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Sean A. Hayward

Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea hayward@mm.ewha.ac.kr (17th February 2002)

Traversible wormhole space-times are found as static, spherically symmetric solutions to the Einstein equations with ingoing and outgoing pure ghost radiation, i.e. pure radiation with negative energy density. Switching o the radiation causes the wormhole to collapse to a Schwarzschild black hole.

the unit sphere and the metric functions f and h are positive. The active gravitational mass-energy [12,13] of such a space-time is m(r) = (1 f (r))r/2. (2)

04.20.Jb, 04.70.Bw

The idea of space-time wormholes originated with Wheeler [1], with traversible wormholes becoming popular after the article of Morris & Thorne [2]. More recently, renewed interest has focussed on outstanding questions such as how to construct wormholes [3], their dynamical behaviour [4], their stability [5,6] and the nature of the negative-energy matter needed to support them [7]. This letter proposes a very simple model of negative-energy radiation and exhibits resulting wormhole solutions, which can be used to study the other questions. The simplest radiation model is pure radiation, also known as null dust, for which the energy tensor is u u, where u is a null vector and is the energy density (which, if positive, can be absorbed in the normalization of u). This represents incoherent radiation and occurs in the geometric-optics limit of massless particles such as photons. The matter model proposed here is simply pure radiation with negative energy density. In quantum eld theory, this is associated with ghost elds, so it may be called pure ghost radiation. One might expect it to be a similarly valid model of negative-energy radiation. More realistic models, like semi-classical quantum elds such as those produced by Hawking radiation [8], are often not analytically tractable, so a simple model has theoretical merit. With pure radiation of the usual positive energy density, the static, spherically symmetric Einstein system has been studied by Date [9], with solutions found by Kramer [10] and, more generally, by Gergely [11]. Reversing appropriate signs leads to the wormhole solutions derived below. However, the geometry is quite dierent, in particular being non-singular. It is curious that benign wormhole solutions naturally appear under such situations. Liberally adopting the method and notation of Gergely, the line element of a static, spherically symmetric space-time may be written as ds2 = r2 d2 + f (r)1 dr2 h(r)dt2 (1)

The energy tensor of pure ghost radiation is u u, where u is a null vector and 0 is the negative energy density. With both ingoing and outgoing radiation, the energy tensor is T = + u+ u+ u u (3)

where u are null vectors. For the above metric, one may take 1 2u = h t f r (4)

so that the null vectors are relatively normalized. Static solutions require the same negative energy density = for both ingoing and outgoing radiation. This specialized matter model can also be regarded as an anisotropic uid with density , radial pressure and vanishing tangential pressure. Here and throughout, units are such that the speed of light and Newtons constant are unity. The energy-momentum conservation equations T = 0 reduce to (hr2 ) = 0 (5)

where the prime denotes d/dr. Thus the (gravitationally red-shifted) radial tension or negative linear mass density = 4r2 h (6)

is a positive constant. It is possible to absorb the magnitude of in the static Killing vector, but it will be retained here. In terms of the function = 2/h the Einstein equations G = 8T reduce to rf = 1 f rf h = h(1 + f ) rf = (1 + f ) (8) (9) (10) (7)

where one equation is redundant, having already solved the conservation equation. Transforming to = ln r and using a dot to denote d/d, the reduced system is

(11) (12)

Collecting results, the class of solutions depends on the parameters (a, b) and the normalizable , and may be summarized by r = ael = a el + 2l

2 2

(13)

h= f =

2

as substituted into the line element (1). By construction, this is the unique class of static, spherically symmetric solutions to the Einstein equations with pure ghost radiation. It is straightforward to calculate dr = 2a dl m = el + 2l 2el 2 a/2

2 dm = 1 + 2lel a. dl 2 2

where D is the integration constant. This leads to the algebraic relation r (1 + )2 = ln 2f a (16)

where a = exp((1 + D)/2) is a positive constant. The branch of the logarithm corresponds to negative , reecting the negative energy density. Returning to the reduced system, one may eliminate or r to give df f ( + f 1) = . d ( f + 1) (17)

The line element may then be written explicitly in (t, l) coordinates as ds2 = a2 el + 2l 2dt2 . 1 + 2lel2

2

d2 + 2a2 el

el + 2l dl2 (29)

Since solutions with negative are being sought, the method of Gergely is now modied by dening p= 2f 1+ l= . 2f (18)

Integrating the corresponding homogeneous equation yields p = 2el and the solution is completed by l 2 erf(l) + b (l) = e d + b = 2 0

2

In the case b = 0, (l) is an odd function and the metric is even in the spatial coordinate l. This describes a symmetric wormhole with spatial topology R S 2 and minimal surfaces at the wormhole throat l = 0, with radius r = a. The space-time is not asymptotically at, but otherwise constitutes a Morris-Thorne wormhole. There are no singularities, unlike in the corresponding positiveenergy solutions. The b = 0 cases include asymmetric wormholes which are analogous to the asymmetric Ellis wormholes [14] for a ghost Klein-Gordon eld. The solutions may be written in dual-null form ds2 = r2 d2 h dx+ dx in terms of null coordinates x dened by

2 a dx = dt el + 2l dl.

(30)

(20)

(31)

(21)

2 a x = t lel + (1 + 2l2 ) . 2

where b is constant and erf denotes the error function, the symmetric integral of the standard normal distribution. The solution is mathematically familiar compared with the case of positive energy density. Then = pl 1 = 1 2lel .

2

(32)

(22)

Thus the metric functions are implicitly known as functions of x+ x . Using the relations (33) l = l2 + 2l) 2a(e 2

the solutions have been checked by substitution in the dual-null form of the Einstein equations [12,13] for the general spherically symmetric line element (30) with nonzero energy components T = h /2. Returning to more general issues, the simplicity of pure ghost radiation means that it is easier to study how the wormholes react to changes in the radiation level. This has not been analytically tractable previously except in a two-dimensional model [3]. In particular, the ingoing and outgoing radiation simply pass through one another without interaction, following null geodesics with propagation equations (hr2 ) = 0. For instance, it is not dicult to see what happens if the radiation supporting the wormhole is turned o, as follows. Consider a static wormhole for {x+ < 0, x < 0}, with the ghost radiation then switched o from both sides of the wormhole, so that = 0 for x > 0, respectively. The solutions in the regions {x > 0, x < 0} will be similar to Vaidya solutions [15], while the solution in the future region {x+ > 0, x > 0} will be vacuum and therefore, by a version of Birkhos theorem valid through the horizons of a black hole [12], Schwarzschild. Further, this region can be seen to be be the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole with mass a/2, by dierentiability of the metric at x+ = x = 0. Specically, continuity of the trapping horizons r = 0 [12,13], which initially form the throat {x+ = x , x < 0} of the wormhole, means that they can be joined to the event horizons {x = 0, x > 0} of a black hole. This generally unexpected behaviour was predicted by a general theory of wormholes and black holes [4] and recently conrmed in the two-dimensional model [3]. In summary, if the supporting ghost radiation is switched o, the wormhole collapses to a Schwarzschild black hole. Details of such collapses and other dynamical processes involving the wormholes are to be presented in forthcoming work. Research supported by Korea Research Foundation grant KRF-2001-015-DP0095. Thanks to Sung-Won Kim for support and Hisa-aki Shinkai for discussions.

L A Gergely, Phys. Rev. D58, 084030 (1998). S A Hayward, Phys. Rev. D53, 1938 (1996). S A Hayward, Class. Quantum Grav. 15, 3147 (1998). H G Ellis, J. Math. Phys. 14, 395 (1973). P C Vaidya, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. A33, 264 (1951).

[1] J A Wheeler, Ann. Phys. 2, 604 (1957). [2] M S Morris & K S Thorne, Am. J. Phys. 56, 395 (1988). [3] S A Hayward, S-W Kim & H Lee, Phys. Rev. D65, 064003 (2002). [4] S A Hayward, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D8, 373 (1999). [5] C Armendariz-Picon, gr-qc/0201027. [6] K A Bronnikov & S Grinyok, gr-qc/0201083. [7] N Dadhich, S Kar, S Mukherji & M Visser, Phys. Rev. D65, 064004 (2002). [8] D Hochberg, A Popov & S V Sushkov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2050 (1997). [9] G Date, Gen. Rel. Grav. 29, 953 (1997). [10] D Kramer, Class. Quantum Grav. 15, L31 (1998).

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