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1 First Page Previous Page Next Page / 69 Sections SectionsSection 1 of 67 An Overviewp. 4 Objectives- of Work Studyp. 5 METHOD STUDYp. 7 Introductionp. 7 Objectivesp. 7 Method Study Procedurep. 8 SELECTIONp. 9 Field of Choicep. 10 Need for Studyp. 11 Objective of the Studyp. 12 Terms of Referencep. 12 Preparation of the Studyp. 12 RECORDING TECHNIQUESp. 14 Recording the Background Informationp. 14 Process Chartsp. 14 Charting Symbolsp. 15 Some Principles and Conventionsp. 16 Subject of the Chartp. 16 Scale of the Chartp. 17 Numbering the Activitiesp. 17 Combined Activitiesp. 17 Change of Statep. 17 Rejects and Reprocessingp. 18 Repetitionp. 18 Introduction of Materialsp. 18 Types of Recording Techniquesp. 19 Basic Informationp. 20

(a) The Operation Process Chartp. 20 (b) The Outline Process Chartp. 22 (c) The Flow Process Chart (Material)p. 23 (d) The Flow Process Chart (Man)p. 24 (e) The Multiple Activity Chartp. 26 (f). The Two-Handed Process Chartp. 29 Example: Two-handed Process Chartp. 29 (g) The Simultaneous Motion Cycle Chart (Simon-Chart)p. 30 Flow Diagram and String Diagramp. 31 Photographic Aidsp. 35 CRITICAL EXAMINATIONp. 36 Recording-A Prerequisite for Examinationp. 36 Classification of Activitiesp. 36 Examination Approachp. 38 Plant Layoutp. 45 What is Materials Handlingp. 47 Materials Movement Managementp. 47 Some Principlesp. 49 Aids for Improving Layoutp. 51 (i) Use of the human bodyp. 52 Use of the Human Bodyp. 52 Arrangement of the Workplacep. 53 Design of Tools and Equipmentp. 54 Working Areasp. 54 Workplace Layout and Design of Toolsp. 55 NOTES ON WORKPLACE LAYOUTp. 55 NOTES ON THE DESIGN OF JIGS, TOOLS AND FIXTURESp. 56 THERBLIGSp. 58 WORKING CONDITIONSp. 59 Defining the New Methodp. 61 Installing the New Methodp. 62 Maintaining the New Methodp. 63 HUMAN FACTOR IN METHOD STUDYp. 64 Method Study and Managementp. 64 Method Study and the Workerp. 64

Method Study and the Supervisorp. 65 Method Study Manp. 65 QUESTIONSp. 66 Suggested Readingsp. 68

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Bottom of Form Share & Embed Add to Collections Download this Document for Free Auto-hide: on INTRODUCTORY NOTE Practically the world over, there has been increasing recognition that thedevelopment of supervisory skills can significantly contribute to the improvement of productivity of an enterprise. From its inception in 1958, the National ProductivityCouncil has laid stress on supervisory development programmes, but since it needed amore concrete drive, it introduced during the Asian Productivity Year 1970 a nationwidescheme to prepare candidates through self-study and classroom or enterpriselevelguidance for a professional qualifying examination leading to the award of NationalCertificate in Supervision.The response to the NPC scheme has been quite good. Management of all forward-looking enterprises have evinced considerable interest, and every year a large number of candidates are appeared for the examination. In implementing the NPCs SupervisoryDevelopment Scheme, some of the Local Productivity Councils have extended their co-operation and support. The success of self-study scheme ultimately depends on makingavailable adequate study material prepared by competent experts, and written in a lucidand simple style. NPC has brought out as many as 25 Management Guides so far whichattempt to give a basic understanding of the various topics included in the syllabus.This guide on Method Study has been prepared by Shri N. V. Krishna, formerlyRegional Director, National Productivity' Council, Bangalore, and revised by Shri B. P.Dhaka, Deputy Director, Regional Directorate, National -Productivity Council, New Delhi.These Guides are also designed to be of help to managerial personnel as well asstudents of Management who wish to have some basic understanding of the science andpractice of management.iii

CONTENTSPage No INTRODUCTION 1 An Overview 1Objectives of Work Study 2 METHOD STUDY 4 Introduction, 4Objectives 4Method Study Procedure 5 SELECTION 6 Field of Choice 7Need for Study 8Objective of the Study 9Terms of Reference 9Preparation of the Study 9 RECORDING TECHNIQUES 11 Recording the Background Information 11Process Charts 11Charting Symbols 12Some Principles and Conventions 13Subject of the Chart 13Scale of the Chart 14Numbering the Activities ... 14Combined Activities 14Change of State 14Rejects and Reprocessing 15Repetition 15Introduction of Materials 15Types of Recording Techniques 16Basic Information 17The Operation Process Chart 17The Outline Process Chart 19The Flow Process Chart (Material) 20The Flow Process Chart (Man) 21The Multiple Activity Chart 23The TwoHanded Process Chart 26The Simultaneous Motion Cycle Chart (Simo Chart) 27Flow Diagram and String Diagram 28 v 30 Travel Char 30Photographic Aids 32 CRITICAL EXAMINATION 33 Recording-A Prerequisite for Examination 33Classification of Activities 33Examination Approach 35Procedure 45 DEVELOPING THE IMPROVED METHOD 40PLANT LAYOUT AND MATERIALS HANDLING . 42 Plant Layout 42What is Materials Handling 44Materials Movement Management . 44Some Principles 46Aids for Improving Layout 48 PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMYAND WORKPLACE LA YOUT 49 Classification of Movements 49Use of the Human Body 49. Arrangement of the Workplace 50Design of Tools and Equipment 51Working Areas 51Workplace Layout and Design of Tools 52Notes on Workplace Layout 52Notes on the Design of Jigs, Tools and Fixtures ... 53Therbligs 55 WORKING CONDITIONS 56DEFINE, INSTALL AND .MAINTAIN ` 58 Defining the New Method 58Installing the New Method 59Maintaining the New Method 60 HUMAN FACTOR IN METHOD STUDY 61 Method Study and Management 61Method Study and the Worker 61Method Study and the Supervisor 62Method Study Man 62 QUESTIONS 63SUGGESTED READINGS 65 vi

INTRODUCTION Work Study A generic term for those techniques, particularly METHOD STUDY and WORKMEASUREMENT, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts,and which. lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect theefficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement. Method Study The systematic recording and critical examination of existing and. proposed waysof doing work as a means of developing and applying easier and more effectivemethods, and reducing costs. Work Measurement The application of the techniques to establish the time for a qualified worker tocarry out a specified job at a. defined level of performance.B. S. Glossary, 3138: 1969 An Overview The factors affecting the productivity of an organisation are many and vary in theirnature and importance according to the type of the organisation, needs of the situationand resources available. Productivity can be increased manifold by modernization,automation and technological improvements but this involves substantial capitalinvestment, which is not easily available in a developing country like ours. In suchsituation be efforts should be first to improve. the productivity by better utilisation of existing resources. The'_ work study aims at improving the productivity through thesystematic analysis of existing operations, processes, work methods and resources with aview to increasing their efficiency 1

useful to select one typical member or unit of each group, this plays an active partthroughout the process. The activity. charted should relate to the same subject,throughout the chart. The activities of men and materials should not be mixed up Scale of the Chart The degree of details charted will vary according to the requirement. Adequateamount of detail should be given without being elaborate. After depicting the broaddetails of the process, if necessary, particular activity can be amplified further and adetailed chart can be drawn. The consistency must be maintaine4, with regard to thescale adopted as far as a particular chart is concerned. Numbering the Activities The symbols in a process chart are numbered to facilitate easy reference andcomparison. The like symbols arc numbered serially from beginning till end as shown inFig. 3 Combined Activities Whenever two activities are performed simultaneously, tbey can be devoted bycombined symbols. . For Example

indicates a combined inspection and operation. Themore predominant activity is denoted by the outerThe first number indicates the outer symbol and thesymbol. second the inner symbol. Change of State when there is a very significant changed in the subject charged during theprocess, it is shown as below

Rejects and Reprocessing When the material is rejected, it is shown by taking out an arrow at the appropriatestage. If after inspection they are to be reworked it can be shown by taking and joining anarrow suitably as shown in Figs. 5 &6. Repetition If a series of activities. have to be repeated in a process they can be shown as givenbelow: Introduction of Materials Sometimes the chart may involve various materials, components and subassemblies.In such cases the main such is shown on the right extreme anal the components andmaterial arc introduced from the right. The introduction. of materials is shown byhorizontal lines at appropriate places in the chart. Numbering also. Proceeds from theright to left in sequence as shown in Fig. 8. 15

Types of Recording Techniques The recording techniques generally used are as follows :(a) The Operation Process Chart(b) The Outline Process Chart(c) The Flow Process Chart (material)(d) The Flow Process Chart (man)(e) The Multiple Activity Chart(f) The -Two Handed Process. Chart(g) The Simultaneous Motion Cycle Chart (8IMO Chart)(h) The Flow Diagram(i) The String Diagram (j) The Travel Chart 16

Basic Information In order to maintain the value of process charts and diagrams, for future referenceand make them easily understandable and recognisable, the following information shouldbe given as a heading; (a) Name of the chart of diagram,(b) Nature of process of job being recorded,(c) Whether the present or proposed method is shown,(d) Subject being recorded,(e) A clear indication as to where the chart begins and where it ends,(f) The time and distance scales used where applicable, (g) The date of construction of the chart/diagram, reference number and name of the observer.At the end of each chart a summary is prepared in a tabular form giving the totalnumber of each activity, distance moved and the time taken. This also helps in comparingbetween the present and proposed methodsIt should be remembered that these charts and diagrams are only a means to an end. Theyprovide a graphic picture of the facts which facilitate further analysis. Thus theserecording techniques can be adopted by the individual. depending upon the situation tosuit the purpose. (a)

The Operation Process Chart At the initial stages it is valuable to get an overall view of the process. This willindicate how detailed further recording need to be. An operator process chart provides abird's eye view of the whole process or activity. In an operations process chart all theoperations and inspections involved are recorded. The chart does not indicate where thework takes place or who performs it. The delays, transport and storages are not indicated.But the entry points of materials are indicated. "An operations Process Chart is a graphic representation of the sequence of allthe operations and inspections involved in a process or procedure" Such a chart will serve as a starting point for the critical examination. This is a veryuseful chart for initial analysis .. Where the process is long and complicated, this chartprovides an overall picture and gives adequate information for critical examination. Thischart is particularly useful for recording maintenance and other indirect work.An example of the operation process chart is given in Fig. 9 17 18

An example of the outline process chart of plywood manufacture is given in Fig. 10. (b) The Outline Process Chart "Sometimes as the initial stages of the study an overall view of the job under studycan be obtained by recording only the key operations and inspections without 19

going into all the operations and inspections and other activities like delays,movements and storages." Such a chart is known as an Outline Process Chart. This chart is particularly usefulfor large projects for getting a broad outline. Further amplification and analysis can begone into if necessary, through an operation process chart or a flow process chart. (c) The Flow Process Chart (Material) . When once an overall picture of the process has been obtained. it may becomenecessary to go into a, certain amount of detail. A flow process chart (material) is adetailed chart, indicating all the activities involved in a process. "A flow process chart (material)), is a process chart setting out the sequence of the flow of a product or a procedure by recording all events under review in termsthe material being processed, using the appropriate symbols In a flow process chart (material), the subject of the chart is material.Since all the activities, operations, inspections, movements, delays and storages arerecorded all the five symbols are used. The subject selected for recording should be onethat provides continuity throughout the process. A suitable unit or a grouping of materialshould be selected.A flow process chart (material) is more detailed than the operation 'process chart. Allthe factors contributing to the process must' be recorded. Though the degree of detailwould depend on the problem under consideration for method study, the chart should notbe oversimplified. i n order to ensure that there is no confusion between material and operator whilerecording, the activity description given at the side of the symbol should be in passivevoice. The distance and time values are also recorded whenever appropriate.Since all the movements are recorded very clearly, the. flow process chart along withthe flow diagram is a very useful chart for analysing and improving layout and handlingproblems.For recording and anal}sing a process a flow process chart (material) is a very usefulchart. It gives a very clear account of events. This chart is also a useful medium forpresenting new proposals to the management. Fig. 11 gives an example of be flowprocess chart (material). 20 (d) The Flow Process Chart (Man) There are various types of charts that are used to record the method depending onthe degree of details required. The flow process chart (man), is21

One of the basic charts to record the method. It is used to record the work of Individualoperators. It gives a graphic representation of all the activities performed by the operatorsin the sequence in which they occur .. "A flow process chart (man) is a chart setting out the sequence of the flow of aproduct or a procedure by recording all event under review in terms of the workerusing the appropriate process chart symbols."

The term storage is not usually applicable to an operator and hence this symbol isnot used. The subject of the chart will be an operator/worker per forming the job. Thedescription of the activity is written in active voice to avoid confusion.Flow Process Chart (Material)-Present MethodJob: Packing empty "Hair Oil" bottles in cartonSubject charted: One typical bottleChart Begins: Bottles on storage tableChart Ends: Bottles in closed carton on storage benchThe above points are ~shown in Fig. 11Flow process chart (man) is a useful recording technique- to chart the method of performance rather than the process. When once the process has been examined and allpossible improvements have been made, fun her analysis and improvements in "methodswould be necessary. Existing methods when clearly recorded through this chart, would behelpful in developing new methods. This chart can also be used as an operating instructionfor use by supervisors and workers. An example of the flow process chart (man) is shownin Fig. 12.Flow Process Chart (Man) - Present MethodJob: Collection of materials from storeSubject charted: Machine HelperChart Begins: Helper awaiting for preparation of requisition ChartEnds: Helper at the machineThe above points are shown in Fig. 12. 22

Fig. 12 (e) The Multiple Activity Chart There will be various situations wherein the combined and 'inter-related efforts of agroup of workers and machines would be necessary for the per for-23

mince of the job. The charts described so far can be used to record only one subject inanyone particular chart. Whenever a process involves the co-ordination of variousactivities it may be required to study the relationship between these activities. Sllch aninter-relationship is provided by the multiple activity chart. A multiple activity chart isused to record the activities of one subject in relation to others. "A Multiple activity chart is a form of process chart recording the relatedsequence of work of a number of operators and/or machines on common time scale."

Separate vertical bars are attached to each worker and/or machine to be charted. Atime scale is entered along side in a convenient place, usually on the left hand side. Theactivities are then plotted in sequence against the time scale within their own particular barin the chart. Brief descriptions of the activities are also given along side. In getting thetime for activities very fine accuracy may not be needed. But it may become necessarysometimes to obtain the time values by one of the work measurement techniques. Thecontract between working and non-working is brought out by suitable hatching of therespective boxes. A summary showing the times and percentage use. of all the subjects ismade at the end of the chart. Similar summary for the proposed method provides acomparison.. Multiple activity chart brings out the comparative utilisation of men andmachines very clearly and helps to synchronies the various activities and improve the,situation. It is a useful tool for planning team work and determining the staffing pattern.When the activities of the machines are recorded in relation to that of the operator,the chart is sometimes called as the man machine chart; This is only a special variant of the multiple activity chart.Figure 13 gives the multiple activity charts of one operator operating two machines.The multiple activity charts shows up clearly the periods of ineffective time and byrearrangement of work it becomes possible to eliminate or reduce the ine1J"ective time.This chart is useful for maintenance work in order to reduce the down time of equipment. Italso helps to determine the number of workers for a group job and the number of machinesthat can be looked after by an operator. This chart is useful to analyse and obtain optimumutilisation of men' and machines. 24 Method Study Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document Report this document? Please tell us reason(s) for reporting this document Top of Form
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Sections show allcollapse prev | next An Overview Objectives- of Work Study METHOD STUDY Introduction Objectives Method Study Procedure SELECTION Field of Choice

Need for Study Objective of the Study Terms of Reference Preparation of the Study RECORDING TECHNIQUES Recording the Background Information Process Charts Charting Symbols Some Principles and Conventions Subject of the Chart Scale of the Chart Numbering the Activities Combined Activities Change of State Rejects and Reprocessing Repetition Introduction of Materials Types of Recording Techniques Basic Information (a) The Operation Process Chart (b) The Outline Process Chart (c) The Flow Process Chart (Material) (d) The Flow Process Chart (Man) (e) The Multiple Activity Chart (f). The Two-Handed Process Chart Example: Two-handed Process Chart (g) The Simultaneous Motion Cycle Chart (Simon-Chart) Flow Diagram and String Diagram Photographic Aids CRITICAL EXAMINATION Recording-A Prerequisite for Examination Classification of Activities Examination Approach Plant Layout What is Materials Handling

Materials Movement Management Some Principles Aids for Improving Layout (i) Use of the human body Use of the Human Body Arrangement of the Workplace Design of Tools and Equipment Working Areas Workplace Layout and Design of Tools NOTES ON WORKPLACE LAYOUT NOTES ON THE DESIGN OF JIGS, TOOLS AND FIXTURES THERBLIGS WORKING CONDITIONS Defining the New Method Installing the New Method Maintaining the New Method HUMAN FACTOR IN METHOD STUDY Method Study and Management Method Study and the Worker Method Study and the Supervisor Method Study Man QUESTIONS Suggested Readings

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