bounce points. The arrangement of event horizons is
h out2
<
h in2
<
h out3
<
h in3
. The CarterPenrose diagrams for an expanding and
contracting shell are shown in the Fig. 5b and Fig. 5c respectively.
If m
0
> m
< m < m
0
the possible CarterPenrose diagrams
for an expanding and contracting shell are shown in the Figs. 5b and 5d.
In the last case m < m
,m
<=
h out2
=
h in3
U
c) d)
h out3
h out2
h in3
h in2
Figure 6. An eective potential (6) and the corresponding CarterPenrose diagrams
for the case > 0 and
in
>
out
+ 6
2
and values of the rolling mass parameter m
in the range m = m
22
(graphs a), m
22
> m > m
> m > m
0
(graph d).
h out3
<
h in3
. See in the Figs. 5b and 5c the CarterPenrose diagrams for an expanding
and contracting shell respectively. In particular, these diagrams illustrate the formation
of a black hole or wormhole after a nal contraction of the shell.
3.2. Case of > 0 and
in
>
out
+ 6
2
From this point we start classication of a more tangled case, when > 0 and
in
>
out
+ 6
2
(the case when < 0 and
out
>
in
+ 6
2
may be analyzed in
a similar way). Now both
in
and
out
can change the signs at radii
1
and
2
. In the
considered case the following inequalities are valid:
1
>
2
and
h out1
>
h in1
.
It is useful to dene the additional 5 dimensionless parameters: ,
out
,
in
,
1 out
and
1 in
. A rst parameter is a solution = of the equation m
21
= m
22
, where
=
in
out
in
+
out
. (20)
(m
22
< m
21
at > and vice versa). A second parameter is a solution =
out
of the
equation
2
=
h out1
at m = m
22
, where
out
=
in
out
+ 6
2
5
out
in
6
2
. (21)
This parameter exists only if 3
out
>
in
+ 6
2
. Under this condition
2
>
h out1
at
>
out
and vice versa. In the opposite case, when 3
out
<
in
+ 6
2
, it is always
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 11
2
<
h out1
. A third parameter is a solution =
in
of the equation
1
=
h in1
at
m = m
21
, where
in
=
in
out
6
2
5
in
out
6
2
(22)
(
1
>
h in1
at >
in
and vice versa). A fourth parameter is a solution =
1 out
of
the equation
h out1
=
h in3
at m = m
22
, where
1 out
=
in
out
5
out
in
, (23)
This parameter exists only if
in
< 3
out
. Under this condition
h out1
<
h in3
at >
1 out
and vise versa. In the opposite case, when
in
> 3
out
, it is always
h out1
>
h in3
. Finally,
the fth parameter is a solution =
1 in
of the equation
h in1
=
h out2
at m = m
21
,
where
1 in
=
in
out
5
in
out
(24)
(
h in1
>
h out2
at <
1 in
and vice versa). It is easy to verify that
h out1
>
h in2
at
m = m
22
and
h in1
<
h out3
at m = m
21
. A mutual arrangement of these 5 parameters
is
out
>
1 out
> >
1 in
>
in
.
As a rst step in classication of the situation, when > 0 and
in
>
out
+ 6
2
,
we consider the case, when > (the case < is quite a similar). Again we begin
from the large value of the rolling parameter m.
If m > m
21
, the event horizons are absent and there are only two radii
1
and
2
,
where the signs of
in,out
are changed. The potential U() is similar to one shown in the
Fig. 3a (where
1
and
2
are not shown). A diagram for an expanding shell is analogous
to one shown in the Fig. 3b.
The next case is m = m
21
. Now a rst event horizon
h in1
appears, which is at
left to
1
(i. e.
h in1
<
1
). Now potential is similar to one in the Fig. 3c. The crucial
point is that now a shell intersects the radius
h in1
, when
in
= 1. The CarterPenrose
diagram is similar to one shown in the Fig. 3d.
If m
21
> m > m
22
, there are two event horizons
h in2
and
h in3
, but qualitatively
this case is similar to the preceding one. The CarterPenrose diagram for an expanding
shell is shown in the Fig. 4a.
The case m = m
22
is divided into subcases. We begin from the subcase
in
> 3
out
,
when inequalities
h out1
>
h in3
and
h out1
>
2
are fullled. The resulting diagram for
an expanding shell is shown in the Fig. 6a. The other subcase will be considered later.
If m
22
> m > m
, where m
. On
the contrary, a shell intersects the event horizons
h in
in the region R
+
when
in
= 1.
The only distinguishing feature of the case m
> m > m
0
from the preceding one
is swapping round the event horizons
h out2
and
h in3
. The arrangement of radii is
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 12
a) b)
0
x 10
4
c) U(), m
3
>m>m
1
U
d)
h in3
h out2
Figure 7. An eective potential (6) and the corresponding CarterPenrose diagrams
for the case > 0,
out
>
in
+6
2
and values of the rolling mass parameter m in the
range m
0
> m > m
3
(graphs a and b), m
3
> m > m
1
(graphs c) and m < m
1
(graph
d).
(
h in2
,
2
) <
h out2
<
h in3
< (
1
,
h out3
). A corresponding diagram is shown in the
Fig. 6d.
If m
0
> m > m
3
, the potential intersects the axis U = 0 and a shell will bounce
from the potential. The arrangements of radii is the same as in the previous case.
The diagrams for expanding and contracting shell are shown in the Fig. 7a and 7b
respectively.
If m
3
> m > m
1
, the radii
h out2
and
2
are swapped round. The potential is shown
in the Fig. 7c (the event horizons
h out3
and
h in2
are not shown). A diagram for an
expanding shell is the same as in the Fig. 7a. A contracting shell intersects the event
horizon
h out2
in the region R
+
(when
out
= 1). A diagram for a contracting shell is
shown in the Fig. 5d.
If m < m
1
, the radii
h in3
and
1
are swapped round. Two radii (1) and (2)
(where signs of
in,out
are changed) is now under the potential graph. The diagram for
a contracting shell is the same as in the previous case (see Fig. 5d). A corresponding
diagram for an expanding shell is shown in the Fig. 7d.
Now we return to another subcase of the case m = m
22
, when
in
+6
2
> 3
out
>
in
, the inequality
2
<
h out1
is fullled and parameter
1 out
exists. If >
1 out
, then
h out1
<
h in3
. The arrangement of radii is (
h in2
,
2
) <
h out1
<
h in3
<
1
. A diagram
for an expanding shell is shown in the Fig. 8a.
If m
22
> m > max(m
0
, m
), where m
) (graphs b)
and m
0
> m > m
3
(graphs c).
expanding shell is shown in the Fig. 8b.
If m
> m > m
0
, the arrangement of radii is (
h in2
,
2
) <
h out2
<
h in3
<
(
1
,
h out3
). The only dierence with preceding subcase is swapping round the event
horizons
h in3
and
h out3
. A diagram for an expanding shell shell shown in the Fig. 6d.
If m
0
> m > m
3
, the potential intersects the axis U = 0 and the bounce point
appears. The arrangement radii is a similar to the previous case, but a shell now can
bounce from the potential. The diagrams for an expanding and contracting shells are
shown in the Figs. 7a and the 7b respectively. At m
0
> m
and at m
0
> max(m
3
, m
)
there will be the following arrangement of radii : (
h in2
,
2
) <
h out2
<
h out3
<
h in3
<
1
. The diagrams for an expanding and contracting shells are shown in the Figs. 8c
and 7b respectively. The next two subcases depend on the relation m
3
m
and are
described in a similar way. The remaining cases for m < (m
3
, m
h out1
<
h in3,
and
2
>
h out1
are valid. As a result the arrangement of radii is
Vacuum shell in the Schwarzschildde Sitter world 14
h in2
<
h out1
< (
2
,
h in3
) <
1
. A corresponding diagram for an expanding shell is
shown in the Fig. 4c.
If m
22
> m > m
0
, instead of the one event horizon
h out1
there are two event
horizons
h out2
and
h out3
and the arrangement of radii is
h in2
<
h out2
<
h out3
<
(
2
,
h in3
) <
1
. A corresponding diagram for an expanding shell is shown in the Fig. 4d.
If m
0
> m > m
3
, the potential intersects the axis U = 0 and a shell can bounce
from the potential. The corresponding diagrams for an expanding and contracting shells
are shown in the Figs. 5b and 5d respectively.
If m
3
> m > m
, where m
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