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Evaluate the strategies available to promote the global brands while cultivating a localised image in consumer perception in different

countries

1. Introduction
The purpose of marketing is to get a potential customer and keep a current customer. International marketing means the marketing of goods and service outside the organizations home country. It seems that the global corporation usually sells the same thing in the same way everywhere (Peter, 1987). Levitt (1983) sees substantial market segments with common needs which means a high-quality, reasonably priced, standardised product.

However, the main global firms tailor their selling approaches to local variations in the global market (Ball, 2010). Basic marketing concepts show us that we will sell more of a service or product if we aim to meet the particular needs of our target market. In international markets, we have to take into consideration about different

cultural background, buying habits, levels of personal income in order to deliver a marketing mix program to suit their needs.

Ball (2010) also argues that the modern global company contrasts powerfully with the aging multinational company. Instead of adapting and even entrenched differences within and between nations, it will seek sensible to force suitably more or less standardized products and practices on the entire global, which named think globally, act locally.

As Global promotion is defined to combine all forms of marketing communications in order to influence the buying behaviour of existing and potential customers, the main objectives of global promotion, as with domestic marketing, are to enhance the companys image to make up a target market (Toyne, 1993).

Despite sharing the same objectives, global promotion is far more complex than domestic promotion because of the complexity of the global environment. Recently, some arguments for standardisation suggest that if the company adapt the product to local markets, it will increase the overall cost of producing the product, even weakens the unique brand on the global scale. (Sitkin, 2010)

In this paper, I tried to analyse the ways a company competes in global environment by using different tactics in order to promote the global brands while cultivating a localised image in consumer perception in different countries. By evaluating the different glocal strategies, I will state the challenge and limitation of these strategies than make a conclusion that firms use the different tactics should depend on the different environment.

2. Glocalization
The term global marketing strategy suggests that a company represent and pursue
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more or less the same marketing strategy everywhere. However, global marketing strategies are not equated as global standardisation, despite they may be the similar in some situations. (Foglio, 2007)

Because there are protective legislation and protectionism in domestic firms, foreign companies must learn how to enter foreign markets and increase their global competitiveness. Firms venture abroad find the global market far different from the domestic one. Market sizes, buyer behaviour and marketing practices all are various, which means the international marketers must carefully evaluate all market segments where they expect to compete.( Vignali, 2001)

In fact, the firms which sell and buy products over the world know that it is not wise to use only one strategy of marketing for all the markets and that will not help them compete with the rivals. So this idea brought the opinion of glocalization. (Canbulut, 2009)

The glocal marketing aims not only producing and selling local products in the niches of the global market, but also fitting global products to the local markets. It is increasing the value of the localism such as territory, tradition, exclusivity, inimitability of the local products. Furthermore, the glocal marketing is the confirmation that between globalization and localization isnt refutable, but, on the contrary, a harmonic cohabitation, one strategic and profitable integration; the globalization is able to support the internationalization process of the typical or local products, and the localization can help and characterize those global products able to suit the local demands of those markets which are not included in the global market. (Canbulut, 2009,)

Therefore, marketing internationally should look for market segments with similar
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demands that can be satisfied with the same product. Standardizing the components of the marketing mix can adapt where there are significant cultural differences. The picture shows the Glocal approach of the global enterprise.

Glocal approach of the global enterprise(Source: Canbulut, 2009) While there are those who continue to argue the merits of standardization versus adaptation, most will agree that identifiable market segments for specific products exist across country markets, especially in some types of product and that companies should approach promotional planning form a global perspective, standardize where feasible and adapt where necessary.

For adaptation, these local markets will be imposed by local needs as climate, religion, level of income, language, legislation. Besides, it will also concern technical rules, packaging, label, possible tastes, ingredients, level of service, and logistic characteristics.( Foglio, 2007)

Possible adaptations ( Source: Foglio, 2007)

3. Form of promotion
According for Ghauri (2010), there are two main types of promotion, one is advertising and the other is personal selling.

Advertising is a non-personal form of promotion in which a company wants to persuade consumers to a particular point of view. Many MNEs use the same advertising message over the world because the products fill similar needs. A company can use a universal message and reduce costs of advertisement at the same time. However, sometimes the advertising must be adapted to the local market. (Ghauri, 2010)

Personal selling is a direct form of promotion which is used to persuade customers to a particular point of view. Some goods, such as industrial products require explanation or description, which rely heavily on personal selling. To illustrate, Avon, the cosmetics company, has been very successful with this approach in where people are unaccustomed to buying cosmetics by using a door-to-door salesperson. (Ghauri, 2010)

4. Strategies for promotion


In promoting a product, company can use a variety of methods. The choice is heavily influenced by whether the firm considers that the same message can be used global or needs to be changed for adaptation, and whether the product will remain the same or need to be redesigned. Here are four variations on the strategy.(Rugman, 2009)

Identical product and identical message Selling the same product worldwide and believes that an identical promotional method can be used in all markets of other countries. For example, A.T. Cross uses this strategy because their writing instruments do not need to be modified to adapt foreign market. (Rugman, 2009)

Identical product but different message This strategy can be used when the product have to satisfy a different need in various markets. Many car companies sell the luxury and convenience of their products in USA. However, in other areas the same cars are promoted on the basis of their safety or ability. (Rugman, 2009)

Modified product but same message When the market requires a different design of the product but the needs of the consumer are the same, company can modify their product with the same message for promotion. For example, the seasoning of foods sold in many countries is different from that kind of foods sold in American, but the promotion message remains the same because the buyers needs are the same. (Rugman, 2009)

Modified product and modified message Both the product and promotion message will be modified when the use and buying habits of customers are different. For example, breakfast cereal companies such as General Mills are designing some new versions of their American cereals for sale in the European market due to the fact that many Europeans do not eat cereal for
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breakfast. However, the promotion campaign is toward changing eating habits rather than getting consumers to switch product loyalty. (Rugman, 2009)

There are ten steps for promotion (Ghauri, 2010): a. A framework for international promotion b. Analyse the competition c. Know your target customer d. Decide on the position in the particular market e. Decide on global vs local contents and control mix f. Develop a consistent marketing communication strategy g. Determine the promotional mix h. Develop the message i. Select effective media j. Establish control mechanism

5. Challenges and limitation of glocal promoting


According for Ghauri (2010), the growing intensity of international competition demands that the glocal promotion should get a higher creative level. These boundaries focus on creativity by language, legal, tax, cultural, media, production and cost limitations. All the strategies of promotion should suit these factors.

Language Limitations The problem contain different languages of different countries, different languages within one country. In a lot of countries, low literacy rate serious impedes communications for greater creativity and use media by verbal. Some countries use multiple languages cause the same situation for advertising of promotion. (Ghauri, 2010)

Legal and tax consideration If the laws may close their borders to advertising that does not respect their national
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rules. The directive covering comparative advertising will allow implicit comparisons that do not name competitors, but will ban explicit comparisons between named products. An advertisement showing chimps which choose Pepsi over Coke was banned from most satellite television In Asia. However, the term the leading cola was accepted in Philippines. (Ghauri, 2010)

Cultural Diversity The problems of communicating in diverse cultures are one of the great challenges in promotion. International marketers are becoming accustomed to adapting to various cultures. Knowledge of cultural diversity must encompass the whole advertising projects. Existing perceptions is based on tradition and heritage which is often hard to overcome. For instance, white in Asia it is commonly associated with death in but UK is associated with purity. (Ghauri, 2010)

Production and Cost Limitations When a budget is small or where there are severe production limitations, such as poor-quality printing and a lack of high-grade paper, the creativity is especially important. In many countries, the necessity for low-cost reproduction in small markets poses another problem. In Western societies, the increasing cost of advertising in television and radio is forcing firms to look for alternative advertising ways. (Ghauri, 2010)

6. Conclusion
Global marketing is the process which focus an organization`s resources on the selection and exploitation of global market opportunities. The international promotion of products and services still relies on a range of methods designed to place goods for consumers. The challenges of international promotion are that MNEs are unsure
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whether the methods of communicating the message of their products or services in the domestic market can be replicated in the international area. So the use of promotion budget, media, and sales forces may be entirely different.

As Goodyear (1991, cited in Canbulut) suggested, there are five different levels in terms of promotion. Firstly, advertising is focused on repetitive, factual messages about the product. The next two levels shows a shift from the products attributes towards the brand and the benefits that consumers will gain from the product. At the next level, the promotion is engaged in very little selling of the product, emphasizing on reinforcing the identification of consumer with the brand. The fifth level is the emphasis which is virtually on the advertising itself. The advertisement makes little or no direct impact to the products selling but simply provides entertainment and stimulation to the consumer. In general, these levels mean that in the international market, the most advanced and complex consumer societies of the OECD countries will accept promotion and advertising towards the more sophisticated end of the spectrum. (Canbulut, 2009)

Advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations, are the reinforcing elements of the promotional mix. If a product is developed to meet needs of target market and is properly distributed, intended customers must be informed of the products value. Advertising and promotion are essential ingredients in the marketing mix of an international firm. Cultural differences among country markets often affect the elements of the marketing mix and the decisions involving advertising. Consumers usually respond in terms of their culture, feelings, attitudes, value systems, beliefs and perceptions. (Sitkin, 2010)

All in all, reconciling an international advertising and sales promotion effort with the cultural uniqueness of markets is the challenge confronting the international marketer. So a company must be careful in using those tactics to promote the global brands
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while cultivating a localised image in consumer perception in different countries.

Bibliography
Ball, Donald and Geringer, J. (2010) International Business: The challenge of global competition NY: McGraw-Hill Company Canbulut, Murad (2009), How to perform while there are different kinds of concumer behaviors in a global market: globalization vs. glocalization, 6th International Conference on Business, Economics and Management
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Chernatony, Leslie(2011), Creating Powerful Brands, Oxford: ButterworthHeinemann Foglio, Antonio (2007), Scenario of global marketing and glocal marketing as an answer to the globalization and localization: action on glocal market and marketing strategy. Vadyba: Management Nr. 3-4 (16-17) Ghauri, Pervez N (2010), International Marketing, Maidenhead: Mcgraw-Hill Education Levitt, Theodore (1983),The Globalization of Markets, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1983 Peter, R. Dickson & James L. Ginte R.(1987), Market Segmentation, Product , Differentiation and, Marketing Strategy, The Journal of Marketing Rugman, Alan M. and Collinson, Simon (2009) International business, Essex: McGraw-Hill Company Sitkin, Alan (2010), International Business-Challenges & Choices, Oxford: Oxford University Press Stonehouse, Gerge(2004) Global and transnational management USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. business: strategy and

Toyne, Brian(1993) Global marketing management: A strategic perspective, 2nd edition Vignali, Claudio, (2001) "McDonalds: think global, act local the marketing mix", British Food Journal, Vol. 103 Iss: 2, pp.97 111

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