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Cigarette Contains Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, including 43 known cancer-causing (carcinogenic) compounds and 400

other toxins. These include nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, as well as formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic, and DDT. Nicotine is highly addictive. Smoke containing nicotine is inhaled into the lungs, and the nicotine reaches your brain in just six seconds. While not as serious as heroin addiction, addiction to nicotine also poses very serious health risks in the long run.

Tar - a mixture of dangerous chemicals Arsenic - used in wood preservatives Benzene - an industrial solvent, refined from crude oil Cadmium - used in batteries Formaldehyde - used in mortuaries and paint manufacturing Polonium-210 - a highly radioactive element Chromium - used to manufacture dye, paints and alloys 1,3-Butadiene - used in rubber manufacturing Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - a group of dangerous DNA-damaging chemicals Nitrosamines - another group of DNA-damaging chemicals Acrolein - formerly used as a chemical weapon

Who invented ? where . when

Cigarettes were invented in 19th century by a French military man during war time. When his only pipe got broken, the soldier took paper from the gunpowder bag that he was carrying, rolled it as a pipe and filled the tobacco inside to smoke. It is also believed that in Seville the beggars used to take out tobacco from the thrown cigars and pipes of the rich people and rolled them into paper to smoke. The tobacco was in use centuries back. Native Americans and people of other countries were consuming it since long back. In U. S. the manufacturing of cigarettes started in 1860 and the famous brand Bull Durham captured 90%of the demand for the product. The cigarettes were then hand made and a costly affair. In 1883 cigarette making was revolutionized when the automatic rolling machine for cigarette rolling was made by an eighteen year old boy James. This helped in reducing the production cost and increasing the volume of production. The reduced prize brought great demand. In 1952 filtered cigarettes were introduced for health protection reasons. It has been estimated that almost $150 billion is spent in smoking in a year. Today the market is full of different brands of cigarettes as many are into this business. Thus unknowingly a multimillion dollar industry took birth which had no end to product production and benefits. The nicotine addiction is harmful to life and brings death to many. Signs of addiction
Nicotine Addiction

The reason cigarette smoking is such a hard habit to break is because nicotine is a highlyaddictive substance. Every time you take a drag off of a cigarette, your blood pressure and heart rate increase for a short time. Nicotine is one of the hardest addictions to break. What is Nicotine Addiction? Nicotine is one of the chemicals that are present in tobacco products, and it is responsible for giving smokers a "rush" within about 10 seconds of taking a drag of the cigarette. The effect doesn't last for very long, which is why a person with a nicotine addiction keeps lighting up. Signs of Nicotine Dependence Most people who smoke become addicted to nicotine. Someone who has become addicted to nicotine may have cravings for cigarettes, have difficulty stopping smoking, and have nicotine withdrawal symptoms when they try to do so. Some people feel irritable when they don't have a cigarette, while others find it hard to concentrate without them. Causes of Dependency Nicotine causes addiction because it affects the brain by making it produce an increased amount of a chemical called dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has a lot to do with how a person feels pleasure. When dopamine levels drop, the nicotine addict may feel down or even depressed and lights up another cigarette to feel good again. Effects of Use A person who smokes puts an extra strain on their heart every time they have a cigarette. Cigarettes also contain carbon monoxide, which makes it more difficult for your body to get the oxygen it needs. To compensate, blood flow to the extremities is reduced. Smokers have bad breath, stained teeth and fingers, and a lowered resistance to colds and the flu. The nicotine addict's sense of smell and taste are less sensitive than a non-smoker's are. Appetite is reduced as well. Acts to prevent Help and Treatment for Nicotine Addiction When someone who has been addicted to nicotine is ready to stop smoking, there are a number of treatment options available. Some people are able to choose a date and quit cold turkey, but they are probably in the minority. One option is to use a nicotine patch to get weaned off this substance. You also have the option of using a prescription medication to help you stop smoking. See you doctor to ask if using Chantix or other drugs will help you kick the habit. Nicotine gum or an inhaler may help you to quit using nicotine. Beyond Quitting: Recovery and Rehabilitation Within 20 minutes after your last cigarette, your body starts to change. Your pulse rate and blood pressure drop to normal levels. At the three-day mark, your body will be nicotine free. At the three-week mark, nicotine will no longer be controlling you. How to Quit Smoking There's no one way to quit smoking that works for everyone. To quit, you must be ready both emotionally and mentally. You must also want to quit smoking for yourself and not to please your friends or family. It helps to plan ahead. This guide may help get you started. What Should I Do First to Stop Smoking? Pick a date to stop smoking and then stick to it. Write down your reasons for quitting smoking. Read over the list every day, before and after you quit. Here are some tips to think about.

Write down when you smoke, why you smoke, and what you are doing when you smoke. You will learn what triggers you to smoke. Stop smoking cigarettes in certain situations (such as during your work break or after dinner) before actually quitting. Make a list of activities you can do instead of smoking. Be ready to do something else when you want to smoke.

Ask your doctor about using nicotine gum or patches. Some people find these aids helpful.

Diseases can get Most people associate cigarette smoking with breathing problems and lung cancer. But did you know that smoking is also a major cause of heart disease for men and women? About 20% of all deaths from heart disease in the U.S. are directly related to cigarette smoking. That's because smoking is a major cause of coronary artery disease. A person's risk of heart disease and heart attack greatly increases with the number of cigarettes he or she smokes. Smokers continue to increase their risk of heart attack the longer they smoke. People who smoke a pack of cigarettes a day have more than twice the risk of heart attack than nonsmokers. Women who smoke and also take birth control pills increase several times their risk of heart attack, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Cigarette smoke not only affects smokers. When you smoke, the people around you are also at risk for developing health problems, especially children. Environmental tobacco smoke (also called passive smoke or secondhand smoke) affects people who are frequently around smokers. Secondhand smoke can cause chronic respiratory conditions, cancer, and heart disease. It is estimated that around 35,000 nonsmokers die from heart disease each year as a result of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Family friends SMOKING AND THE UNBORN CHILD The evidence continues to mount. Smoking during pregnancy does affect your unborn child. Developmental growth and birth weight in babies of smoking mothers is lower than babies of non-smoking mothers. These same "smoking" babies are more likely to be shorter in height, slower at reading and lower in "social adjustment" than children of nonsmoking mothers. Statistics show that infant mortality--the death of the baby either at birth or through a miscarriage--is 50 percent higher when the mother smokes. That means nonsmoking parents experience half as many infant mortalities. The good news is that if you stop smoking by the fourth month of pregnancy, you can significantly reduce these dangers. [1] "Women who smoke while pregnant pass NNK, a very potent carcinogen, to their babies still developing in the womb. Earlier research showed that offspring of animals treated with NNK developed tumors of the lung, trachea, liver, and other organs." [2] A recent study even suggests that individuals, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, were predisposed to take up smoking themselves. If you smoke while pregnant, you may be encouraging your child to smoke, years from now! [3] SMOKING AND CHILDREN Newborn babies exposed to their mother's smoking through breast feeding and environmental tobacco smoke show significantly higher levels of urinary cotinine. Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine, and is used as a marker for recent cigarette smoke exposure. A study examined 507 infants, finding urinary cotinine levels during the first 2 weeks of life were significantly increased in infants whose mothers smoked. Breast-fed infants had higher cotinine levels than non-breast-fed infants, but this was statistically significant only if mothers smoked. Urinary cotinine levels were 5 times higher in breast-fed infants whose mothers smoked than in those whose mothers smoked but did not breast-feed. Babies definitely receive

the harmful chemicals found in cigarettes through both breast feeding and environmental exposure. [4] Children of smokers are also 2 1/2 times more likely to die of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), or crib death. One study found that nearly 60 percent of all SIDS cases could be prevented if smokers stopped smoking around babies and pregnant women. [5] A meta-analysis of studies conducted after 1965 showed significant risk to children exposed to secondhand smoke of numerous ailments including asthma, tonsillectomy, lower respiratory tract infections, plus many others. Children were also at risk of death due to fires caused by cigarettes. [6] One study reveals an incredible statistic: Children of smokers are nearly three times as likely to smoke as children of non-smokers. Parents, have you ever thought of yourself as a drug pusher? [7] SECONDHAND SMOKE Does secondhand smoke cause cancer or other illness? Do we have to ask? This issue has divided the pro- and anti-smoking lobbies for many years. However, a study by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) released in November 1999, presents conclusive evidence, including 18 epidemiological studies linking secondhand smoke to coronary heart disease. Donald Shopland, coordinator of NCI's Smoking and Tobacco Control Program, notes that the report estimates that each year in the United States between 35,000 and 62,000 coronary heart disease deaths occur due to secondhand smoke exposure, also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). "ETS exposures are related to much more than heart disease. When the thousands of ETS-related lung cancers and other diseases are considered, ETS clearly is a major cause of death in the United States," said Shopland. [8] OTHER EFFECTS OF SMOKING Besides the obvious effects of smoking presented above, there are many other effects that you probably never considered. First, smoking stinks. Never mind the health risks. The offensive odor intrudes on the noses of people all around you, from your family and co-workers, to patrons at public places such as restaurants and sporting events. While you may feel it is your right to smoke in public places, consider how you would feel if your next door neighbor suddenly opened a chicken farm in his back yard. The stench can be sickening. The issue is not so much a rights issues as much as it is a consideration issue. Treat the people around you with respect, the way that you'd expect them to treat you. Aside from the smell of smoke, there's also the issue of cigarette butts carelessly discarded along roadways and other public places. While most smokers would probably never consider tossing a used cup or hamburger wrapper out their car window, many don't give a second thought to flicking one cigarette butt after another out the window. Don't think one little butt matters? Consider that it takes one to five years for a cigarette butt to disintegrate, or biodegrade. [9] What's that? You only throw out perhaps one cigarette butt per pack. Ok, let's examine that. You litter one butt for every 20 you smoke. That's 5% of your cigarettes. Not much, right? Consider that the worldwide consumption of cigarettes is somewhere in the neighborhood of 6,050,000,000,000 per year. If "only" 5% of cigarette butts were discarded improperly, that means 302,500,000,000 butts are littering every street corner, parking lot, public park, and beach in the world. The next time you stop in your car at a stop light, look down next to your car. You'll probably see dozens, if not hundreds of butts.

What do improperly discarded butts lead to, among other things? Yes, fires! Thousands of fires are started each year by carelessly discarded cigarette butts. Thousands of innocent victims are killed each year as a result of these fires. These fires and deaths are easily prevented if only you would take a moment to properly discard your butts. How else does your smoking affect other people? Consider that your smoking habit costs hundreds or thousands of dollars per year. Add this amount up over 20 or 30 years, plus tack on the interest that money could have earned and you have wasted perhaps $100,000 or more! Just think what that money could have done for you and your family. One cigarette at a time, and no one notices. But if you pulled $100,000 out of your bank account, you'd be called a thief! The financial costs don't stop at the cigarettes alone. You're also probably paying double or more for your health insurance. You're also much more likely to incur doctor visits and medical expenses than are non-smokers. This costs you both for the treatment as well as the lost wages from your time off from work. The value of your car and home may also be reduced, due to the odor and filth of cigarettes. Have your personal relationships been affected? Smoking can be very offensive to nonsmokers. Many non-smokers won't consider a smoker as a possible spouse. If you're in sales, smoking may be killing deals because you smell bad, or have offensive breath. People buy *you*, not just your product!. Your career may even be stunted due to excessive smoke breaks. Smokers waste many hours each week taking breaks to satisfy their habit. Don't think that your regular absences go unnoticed by your colleagues and your boss. While you're outside relaxing, your co-workers are inside working. If you were the boss, to whom would you give a raise or promotion? Your smoking also cheats your family and friends. When you die early (the average smoker will die eight years earlier than a non-smoker), you rob your family and friends of--you! If you are unfortunate enough to get sick at a very early age, you also threaten your children's normal childhood, and seriously impact your spouse's life. Consider your children, spouse, family and friends when you smoke next. Finally, don't forget that smoking cheats YOU! All of the foregoing information affects you. When you smoke, you are slowly robbing yourself. The point of all this? Your smoking habit has far reaching consequences. Quitting smoking can erase these negative consequences and improve your life and the lives of so many other people around you. Start making plans today to quit smoking. 8. Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Between 1964 and 2004, cigarette smoking caused an estimated 12 million deaths, including 4.1 million deaths from cancer, 5.5 million deaths from cardiovascular diseases, 1.1 million deaths from respiratory diseases, and 94,000 infant deaths related to mothers smoking during pregnancy.1 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cigarette smoking results in more than 443,000 premature deaths in the United States each yearabout 1 in every 5 U.S. deaths2and an additional 8.6 million people suffer with a serious illness caused by smoking.3 Thus, for every one person who dies from smoking, 20 more suffer from at least one serious tobacco-related illness.3 The harmful effects of smoking extend far beyond the smoker. Exposure to secondhand smoke can cause serious diseases and death. Each year, an estimated 126 million Americans are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke and almost 50 thousand nonsmokers die from diseases caused by secondhand smoke exposure.4

What Other Adverse Effects Does Tobacco Have on Health? Cigarette smoking accounts for about one-third of all cancers, including 90 percent of lung cancer cases. Smokeless tobacco (such as chewing tobacco and snuff) also increases the risk of cancer, especially oral cancers. In addition to cancer, smoking causes lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and increases the risk of heart disease, including stroke, heart attack, vascular disease, and aneurysm. Smoking has also been linked to leukemia, cataracts, and pneumonia.1,2 On average, adults who smoke die 14 years earlier than nonsmokers.2 Although nicotine is addictive and can be toxic if ingested in high doses, it does not cause cancerother chemicals are responsible for most of the severe health consequences of tobacco use. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals such as carbon monoxide, tar, formaldehyde, cyanide, and ammoniamany of which are known carcinogens. Carbon monoxide increases the chance of cardiovascular diseases. Tar exposes the user to an increased risk of lung cancer, emphysema, and bronchial disorders. Pregnant women who smoke cigarettes run an increased risk of miscarriage, stillborn or premature infants, or infants with low birthweight.2 Maternal smoking may also be associated with learning and behavioral problems in children. Smoking more than one pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy nearly doubles the risk that the affected child will become addicted to tobacco if that child starts smoking.6 While we often think of medical consequences that result from direct use of tobacco products, passive or secondary smoke also increases the risk for many diseases. Secondhand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke, consists of exhaled smoke and smoke given off by the burning end of tobacco products. Nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke at home or work increase their risk of developing heart disease by 25 to 30 percent7 and lung cancer by 20 to 30 percent.2 In addition, secondhand smoke causes respiratory problems, such as coughing, overproduction of phlegm, and reduced lung function and respiratory infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis, in both adults and children. In fact, each year about 150,000 300,000 children younger than 18 months old experience respiratory tract infections caused by secondhand smoke.4 Children exposed to secondhand smoking are at an increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome, ear problems, and severe asthma. Furthermore, children who grow up with parents who smoke are more likely to become smokers, thus placing themselves (and their future families) at risk for the same health problems as their parents when they become adults. Although quitting can be difficult, the health benefits of smoking cessation are immediate and substantialincluding reduced risk for cancers, heart disease, and stroke. A 35-year-old man who quits smoking will, on average, increase his life expectancy by 5 Are There Effective Treatments for Tobacco Addiction? Tobacco addiction is a chronic disease that often requires multiple attempts to quit. Although some smokers are able to quit without help, many others need assistance. Generally, rates of relapse for smoking cessation are highest in the first few weeks and months and diminish considerably after about 3 months. Both behavioral interventions (counseling) and medication can help smokers quit; but the combination of medication with counseling is more effective than either alone. Behavioral Treatments Behavioral treatments employ a variety of methods to assist smokers in quitting, ranging from self-help materials to individual counseling. These interventions teach individuals to recognize high-risk situations and develop coping strategies to deal with them. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) national toll-free quitline, 800-QUIT-NOW, is an access point for any smoker seeking information and assistance in quitting.

Nicotine Replacement Treatments Nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), such as nicotine gum and the nicotine patch, were the first pharmacological treatments approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in smoking cessation therapy. NRTs deliver a controlled dose of nicotine to a smoker in order to relieve withdrawal symptoms during the smoking cessation process. They are most successful when used in combination with behavioral treatments. Current FDA-approved NRT products include nicotine chewing gum, the nicotine transdermal patch, nasal sprays, inhalers, and lozenges. Other Medications Bupropion and varenicline are two FDA-approved non-nicotine medications that effectively increase rates of long-term abstinence from smoking. Bupropion, a medication that goes by the trade name Zyban, was approved by the FDA in 1997 for use in smoking cessation. Varenicline tartrate (trade name: Chantix) targets nicotine receptors in the brain, easing withdrawal symptoms and blocking the effects of nicotine if people resume smoking. Current Treatment Research Scientists are currently pursuing many other avenues of research to develop new smoking cessation therapies. One promising intervention is a vaccine called NicVax that works by targeting nicotine in the bloodstream, blocking its access to the brain and thereby preventing its reinforcing effects. Preliminary trials of this vaccine have yielded promising results, with vaccinated smokers achieving higher quit rates and longer term abstinence compared to smokers given placebo. NicVax is now being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials; successful completion will bring NicVax closer to final approval by the FDA.